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1

Pharmacology: Screening inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disease anthrax is caused by lethal factor, an enzyme component of the toxin produced by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Here we describe substrate molecules for this factor that offer a means for high-throughput screening of potential inhibitors for use in anthrax treatment. Our assay should help to answer the urgent call for new and specific therapies to combat

Fiorella Tonello; Michela Seveso; Oriano Marin; Michèle Mock; Cesare Montecucco

2002-01-01

2

Synthetic lethality screens reveal RPS6 and MST1R as modifiers of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor activity in childhood sarcomas.  

PubMed

The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target in human cancers. In the high-risk childhood sarcomas Ewing family tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma, IGF1R-blocking antibodies show impressive antitumor activity in some but not all patients, and acquired resistance is observed. Because tumor IGF1R mutations are not described, the basis of IGF1R inhibitor resistance remains unknown. We hypothesized that compensatory signaling cascades bypassing targeted IGF1R inhibition might be involved. To test this systematically, we performed small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens in sarcoma cell lines to identify IGF1R pathway components or related protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) networks that modulate the antitumor efficacy of the BMS-536924 IGF1R kinase inhibitor. This strategy revealed (a) that sarcoma cells are exquisitely sensitive to loss of distal rather than proximal IGF1R signaling components, such as ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6); (b) that BMS-536924 fails to block RPS6 activation in resistant sarcoma cell lines; and (c) that siRNA knockdown of the macrophage-stimulating 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (MST1R; also known as RON) restores BMS-536924 efficacy, even in highly drug-resistant cell lines. We confirmed MST1R expression across a broad panel of childhood sarcomas, and found that loss of MST1R by RNA interference blocks downstream RPS6 activation when combined with BMS-536924 in vitro. These findings underscore the importance of fully understanding PTK networks for successful clinical implementation of kinase inhibitor strategies. PMID:20959493

Potratz, Jenny C; Saunders, Darren N; Wai, Daniel H; Ng, Tony L; McKinney, Steven E; Carboni, Joan M; Gottardis, Marco M; Triche, Timothy J; Jürgens, Heribert; Pollak, Michael N; Aparicio, Samuel A; Sorensen, Poul H B

2010-10-19

3

A high-throughput screening approach to anthrax lethal factor inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-throughput screening approach was used to identify new inhibitors of the metallo-protease lethal factor from Bacillus anthracis. A library of ?14,000 compounds was screened using a fluorescence-based in vitro assay and hits were further characterized enzymatically via measurements of IC50 and Ki values against a small panel of metallo-proteases. This study led to the identification of new scaffolds that

Sherida L. Johnson; Li-Hsing Chen; Maurizio Pellecchia

2007-01-01

4

A mouse chromosome 4 balancer ENU-mutagenesis screen isolates eleven lethal lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ENU-mutagenesis is a powerful technique to identify genes regulating mammalian development. To functionally annotate the distal region of mouse chromosome 4, we performed an ENU-mutagenesis screen using a balancer chromosome targeted to this region of the genome. We isolated 11 lethal lines that map...

5

Identification of exosite-targeting inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor by high throughput screening  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Protease inhibitor discovery has focused almost exclusively on compounds that bind to the active site. Inhibitors targeting protease exosites, regions outside of the active site that influence catalysis, offer potential advantages of increased specificity but are difficult to systematically discover. Here we describe an assay suitable for detecting exosite-targeting inhibitors of the metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) based on cleavage of a full length mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) substrate. We used this assay to screen a small molecule library, and then subjected hits to a secondary screen to exclude compounds that efficiently blocked cleavage of a peptide substrate. We identified a compound that preferentially inhibited cleavage of MKKs compared with peptide substrates and could suppress LF-induced macrophage cytolysis. This approach should be generally applicable to the discovery of exosite-targeting inhibitors of many additional proteases.

Bannwarth, Ludovic; Goldberg, Allison B.; Chen, Catherine; Turk, Benjamin E.

2012-01-01

6

Synthetic lethal RNAi screening identifies sensitizing targets for gemcitabine therapy in pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic cancer retains a poor prognosis among the gastrointestinal cancers. It affects 230,000 individuals worldwide, has a very high mortality rate, and remains one of the most challenging malignancies to treat successfully. Treatment with gemcitabine, the most widely used chemotherapeutic against pancreatic cancer, is not curative and resistance may occur. Combinations of gemcitabine with other chemotherapeutic drugs or biological agents have resulted in limited improvement. Methods In order to improve gemcitabine response in pancreatic cancer cells, we utilized a synthetic lethal RNAi screen targeting 572 known kinases to identify genes that when silenced would sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. Results Results from the RNAi screens identified several genes that, when silenced, potentiated the growth inhibitory effects of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. The greatest potentiation was shown by siRNA targeting checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1). Validation of the screening results was performed in MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells by examining the dose response of gemcitabine treatment in the presence of either CHK1 or CHK2 siRNA. These results showed a three to ten-fold decrease in the EC50 for CHK1 siRNA-treated cells versus control siRNA-treated cells while treatment with CHK2 siRNA resulted in no change compared to controls. CHK1 was further targeted with specific small molecule inhibitors SB 218078 and PD 407824 in combination with gemcitabine. Results showed that treatment of MIA PaCa-2 cells with either of the CHK1 inhibitors SB 218078 or PD 407824 led to sensitization of the pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of synthetic lethal RNAi screening as a tool for identifying sensitizing targets to chemotherapeutic agents. These results also indicate that CHK1 could serve as a putative therapeutic target for sensitizing pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine.

Azorsa, David O; Gonzales, Irma M; Basu, Gargi D; Choudhary, Ashish; Arora, Shilpi; Bisanz, Kristen M; Kiefer, Jeffrey A; Henderson, Meredith C; Trent, Jeffrey M; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Mousses, Spyro

2009-01-01

7

A Novel RNAi Lethality Rescue Screen to Identify Regulators of Adipogenesis  

PubMed Central

Adipogenesis, the differentiation of fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells into mature adipocytes, is tightly regulated by a complex cascade of transcription factors, including the nuclear receptor Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?). RNAi-mediated knock down libraries may present an atractive method for the identification of additional adipogenic factors. However, using in vitro adipogenesis model systems for high-throughput screening with siRNA libraries is limited since (i) differentiation is not homogeneous, but results in mixed cell populations, and (ii) the expression levels (and activity) of adipogenic regulators is highly dynamic during differentiation, indicating that the timing of RNAi-mediated knock down during differentiation may be extremely critical. Here we report a proof-of-principle for a novel RNAi screening method to identify regulators of adipogenesis that is based on lethality rescue rather than differentiation, using microRNA expression driven by a PPAR? responsive RNA polymerase II promoter. We validated this novel method through screening of a dedicated deubiquitinase knock down library, resulting in the identification of UCHL3 as an essential deubiquitinase in adipogenesis. This system therefore enables the identification of novel genes regulating PPAR?-mediated adipogenesis in a high-throughput setting.

Berger, Ruud; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric

2012-01-01

8

A genetic screen for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.  

PubMed Central

We have screened for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea). Our broad goal was to investigate the use of Nasonia for genetically surveying conservation and change in regulatory gene systems, as a means to understand the diversity of developmental strategies that have arisen during the course of evolution. Specifically, we aim to compare anteroposterior patterning gene functions in two long germ band insects, Nasonia and Drosophila. In Nasonia, unfertilized eggs develop as haploid males while fertilized eggs develop as diploid females, so the entire genome can be screened for recessive zygotic mutations by examining the progeny of F1 females. We describe 74 of >100 lines with embryonic cuticular mutant phenotypes, including representatives of coordinate, gap, pair-rule, segment polarity, homeotic, and Polycomb group functions, as well as mutants with novel phenotypes not directly comparable to those of known Drosophila genes. We conclude that Nasonia is a tractable experimental organism for comparative developmental genetic study. The mutants isolated here have begun to outline the extent of conservation and change in the genetic programs controlling embryonic patterning in Nasonia and Drosophila.

Pultz, M A; Zimmerman, K K; Alto, N M; Kaeberlein, M; Lange, S K; Pitt, J N; Reeves, N L; Zehrung, D L

2000-01-01

9

Synthetic Lethal Screen of an EGFR-Centered Network to Improve Targeted Therapies  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic and acquired cellular resistance factors limit the efficacy of most targeted cancer therapeutics. Synthetic lethal screens in lower eukaryotes suggest that networks of genes closely linked to therapeutic targets would be enriched for determinants of drug resistance. We developed a protein network centered on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is a validated cancer therapeutic target, and used siRNA screening to comparatively probe this network for proteins that regulate the effectiveness of both EGFR-targeted agents and nonspecific cytotoxic agents. We identified subnetworks of proteins influencing resistance, with putative resistance determinants enriched among proteins that interacted with proteins at the core of the network. We found that EGFR antagonists and clinically relevant drugs targeting proteins connected in the EGFR network, such as the kinases protein kinase C or Aurora kinase A, or the transcriptional regulator STAT3, synergized to reduce cell viability and tumor size, suggesting the potential for a direct path to clinical exploitation. Such a focused approach can potentially improve the coherent design of combination cancer therapies.

Astsaturov, Igor; Ratushny, Vladimir; Sukhanova, Anna; Einarson, Margret B.; Bagnyukova, Tetyana; Zhou, Yan; Devarajan, Karthik; Silverman, Joshua S.; Tikhmyanova, Nadezhda; Skobeleva, Natalya; Pecherskaya, Anna; Nasto, Rochelle E.; Sharma, Catherine; Jablonski, Sandra A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.; Weiner, Louis M.; Golemis, Erica A.

2010-01-01

10

Identification of genotype-selective antitumor agents using synthetic lethal chemical screening in engineered human tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used synthetic lethal high-throughput screening to interrogate 23,550 compounds for their ability to kill engineered tumorigenic cells but not their isogenic normal cell counterparts. We identified known and novel compounds with genotype-selective activity, including doxorubicin, daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, camptothecin, sangivamycin, echinomycin, bouvardin, NSC146109, and a novel compound that we named erastin. These compounds have increased activity in the presence of

Sonam Dolma; Stephen L. Lessnick; William C. Hahn; Brent R. Stockwell

2003-01-01

11

Methodological approaches in application of synthetic lethality screening towards anticancer therapy  

PubMed Central

A promising direction in the development of selective less toxic cancer drugs is the usage of synthetic lethality concept. The availability of large-scale synthetic low-molecular-weight chemical libraries has allowed HTS for compounds synergistic lethal with defined human cancer aberrations in activated oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. The search for synthetic lethal chemicals in human/mouse tumour cells is greatly aided by a prior knowledge of relevant signalling and DNA repair pathways, allowing for educated guesses on the preferred potential therapeutic targets. The recent generation of human/rodents genome-wide siRNAs, and shRNA-expressing libraries, should further advance this more focused approach to cancer drug discovery.

Canaani, D

2009-01-01

12

An arrayed genome-scale lentiviral-enabled short hairpin RNA screen identifies lethal and rescuer gene candidates.  

PubMed

RNA interference technology is becoming an integral tool for target discovery and validation.; With perhaps the exception of only few studies published using arrayed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) libraries, most of the reports have been either against pooled siRNA or shRNA, or arrayed siRNA libraries. For this purpose, we have developed a workflow and performed an arrayed genome-scale shRNA lethality screen against the TRC1 library in HeLa cells. The resulting targets would be a valuable resource of candidates toward a better understanding of cellular homeostasis. Using a high-stringency hit nomination method encompassing criteria of at least three active hairpins per gene and filtered for potential off-target effects (OTEs), referred to as the Bhinder-Djaballah analysis method, we identified 1,252 lethal and 6 rescuer gene candidates, knockdown of which resulted in severe cell death or enhanced growth, respectively. Cross referencing individual hairpins with the TRC1 validated clone database, 239 of the 1,252 candidates were deemed independently validated with at least three validated clones. Through our systematic OTE analysis, we have identified 31 microRNAs (miRNAs) in lethal and 2 in rescuer genes; all having a seed heptamer mimic in the corresponding shRNA hairpins and likely cause of the OTE observed in our screen, perhaps unraveling a previously unknown plausible essentiality of these miRNAs in cellular viability. Taken together, we report on a methodology for performing large-scale arrayed shRNA screens, a comprehensive analysis method to nominate high-confidence hits, and a performance assessment of the TRC1 library highlighting the intracellular inefficiencies of shRNA processing in general. PMID:23198867

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Ramirez, Christina N; Shum, David; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Radu, Constantin; Frattini, Mark G; Djaballah, Hakim

2012-11-30

13

Chemical screen reveals small molecules suppressing fragile X premutation rCGG repeat-mediated neurodegeneration in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder recognized in fragile X premutation carriers. Using Drosophila, we previously identified elongated non-coding CGG repeats in FMR1 allele as the pathogenic cause of FXTAS. Here, we use this same FXTAS Drosophila model to conduct a chemical screen that reveals small molecules that can ameliorate the toxic effects of fragile X premutation ribo-CGG (rCGG) repeats, among them several known phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors. We show that specific inhibition of PLA2 activity could mitigate the neuronal deficits caused by fragile X premutation rCGG repeats, including lethality and locomotion deficits. Furthermore, through a genetic screen, we identified a PLA2 Drosophila ortholog that specifically modulates rCGG repeat-mediated neuronal toxicity. Our results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila models for unbiased small molecule screens and point to PLA2 as a possible therapeutic target to treat FXTAS.

Qurashi, Abrar; Liu, Huijie; Ray, Laurie; Nelson, David L.; Duan, Ranhui; Jin, Peng

2012-01-01

14

Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening.  

PubMed

Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data. PMID:23519032

Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D E; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

2013-03-18

15

Identification of molecular vulnerabilities in human multiple myeloma cells by RNAi lethality screening of the druggable genome  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances in targeted treatments for multiple myeloma (MM), optimal molecular therapeutic targets have yet to be identified. To functionally identify critical molecular targets, we conducted a genome-scale lethality study in MM cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). We validated the top 160 lethal hits with 4 siRNAs per gene in three MM cell lines and two non-myeloma cell lines, cataloging a total of 57 potent MM survival genes. We identified the Bcl-2 family member MCL-1 and several 26S proteasome subunits amongst the most important and selective MM survival genes. These results provided biological validation of our screening strategy. Other essential targets included genes involved in RNA splicing, ubiquitination, transcription, translation and mitosis. Several of the MM survival genes, especially MCL1, TNK2, CDK11 and WBSCR22, exhibited differential expression in primary plasma cells compared with other human primary somatic tissues. Overall, the most striking differential functional vulnerabilities between MM and non-MM cells were found to occur within the 20S proteasome subunits, MCL1, RRM1, USP8 and CKAP5. We propose that these genes should be investigated further as potential therapeutic targets in MM.

Tiedemann, Rodger E; Zhu, Yuan Xao; Schmidt, Jessica; Xin Shi, Chang; Sereduk, Chris; Yin, Hongwei; Mousses, Spyro; Stewart, A Keith

2013-01-01

16

Determination of synthetic lethal interactions in KRAS oncogene-dependent cancer cells reveals novel therapeutic targeting strategies.  

PubMed

Oncogenic mutations in RAS genes are very common in human cancer, resulting in cells with well-characterized selective advantages, but also less well-understood vulnerabilities. We have carried out a large-scale loss-of-function screen to identify genes that are required by KRAS-transformed colon cancer cells, but not by derivatives lacking this oncogene. Top-scoring genes were then tested in a larger panel of KRAS mutant and wild-type cancer cells. Cancer cells expressing oncogenic KRAS were found to be highly dependent on the transcription factor GATA2 and the DNA replication initiation regulator CDC6. Extending this analysis using a collection of drugs with known targets, we found that cancer cells with mutant KRAS showed selective addiction to proteasome function, as well as synthetic lethality with topoisomerase inhibition. Combination targeting of these functions caused improved killing of KRAS mutant cells relative to wild-type cells. These observations suggest novel targets and new ways of combining existing therapies for optimal effect in RAS mutant cancers, which are traditionally seen as being highly refractory to therapy. PMID:22613949

Steckel, Michael; Molina-Arcas, Miriam; Weigelt, Britta; Marani, Michaela; Warne, Patricia H; Kuznetsov, Hanna; Kelly, Gavin; Saunders, Becky; Howell, Michael; Downward, Julian; Hancock, David C

2012-05-22

17

Determination of synthetic lethal interactions in KRAS oncogene-dependent cancer cells reveals novel therapeutic targeting strategies  

PubMed Central

Oncogenic mutations in RAS genes are very common in human cancer, resulting in cells with well-characterized selective advantages, but also less well-understood vulnerabilities. We have carried out a large-scale loss-of-function screen to identify genes that are required by KRAS-transformed colon cancer cells, but not by derivatives lacking this oncogene. Top-scoring genes were then tested in a larger panel of KRAS mutant and wild-type cancer cells. Cancer cells expressing oncogenic KRAS were found to be highly dependent on the transcription factor GATA2 and the DNA replication initiation regulator CDC6. Extending this analysis using a collection of drugs with known targets, we found that cancer cells with mutant KRAS showed selective addiction to proteasome function, as well as synthetic lethality with topoisomerase inhibition. Combination targeting of these functions caused improved killing of KRAS mutant cells relative to wild-type cells. These observations suggest novel targets and new ways of combining existing therapies for optimal effect in RAS mutant cancers, which are traditionally seen as being highly refractory to therapy.

Steckel, Michael; Molina-Arcas, Miriam; Weigelt, Britta; Marani, Michaela; Warne, Patricia H; Kuznetsov, Hanna; Kelly, Gavin; Saunders, Becky; Howell, Michael; Downward, Julian; Hancock, David C

2012-01-01

18

Determination of lethal dose in a protozoa: screening of contrast media toxicity.  

PubMed

Suitability of a protozoan culture for determination of contrast media (CM) toxicity was investigated. A culture of Blepharisma americanum was exposed to varying concentrations of CM and the time elapsed until 50% cell mortality was determined. The cultures were standardized using solutions of Na iothalamate and/or Metrizamide. A standardized culture responded reproducibly between days 6 and 10 of the culture age. Comparison of concentrations of CM needed to achieve LD50 at 7 minutes ranked CM in order of decreasing toxicity as follows: oral cholecystopaques, intravenous cholecystopaques, and urographic agents; ie ionic monomers, ionic dimers, monovalent dimers, nonionic monomers, nonionic dimers. Comparison of CM toxicity determined by protozoa LD50 at 7 minutes with i.v. LD50 in mice showed a good correlation, suggesting usefulness of the protozoan assay as a complementary or screening toxicologic method. PMID:7287357

Sovak, M; Ranganathan, R; Mutzel, W

19

A Genetic Screen for High Copy Number Suppressors of the Synthetic Lethality Between elg1? and srs2? in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Elg1 and Srs2 are two proteins involved in maintaining genome stability in yeast. After DNA damage, the homotrimeric clamp PCNA, which provides stability and processivity to DNA polymerases and serves as a docking platform for DNA repair enzymes, undergoes modification by the ubiquitin-like molecule SUMO. PCNA SUMOylation helps recruit Srs2 and Elg1 to the replication fork. In the absence of Elg1, both SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 accumulate at the chromatin fraction, indicating that Elg1 is required for removing SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 from DNA. Despite this interaction, which suggests that the two proteins work together, double mutants elg1? srs2? have severely impaired growth as haploids and exhibit synergistic sensitivity to DNA damage and a synergistic increase in gene conversion. In addition, diploid elg1? srs2? double mutants are dead, which implies that an essential function in the cell requires at least one of the two gene products for survival. To gain information about this essential function, we have carried out a high copy number suppressor screen to search for genes that, when overexpressed, suppress the synthetic lethality between elg1? and srs2?. We report the identification of 36 such genes, which are enriched for functions related to DNA- and chromatin-binding, chromatin packaging and modification, and mRNA export from the nucleus.

Gazy, Inbal; Liefshitz, Batia; Bronstein, Alex; Parnas, Oren; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Kupiec, Martin

2013-01-01

20

A synthetic lethal screen identifies SLK1, a novel protein kinase homolog implicated in yeast cell morphogenesis and cell growth.  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPA2 protein localizes at sites involved in polarized cell growth in budding cells and mating cells. spa2 mutants have defects in projection formation during mating but are healthy during vegetative growth. A synthetic lethal screen was devised to identify mutants that require the SPA2 gene for vegetative growth. One mutant, called slk-1 (for synthetic lethal kinase), has been characterized extensively. The SLK1 gene has been cloned, and sequence analysis predicts that the SLK1 protein is 1,478 amino acid residues in length. Approximately 300 amino acids at the carboxy terminus exhibit sequence similarity with the catalytic domains of protein kinases. Disruption mutations have been constructed in the SLK1 gene. slk1 null mutants cannot grow at 37 degrees C, but many cells can grow at 30, 24, and 17 degrees C. Dead slk1 mutant cells usually have aberrant cell morphologies, and many cells are very small, approximately one-half the diameter of wild-type cells. Surviving slk1 cells also exhibit morphogenic defects; these cells are impaired in their ability to form projections upon exposure to mating pheromones. During vegetative growth, a higher fraction of slk1 cells are unbudded compared with wild-type cells, and under nutrient limiting conditions, slk1 cells exhibit defects in cell cycle arrest. The different slk1 mutant defects are partially rescued by an extra copy of the SSD1/SRK1 gene. SSD1/SRK1 has been independently isolated as a suppressor of mutations in genes involved in growth control, sit4, pde2, bcy1, and ins1 (A. Sutton, D. Immanuel, and K.T. Arnat, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:2133-2148, 1991; R.B. Wilson, A.A. Brenner, T.B. White, M.J. Engler, J.P. Gaughran, and K. Tatchell, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:3369-3373, 1991). These data suggest that SLK1 plays a role in both cell morphogenesis and the control of cell growth. We speculate that SLK1 may be a regulatory link for these two cellular processes. Images

Costigan, C; Gehrung, S; Snyder, M

1992-01-01

21

Genetic Characterization of the Drosophila jaguar322 Mutant Reveals That Complete Myosin VI Loss of Function Is Not Lethal  

PubMed Central

Myosin VI is an actin-based motor that has been implicated in many cellular processes. Studies in vertebrates have demonstrated that animals lacking this ubiquitously expressed myosin are viable. However in Drosophila, myosin VI loss of function has been thought to be lethal. We show here that complete loss of myosin VI is not lethal in flies and that the previously reported lethality of the null mutation (jar322) is most likely due to deletion of a neighboring gene. Maternally provided myosin VI does not account for the survival of myosin VI null animals. Mutant animals are recovered at a lower than expected Mendelian frequency, suggesting that myosin VI participates in processes which contribute to normal development, but its participation is not essential.

Morrison, Julie K.; Miller, Kathryn G.

2008-01-01

22

Colonization of America by Drosophila subobscura: Heterotic effect of chromosomal arrangements revealed by the persistence of lethal genes  

PubMed Central

About 20 years ago Drosophila subobscura, a native Palearctic species, colonized both North and South America. In Palearctic populations lethal genes are not associated in general with particular chromosomal arrangements. In colonizing populations they are not randomly distributed and usually are associated to a different degree with chromosomal arrangements caused by the founder event. The persistence of two lethal genes in the colonizing populations, one completely associated with the O5 inversion and the other partially associated with the O3+4+7 arrangement, has been analyzed. In all populations studied (five North American and six South American) the observed frequency of the lethal gene completely associated with the O5 inversion is higher than expected, the difference being statistically significant in all South American and one North American populations. The observed frequency of the lethal gene partially associated with the O3+4+7 arrangement is also significantly higher than expected. Taking into account that the O5 inversion exhibits significant latitudinal clines both in North and South America, an overdominant model favoring the heterokaryotypes seems to be in operation. From this model, a polynomial expression has been developed that allows us to estimate the relative fitness and the coefficient of selection against all karyotypes not carrying the O5 inversion. The relative fitness of the O5 heterokaryotypes is higher in South American than in North American populations. Furthermore, the observed frequencies of the lethal genes studied are in general very close to those of the equilibrium. This case is an outstanding demonstration in nature of an heterotic effect of chromosomal segments associated with lethal genes on a large geographic scale.

Mestres, F.; Balanya, J.; Arenas, C.; Sole, E.; Serra, L.

2001-01-01

23

The genesis of an exceptionally lethal venom in the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) revealed through comparative venom-gland transcriptomics  

PubMed Central

Background Snake venoms generally show sequence and quantitative variation within and between species, but some rattlesnakes have undergone exceptionally rapid, dramatic shifts in the composition, lethality, and pharmacological effects of their venoms. Such shifts have occurred within species, most notably in Mojave (Crotalus scutulatus), South American (C. durissus), and timber (C. horridus) rattlesnakes, resulting in some populations with extremely potent, neurotoxic venoms without the hemorrhagic effects typical of rattlesnake bites. Results To better understand the evolutionary changes that resulted in the potent venom of a population of C. horridus from northern Florida, we sequenced the venom-gland transcriptome of an animal from this population for comparison with the previously described transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (C. adamanteus), a congener with a more typical rattlesnake venom. Relative to the toxin transcription of C. adamanteus, which consisted primarily of snake-venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, snake-venom serine proteinases, and myotoxin-A, the toxin transcription of C. horridus was far simpler in composition and consisted almost entirely of snake-venom serine proteinases, phospholipases A2, and bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides. Crotalus horridus lacked significant expression of the hemorrhagic snake-venom metalloproteinases and C-type lectins. Evolution of shared toxin families involved differential expansion and loss of toxin clades within each species and pronounced differences in the highly expressed toxin paralogs. Toxin genes showed significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution than nontoxin genes. The expression patterns of nontoxin genes were conserved between species, despite the vast differences in toxin expression. Conclusions Our results represent the first complete, sequence-based comparison between the venoms of closely related snake species and reveal in unprecedented detail the rapid evolution of snake venoms. We found that the difference in venom properties resulted from major changes in expression levels of toxin gene families, differential gene-family expansion and loss, changes in which paralogs within gene families were expressed at high levels, and higher nonsynonymous substitution rates in the toxin genes relative to nontoxins. These massive alterations in the genetics of the venom phenotype emphasize the evolutionary lability and flexibility of this ecologically critical trait.

2013-01-01

24

2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs  

PubMed Central

Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature’s cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior fractionation or isolation. Our screen led to discovery and subsequent isolation of two families of tricyclic pyrones in Delphastus catalinae, a tiny ladybird beetle that is employed commercially as a biological pest control agent. The D. catalinae pyrones are based on 23-carbon polyketide chains forming 1,11-dioxo-2,6,10-trioxaanthracene and 4,8-dioxo-1,9,13-trioxaanthracene derivatives, representing ring systems not previously found in nature. This study highlights the utility of 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening for exploring nature’s structure space and suggests that insect metabolomes remain vastly underexplored.

Deyrup, Stephen T.; Eckman, Laura E.; McCarthy, Patrick H.; Smedley, Scott R.; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C.

2011-01-01

25

Discovery of a Role for Hsp82 in Histoplasma Virulence through a Quantitative Screen for Macrophage Lethality ?  

PubMed Central

The application of forward genetics can reveal new factors required for the virulence of intracellular pathogens. To facilitate such virulence screens, we developed macrophage cell lines with which the number of intact host cells following infection with intracellular pathogens can be rapidly and easily ascertained through the expression of a constitutive lacZ transgene. Using known virulence mutants of Francisella novicida and Histoplasma capsulatum, we confirmed the applicability of these host cells for the quantitative assessment of bacterial and fungal virulence, respectively. To identify new genes required for Histoplasma virulence, we employed these transgenic macrophage cells to screen a collection of individual transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutants. Among the mutants showing decreased virulence in macrophages, we identified an insertion in the locus encoding the Histoplasma Hsp82 homolog. The lesion caused by the T-DNA insertion localizes to the promoter region, resulting in significantly decreased HSP82 expression. Reduced HSP82 expression markedly attenuates the virulence of Histoplasma yeast in vivo. While the HSP82 hypomorph grows normally in vitro at 37°C and under acid and salinity stresses, its ability to recover from high-temperature stress is impaired. These results provide genetic proof of the role of stress chaperones in the virulence of a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen.

Edwards, Jessica A.; Zemska, Olga; Rappleye, Chad A.

2011-01-01

26

Synthetic Lethality with the dut Defect in Escherichia coli Reveals Layers of DNA Damage of Increasing Complexity Due to Uracil Incorporation?  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality is inviability of a double-mutant combination of two fully viable single mutants, commonly interpreted as redundancy at an essential metabolic step. The dut-1 defect in Escherichia coli inactivates dUTPase, causing increased uracil incorporation in DNA and known synthetic lethalities [SL(dut) mutations]. According to the redundancy logic, most of these SL(dut) mutations should affect nucleotide metabolism. After a systematic search for SL(dut) mutants, we did identify a single defect in the DNA precursor metabolism, inactivating thymidine kinase (tdk), that confirmed the redundancy explanation of synthetic lethality. However, we found that the bulk of mutations interacting genetically with dut are in DNA repair, revealing layers of damage of increasing complexity that uracil-DNA incorporation sends through the chromosomal metabolism. Thus, we isolated mutants in functions involved in (i) uracil-DNA excision (ung, polA, and xthA); (ii) double-strand DNA break repair (recA, recBC, and ruvABC); and (iii) chromosomal-dimer resolution (xerC, xerD, and ftsK). These mutants in various DNA repair transactions cannot be redundant with dUTPase and instead reveal “defect-damage-repair” cycles linking unrelated metabolic pathways. In addition, two SL(dut) inserts (phoU and degP) identify functions that could act to support the weakened activity of the Dut-1 mutant enzyme, suggesting the “compensation” explanation for this synthetic lethality. We conclude that genetic interactions with dut can be explained by redundancy, by defect-damage-repair cycles, or as compensation.

Ting, Helen; Kouzminova, Elena A.; Kuzminov, Andrei

2008-01-01

27

A synthetic lethal screen identifies a role for the cortical actin patch/endocytosis complex in the response to nutrient deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae whi2Delta cells are unable to halt cell division in response to nutrient limitation and are sensitive to a wide variety of stresses. A synthetic lethal screen resulted in the isolation of siw mutants that had a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta. Among these were mutations affecting SIW14, FEN2, SLT2, and THR4. Fluid-phase endocytosis is severely reduced or abolished in whi2Delta, siw14Delta, fen2Delta, and thr4Delta mutants. Furthermore, whi2Delta and siw14Delta mutants produce large actin clumps in stationary phase similar to those seen in prk1Delta ark1Delta mutants defective in protein kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of SIW14 in a prk1Delta strain resulted in a loss of cortical actin patches and cables and was lethal. Overexpression of SIW14 also rescued the caffeine sensitivity of the slt2 mutant isolated in the screen, but this was not due to alteration of the phosphorylation state of Slt2. These observations suggest that endocytosis and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for the proper response to nutrient limitation. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that rvs161Delta, sla1Delta, sla2Delta, vrp1Delta, ypt51Delta, ypt52Delta, and end3Delta mutations, which disrupt the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and/or reduce endocytosis, have a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta mutants.

Care, Alison; Vousden, Katherine A; Binley, Katie M; Radcliffe, Pippa; Trevethick, Janet; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Sudbery, Peter E

2004-01-01

28

Combination of reverse and chemical genetic screens reveals angiogenesis inhibitors and targets.  

PubMed

We combined reverse and chemical genetics to identify targets and compounds modulating blood vessel development. Through transcript profiling in mice, we identified 150 potentially druggable microvessel-enriched gene products. Orthologs of 50 of these were knocked down in a reverse genetic screen in zebrafish, demonstrating that 16 were necessary for developmental angiogenesis. In parallel, 1280 pharmacologically active compounds were screened in a human cell-based assay, identifying 28 compounds selectively inhibiting endothelial sprouting. Several links were revealed between the results of the reverse and chemical genetic screens, including the serine/threonine (S/T) phosphatases ppp1ca, ppp1cc, and ppp4c and an inhibitor of this gene family; Endothall. Our results suggest that the combination of reverse and chemical genetic screens, in vertebrates, is an efficient strategy for the identification of drug targets and compounds that modulate complex biological systems, such as angiogenesis. PMID:19389629

Kalén, Mattias; Wallgard, Elisabet; Asker, Noomi; Nasevicius, Aidas; Athley, Elisabet; Billgren, Erik; Larson, Jon D; Wadman, Shannon A; Norseng, Elizabeth; Clark, Karl J; He, Liqun; Karlsson-Lindahl, Linda; Häger, Ann-Katrin; Weber, Holger; Augustin, Hellmut; Samuelsson, Tore; Kemmet, Chelsy K; Utesch, Carly M; Essner, Jeffrey J; Hackett, Perry B; Hellström, Mats

2009-04-24

29

Bacteriological screening of expressed breast milk revealed a high rate of bacterial contamination in Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening programme for expressed breast milk (EBM) revealed the alarming fact that our study group had the highest rate of contamination ever reported. The programme started in July 2002 and involved a group of Chinese women whose premature babies were in the neonatal intensive care unit. EBM was considered to be contaminated if there was any growth of pathogens,

D. K. Ng; S. Y. R. Lee; L. C. K. Leung; S. F. Wong; J. C. S. Ho

2004-01-01

30

Short Hairpin RNA Screen Reveals Bromodomain Proteins as Novel Targets in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Targeting chromatin regulators for the treatment of malignancies has shown great promise, but also revealed significant challenges. By employing an elegant shRNA screen and a selective pharmacological inhibitor, a recent study published in Nature establishes the bromodomain protein Brd4 as novel target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Blobel, Gerd A.; Kalota, Anna; Sanchez, Patricia V.; Carroll, Martin

2013-01-01

31

Kinase requirements in human cells: III. Altered kinase requirements in VHL-\\/- cancer cells detected in a pilot synthetic lethal screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear cell renal carcinomas are the most common form of kidney cancer and frequently are linked to biallelic inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. The VHL gene product, pVHL, has multiple functions including directing the polyubiquitylation of the HIF transcription factor. We screened 100 shRNA vectors, directed against 88 kinases, for their ability to inhibit the viability

Archana Bommi-Reddy; Ingrid Almeciga; Jacqueline Sawyer; Christoph Geisen; Wenliang Li; Ed Harlow; William G. Kaelin; Dorre A. Grueneberg

2008-01-01

32

Modeling synthetic lethality  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic lethality defines a genetic interaction where the combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. The implications of synthetic lethal screens have been discussed in the context of drug development as synthetic lethal pairs could be used to selectively kill cancer cells, but leave normal cells relatively unharmed. A challenge is to assess genome-wide experimental data and integrate the results to better understand the underlying biological processes. We propose statistical and computational tools that can be used to find relationships between synthetic lethality and cellular organizational units. Results In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified multi-protein complexes and pairs of multi-protein complexes that share an unusually high number of synthetic genetic interactions. As previously predicted, we found that synthetic lethality can arise from subunits of an essential multi-protein complex or between pairs of multi-protein complexes. Finally, using multi-protein complexes allowed us to take into account the pleiotropic nature of the gene products. Conclusions Modeling synthetic lethality using current estimates of the yeast interactome is an efficient approach to disentangle some of the complex molecular interactions that drive a cell. Our model in conjunction with applied statistical methods and computational methods provides new tools to better characterize synthetic genetic interactions.

Le Meur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert

2008-01-01

33

Heterozygous Yeast Deletion Collection Screens Reveal Essential Targets of Hsp90  

PubMed Central

Hsp90 is an essential eukaryotic chaperone with a role in folding specific “client” proteins such as kinases and hormone receptors. Previously performed homozygous diploid yeast deletion collection screens uncovered broad requirements for Hsp90 in cellular transport and cell cycle progression. These screens also revealed that the requisite cellular functions of Hsp90 change with growth temperature. We present here for the first time the results of heterozygous deletion collection screens conducted at the hypothermic stress temperature of 15°C. Extensive bioinformatic analyses were performed on the resulting data in combination with data from homozygous and heterozygous screens previously conducted at normal (30°C) and hyperthermic stress (37°C) growth temperatures. Our resulting meta-analysis uncovered extensive connections between Hsp90 and (1) general transcription, (2) ribosome biogenesis and (3) GTP binding proteins. Predictions from bioinformatic analyses were tested experimentally, supporting a role for Hsp90 in ribosome stability. Importantly, the integrated analysis of the 15°C heterozygous deletion pool screen with previously conducted 30°C and 37°C screens allows for essential genetic targets of Hsp90 to emerge. Altogether, these novel contributions enable a more complete picture of essential Hsp90 functions.

Franzosa, Eric A.; Albanese, Veronique; Frydman, Judith; Xia, Yu; McClellan, Amie J.

2011-01-01

34

Pinpointing pseurotins from a marine-derived Aspergillus as tools for chemical genetics using a synthetic lethality yeast screen.  

PubMed

A new compound of mixed polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) origin, 11- O-methylpseurotin A ( 1), was identified from a marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus. Bioassay-guided fractionation using a yeast halo assay with wild-type and cell cycle-related mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the isolation of 1, which selectively inhibited a Hof1 deletion strain. Techniques including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, optical rotation, J-based analysis, and biosynthetic parallels were used in the elucidation of the planar structure and absolute configuration of 1. A related known compound, pseurotin A ( 2), was also isolated and found to be inactive in the yeast screen. PMID:17929896

Boot, Claudia M; Gassner, Nadine C; Compton, Jennifer E; Tenney, Karen; Tamble, Craig M; Lokey, R Scott; Holman, Theodore R; Crews, Phillip

2007-10-12

35

Imaging-based chemical screening reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an important venue for understanding basic principles regulating tissue-specific differentiation and discovering new tools that may facilitate clinical applications. Mechanisms that direct neural differentiation of PSCs involve growth factor signaling and transcription regulation. However, it is unknown whether and how electrical activity influences this process. Here we report a high throughput imaging-based screen, which uncovers that selamectin, an anti-helminthic therapeutic compound with reported activity on invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channels, promotes neural differentiation of PSCs. We show that selamectin's pro-neurogenic activity is mediated by ?2-containing GABAA receptors in subsets of neural rosette progenitors, accompanied by increased proneural and lineage-specific transcription factor expression and cell cycle exit. In vivo, selamectin promotes neurogenesis in developing zebrafish. Our results establish a chemical screening platform that reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation from PSCs. Compounds identified in this and future screening might prove therapeutically beneficial for treating neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00508.001. PMID:24040509

Sun, Yaping; Dong, Zhiqiang; Jin, Taihao; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Huang, Miller; Haston, Kelly M; Peng, Jisong; Zhong, Tao P; Finkbeiner, Steven; Weiss, William A; Arkin, Michelle R; Jan, Lily Y; Guo, Su

2013-09-10

36

Genetic Modifier Screens Reveal New Components that Interact with the Drosophila Dystroglycan-Dystrophin Complex  

PubMed Central

The Dystroglycan-Dystrophin (Dg-Dys) complex has a capacity to transmit information from the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton inside the cell. It is proposed that this interaction is under tight regulation; however the signaling/regulatory components of Dg-Dys complex remain elusive. Understanding the regulation of the complex is critical since defects in this complex cause muscular dystrophy in humans. To reveal new regulators of the Dg-Dys complex, we used a model organism Drosophila melanogaster and performed genetic interaction screens to identify modifiers of Dg and Dys mutants in Drosophila wing veins. These mutant screens revealed that the Dg-Dys complex interacts with genes involved in muscle function and components of Notch, TGF-? and EGFR signaling pathways. In addition, components of pathways that are required for cellular and/or axonal migration through cytoskeletal regulation, such as Semaphorin-Plexin, Frazzled-Netrin and Slit-Robo pathways show interactions with Dys and/or Dg. These data suggest that the Dg-Dys complex and the other pathways regulating extracellular information transfer to the cytoskeletal dynamics are more intercalated than previously thought.

Yatsenko, Andriy S.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.; Fischer, Karin A.; Maksymiv, Dariya V.; Chernyk, Yaroslava I.; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

2008-01-01

37

A Network of Conserved Damage Survival Pathways Revealed by a Genomic RNAi Screen  

PubMed Central

Damage initiates a pleiotropic cellular response aimed at cellular survival when appropriate. To identify genes required for damage survival, we used a cell-based RNAi screen against the Drosophila genome and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). Similar studies performed in other model organisms report that damage response may involve pleiotropic cellular processes other than the central DNA repair components, yet an intuitive systems level view of the cellular components required for damage survival, their interrelationship, and contextual importance has been lacking. Further, by comparing data from different model organisms, identification of conserved and presumably core survival components should be forthcoming. We identified 307 genes, representing 13 signaling, metabolic, or enzymatic pathways, affecting cellular survival of MMS–induced damage. As expected, the majority of these pathways are involved in DNA repair; however, several pathways with more diverse biological functions were also identified, including the TOR pathway, transcription, translation, proteasome, glutathione synthesis, ATP synthesis, and Notch signaling, and these were equally important in damage survival. Comparison with genomic screen data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed no overlap enrichment of individual genes between the species, but a conservation of the pathways. To demonstrate the functional conservation of pathways, five were tested in Drosophila and mouse cells, with each pathway responding to alkylation damage in both species. Using the protein interactome, a significant level of connectivity was observed between Drosophila MMS survival proteins, suggesting a higher order relationship. This connectivity was dramatically improved by incorporating the components of the 13 identified pathways within the network. Grouping proteins into “pathway nodes” qualitatively improved the interactome organization, revealing a highly organized “MMS survival network.” We conclude that identification of pathways can facilitate comparative biology analysis when direct gene/orthologue comparisons fail. A biologically intuitive, highly interconnected MMS survival network was revealed after we incorporated pathway data in our interactome analysis.

Ravi, Dashnamoorthy; Wiles, Amy M.; Bhavani, Selvaraj; Ruan, Jianhua; Leder, Philip; Bishop, Alexander J. R.

2009-01-01

38

A Genomewide Screen for Suppressors of Alu-Mediated Rearrangements Reveals a Role for PIF1  

PubMed Central

Alu-mediated rearrangement of tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, this mechanism contributes to loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele in inherited disease and to loss of heterozygosity in sporadic cancer. To identify genes required for suppression of Alu-mediated recombination we performed a genomewide screen of a collection of 4672 yeast gene deletion mutants using a direct repeat recombination assay. The primary screen and subsequent analysis identified 12 candidate genes including TSA, ELG1, and RRM3, which are known to play a significant role in maintaining genomic stability. Genetic analysis of the corresponding human homologs was performed in sporadic breast tumors and in inherited BRCA1-associated carcinomas. Sequencing of these genes in high risk breast cancer families revealed a potential role for the helicase PIF1 in cancer predisposition. PIF1 variant L319P was identified in three breast cancer families; importantly, this variant, which is predicted to be functionally damaging, was not identified in a large series of controls nor has it been reported in either dbSNP or the 1000 Genomes Project. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pfh1 is required to maintain both mitochondrial and nuclear genomic integrity. Functional studies in yeast of human PIF1 L319P revealed that this variant cannot complement the essential functions of Pfh1 in either the nucleus or mitochondria. Our results provide a global view of nonessential genes involved in suppressing Alu-mediated recombination and implicate variation in PIF1 in breast cancer predisposition.

Chisholm, Karen M.; Aubert, Sarah D.; Freese, Krister P.; Zakian, Virginia A.; King, Mary-Claire; Welcsh, Piri L.

2012-01-01

39

Genetic disorders of vision revealed by a behavioral screen of 400 essential loci in zebrafish.  

PubMed

We examined optokinetic and optomotor responses of 450 zebrafish mutants, which were isolated previously based on defects in organ formation, tissue patterning, pigmentation, axon guidance, or other visible phenotypes. These strains carry single point mutations in >400 essential loci. We asked which fraction of the mutants develop blindness or other types of impairments specific to the visual system. Twelve mutants failed to respond in either one or both of our assays. Subsequent histological and electroretinographic analysis revealed unique deficits at various stages of the visual pathway, including lens degeneration (bumper), melanin deficiency (sandy), lack of ganglion cells (lakritz), ipsilateral misrouting of axons (belladonna), optic-nerve disorganization (grumpy and sleepy), inner nuclear layer or outer plexiform layer malfunction (noir, dropje, and possibly steifftier), and disruption of retinotectal impulse activity (macho and blumenkohl). Surprisingly, mutants with abnormally large or small eyes or severe wiring defects frequently exhibit no discernible behavioral deficits. In addition, we identified 13 blind mutants that display outer-retina dystrophy, making this syndrome the single-most common cause of inherited blindness in zebrafish. Our screen showed that a significant fraction (approximately 5%) of the essential loci also participate in visual functions but did not reveal any systematic genetic linkage to particular morphological traits. The mutations uncovered by our behavioral assays provide distinct entry points for the study of visual pathways and set the stage for a genetic dissection of vertebrate vision. PMID:10493760

Neuhauss, S C; Biehlmaier, O; Seeliger, M W; Das, T; Kohler, K; Harris, W A; Baier, H

1999-10-01

40

Physical and genetic-interaction density reveals functional organization and informs significance cutoffs in genome-wide screens  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide experiments often measure quantitative differences between treated and untreated cells to identify affected strains. For these studies, statistical models are typically used to determine significance cutoffs. We developed a method termed “CLIK” (Cutoff Linked to Interaction Knowledge) that overlays biological knowledge from the interactome on screen results to derive a cutoff. The method takes advantage of the fact that groups of functionally related interacting genes often respond similarly to experimental conditions and, thus, cluster in a ranked list of screen results. We applied CLIK analysis to five screens of the yeast gene disruption library and found that it defined a significance cutoff that differed from traditional statistics. Importantly, verification experiments revealed that the CLIK cutoff correlated with the position in the rank order where the rate of true positives drops off significantly. In addition, the gene sets defined by CLIK analysis often provide further biological perspectives. For example, applying CLIK analysis retrospectively to a screen for cisplatin sensitivity allowed us to identify the importance of the Hrq1 helicase in DNA crosslink repair. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of CLIK to determine optimal treatment conditions by analyzing genome-wide screens at multiple rapamycin concentrations. We show that CLIK is an extremely useful tool for evaluating screen quality, determining screen cutoffs, and comparing results between screens. Furthermore, because CLIK uses previously annotated interaction data to determine biologically informed cutoffs, it provides additional insights into screen results, which supplement traditional statistical approaches.

Dittmar, John C.; Pierce, Steven; Rothstein, Rodney; Reid, Robert J. D.

2013-01-01

41

Characterization of Synthetic-Lethal Mutants Reveals a Role for the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Cdc24p in Vacuole Function and Na(+) Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Cdc24p is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42p GTPase, which controls cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify new genes that may affect cell polarity, we characterized six UV-induced csl (CDC24 synthetic-lethal) mutants that exhibited synthetic-lethality with cdc24-4(ts) at 23°. Five mutants were not complemented by plasmid-borne CDC42, RSR1, BUD5, BEM1, BEM2, BEM3 or CLA4 genes, which are known to play a role in cell polarity. The csl3 mutant displayed phenotypes similar to those observed with calcium-sensitive, Pet(-) vma mutants defective in vacuole function. CSL5 was allelic to VMA5, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit C, and one third of csl5 cdc24-4(ts) cells were elongated or had misshapen buds. A cdc24-4(ts) ?vma5::LEU2 double mutant did not exhibit synthetic lethality, suggesting that the csl5/vma5 cdc24-4(ts) synthetic-lethality was not simply due to altered vacuole function. The cdc24-4(ts) mutant, like ?vma5::LEU2 and csl3 mutants, was sensitive to high levels of Ca(2+) as well as Na(+) in the growth media, which did not appear to be a result of a fragile cell wall because the phenotypes were not remedied by 1 M sorbitol. Our results indicated that Cdc24p was required in one V-ATPase mutant and another mutant affecting vacuole morphology, and also implicated Cdc24p in Na(+) tolerance.

White, W. H.; Johnson, D. I.

1997-01-01

42

Host Pathways Important for Coxiella burnetii Infection Revealed by Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screening  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that replicates within a lysosome-like vacuole. A Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system is used by C. burnetii to translocate effector proteins into the host cytosol that likely modulate host factor function. To identify host determinants required for C. burnetii intracellular growth, a genome-wide screen was performed using gene silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Replication of C. burnetii was measured by immunofluorescence microscopy in siRNA-transfected HeLa cells. Newly identified host factors included components of the retromer complex, which mediates cargo cycling between the endocytic pathway and the Golgi apparatus. Reducing the levels of the retromer cargo-adapter VPS26-VPS29-VPS35 complex or retromer-associated sorting nexins abrogated C. burnetii replication. Several genes, when silenced, resulted in enlarged vacuoles or an increased number of vacuoles within C. burnetii-infected cells. Silencing of the STX17 gene encoding syntaxin-17 resulted in a striking defect in homotypic fusion of vacuoles containing C. burnetii, suggesting a role for syntaxin-17 in regulating this process. Lastly, silencing host genes needed for C. burnetii replication correlated with defects in the translocation of Dot/Icm effectors, whereas, silencing of genes that affected vacuole morphology, but did not impact replication, did not affect Dot/Icm translocation. These data demonstrate that C. burnetii vacuole maturation is important for creating a niche that permits Dot/Icm function. Thus, genome-wide screening has revealed host determinants involved in sequential events that occur during C. burnetii infection as defined by bacterial uptake, vacuole transport and acidification, activation of the Dot/Icm system, homotypic fusion of vacuoles, and intracellular replication.

McDonough, Justin A.; Newton, Hayley J.; Klum, Scott; Swiss, Rachel; Agaisse, Herve; Roy, Craig R.

2013-01-01

43

Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

Perinatal Lethal Gaucher Disease (PLGD) is a rare form of Gaucher disease and is often considered a distinct form of type 2 Gaucher disease. The authors report on an infant who presented with progressive hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis, generalized skin edema and neonatal encephalopathy and died at 6 h of age. Autopsy revealed massive hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis, a diffuse collodion picture and histological evidence of infiltration by Gaucher cells in the liver, spleen, lung, thymus, lymph node and bone marrow. Genetic testing of the parents revealed both to be carriers of Gaucher disease. PMID:20924719

Plakkal, Nishad; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Jirapradittha, Junya; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo

2010-10-06

44

Comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium reveals Crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality.  

PubMed

Since the last decade, unusually high honey bee colony losses have been reported mainly in North-America and Europe. Here, we report on a comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality. Our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to Varroa destructor, the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae in summer are also predictive markers of winter mortality, with a negative synergy being observed between the two in terms of their effects on colony mortality. Furthermore, we document the first occurrence of a parasitizing phorid fly in Europe, identify a new fourth strain of Lake Sinai Virus (LSV), and confirm the presence of other little reported pathogens such as Apicystis bombi, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV), Spiroplasma apis, Spiroplasma melliferum and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus (VdMLV). Finally, we provide evidence that ALPV and VdMLV replicate in honey bees and show that viruses of the LSV complex and Black Queen Cell Virus tend to non-randomly co-occur together. We also noticed a significant correlation between the number of pathogen species and colony losses. Overall, our results contribute significantly to our understanding of honey bee diseases and the likely causes of their current decline in Europe. PMID:23991113

Ravoet, Jorgen; Maharramov, Jafar; Meeus, Ivan; De Smet, Lina; Wenseleers, Tom; Smagghe, Guy; de Graaf, Dirk C

2013-08-26

45

Comparative drug pair screening across multiple glioblastoma cell lines reveals novel drug-drug interactions.  

PubMed

Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults, and despite state-of-the-art treatment, survival remains poor and novel therapeutics are sorely needed. The aim of the present study was to identify new synergistic drug pairs for GBM. In addition, we aimed to explore differences in drug-drug interactions across multiple GBM-derived cell cultures and predict such differences by use of transcriptional biomarkers. Methods We performed a screen in which we quantified drug-drug interactions for 465 drug pairs in each of the 5 GBM cell lines U87MG, U343MG, U373MG, A172, and T98G. Selected interactions were further tested using isobole-based analysis and validated in 5 glioma-initiating cell cultures. Furthermore, drug interactions were predicted using microarray-based transcriptional profiling in combination with statistical modeling. Results Of the 5 × 465 drug pairs, we could define a subset of drug pairs with strong interaction in both standard cell lines and glioma-initiating cell cultures. In particular, a subset of pairs involving the pharmaceutical compounds rimcazole, sertraline, pterostilbene, and gefitinib showed a strong interaction in a majority of the cell cultures tested. Statistical modeling of microarray and interaction data using sparse canonical correlation analysis revealed several predictive biomarkers, which we propose could be of importance in regulating drug pair responses. Conclusion We identify novel candidate drug pairs for GBM and suggest possibilities to prospectively use transcriptional biomarkers to predict drug interactions in individual cases. PMID:24101737

Schmidt, Linnéa; Kling, Teresia; Monsefi, Naser; Olsson, Maja; Hansson, Caroline; Baskaran, Sathishkumar; Lundgren, Bo; Martens, Ulf; Häggblad, Maria; Westermark, Bengt; Forsberg Nilsson, Karin; Uhrbom, Lene; Karlsson-Lindahl, Linda; Gerlee, Philip; Nelander, Sven

2013-10-06

46

Manipulating individual decisions and environmental conditions reveal individual quality in decision-making and non-lethal costs of predation risk.  

PubMed

Habitat selection is a crucial decision for any organism. Selecting a high quality site will positively impact survival and reproductive output. Predation risk is an important component of habitat quality that is known to impact reproductive success and individual condition. However, separating the breeding consequences of decision-making of wild animals from individual quality is difficult. Individuals face reproductive decisions that often vary with quality such that low quality individuals invest less. This reduced reproductive performance could appear a cost of increased risk but may simply reflect lower quality. Thus, teasing apart the effects of individual quality and the effect of predation risk is vital to understand the physiological and reproductive costs of predation risk alone on breeding animals. In this study we alter the actual territory location decisions of pied flycatchers by moving active nests relative to breeding sparrowhawks, the main predators of adult flycatchers. We experimentally measure the non-lethal effects of predation on adults and offspring while controlling for effects of parental quality, individual territory choice and initiation of breeding. We found that chicks from high predation risk nests (<50 m of hawk) were significantly smaller than chicks from low risk nests (>200 m from hawk). However, in contrast to correlative results, females in manipulated high risk nests did not suffer decreased body condition or increased stress response (HSP60 and HSP70). Our results suggest that territory location decisions relative to breeding avian predators cause spatial gradients in individual quality. Small adjustments in territory location decisions have crucial consequences and our results confirm non-lethal costs of predation risk that were expressed in terms of smaller offspring produced. However, females did not show costs in physiological condition which suggests that part of the costs incurred by adults exposed to predation risk are quality determined. PMID:23272226

Thomson, Robert L; Tomás, Gustavo; Forsman, Jukka T; Mönkkönen, Mikko

2012-12-13

47

Manipulating Individual Decisions and Environmental Conditions Reveal Individual Quality in Decision-Making and Non-Lethal Costs of Predation Risk  

PubMed Central

Habitat selection is a crucial decision for any organism. Selecting a high quality site will positively impact survival and reproductive output. Predation risk is an important component of habitat quality that is known to impact reproductive success and individual condition. However, separating the breeding consequences of decision-making of wild animals from individual quality is difficult. Individuals face reproductive decisions that often vary with quality such that low quality individuals invest less. This reduced reproductive performance could appear a cost of increased risk but may simply reflect lower quality. Thus, teasing apart the effects of individual quality and the effect of predation risk is vital to understand the physiological and reproductive costs of predation risk alone on breeding animals. In this study we alter the actual territory location decisions of pied flycatchers by moving active nests relative to breeding sparrowhawks, the main predators of adult flycatchers. We experimentally measure the non-lethal effects of predation on adults and offspring while controlling for effects of parental quality, individual territory choice and initiation of breeding. We found that chicks from high predation risk nests (<50 m of hawk) were significantly smaller than chicks from low risk nests (>200 m from hawk). However, in contrast to correlative results, females in manipulated high risk nests did not suffer decreased body condition or increased stress response (HSP60 and HSP70). Our results suggest that territory location decisions relative to breeding avian predators cause spatial gradients in individual quality. Small adjustments in territory location decisions have crucial consequences and our results confirm non-lethal costs of predation risk that were expressed in terms of smaller offspring produced. However, females did not show costs in physiological condition which suggests that part of the costs incurred by adults exposed to predation risk are quality determined.

Thomson, Robert L.; Tomas, Gustavo; Forsman, Jukka T.; Monkkonen, Mikko

2012-01-01

48

Antileishmanial High-Throughput Drug Screening Reveals Drug Candidates with New Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment often show parasite resistance, highly toxic side effects and prohibitive costs commonly incompatible with patients from the tropical endemic countries. In this sense, there is an urgent need for new drugs as a treatment solution for this neglected disease. Here we show the development and implementation of an automated high-throughput viability screening assay for the discovery of new drugs against Leishmania. Assay validation was done with Leishmania promastigote forms, including the screening of 4,000 compounds with known pharmacological properties. In an attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal properties, 26,500 structurally diverse chemical compounds were screened. A cut-off of 70% growth inhibition in the primary screening led to the identification of 567 active compounds. Cellular toxicity and selectivity were responsible for the exclusion of 78% of the pre-selected compounds. The activity of the remaining 124 compounds was confirmed against the intramacrophagic amastigote form of the parasite. In vitro microsomal stability and cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition of the two most active compounds from this screening effort were assessed to obtain preliminary information on their metabolism in the host. The HTS approach employed here resulted in the discovery of two new antileishmanial compounds, bringing promising candidates to the leishmaniasis drug discovery pipeline.

Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Yang, Gyongseon; Nam, Jiyoun; Jang, Jiyeon; Cechetto, Jonathan; Lee, Chang Bok; Moon, Seunghyun; Genovesio, Auguste; Chatelain, Eric; Christophe, Thierry; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H.

2010-01-01

49

Antileishmanial High-Throughput Drug Screening Reveals Drug Candidates with New Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment often show parasite resistance, highly toxic side effects and prohibitive costs commonly incompatible with patients from the tropical endemic countries. In this sense, there is an urgent need for new drugs as a treatment solution for this neglected disease. Here we show the development and implementation of an automated high-throughput viability screening assay for

Jair L. Siqueira-Neto; Ok-Ryul Song; Hyunrim Oh; Jeong-Hun Sohn; Gyongseon Yang; Jiyoun Nam; Jiyeon Jang; Jonathan Cechetto; Chang Bok Lee; Seunghyun Moon; Auguste Genovesio; Eric Chatelain; Thierry Christophe; Lucio H. Freitas-Junior

2010-01-01

50

Genome-wide enrichment screening reveals multiple targets and resistance genes for triclosan in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Triclosan is a widely used biocide effective against different microorganisms. At bactericidal concentrations, triclosan appears to affect multiple targets, while at bacteriostatic concentrations, triclosan targets FabI. The site-specific antibiotic-like mode-of-action and a widespread use of triclosan in household products claimed to possibly induce cross-resistance to other antibiotics. Thus, we set out to define more systematically the genes conferring resistance to triclosan; A genomic library of Escherichia coli strain W3110 was constructed and enriched in a selective medium containing a lethal concentration of triclosan. The genes enabling growth in the presence of triclosan were identified by using a DNA microarray and confirmed consequently by ASKA clones overexpressing the selected 62 candidate genes. Among these, forty-seven genes were further confirmed to enhance the resistance to triclosan; these genes, including the FabI target, were involved in inner or outer membrane synthesis, cell-surface material synthesis, transcriptional activation, sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) systems, various transporter systems, cell division, and ATPase and reductase/dehydrogenase reactions. In particular, overexpression of pgsA, rcsA, or gapC conferred to E. coli cells a similar level of triclosan resistance induced by fabI overexpression. These results indicate that triclosan may have multiple targets other than well-known FabI and that there are several undefined novel mechanisms for the resistance development to triclosan, thus probably inducing cross antibiotic resistance. PMID:23124746

Yu, Byung Jo; Kim, Jung Ae; Ju, Hyun Mok; Choi, Soo-Kyung; Hwang, Seung Jin; Park, Sungyoo; Kim, Euijoong; Pan, Jae-Gu

2012-11-04

51

Agroinfection-based high throughput screening reveals specific recognition of INF elicitins in Solanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapted and optimized the use of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary PVX expression system (PVX agroinfection) to screen Solanum plants for response to pathogen elicitors and applied the assay to identify a total of 11 clones of Solanum huancabambense and Solanum microdontum, out of 31 species tested, that respond to the elicitins INF1, INF2A and INF2B of Phytophthora infestans. Prior

VIVIANNE G. A. A. VLEESHOUWERS; JAN-DAVID DRIESPRONG; LARS G. KAMPHUIS; TRUDY TORTO-ALALIBO; Slot van't A; FRANCINE GOVERS; RICHARD G. F. VISSER; EVERT JACOBSEN; SOPHIEN KAMOUN

2006-01-01

52

Yeast genome-wide screen reveals dissimilar sets of host genes affecting replication of RNA viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are devastating pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. To further our understanding of how viruses use the resources of infected cells, we systematically tested the yeast single-gene-knockout library for the effect of each host gene on the replication of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a positive-strand RNA virus of plants. The genome-wide screen identified 96 host genes whose absence

Tadas Panavas; Elena Serviene; Jeremy Brasher; Peter D. Nagy

2005-01-01

53

Genomic screening for genes upregulated by demethylation revealed novel targets of epigenetic silencing in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer arises through the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations and epigenetic changes such as methylation,\\u000a which silences gene expression in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we applied genomic screening to identify genes\\u000a upregulated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (DAC) in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). We identified\\u000a 288 genes upregulated and 29 genes downregulated

Tomoko Fujikane; Noriko Nishikawa; Minoru Toyota; Hiromu Suzuki; Masanori Nojima; Reo Maruyama; Masami Ashida; Mutsumi Ohe-Toyota; Masahiro Kai; Toshihiko Nishidate; Yasushi Sasaki; Tousei Ohmura; Koichi Hirata; Takashi Tokino

2010-01-01

54

An ER-Mitochondria Tethering Complex Revealed by a Synthetic Biology Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication between organelles is an important feature of all eukaryotic cells. To uncover components involved in mitochondria\\/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) junctions, we screened for mutants that could be complemented by a synthetic protein designed to artificially tether the two organelles. We identified the Mmm1\\/Mdm10\\/Mdm12\\/Mdm34 complex as a molecular tether between ER and mitochondria. The tethering complex was composed of proteins resident

Benoît Kornmann; Erin Currie; Sean R. Collins; Maya Schuldiner; Jodi Nunnari; Jonathan S. Weissman; Peter Walter

2009-01-01

55

DNA Elements Reducing Transcriptional Gene Silencing Revealed by a Novel Screening Strategy  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS)–a phenomenon observed in endogenous genes/transgenes in eukaryotes–is a huge hindrance to transgenic technology and occurs mainly when the genes involved share sequence homology in their promoter regions. TGS depends on chromosomal position, suggesting the existence of genomic elements that suppress TGS. However, no systematic approach to identify such DNA elements has yet been reported. Here, we developed a successful novel screening strategy to identify such elements (anti-silencing regions–ASRs), based on their ability to protect a flanked transgene from TGS. A silenced transgenic tobacco plant in which a subsequently introduced transgene undergoes obligatory promoter-homology dependent TGS in trans allowed the ability of DNA elements to prevent TGS to be used as the screening criterion. We also identified ASRs in a genomic library from a different plant species (Lotus japonicus: a perennial legume); the ASRs include portions of Ty1/copia retrotransposon-like and pararetrovirus-like sequences; the retrotransposon-like sequences also showed interspecies anti-TGS activity in a TGS-induction system in Arabidopsis. Anti-TGS elements could provide effective tools to reduce TGS and ensure proper regulation of transgene expression. Furthermore, the screening strategy described here will also facilitate the efficient identification of new classes of anti-TGS elements.

Ueno, Keiichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

2013-01-01

56

Zebrafish chemical screening reveals an inhibitor of Dusp6 that expands cardiac cell lineages.  

PubMed

The dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (Dusp6) functions as a feedback regulator of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to limit the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2. We have identified a small-molecule inhibitor of Dusp6-(E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI)-using a transgenic zebrafish chemical screen. BCI treatment blocked Dusp6 activity and enhanced FGF target gene expression in zebrafish embryos. Docking simulations predicted an allosteric binding site for BCI within the phosphatase domain. In vitro studies supported a model in which BCI inhibits Dusp6 catalytic activation by ERK2 substrate binding. We used BCI treatment at varying developmental stages to uncover a temporal role for Dusp6 in restricting cardiac progenitors and controlling heart organ size. This study highlights the power of in vivo zebrafish chemical screens to identify new compounds targeting Dusp6, a component of the FGF signaling pathway that has eluded traditional high-throughput in vitro screens. PMID:19578332

Molina, Gabriela; Vogt, Andreas; Bakan, Ahmet; Dai, Weixiang; Queiroz de Oliveira, Pierre; Znosko, Wade; Smithgall, Thomas E; Bahar, Ivet; Lazo, John S; Day, Billy W; Tsang, Michael

2009-07-05

57

Systematic Analysis of RNAi Reports Identifies Dismal Commonality at Gene-Level and Reveals an Unprecedented Enrichment in Pooled shRNA Screens.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) has opened promising avenues to better understand gene function. Though many RNAi screens report on the identification of genes, very few, if any, have been further studied and validated. Data discrepancy is emerging as one of RNAi main pitfalls. We reasoned that a systematic analysis of lethality-based screens, since they score for cell death, would examine the extent of hit discordance at inter-screen level. To this end, we developed a methodology for literature mining and overlap analysis of several screens using both siRNA and shRNA flavors, and obtained 64 gene lists censoring an initial list of 7,430 nominated genes. We further performed a comparative analysis first at a global level followed by hit re-assessment under much more stringent conditions. To our surprise, none of the hits overlapped across the board even for PLK1, which emerged as a strong candidate in siRNA screens; but only marginally in the shRNA ones. Furthermore, EIF5B emerges as the most common hit only in the shRNA screens. A highly unusual and unprecedented result was the observation that 5,269 out of 6,664 nominated genes (~80%) in the shRNA screens were exclusive to the pooled format, raising concerns as to the merits of pooled screens which qualify hits based on relative depletions, possibly due to multiple integrations per cell, data deconvolution or inaccuracies in intracellular processing causing off-target effects. Without golden standards in place, we would encourage the community to pay more attention to RNAi screening data analysis practices, bearing in mind that it is combinatorial in nature and one active siRNA duplex or shRNA hairpin per gene does not suffice credible hit nomination. Finally, we also would like to caution interpretation of pooled shRNA screening outcomes. PMID:23848309

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

2013-11-01

58

In situ screening of 3-arylcoumarin derivatives reveals new inhibitors of mast cell degranulation.  

PubMed

Due to the severity and high prevalence of allergic diseases, there is growing interest in the development of inhibitors of such conditions. 3-Arylcoumarin derivatives emerge as promising compounds for the treatment of allergic disorders, in particular due to their close structural similarity to flavonoids, whose anti-allergic activity has been extensively reported. The aim of this work was to perform a screening of a set of 3-arylcoumarins as potential inhibitors of mast cell degranulation, a key event for the development of allergic reactions. For that purpose, it was utilized a biosensor model based on mast cells, whose in vitro assay allows for such screening, in a high throughput fashion, and also permits bringing to attention some coumarin structural features that are important for their biological activity. The mast cell-based biosensor was shown to discriminate, with high sensitivity and reproducibility, between coumarins that did not affect or caused different degrees of inhibition of degranulation. Among active coumarins, some substituents could be accounted for their inhibitory activity, such as the hydroxylation of positions 6 and 2' of 3-phenylcoumarins, in addition to catechol, amino and thiophene moieties. In summary, 3-arylcoumarins could be suggested as potential candidates for the development of new anti-allergic drugs. PMID:23519647

de Souza Santos, Marcela; Freire de Morais Del Lama, Maria Perpétua; Deliberto, Laila Aparecida; da Silva Emery, Flávio; Tallarico Pupo, Mônica; Zumstein Georgetto Naal, Rose Mary

2013-06-01

59

A Sleeping Beauty screen reveals NF-kB activation in CLL mouse model.  

PubMed

TCL1 oncogene is overexpressed in aggressive form of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and its dysregulation in mouse B cells causes a CD5-positive leukemia similar to the aggressive form of human CLLs. To identify oncogenes that cooperate with Tcl1, we performed genetic screen in E?-TCL1 mice using Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated mutagenesis. Analysis of transposon common insertion sites identified 7 genes activated by transposon insertions. Overexpression of these genes in mouse CLL was confirmed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, the main known function of 4 of 7 genes (Nfkb1, Tab2, Map3K14, and Nfkbid) is participation in or activation of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway. In addition, activation of the NF-kB is 1 of main functions of Akt2, also identified in the screen. These findings demonstrate cooperation of Tcl1 and the NF-kB pathway in the pathogenesis of aggressive CLL. Identification cooperating cancer genes will result in the development of combinatorial therapies to treat CLL. PMID:23591791

Zanesi, Nicola; Balatti, Veronica; Riordan, Jesse; Burch, Aaron; Rizzotto, Lara; Palamarchuk, Alexey; Cascione, Luciano; Lagana, Alessandro; Dupuy, Adam J; Croce, Carlo M; Pekarsky, Yuri

2013-04-16

60

A Forward Genetic Screen Reveals that Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase 3 Regulates Egress in Toxoplasma  

PubMed Central

Egress from the host cell is a crucial and highly regulated step in the biology of the obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Active egress depends on calcium fluxes and appears to be a crucial step in escaping the attack from the immune system and, potentially, in enabling the parasites to shuttle into appropriate cells for entry into the brain of the host. Previous genetic screens have yielded mutants defective in both ionophore-induced egress and ionophore-induced death. Using whole genome sequencing of one mutant and subsequent analysis of all mutants from these screens, we find that, remarkably, four independent mutants harbor a mis-sense mutation in the same gene, TgCDPK3, encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase. All four mutations are predicted to alter key regions of TgCDPK3 and this is confirmed by biochemical studies of recombinant forms of each. By complementation we confirm a crucial role for TgCDPK3 in the rapid induction of parasite egress and we establish that TgCDPK3 is critical for formation of latent stages in the brains of mice. Genetic knockout of TgCDPK3 confirms a crucial role for this kinase in parasite egress and a non-essential role for it in the lytic cycle.

Ehret, Emma; Butz, Heidi; Garbuz, Tamila; Oswald, Benji P.; Settles, Matt; Boothroyd, John; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

2012-01-01

61

A Cell-Based Screen Reveals that the Albendazole Metabolite, Albendazole Sulfone, Targets Wolbachia  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia endosymbionts carried by filarial nematodes give rise to the neglected diseases African river blindness and lymphatic filariasis afflicting millions worldwide. Here we identify new Wolbachia-disrupting compounds by conducting high-throughput cell-based chemical screens using a Wolbachia-infected, fluorescently labeled Drosophila cell line. This screen yielded several Wolbachia-disrupting compounds including three that resembled Albendazole, a widely used anthelmintic drug that targets nematode microtubules. Follow-up studies demonstrate that a common Albendazole metabolite, Albendazole sulfone, reduces intracellular Wolbachia titer both in Drosophila melanogaster and Brugia malayi, the nematode responsible for lymphatic filariasis. Significantly, Albendazole sulfone does not disrupt Drosophila microtubule organization, suggesting that this compound reduces titer through direct targeting of Wolbachia. Accordingly, both DNA staining and FtsZ immunofluorescence demonstrates that Albendazole sulfone treatment induces Wolbachia elongation, a phenotype indicative of binary fission defects. This suggests that the efficacy of Albendazole in treating filarial nematode-based diseases is attributable to dual targeting of nematode microtubules and their Wolbachia endosymbionts.

Bray, Walter M.; White, Pamela M.; Ruybal, Jordan; Lokey, R. Scott; Debec, Alain; Sullivan, William

2012-01-01

62

ResponseNet: revealing signaling and regulatory networks linking genetic and transcriptomic screening data  

PubMed Central

Cellular response to stimuli is typically complex and involves both regulatory and metabolic processes. Large-scale experimental efforts to identify components of these processes often comprise of genetic screening and transcriptomic profiling assays. We previously established that in yeast genetic screens tend to identify response regulators, while transcriptomic profiling assays tend to identify components of metabolic processes. ResponseNet is a network-optimization approach that integrates the results from these assays with data of known molecular interactions. Specifically, ResponseNet identifies a high-probability sub-network, composed of signaling and regulatory molecular interaction paths, through which putative response regulators may lead to the measured transcriptomic changes. Computationally, this is achieved by formulating a minimum-cost flow optimization problem and solving it efficiently using linear programming tools. The ResponseNet web server offers a simple interface for applying ResponseNet. Users can upload weighted lists of proteins and genes and obtain a sparse, weighted, molecular interaction sub-network connecting their data. The predicted sub-network and its gene ontology enrichment analysis are presented graphically or as text. Consequently, the ResponseNet web server enables researchers that were previously limited to separate analysis of their distinct, large-scale experiments, to meaningfully integrate their data and substantially expand their understanding of the underlying cellular response. ResponseNet is available at http://bioinfo.bgu.ac.il/respnet.

Lan, Alex; Smoly, Ilan Y.; Rapaport, Guy; Lindquist, Susan; Fraenkel, Ernest; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

2011-01-01

63

Random mutagenesis of proximal mouse chromosome 5 uncovers predominantly embryonic lethal mutations  

PubMed Central

A region-specific ENU mutagenesis screen was conducted to elucidate the functional content of proximal mouse Chr 5. We used the visibly marked, recessive, lethal inversion Rump White (Rw) as a balancer in a three-generation breeding scheme to identify recessive mutations within the ?50 megabases spanned by Rw. A total of 1003 pedigrees were produced, representing the largest inversion screen performed in mice. Test-class animals, homozygous for the ENU-mutagenized proximal Chr 5 and visibly distinguishable from nonhomozygous littermates, were screened for fertility, hearing, vestibular function, DNA repair, behavior, and dysmorphology. Lethals were identifiable by failure to derive test-class animals within a pedigree. Embryonic lethal mutations (total of 34) were overwhelmingly the largest class of mutants recovered. We characterized them with respect to the time of embryonic death, revealing that most act at midgestation (8.5–10.5) or sooner. To position the mutations within the Rw region and to guide allelism tests, we performed complementation analyses with a set of new and existing chromosomal deletions, as well as standard recombinational mapping on a subset of the mutations. By pooling the data from this and other region-specific mutagenesis projects, we calculate that the mouse genome contains ?3479–4825 embryonic lethal genes, or about 13.7%–19% of all genes.

Wilson, Lawriston; Ching, Yung-Hao; Farias, Michael; Hartford, Suzanne A.; Howell, Gareth; Shao, Hongguang; Bucan, Maja; Schimenti, John C.

2005-01-01

64

RNAi screening reveals a large signaling network controlling the Golgi apparatus in human cells  

PubMed Central

The Golgi apparatus has many important physiological functions, including sorting of secretory cargo and biosynthesis of complex glycans. These functions depend on the intricate and compartmentalized organization of the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate Golgi architecture, we developed a quantitative morphological assay using three different Golgi compartment markers and quantitative image analysis, and performed a kinome- and phosphatome-wide RNAi screen in HeLa cells. Depletion of 159 signaling genes, nearly 20% of genes assayed, induced strong and varied perturbations in Golgi morphology. Using bioinformatics data, a large regulatory network could be constructed. Specific subnetworks are involved in phosphoinositides regulation, acto-myosin dynamics and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Most gene depletion also affected Golgi functions, in particular glycan biosynthesis, suggesting that signaling cascades can control glycosylation directly at the Golgi level. Our results provide a genetic overview of the signaling pathways that control the Golgi apparatus in human cells.

Chia, Joanne; Goh, Germaine; Racine, Victor; Ng, Susanne; Kumar, Pankaj; Bard, Frederic

2012-01-01

65

A genome-wide screen for genes affecting eisosomes reveals Nce102 function in sphingolipid signaling  

PubMed Central

The protein and lipid composition of eukaryotic plasma membranes is highly dynamic and regulated according to need. The sphingolipid-responsive Pkh kinases are candidates for mediating parts of this regulation, as they affect a diverse set of plasma membrane functions, such as cortical actin patch organization, efficient endocytosis, and eisosome assembly. Eisosomes are large protein complexes underlying the plasma membrane and help to sort a group of membrane proteins into distinct domains. In this study, we identify Nce102 in a genome-wide screen for genes involved in eisosome organization and Pkh kinase signaling. Nce102 accumulates in membrane domains at eisosomes where Pkh kinases also localize. The relative abundance of Nce102 in these domains compared with the rest of the plasma membrane is dynamically regulated by sphingolipids. Furthermore, Nce102 inhibits Pkh kinase signaling and is required for plasma membrane organization. Therefore, Nce102 might act as a sensor of sphingolipids that regulates plasma membrane function.

Frohlich, Florian; Moreira, Karen; Aguilar, Pablo S.; Hubner, Nina C.; Mann, Matthias; Walter, Peter

2009-01-01

66

Large-scale in vivo femtosecond laser neurosurgery screen reveals small-molecule enhancer of regeneration  

PubMed Central

Discovery of molecular mechanisms and chemical compounds that enhance neuronal regeneration can lead to development of therapeutics to combat nervous system injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. By combining high-throughput microfluidics and femtosecond laser microsurgery, we demonstrate for the first time large-scale in vivo screens for identification of compounds that affect neurite regeneration. We performed thousands of microsurgeries at single-axon precision in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans at a rate of 20 seconds per animal. Following surgeries, we exposed the animals to a hand-curated library of approximately one hundred small molecules and identified chemicals that significantly alter neurite regeneration. In particular, we found that the PKC kinase inhibitor staurosporine strongly modulates regeneration in a concentration- and neuronal type-specific manner. Two structurally unrelated PKC inhibitors produce similar effects. We further show that regeneration is significantly enhanced by the PKC activator prostratin.

Samara, Chrysanthi; Rohde, Christopher B.; Gilleland, Cody L.; Norton, Stephanie; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2010-01-01

67

Human genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a role for nuclear pore proteins in poxvirus morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Poxviruses are considered less dependent on host functions than other DNA viruses because of their cytoplasmic site of replication and large genomes, which encode enzymes for DNA and mRNA synthesis. Nevertheless, RNAi screens with two independent human genome-scale libraries have identified more than 500 candidate genes that significantly inhibited and a similar number that enhanced replication and spread of infectious vaccinia virus (VACV). Translational, ubiquitin-proteosome, and endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport functions, known to be important for VACV, were enriched in the siRNA-inhibiting group, and RNA polymerase II and associated functions were enriched in the siRNA-enhancing group. Additional findings, notably the inhibition of VACV spread by siRNAs to several nuclear pore genes, were unanticipated. Knockdown of nucleoporin 62 strongly inhibited viral morphogenesis, with only a modest effect on viral gene expression, recapitulating and providing insight into previous studies with enucleated cells. PMID:23401514

Sivan, Gilad; Martin, Scott E; Myers, Timothy G; Buehler, Eugen; Szymczyk, Krysia H; Ormanoglu, Pinar; Moss, Bernard

2013-02-11

68

Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a role for the ESCRT complex in rotavirus cell entry.  

PubMed

Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. This study presents a functional genome-scale analysis of cellular proteins and pathways relevant for RV infection using RNAi. Among the 522 proteins selected in the screen for their ability to affect viral infectivity, an enriched group that participates in endocytic processes was identified. Within these proteins, subunits of the vacuolar ATPase, small GTPases, actinin 4, and, of special interest, components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery were found. Here we provide evidence for a role of the ESCRT complex in the entry of simian and human RV strains in both monkey and human epithelial cells. In addition, the ESCRT-associated ATPase VPS4A and phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid, both crucial for the formation of intralumenal vesicles in multivesicular bodies, were also found to be required for cell entry. Interestingly, it seems that regardless of the molecules that rhesus RV and human RV strains use for cell-surface attachment and the distinct endocytic pathway used, all these viruses converge in early endosomes and use multivesicular bodies for cell entry. Furthermore, the small GTPases RHOA and CDC42, which regulate different types of clathrin-independent endocytosis, as well as early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1), were found to be involved in this process. This work reports the direct involvement of the ESCRT machinery in the life cycle of a nonenveloped virus and highlights the complex mechanism that these viruses use to enter cells. It also illustrates the efficiency of high-throughput RNAi screenings as genetic tools for comprehensively studying the interaction between viruses and their host cells. PMID:23733942

Silva-Ayala, Daniela; López, Tomás; Gutiérrez, Michelle; Perrimon, Norbert; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

2013-06-03

69

Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic lethality (SL)...

D. S. Bellows

2004-01-01

70

Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic lethality (SL)...

D. S. Bellows

2006-01-01

71

A genome-wide synthetic dosage lethality screen reveals multiple pathways that require the functioning of ubiquitin-binding proteins Rad23 and Dsk2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ubiquitin regulates a myriad of important cellular processes through covalent attachment to its substrates. A classic role for ubiquitin is to flag proteins for destruction by the proteasome. Recent studies indicate that ubiquitin-binding proteins (e.g. Rad23, Dsk2, Rpn10) play a pivotal role in transferring ubiquitylated proteins to the proteasome. However, the specific role of these ubiquitin receptors remains poorly

Chang Liu; Dewald van Dyk; Yue Li; Brenda Andrews; Hai Rao

2009-01-01

72

Data Mining of NCI's Anticancer Screening Database Reveals Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Cytotoxic to Leukemia Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are principal mediators of apoptosis and thus can be considered molecular targets for new chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer. Inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I of the electron transport chain have been shown to induce apoptosis and exhibit antitumor activity. In an effort to find novel complex I inhibitors which exhibited anti-cancer activity in the NCI’s tumor cell line screen, we examined organized tumor cytotoxicity screening data available as SOM (self-organized maps) (http://spheroid.ncifcrf.gov) at the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Our analysis focused on an SOM cluster comprised of compounds which included a number of known mitochondrial complex I (NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase) inhibitors. From these clusters ten compounds whose mechanism of action was unknown were tested for inhibition of complex I activity in bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) resulting in the discovery that five of the ten compounds demonstrated significant inhibition with IC50's in the nM range for three of the five. Examination of screening profiles of the five inhibitors toward the NCI’s tumor cell lines revealed that they were cytotoxic to the leukemia subpanel (particularly K562 cells). Oxygen consumption experiments with permeabilized K562 cells revealed that the five most active compounds inhibited complex I activity in these cells in the same rank order and similar potency as determined with bovine heart SMP. Our findings thus fortify the appeal of mitochondrial Complex I as a possible anti-cancer molecular target and provide a data mining strategy for selecting candidate inhibitors for further testing.

Glover, Constance J.; Rabow, Alfred A.; Isgor, Yasemin G.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Covell, David G.

2007-01-01

73

A cell-based, high content screening assay reveals activators and inhibitors of cancer cell invasion  

PubMed Central

Acquisition of invasive cell behavior underlies tumor progression and metastasis. To define in more molecular detail the mechanisms underlying invasive behavior, we developed a high throughput screening strategy to quantitate invadopodia; actin-rich membrane protrusions of cancer cells which contribute to tissue invasion and matrix remodeling. We developed a high content, imaged-based assay, and tested the LOPAC 1280 collection of pharmacologically active agents. We found compounds that potently inhibited invadopodia formation without overt toxicity, as well as compounds that increased invadopodia number. One of the two compounds that increased both invadopodia number and invasive behavior was the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, which has potential clinical implications for its use in the neoadjuvant and resistance settings. Several of the invasion inhibitors were annotated as cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors. Loss-of-function experiments determined that Cdk5 was the relevant target. We further determined that the mechanism by which Cdk5 promotes both invadopodia formation and cancer invasion is by phosphorylation and down regulation of the actin regulatory protein caldesmon.

Quintavalle, Manuela; Elia, Leonardo; Price, Jeffrey H.; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Courtneidge, Sara A.

2012-01-01

74

Systematic screen with kinases inhibitors reveals kinases play distinct roles in growth of osteoprogenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer treatment-related bone loss has become growing problematic, especially in breast and prostate cancer treated with hormone/endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, bone loss caused by targeted therapy in cancer patients is largely unknown yet. In present study, a kinase inhibitors screen was applied for MC3T3-E1, a murine osteoprogenitor cell line, and seven kinase inhibitors (GSK1838705A, PF-04691502, Dasatinib, Masitinib, GDC-0941, XL880 and Everolimus) were found to suppress the cell viability with dose- and time-dependent manner. The most interesting is that many kinase inhibitors (such as lapatinib, erlotinib and sunitinib) can promote MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation at 0.01 ?M. 4 out of 7 inhibitors were selected to perform the functional study and found that they lead to cell cycle dysregulation, treatments of PF-04691502 (AKT inhibitor), Dasatinib (Src inhibitor) and Everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) lead to G1 arrest of MC3T3-E1 cells via downregulation of cyclin D1 and p-AKT, whereas XL880 (MET and VEGFR inhibitor) treatment results in increase of sub-G1 and G2/M phase by upregulation of p53 protein. Our work provides important indications for the comprehensive care of cancer patients treated with some targeted drugs.

Bao, Ni-Rong; Lu, Meng; Bin, Fan-Wen; Chang, Zhi-Yong; Meng, Jia; Zhou, Li-Wu; Guo, Ting; Zhao, Jian-Ning

2013-01-01

75

Systematic screen with kinases inhibitors reveals kinases play distinct roles in growth of osteoprogenitor cells.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment-related bone loss has become growing problematic, especially in breast and prostate cancer treated with hormone/endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, bone loss caused by targeted therapy in cancer patients is largely unknown yet. In present study, a kinase inhibitors screen was applied for MC3T3-E1, a murine osteoprogenitor cell line, and seven kinase inhibitors (GSK1838705A, PF-04691502, Dasatinib, Masitinib, GDC-0941, XL880 and Everolimus) were found to suppress the cell viability with dose- and time-dependent manner. The most interesting is that many kinase inhibitors (such as lapatinib, erlotinib and sunitinib) can promote MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation at 0.01 ?M. 4 out of 7 inhibitors were selected to perform the functional study and found that they lead to cell cycle dysregulation, treatments of PF-04691502 (AKT inhibitor), Dasatinib (Src inhibitor) and Everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) lead to G1 arrest of MC3T3-E1 cells via downregulation of cyclin D1 and p-AKT, whereas XL880 (MET and VEGFR inhibitor) treatment results in increase of sub-G1 and G2/M phase by upregulation of p53 protein. Our work provides important indications for the comprehensive care of cancer patients treated with some targeted drugs. PMID:24133586

Bao, Ni-Rong; Lu, Meng; Bin, Fan-Wen; Chang, Zhi-Yong; Meng, Jia; Zhou, Li-Wu; Guo, Ting; Zhao, Jian-Ning

2013-09-15

76

A forward genetic screen reveals roles for Nfkbid, Zeb1, and Ruvbl2 in humoral immunity.  

PubMed

Using chemical germ-line mutagenesis, we screened mice for defects in the humoral immune response to a type II T-independent immunogen and an experimental alphavirus vector. A total of 26 mutations that impair humoral immunity were recovered, and 19 of these mutations have been positionally cloned. Among the phenovariants were bumble, cellophane, and Worker ascribed to mutations in Nfkbid, Zeb1, and Ruvbl2, respectively. We show that I?BNS, the nuclear I?B-like protein encoded by Nfkbid, is required for the development of marginal zone and peritoneal B-1 B cells and additionally required for extrafollicular antibody responses to T-independent and -dependent immunogens. Zeb1 is also required for marginal zone and peritoneal B-1 B-cell development as well as T-cell development, germinal center formation, and memory B-cell responses. Finally, Ruvbl2 is required for T-cell development and maximal T-dependent antibody responses. Collectively, the mutations that we identified give us insight into the points at which disruption of an antibody response can occur. All of the mutations identified to date directly affect lymphocyte development or function; none have an exclusive effect on cells of the innate immune system. PMID:22761313

Arnold, Carrie N; Pirie, Elaine; Dosenovic, Pia; McInerney, Gerald M; Xia, Yu; Wang, Nathaniel; Li, Xiaohong; Siggs, Owen M; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Beutler, Bruce

2012-07-03

77

A forward genetic screen reveals roles for Nfkbid, Zeb1, and Ruvbl2 in humoral immunity  

PubMed Central

Using chemical germ-line mutagenesis, we screened mice for defects in the humoral immune response to a type II T-independent immunogen and an experimental alphavirus vector. A total of 26 mutations that impair humoral immunity were recovered, and 19 of these mutations have been positionally cloned. Among the phenovariants were bumble, cellophane, and Worker ascribed to mutations in Nfkbid, Zeb1, and Ruvbl2, respectively. We show that I?BNS, the nuclear I?B-like protein encoded by Nfkbid, is required for the development of marginal zone and peritoneal B-1 B cells and additionally required for extrafollicular antibody responses to T-independent and -dependent immunogens. Zeb1 is also required for marginal zone and peritoneal B-1 B-cell development as well as T-cell development, germinal center formation, and memory B-cell responses. Finally, Ruvbl2 is required for T-cell development and maximal T-dependent antibody responses. Collectively, the mutations that we identified give us insight into the points at which disruption of an antibody response can occur. All of the mutations identified to date directly affect lymphocyte development or function; none have an exclusive effect on cells of the innate immune system.

Arnold, Carrie N.; Pirie, Elaine; Dosenovic, Pia; McInerney, Gerald M.; Xia, Yu; Wang, Nathaniel; Li, Xiaohong; Siggs, Owen M.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Beutler, Bruce

2012-01-01

78

Screening of Escherichia coli Species Biodiversity Reveals New Biofilm-Associated Antiadhesion Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms often form multispecies communities in which complex but ill-understood competition and cooperation interactions occur. In light of the profound physiological modifications associated with this lifestyle, we hypothesized that the biofilm environment might represent an untapped source of natural bioactive molecules interfering with bacterial adhesion or biofilm formation. We produced cell-free solutions extracted from in vitro mature biofilms formed by 122 natural Escherichia coli isolates, and we screened these biofilm extracts for antiadhesion molecules active on a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using this approach, we showed that 20% of the tested biofilm extracts contained molecules that antagonize bacterial growth or adhesion. We characterized a compound, produced by a commensal animal E. coli strain, for which activity is detected only in biofilm extract. Biochemical and genetic analyses showed that this compound corresponds to a new type of released high-molecular-weight polysaccharide whose biofilm-associated production is regulated by the RfaH protein. We demonstrated that the antiadhesion activity of this polysaccharide was restricted to Gram-positive bacteria and that its production reduced susceptibility to invasion and provided rapid exclusion of Staphylococcus aureus from mixed E. coli and S. aureus biofilms. Our results therefore demonstrate that biofilms contain molecules that contribute to the dynamics of mixed bacterial communities and that are not or only poorly detected in unconcentrated planktonic supernatants. Systematic identification of these compounds could lead to strategies that limit pathogen surface colonization and reduce the burden associated with the development of bacterial biofilms on medical devices.

Rendueles, Olaya; Travier, Laetitia; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Fontaine, Thierry; Magnus, Julie; Denamur, Erick; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

79

Screen for Chemical Modulators of Autophagy Reveals Novel Therapeutic Inhibitors of mTORC1 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a protein kinase that relays nutrient availability signals to control numerous cellular functions including autophagy, a process of cellular self-eating activated by nutrient depletion. Addressing the therapeutic potential of modulating mTORC1 signaling and autophagy in human disease requires active chemicals with pharmacologically desirable properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an automated cell-based assay, we screened a collection of >3,500 chemicals and identified three approved drugs (perhexiline, niclosamide, amiodarone) and one pharmacological reagent (rottlerin) capable of rapidly increasing autophagosome content. Biochemical assays showed that the four compounds stimulate autophagy and inhibit mTORC1 signaling in cells maintained in nutrient-rich conditions. The compounds did not inhibit mTORC2, which also contains mTOR as a catalytic subunit, suggesting that they do not inhibit mTOR catalytic activity but rather inhibit signaling to mTORC1. mTORC1 inhibition and autophagosome accumulation induced by perhexiline, niclosamide or rottlerin were rapidly reversed upon drug withdrawal whereas amiodarone inhibited mTORC1 essentially irreversibly. TSC2, a negative regulator of mTORC1, was required for inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by rottlerin but not for mTORC1 inhibition by perhexiline, niclosamide and amiodarone. Transient exposure of immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts to these drugs was not toxic in nutrient-rich conditions but led to rapid cell death by apoptosis in starvation conditions, by a mechanism determined in large part by the tuberous sclerosis complex protein TSC2, an upstream regulator of mTORC1. By contrast, transient exposure to the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin caused essentially irreversible mTORC1 inhibition, sustained inhibition of cell growth and no selective cell killing in starvation. Conclusion/Significance The observation that drugs already approved for human use can reversibly inhibit mTORC1 and stimulate autophagy should greatly facilitate the preclinical and clinical testing of mTORC1 inhibition for indications such as tuberous sclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Donohue, Elizabeth; Tsang, Trevor C. F.; Lajoie, Patrick; Proud, Christopher G.; Nabi, Ivan R.; Roberge, Michel

2009-01-01

80

Thiolactone modulators of quorum sensing revealed through library design and screening  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which bacteria use small molecules or peptidic signals to assess their local population densities. At sufficiently high density, bacteria can alter gene expression levels to regulate group behaviors involved in a range of important and diverse phenotypes, including virulence factor production, biofilm formation, root nodulation, and bioluminescence. Gram-negative bacteria most commonly use N-acylated L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as their QS signals. The AHL lactone ring is hydrolyzed relatively rapidly at biological pH, and the ring-opened product is QS inactive. We seek to identify AHL analogues with heightened hydrolytic stability, and thereby potentially heightened activity, for use as non-native modulators of bacterial QS. As part of this effort, we probed the utility of thiolactone analogues in the current study as QS agonists and antagonists in Gram-negative bacteria. A focused library of thiolactone analogs was designed and rapidly synthesized in solution. We examined the activity of the library as agonists and antagonists of LuxR-type QS receptors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (LasR), Vibrio fischeri (LuxR), and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (TraR) using bacterial reporter strains. The thiolactone library contained several highly active compounds, including some of the most active LuxR inhibitors and the most active synthetic TraR agonist reported to date. Analysis of a representative thiolactone analog revealed that its hydrolysis half-life was almost double that of its parent AHL in bacterial growth medium.

McInnis, Christine E.; Blackwell, Helen E.

2011-01-01

81

New aspects of the phosphatase VHZ revealed by a high-resolution structure with vanadate and substrate screening.  

PubMed

The recently discovered 150-residue human VHZ (VH1-related protein, Z member) is one of the smallest protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) known and contains only the minimal structural elements common to all PTPs. We report a substrate screening analysis and a crystal structure of the VHZ complex with vanadate at 1.1 Å resolution, with a detailed structural comparison with other members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, including classical tyrosine-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs). A screen with 360 phosphorylated peptides shows VHZ efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing peptides but exhibits no activity toward phosphoserine (pS) or phosphothreonine (pT) peptides. The new structure reveals a deep and narrow active site more typical of the classical tyrosine-specific PTPs. Despite the high degrees of structural and sequence similarity between VHZ and classical PTPs, its general acid IPD-loop is most likely conformationally rigid, in contrast to the flexible WPD counterpart of classical PTPs. VHZ also lacks substrate recognition domains and other domains typically found on classical PTPs. It is therefore proposed that VHZ is more properly classified as an atypical PTP rather than an atypical DSP, as has been suggested. PMID:23145819

Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Hengge, Alvan C; Johnson, Sean J

2012-11-26

82

Transforming activity of purinergic receptor P2Y, G protein coupled, 8 revealed by retroviral expression screening.  

PubMed

Biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) is a relatively rare subtype of acute leukemia characterized by the presence of both myeloid and lymphoid cell surface antigens. We have now screened for transforming genes in BAL blasts with the use of the focus formation assay with a retroviral cDNA expression library constructed from malignant blasts isolated from a BAL patient. Some of the retroviral inserts recovered from transformed foci were found to encode wild-type purinergic receptor P2Y, G protein coupled, 8 (P2RY8). The oncogenic potential of P2RY8 was confirmed with the in vitro focus formation assay as well as with an in vivo tumorigenicity assay in nude mice. A variety of luciferase-based reporter assays revealed that P2RY8 increased both the trans-activation activities of CREB and Elk-1 as well as the transcriptional activities of the serum response element and enhancer-promoter fragments of the c-Fos and c-Myc genes. Quantitation of P2RY8 mRNA in CD34(+) cells of bone marrow showed that P2RY8 expression is frequently increased in leukemia patients, especially in those with refractory disease. Our data thus reveal an abundant expression of P2RY8 in leukemic cells and its unexpected role in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia. PMID:17487742

Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Choi, Young Lim; Watanabe, Hideki; Kurashina, Kentaro; Soda, Manabu; Enomoto, Munehiro; Hatanaka, Hisashi; Takada, Shuji; Ozawa, Keiya; Mano, Hiroyuki

2007-05-01

83

New Regulators of a High Affinity Ca2+ Influx System Revealed through a Genome-wide Screen in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes a high affinity Ca2+ influx system (HACS) to survive assaults by mating pheromones, tunicamycin, and azole-class antifungal agents. HACS consists of two known subunits, Cch1 and Mid1, that are homologous and analogous to the catalytic ?-subunits and regulatory ?2?-subunits of mammalian voltage-gated calcium channels, respectively. To search for additional subunits and regulators of HACS, a collection of gene knock-out mutants was screened for abnormal uptake of Ca2+ after exposure to mating pheromone or to tunicamycin. The screen revealed that Ecm7 is required for HACS function in most conditions. Cycloheximide chase experiments showed that Ecm7 was stabilized by Mid1, and Mid1 was stabilized by Cch1 in non-signaling conditions, suggesting they all interact. Ecm7 is a member of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20/Claudin superfamily of transmembrane proteins that includes ?-subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels. Eleven additional members of this superfamily were identified in yeast, but none was required for HACS activity in response to the stimuli. Remarkably, many dozens of genes involved in vesicle-mediated trafficking and protein secretion were required to prevent spontaneous activation of HACS. Taken together, the findings suggest that HACS and calcineurin monitor performance of the membrane trafficking system in yeasts and coordinate compensatory processes. Conservation of this quality control system in Candida glabrata suggests that many pathogenic species of fungi may utilize HACS and calcineurin to resist azoles and other compounds that target membrane biosynthesis.

Martin, D. Christian; Kim, Hyemin; Mackin, Nancy A.; Maldonado-Baez, Lymarie; Evangelista, Carlos C.; Beaudry, Veronica G.; Dudgeon, Drew D.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Erdman, Scott E.; Cunningham, Kyle W.

2011-01-01

84

Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d  

PubMed Central

Background Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. Results The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192) in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Conclusions Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

2010-01-01

85

NON-LETHAL INCAPACITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN SIMPLE TERMS, NON-LETHAL (OR LESS-THAN-LETHAL) INCAPACITATION means 'to render a suspect incapable of action by means of force which is highly unlikely to cause death or serious injury when properly applied'. In America, this process requires that the suspect fall to the ground as a result of the force. An important caveat at this point is to emphasise that

Robert Hamdorf

86

Drosophila genome-wide obesity screen reveals hedgehog as a determinant of brown versus white adipose cell fate.  

PubMed

Over 1 billion people are estimated to be overweight, placing them at risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We performed a systems-level genetic dissection of adiposity regulation using genome-wide RNAi screening in adult Drosophila. As a follow-up, the resulting approximately 500 candidate obesity genes were functionally classified using muscle-, oenocyte-, fat-body-, and neuronal-specific knockdown in vivo and revealed hedgehog signaling as the top-scoring fat-body-specific pathway. To extrapolate these findings into mammals, we generated fat-specific hedgehog-activation mutant mice. Intriguingly, these mice displayed near total loss of white, but not brown, fat compartments. Mechanistically, activation of hedgehog signaling irreversibly blocked differentiation of white adipocytes through direct, coordinate modulation of early adipogenic factors. These findings identify a role for hedgehog signaling in white/brown adipocyte determination and link in vivo RNAi-based scanning of the Drosophila genome to regulation of adipocyte cell fate in mammals. PMID:20074523

Pospisilik, J Andrew; Schramek, Daniel; Schnidar, Harald; Cronin, Shane J F; Nehme, Nadine T; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D; Aumayr, Karin; Todoric, Jelena; Bayer, Martina; Haschemi, Arvand; Puviindran, Vijitha; Tar, Krisztina; Orthofer, Michael; Neely, G Gregory; Dietzl, Georg; Manoukian, Armen; Funovics, Martin; Prager, Gerhard; Wagner, Oswald; Ferrandon, Dominique; Aberger, Fritz; Hui, Chi-chung; Esterbauer, Harald; Penninger, Josef M

2010-01-01

87

Target-assisted iterative screening reveals novel interactors for PSD95, Nedd4, Src, Abl and Crk proteins.  

PubMed

A new in vitro screening method has been developed and applied to a commercial phage-displayed cDNA library to search for novel protein-protein interactions. PDZ, WW and SH3 domains from PSD95, Nedd4, Src, Abl and Crk proteins were used as targets. 12 novel putative and 2 previously reported interactions were identified in test screens. The novel screening format, dubbed TAIS (target-assisted iterative screening), is discussed as an alternative platform to existing technologies for a pair-wise characterization of protein-protein interactions. PMID:12023804

Kurakin, Alexei; Bredesen, Dale

2002-06-01

88

Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select

Daniel Schöner; Markus Kalisch; Christian Leisner; Lukas Meier; Marc Sohrmann; Mahamadou Faty; Yves Barral; Matthias Peter; Wilhelm Gruissem; Peter Bühlmann

2008-01-01

89

A Suppressor/Enhancer Screen in Drosophila Reveals a Role for Wnt-Mediated Lipid Metabolism in Primordial Germ Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Wnt proteins comprise a large family of secreted ligands implicated in a wide variety of biological roles. WntD has previously been shown to inhibit the nuclear accumulation of Dorsal/NF-?B protein during embryonic dorsal/ventral patterning and the adult innate immune response, independent of the well-studied Armadillo/?-catenin pathway. In this paper, we present a novel phenotype for WntD mutant embryos, suggesting that this gene is involved in migration of primordial germ cells (PGC) to the embryonic gonad. Additionally, we describe a genetic suppressor/enhancer screen aimed at identifying genes required for WntD signal transduction, based on the previous observation that maternal overexpression of WntD results in lethally dorsalized embryos. Using an algorithm to narrow down our hits from the screen, we found two novel WntD signaling components: Fz4, a member of the Frizzled family, and the Drosophila Ceramide Kinase homolog, Dcerk. We show here that Dcerk and Dmulk (Drosophila Multi-substrate lipid kinase) redundantly mediate PGC migration. Our data are consistent with a model in which the activity of lipid phosphate phosphatases shapes a concentration gradient of ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), the product of Dcerk, allowing proper PGC migration.

McElwain, Mark A.; Ko, Dennis C.; Gordon, Michael D.; Fyrst, Henrik; Saba, Julie D.; Nusse, Roel

2011-01-01

90

A shRNA functional screen reveals Nme6 and Nme7 are crucial for embryonic stem cell renewal.  

PubMed

In contrast to the somatic cells, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by its immortalization ability, pluripotency, and oncogenicity. Revealing the underlying mechanism of ESC characteristics is important for the application of ESCs in clinical medicine. We performed systematic functional screen in mouse ESCs with 4,801 shRNAs that target 929 kinases and phosphatases. One hundred and thirty-two candidate genes that regulate both ESC expansion and stem cell marker expression were identified. Twenty-seven out of the 132 genes were regarded as most important since knockdown of each gene induces morphological changes from undifferentiated to differentiated state. Among the 27 genes, we chose nonmetastatic cell 6 (Nme6, also named as Nm23-H6) and nonmetastatic cell 7 (Nme7, also designated as Nm23-H7) to study first. Nme6 and Nme7 both belong to the members of nucleoside diphosphate kinase family. We demonstrate that Nme6 and Nme7 are important for the regulation of Oct4, Nanog, Klf4, c-Myc, telomerase, Dnmt3B, Sox2, and ERas expression. Either knockdown of Nme6 or Nme7 reduces the formation of embryoid body (EB) and teratoma. The overexpression of either Nme6 or Nme7 can rescue the stem cell marker expression and the EB formation in the absence of leukemia inhibiting factor. This implies the importance of Nme6 and Nme7 in ESC renewal. This finding not only pinpoints Nme6 or Nme7 can regulate several critical regulators in ESC renewal but also increases our understanding of the ESC renewal and oncogenesis. PMID:22899353

Wang, Chia-Hui; Ma, Nianhan; Lin, Yu-Tsen; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Hsiao, Michael; Lu, Frank Leigh; Yu, Ching-Chia; Chen, Shao-Yin; Lu, Jean

2012-10-01

91

Lethality of suicide methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To (a) quantify the lethality of suicide methods used in Australia in the period 1 July 1993 to 30 June 2003, (b) examine method-specific case fatality by age and sex, and (c) identify changes in case fatality during the study period. Methods: Two sources of data on episodes of self-harm in Australia were used, mortality and hospital separation data.

A A Elnour; J Harrison

2008-01-01

92

Non?Lethal Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of non?lethal weapons (NLWs) programmes, the technologies involved, and their present and future deployment. It also looks at the risks and dangers involved with their use, and comments on possible chemical and biological warfare treaty violations. Increasing interest is being paid by military and related research communities to NLWs, and pressure is being put on

Nick Lewer

1995-01-01

93

The effect of 3D hydrogel scaffold modulus on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization revealed by combinatorial screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells are known to sense and respond to the physical properties of their environment and those of tissue scaffolds. Optimizing these cell–material interactions is critical in tissue engineering. In this work, a simple and inexpensive combinatorial platform was developed to rapidly screen three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds and was applied to screen the effect of scaffold properties for tissue engineering of

Kaushik Chatterjee; Sheng Lin-Gibson; William E. Wallace; Sapun H. Parekh; Young Jong Lee; Marcus T. Cicerone; Marian F. Young; Carl G. Simon Jr.

2010-01-01

94

Virtual screening and experimental validation reveal novel small-molecule inhibitors of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions.  

PubMed

We report first non-covalent and exclusively extracellular inhibitors of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions identified by virtual screening. Optimization by crystal structure analysis and in vitro binding assays yielded compounds capable of disrupting the interaction of 14-3-3? with aminopeptidase N in a cellular assay. PMID:23939230

Thiel, Philipp; Röglin, Lars; Meissner, Nicole; Hennig, Sven; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Ottmann, Christian

2013-10-01

95

A screening method for identifying disruptions in interferon signaling reveals HCV NS3\\/4a disrupts Stat1 phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit the innate immune response to infection. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient screening method to identify viral proteins and their ability to block Jak–Stat signaling using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as an example. The 2FTGH cell assay system was used in combination with transient transfection of HCV proteins in this

Karla J. Helbig; Evelyn Yip; Erin M. McCartney; Nicholas S. Eyre; Michael R. Beard

2008-01-01

96

A Mosaic Genetic Screen Reveals Distinct Roles for trithorax and Polycomb Group Genes in Drosophila Eye Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wave of differentiation that traverses the Drosophila eye disc requires rapid transitions in gene expression that are controlled by a number of signaling molecules also required in other developmental processes. We have used a mosaic genetic screen to systematically identify autosomal genes required for the normal pattern of photoreceptor differentiation, independent of their requirements for viability. In addition to

Florence Janody; Jeffrey D. Lee; Neal Jahren; Dennis J. Hazelett; Aude Benlali; Grant I. Miura; Irena Draskovic; Jessica E. Treisman

2004-01-01

97

Preimplantation genetic screening reveals a high incidence of aneuploidy and mosaicism in embryos from young women undergoing IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the frequency of aneuploidy and mosaicism in embryos obtained from IVF patients aged <38 years, preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) was performed after biopsy of two blastomeres. Furthermore, the reliability of this diagnosis was assessed by performing reanalysis of the embryo on day 5. METHOD: The copy numbers of 10 chromosomes (1, 7, 13, 15, 16,

E. B. Baart; E. Martini; I. van den Berg; N. S. Macklon; H. Galjaard; B. C. J. M. Fauser; D. Van Opstal

2005-01-01

98

Population based prostate cancer screening in north Mexico reveals a high prevalence of aggressive tumors in detected cases  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate Cancer (PCa) is the second most frequent neoplasia in men worldwide. Previous reports suggest that the prevalence of PCa in Hispanic males is lower than in Africans (including communities with African ancestry) and Caucasians, but higher than in Asians. Despite these antecedents, there are few reports of open population screenings for PCa in Latin American communities. This article describes the results of three consecutive screenings in the urban population of Monterrey, Mexico. Methods After receiving approval from our University Hospital's Internal Review Board (IRB), the screening was announced by radio, television, and press, and it was addressed to male subjects over 40 years old in general. Subjects who consented to participate were evaluated at the primary care clinics of the University Health Program at UANL, in the Metropolitan area of Monterrey. Blood samples were taken from each subject for prostate specific antigen (PSA) determination; they underwent a digital rectal examination (DRE), and were subsequently interviewed to obtain demographic and urologic data. Based on the PSA (>4.0 ng/ml) and DRE results, subjects were appointed for transrectal biopsy (TRB). Results A total of 973 subjects were screened. Prostate biopsy was recommended to 125 men based on PSA values and DRE results, but it was performed in only 55 of them. 15 of these biopsied men were diagnosed with PCa, mostly with Gleason scores ? 7. Conclusion Our results reflect a low prevalence of PCa in general, but a high occurrence of high grade lesions (Gleason ? 7) among patients that resulted positive for PCa. This observation remarks the importance of the PCa screening programs in our Mexican community and the need for strict follow-up campaigns.

2009-01-01

99

Lethal protein produced in response to competition between sibling bacterial colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sibling Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacterial colonies grown on low-nutrient agar medium mutually inhibit growth through secre- tion of a lethal factor. Analysis of secretions reveals the presence of subtilisin (a protease) and a 12 kDa protein, termed sibling lethal factor (Slf). Purified subtilisin promotes the growth and expan- sion of P. dendritiformis colonies, whereas Slf is lethal and lyses P. dendritiformis

A. Be'Er; G. Ariel; O. Kalisman; Y. Helman; A. Sirota-Madi; H. P. Zhang; E. L. Florin; S. M. Payne; E. Ben-Jacob; H. L. Swinney

2010-01-01

100

A modifier screen in the Drosophila eye reveals that aPKC interacts with Glued during central synapse formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Glued gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the homologue of the vertebrate p150Glued subunit of dynactin. The Glued1 mutation compromises the dynein-dynactin retrograde motor complex and causes disruptions to the adult eye and the CNS, including sensory neurons and the formation of the giant fiber system neural circuit. RESULTS: We performed a 2-stage genetic screen to identify mutations that

Lisha Ma; Louise A Johns; Marcus J Allen

2009-01-01

101

Genetic Screening Reveals an Essential Role of p27kip1 in Restriction of Breast Cancer Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic changes and mechanisms underlying the prog- ression of estrogen-dependent breast cancers to estrogen- independent, antiestrogen-resistant, and metastatic breast cancers are unclear despite being a major problem in endocrine therapy. To identify genes responsible for this progression, we carried out a genetic screening by an enhanced retroviral mutagen (ERM)-mediated random mutagenesis in the estrogen-dependent T47D breast cancer cells. We

Yuhui Yuan; Li Qin; Ray-Chang Wu; Paola Mussi; Suoling Zhou; Zhou Songyang; Jianming Xu

2007-01-01

102

A systematic RNAi screen reveals involvement of endocytic pathway in neuronal dysfunction in  -synuclein transgenic C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations or multiplications in a-synuclein gene cause familial forms of Parkinson disease or dementia with Lewy bodies (LB), and the deposition of wild-type a-synuclein as LB occurs as a hallmark lesion of these dis- orders, collectively referred to as synucleinopathies, implicating a-synuclein in the pathogenesis of synuclei- nopathy. To identify modifier genes of a-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity, we conducted an RNAi screen

Tomoki Kuwahara; Akihiko Koyama; Shingo Koyama; Sawako Yoshina; Chang-Hong Ren; Takeo Kato; Shohei Mitani; Takeshi Iwatsubo

2008-01-01

103

Tasers - Less than Lethal!  

PubMed Central

We report a case of potentially lethal injury associated with the use of Taser. A 42-year-old man was stopped by police for potential detention. He held a large carving knife over his epigasrium threatening to stab himself.With a view to achieving immobilisation, a Taser gun was used. On activation of the Taser, the subject suffered a 7-cm wide and 10-cm deep stab injury to the upper abdomen. In this case, activation of the Taser resulted in the contraction of skeletal muscles, flexors more intensely than extensors, resulting in the stab injury.

Sharma, Abiram; Theivacumar, Nada S; Souka, Hesham M

2009-01-01

104

A cell protection screen reveals potent inhibitors of multiple stages of the hepatitis C virus life cycle  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle involves multiple steps, but most current drug candidates target only viral replication. The inability to systematically discover inhibitors targeting multiple steps of the HCV life cycle has hampered antiviral development. We present a simple screen for HCV antivirals based on the alleviation of HCV-mediated cytopathic effect in an engineered cell line—n4mBid. This approach obviates the need for a secondary screen to avoid cytotoxic false-positive hits. Application of our screen to 1280 compounds, many in clinical trials or approved for therapeutic use, yielded >200 hits. Of the 55 leading hits, 47 inhibited one or more aspects of the HCV life cycle by >40%. Six compounds blocked HCV entry to levels similar to an antibody (JS-81) targeting the HCV entry receptor CD81. Seven hits inhibited HCV replication and/or infectious virus production by >100-fold, with one (quinidine) inhibiting infectious virus production by 450-fold relative to HCV replication levels. This approach is simple and inexpensive and should enable the rapid discovery of new classes of HCV life cycle inhibitors.

Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Simeon, Rudo L.; Rice, Charles M.; Chen, Zhilei

2010-01-01

105

Proteomic screening of variola virus reveals a unique NF-kappaB inhibitor that is highly conserved among pathogenic orthopoxviruses.  

PubMed

Identification of the binary interactions between viral and host proteins has become a valuable tool for investigating viral tropism and pathogenesis. Here, we present the first systematic protein interaction screening of the unique variola virus proteome by using yeast 2-hybrid screening against a variety of human cDNA libraries. Several protein-protein interactions were identified, including an interaction between variola G1R, an ankryin/F-box containing protein, and human nuclear factor kappa-B1 (NF-kappaB1)/p105. This represents the first direct interaction between a pathogen-encoded protein and NF-kappaB1/p105. Orthologs of G1R are present in a variety of pathogenic orthopoxviruses, but not in vaccinia virus, and expression of any one of these viral proteins blocks NF-kappaB signaling in human cells. Thus, proteomic screening of variola virus has the potential to uncover modulators of the human innate antiviral responses. PMID:19451633

Mohamed, Mohamed R; Rahman, Masmudur M; Lanchbury, Jerry S; Shattuck, Donna; Neff, Chris; Dufford, Max; van Buuren, Nick; Fagan, Katharine; Barry, Michele; Smith, Scott; Damon, Inger; McFadden, Grant

2009-05-18

106

A genome-wide siRNA screen reveals positive and negative regulators of the NOD2 and NF-?B signaling pathways.  

PubMed

The cytoplasmic receptor NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) senses peptidoglycan fragments and triggers host defense pathways, including activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling, which lead to inflammatory immune responses. Dysregulation of NOD2 signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. We used a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to identify regulators of the NOD2 signaling pathway. Several genes associated with Crohn's disease risk were identified in the screen. A comparison of candidates from this screen with other "omics" data sets revealed interconnected networks of genes implicated in NF-?B signaling, thus supporting a role for NOD2 and NF-?B pathways in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Many of these regulators were validated in secondary assays, such as measurement of interleukin-8 secretion, which is partially dependent on NF-?B. Knockdown of putative regulators in human embryonic kidney 293 cells followed by stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-? revealed that most of the genes identified were general regulators of NF-?B signaling. Overall, the genes identified here provide a resource to facilitate the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate NOD2- and NF-?B-mediated inflammation. PMID:23322906

Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Franchi, Luigi; Kim, Yun-Gi; McDonald, Christine; Sartor, Maureen A; Núñez, Gabriel

2013-01-15

107

Lethal intrauterine fetal trauma.  

PubMed

Eight cases of lethal intrauterine fetal trauma secondary to motor vehicle accidents are retrospectively studied. In each instance the mother survived, usually sustaining only minor injuries. Some degree of placental abruption or infarction occurred in each case, but fetal abnormalities were more varied. Significant fetal injuries were limited to the head and included two instances of skull fracture associated with cortical lacerations and contusions. Six of the eight fetuses were stillborn, and the other two died during the first postnatal day. At least five of the mothers were unrestrained at the time of the accident, three of whom experienced abdominal impact against the steering wheel but no external abdominal injuries. Although two mothers were wearing seat belts, in only one instance could the seat belt be implicated in contributing to the fetal injury. This study shows that lethal placental or direct fetal injury can occur even though maternal injuries are minor or insignificant. The findings also support current recommendations for use of three-point restraints. PMID:3407709

Stafford, P A; Biddinger, P W; Zumwalt, R E

1988-08-01

108

New Connections across Pathways and Cellular Processes: Industrialized Mutant Screening Reveals Novel Associations between Diverse Phenotypes in Arabidopsis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

In traditional mutant screening approaches, genetic variants are tested for one or a small number of phenotypes. Once bona fide variants are identified, they are typically subjected to a limited number of secondary phenotypic screens. Although this approach is excellent at finding genes involved in specific biological processes, the lack of wide and systematic interrogation of phenotype limits the ability to detect broader syndromes and connections between genes and phenotypes. It could also prevent detection of the primary phenotype of a mutant. As part of a systems biology approach to understand plastid function, large numbers of Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous T-DNA lines are being screened with parallel morphological, physiological, and chemical phenotypic assays (www.plastid.msu.edu). To refine our approaches and validate the use of this high-throughput screening approach for understanding gene function and functional networks, approximately 100 wild-type plants and 13 known mutants representing a variety of phenotypes were analyzed by a broad range of assays including metabolite profiling, morphological analysis, and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics. Data analysis using a variety of statistical approaches showed that such industrial approaches can reliably identify plant mutant phenotypes. More significantly, the study uncovered previously unreported phenotypes for these well-characterized mutants and unexpected associations between different physiological processes, demonstrating that this approach has strong advantages over traditional mutant screening approaches. Analysis of wild-type plants revealed hundreds of statistically robust phenotypic correlations, including metabolites that are not known to share direct biosynthetic origins, raising the possibility that these metabolic pathways have closer relationships than is commonly suspected.

Lu, Yan; Savage, Linda J.; Ajjawi, Imad; Imre, Kathleen M.; Yoder, David W.; Benning, Christoph; DellaPenna, Dean; Ohlrogge, John B.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.; Weber, Andreas P.; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Last, Robert L.

2008-01-01

109

Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells from aminoglycosides and cisplatin.  

PubMed

Loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear accounts for many hearing loss and balance disorders. Several beneficial pharmaceutical drugs cause hair cell death as a side effect. These include aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin, and several cancer chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Discovering new compounds that protect mammalian hair cells from toxic insults is experimentally difficult because of the inaccessibility of the inner ear. We used the zebrafish lateral line sensory system as an in vivo screening platform to survey a library of FDA-approved pharmaceuticals for compounds that protect hair cells from neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin and cisplatin. Ten compounds were identified that provide protection from at least two of the four toxins. The resulting compounds fall into several drug classes, including serotonin and dopamine-modulating drugs, adrenergic receptor ligands, and estrogen receptor modulators. The protective compounds show different effects against the different toxins, supporting the idea that each toxin causes hair cell death by distinct, but partially overlapping, mechanisms. Furthermore, some compounds from the same drug classes had different protective properties, suggesting that they might not prevent hair cell death by their known target mechanisms. Some protective compounds blocked gentamicin uptake into hair cells, suggesting that they may block mechanotransduction or other routes of entry. The protective compounds identified in our screen will provide a starting point for studies in mammals as well as further research discovering the cellular signaling pathways that trigger hair cell death. PMID:22967486

Vlasits, Anna L; Simon, Julian A; Raible, David W; Rubel, Edwin W; Owens, Kelly N

2012-08-31

110

Screening for Active Small Molecules in Mitochondrial Complex I Deficient Patient's Fibroblasts, Reveals AICAR as the Most Beneficial Compound  

PubMed Central

Congenital deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (CI) is a common defect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite major advances in the biochemical and molecular diagnostics and the deciphering of CI structure, function assembly and pathomechanism, there is currently no satisfactory cure for patients with mitochondrial complex I defects. Small molecules provide one feasible therapeutic option, however their use has not been systematically evaluated using a standardized experimental system. In order to evaluate potentially therapeutic compounds, we set up a relatively simple system measuring different parameters using only a small amount of patient's fibroblasts, in glucose free medium, where growth is highly OXPOS dependent. Ten different compounds were screened using fibroblasts derived from seven CI patients, harboring different mutations. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) was found to be the most beneficial compound improving growth and ATP content while decreasing ROS production. AICAR also increased mitochondrial biogenesis without altering mitochondrial membrane potential (??). Fluorescence microscopy data supported increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Other compounds such as; bezafibrate and oltipraz were rated as favorable while polyphenolic phytochemicals (resverastrol, grape seed extract, genistein and epigallocatechin gallate) were found not significant or detrimental. Although the results have to be verified by more thorough investigation of additional OXPHOS parameters, preliminary rapid screening of potential therapeutic compounds in individual patient's fibroblasts could direct and advance personalized medical treatment.

Weissman, Sarah; Link, Gabriela; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Saada, Ann

2011-01-01

111

RNAi Screen of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Host Factors Reveals a Role for IRE1? in Supporting Brucella Replication  

PubMed Central

Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause brucellosis, a global zoonosis of profound importance. Although recent studies have demonstrated that Brucella spp. replicate within an intracellular compartment that contains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins, the molecular mechanisms by which the pathogen secures this replicative niche remain obscure. Here, we address this issue by exploiting Drosophila S2 cells and RNA interference (RNAi) technology to develop a genetically tractable system that recapitulates critical aspects of mammalian cell infection. After validating this system by demonstrating a shared requirement for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activities in supporting Brucella infection in both host cell systems, we performed an RNAi screen of 240 genes, including 110 ER-associated genes, for molecules that mediate bacterial interactions with the ER. We uncovered 52 evolutionarily conserved host factors that, when depleted, inhibited or increased Brucella infection. Strikingly, 29 of these factors had not been previously suggested to support bacterial infection of host cells. The most intriguing of these was inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), a transmembrane kinase that regulates the eukaryotic unfolded protein response (UPR). We employed IRE1??/? murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to demonstrate a role for this protein in supporting Brucella infection of mammalian cells, and thereby, validated the utility of the Drosophila S2 cell system for uncovering novel Brucella host factors. Finally, we propose a model in which IRE1?, and other ER-associated genes uncovered in our screen, mediate Brucella replication by promoting autophagosome biogenesis.

Qin, Qing-Ming; Pei, Jianwu; Ancona, Veronica; Shaw, Brian D.; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

2008-01-01

112

A Genomewide Screen for Tolerance to Cationic Drugs Reveals Genes Important for Potassium Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ? †  

PubMed Central

Potassium homeostasis is crucial for living cells. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the uptake of potassium is driven by the electrochemical gradient generated by the Pma1 H+-ATPase, and this process represents a major consumer of the gradient. We considered that any mutation resulting in an alteration of the electrochemical gradient could give rise to anomalous sensitivity to any cationic drug independently of its toxicity mechanism. Here, we describe a genomewide screen for mutants that present altered tolerance to hygromycin B, spermine, and tetramethylammonium. Two hundred twenty-six mutant strains displayed altered tolerance to all three drugs (202 hypersensitive and 24 hypertolerant), and more than 50% presented a strong or moderate growth defect at a limiting potassium concentration (1 mM). Functional groups such as protein kinases and phosphatases, intracellular trafficking, transcription, or cell cycle and DNA processing were enriched. Essentially, our screen has identified a substantial number of genes that were not previously described to play a direct or indirect role in potassium homeostasis. A subset of 27 representative mutants were selected and subjected to diverse biochemical tests that, in some cases, allowed us to postulate the basis for the observed phenotypes.

Barreto, Lina; Canadell, David; Petrezselyova, Silvia; Navarrete, Clara; Maresova, Lydie; Perez-Valle, Jorge; Herrera, Rito; Olier, Ivan; Giraldo, Jesus; Sychrova, Hana; Yenush, Lynne; Ramos, Jose; Arino, Joaquin

2011-01-01

113

Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A  

PubMed Central

To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3? splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies.

Hubert, Christopher G.; Bradley, Robert K.; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M.; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J.; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J.; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M.; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M.; Paddison, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

114

Genome-wide siRNA screen reveals amino acid starvation-induced autophagy requires SCOC and WAC.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a catabolic process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered and transported by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation, enabling recycling of these components and providing cells with amino acids during starvation. It is a highly regulated process and its deregulation contributes to multiple diseases. Despite its importance in cell homeostasis, autophagy is not fully understood. To find new proteins that modulate starvation-induced autophagy, we performed a genome-wide siRNA screen in a stable human cell line expressing GFP-LC3, the marker-protein for autophagosomes. Using stringent validation criteria, our screen identified nine novel autophagy regulators. Among the hits required for autophagosome formation are SCOC (short coiled-coil protein), a Golgi protein, which interacts with fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 (FEZ1), an ULK1-binding protein. SCOC forms a starvation-sensitive trimeric complex with UVRAG (UV radiation resistance associated gene) and FEZ1 and may regulate ULK1 and Beclin 1 complex activities. A second candidate WAC is required for starvation-induced autophagy but also acts as a potential negative regulator of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The identification of these novel regulatory proteins with diverse functions in autophagy contributes towards a fuller understanding of autophagosome formation. PMID:22354037

McKnight, Nicole C; Jefferies, Harold B J; Alemu, Endalkachew A; Saunders, Rebecca E; Howell, Michael; Johansen, Terje; Tooze, Sharon A

2012-02-21

115

A screening method for identifying disruptions in interferon signaling reveals HCV NS3/4a disrupts Stat-1 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit the innate immune response to infection. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient screening method to identify viral proteins and their ability to block Jak-Stat signaling using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as an example. The 2FTGH cell assay system was used in combination with transient transfection of HCV proteins in this study. Using 1000U/ml IFN and 30mM 6-TG to treat 2FTGH cells, it was established that transient protein expression in this cell system yielded 39% and 0% cell survival for the positive (HPV E7) and negative controls (GFP expression) respectively. Transient expression of HCV Core-p7 resulted in 22% cell survival, consistent with previous reports, while expression of the HCV serine protease NS3/4a resulted in 54% cell survival. NS3/4a was subsequently shown to inhibit phosphorylation of Stat-1 at the serine residue 727. Conclusion: the 2FTGH cell assay system can be adapted for transient screening to examine the ability of viral proteins or other potential inhibitors to block the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. We show that HCV NS3/4a is able to block this pathway at the stage of Stat-1 serine 727 phosphorylation. PMID:18190974

Helbig, Karla J; Yip, Evelyn; McCartney, Erin M; Eyre, Nicholas S; Beard, Michael R

2007-12-26

116

Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A.  

PubMed

To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3' splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies. PMID:23651857

Hubert, Christopher G; Bradley, Robert K; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M; Paddison, Patrick J

2013-05-01

117

An unbiased in vivo screen reveals multiple transcription factors that control HPV E6-regulated hTERT in keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Activation of telomerase by human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 is a critical step for cell immortalization and transformation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs). Multiple transcription factors have been identified as being involved in E6-induced hTERT expression. Here, we adapted an unbiased in vivo screen using a LacO-LacI system in human cells to discover hTERT promoter-interacting regulators. This approach allowed us to identify a novel hTERT repressor, Maz, which bound the hTERT promoter. E6 expression reduced Maz binding and correspondingly increased Sp1 binding at the hTERT promoter. Knockdown of Maz further increased histone acetylation, as well as hTERT expression in the presence of E6. Overall, these data indicate the utility of a novel screen for promoter-interacting and transcription-regulating proteins. These data also highlight multiple factors that normally regulate hTERT repression in HFKs, and therefore are targeted by E6 for hTERT expression. PMID:24074563

Xu, Mei; Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A; Grandori, Carla; Galloway, Denise A

2013-08-08

118

Harnessing synthetic lethal interactions in anticancer drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique features of tumours that can be exploited by targeted therapies are a key focus of current cancer research. One such approach is known as synthetic lethality screening, which involves searching for genetic interactions of two mutations whereby the presence of either mutation alone has no effect on cell viability but the combination of the two mutations results in cell

Denise A. Chan; Amato J. Giaccia

2011-01-01

119

Escherichia coli genes that reduce the lethal effects of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence of antimicrobial resistance requires the development of new compounds and\\/or enhancers of existing compounds. Genes that protect against the lethal effects of antibiotic stress are potential targets of enhancers. To distinguish such genes from those involved in drug uptake and efflux, a new susceptibility screen is required. RESULTS: Transposon (Tn5)-mediated mutagenesis was used to create a

Xiulin Han; Angella Dorsey-Oresto; Muhammad Malik; Jian-Ying Wang; Karl Drlica; Xilin Zhao; Tao Lu

2010-01-01

120

A mosaic genetic screen reveals distinct roles for trithorax and polycomb group genes in Drosophila eye development.  

PubMed Central

The wave of differentiation that traverses the Drosophila eye disc requires rapid transitions in gene expression that are controlled by a number of signaling molecules also required in other developmental processes. We have used a mosaic genetic screen to systematically identify autosomal genes required for the normal pattern of photoreceptor differentiation, independent of their requirements for viability. In addition to genes known to be important for eye development and to known and novel components of the Hedgehog, Decapentaplegic, Wingless, Epidermal growth factor receptor, and Notch signaling pathways, we identified several members of the Polycomb and trithorax classes of genes encoding general transcriptional regulators. Mutations in these genes disrupt the transitions between zones along the anterior-posterior axis of the eye disc that express different combinations of transcription factors. Different trithorax group genes have very different mutant phenotypes, indicating that target genes differ in their requirements for chromatin remodeling, histone modification, and coactivation factors.

Janody, Florence; Lee, Jeffrey D; Jahren, Neal; Hazelett, Dennis J; Benlali, Aude; Miura, Grant I; Draskovic, Irena; Treisman, Jessica E

2004-01-01

121

Carotenoid-based phenotypic screen of the yeast deletion collection reveals new genes with roles in isoprenoid production.  

PubMed

Beside their essential cellular functions, isoprenoids have value as pharmaceuticals, nutriceuticals, pesticides, and fuel alternatives. Engineering microorganisms for production of isoprenoids is relatively easy, sustainable, and cost effective in comparison to chemical synthesis or extraction from natural producers. We introduced genes encoding carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes into the haploid yeast deletion collection to identify gene deletions that improved isoprenoid production. Deletions that showed significant improvement in carotenoid production were further screened for production of bisabolene, an isoprenoid alternative to petroleum-derived diesel. Combining those deletions with other mevalonate pathway modifications increased production of bisabolene from 40mg/L to 800mg/L in shake-flask cultures. In a fermentation process, this engineered strain produced 5.2g/L of bisabolene. PMID:22918085

Özayd?n, Bilge; Burd, Helcio; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D

2012-08-17

122

Atypical recognition consensus of CIN85/SETA/Ruk SH3 domains revealed by target-assisted iterative screening.  

PubMed

Target-assisted iterative screening applied to random peptide libraries unveiled a novel and atypical recognition consensus shared by CIN85/SETA/Ruk SH3 domains, PX(P/A)XXR. Confirmed by mutagenesis and in vitro binding experiments, the novel consensus allowed for the accurate mapping of CIN85 SH3 binding sites within known CIN85 interactors, c-Cbl, BLNK, Cbl-b, AIP1/Alix, SB1, and CD2 proteins, as well as the prediction of CIN85 novel-interacting partners in protein databases. Synaptojanin 1, PAK2, ZO-2, and TAFII70, which contain CIN85 SH3 recognition consensus sites, were selectively precipitated from mouse brain lysates by CIN85 SH3 domains in glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments. A direct interaction of synaptojanin 1 and PAK2 with CIN85 SH3 domains was confirmed by Far Western blotting. PMID:12829691

Kurakin, Alexei V; Wu, Susan; Bredesen, Dale E

2003-06-26

123

Genomic library screening for viruses from the human dental plaque revealed pathogen-specific lytic phage sequences.  

PubMed

Bacterial pathogenesis presents an astounding arsenal of virulence factors that allow them to conquer many different niches throughout the course of infection. Principally fascinating is the fact that some bacterial species are able to induce different diseases by expression of different combinations of virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies aiming at screening for the presence of bacteriophages in humans have been limited. Such screening procedures would eventually lead to identification of phage-encoded properties that impart increased bacterial fitness and/or virulence in a particular niche, and hence, would potentially be used to reverse the course of bacterial infections. As the human oral cavity represents a rich and dynamic ecosystem for several upper respiratory tract pathogens. However, little is known about virus diversity in human dental plaque which is an important reservoir. We applied the culture-independent approach to characterize virus diversity in human dental plaque making a library from a virus DNA fraction amplified using a multiple displacement method and sequenced 80 clones. The resulting sequence showed 44% significant identities to GenBank databases by TBLASTX analysis. TBLAST homology comparisons showed that 66% was viral; 18% eukarya; 10% bacterial; 6% mobile elements. These sequences were sorted into 6 contigs and 45 single sequences in which 4 contigs and a single sequence showed significant identity to a small region of a putative prophage in the Corynebacterium diphtheria genome. These findings interestingly highlight the uniqueness of over half of the sequences, whilst the dominance of a pathogen-specific prophage sequences imply their role in virulence. PMID:21969025

Al-Jarbou, Ahmed Nasser

2011-10-04

124

A human genome-wide screen for regulators of clathrin-coated vesicle formation reveals an unexpected role for the V-ATPase.  

PubMed

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is essential for a wide range of cellular functions. We used a multi-step siRNA-based screening strategy to identify regulators of the first step in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) at the plasma membrane. A primary genome-wide screen identified 334 hits that caused accumulation of CCV cargo on the cell surface. A secondary screen identified 92 hits that inhibited cargo uptake and/or altered the morphology of clathrin-coated structures. The hits include components of four functional complexes: coat proteins, V-ATPase subunits, spliceosome-associated proteins and acetyltransferase subunits. Electron microscopy revealed that V-ATPase depletion caused the cell to form aberrant non-constricted clathrin-coated structures at the plasma membrane. The V-ATPase-knockdown phenotype was rescued by addition of exogenous cholesterol, indicating that the knockdown blocks clathrin-mediated endocytosis by preventing cholesterol from recycling from endosomes back to the plasma membrane. PMID:23263279

Kozik, Patrycja; Hodson, Nicola A; Sahlender, Daniela A; Simecek, Nikol; Soromani, Christina; Wu, Jiahua; Collinson, Lucy M; Robinson, Margaret S

2013-01-01

125

Less lethal technology: medical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Less lethal weapons have become a critical tool for law enforcement when confronting dangerous, combative individuals in the field. The purpose of this paper is to review the medical aspects and implications of three different types of less lethal weapons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper conducted a comprehensive medical literature review on blunt projectiles, irritant sprays including oleoresin capsicum

Gary M. Vilke; Theodore C. Chan

2007-01-01

126

Dipoid-Specific Genome Stability Genes of S. cerevisiae: Genomic Screen Reveals Haploidization as an Escape from Persisting DNA Rearrangement Stress  

PubMed Central

Maintaining a stable genome is one of the most important tasks of every living cell and the mechanisms ensuring it are similar in all of them. The events leading to changes in DNA sequence (mutations) in diploid cells occur one to two orders of magnitude more frequently than in haploid cells. The majority of those events lead to loss of heterozygosity at the mutagenesis marker, thus diploid-specific genome stability mechanisms can be anticipated. In a new global screen for spontaneous loss of function at heterozygous forward mutagenesis marker locus, employing three different mutagenesis markers, we selected genes whose deletion causes genetic instability in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. We have found numerous genes connected with DNA replication and repair, remodeling of chromatin, cell cycle control, stress response, and in particular the structural maintenance of chromosome complexes. We have also identified 59 uncharacterized or dubious ORFs, which show the genome instability phenotype when deleted. For one of the strongest mutators revealed in our screen, ctf18?/ctf18? the genome instability manifests as a tendency to lose the whole set of chromosomes. We postulate that this phenomenon might diminish the devastating effects of DNA rearrangements, thereby increasing the cell's chances of surviving stressful conditions. We believe that numerous new genes implicated in genome maintenance, together with newly discovered phenomenon of ploidy reduction, will help revealing novel molecular processes involved in the genome stability of diploid cells. They also provide the clues in the quest for new therapeutic targets to cure human genome instability-related diseases.

Alabrudzinska, Malgorzata; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna

2011-01-01

127

Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals disease-associated genes that are common to Hedgehog and Wnt signaling.  

PubMed

The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signal transduction pathways are master regulators of embryogenesis and tissue renewal and represent anticancer therapeutic targets. Using genome-wide RNA interference screening in murine cultured cells, we established previously unknown associations between these signaling pathways and genes linked to developmental malformations, diseases of premature tissue degeneration, and cancer. We identified functions in both pathways for the multitasking kinase Stk11 (also known as Lkb1), a tumor suppressor implicated in lung and cervical cancers. We found that Stk11 loss resulted in disassembly of the primary cilium, a cellular organizing center for Hh pathway components, thus dampening Hh signaling. Loss of Stk11 also induced aberrant signaling through the Wnt pathway. Chemicals that targeted the Wnt acyltransferase Porcupine or that restored primary cilia length by inhibiting the tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 (histone deacetylase 6) countered deviant pathway activities driven by Stk11 loss. Our study demonstrates that Stk11 is a critical mediator in both the Hh and the Wnt pathways, and our approach provides a platform to support the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:21266715

Jacob, Leni S; Wu, Xiaofeng; Dodge, Michael E; Fan, Chih-Wei; Kulak, Ozlem; Chen, Baozhi; Tang, Wei; Wang, Baolin; Amatruda, James F; Lum, Lawrence

2011-01-25

128

Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Reveals Disease-Associated Genes That Are Common to Hedgehog and Wnt Signaling  

PubMed Central

The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signal transduction pathways are master regulators of embryogenesis and tissue renewal and represent anticancer therapeutic targets. Using genome-wide RNA interference screening in murine cultured cells, we established previously unknown associations between these signaling pathways and genes linked to developmental malformations, diseases of premature tissue degeneration, and cancer. We identified functions in both pathways for the multitasking kinase Stk11 (also known as Lkb1), a tumor suppressor implicated in lung and cervical cancers. We found that Stk11 loss resulted in disassembly of the primary cilium, a cellular organizing center for Hh pathway components, thus dampening Hh signaling. Loss of Stk11 also induced aberrant signaling through the Wnt pathway. Chemicals that targeted the Wnt acyltransferase Porcupine or that restored primary cilia length by inhibiting the tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 (histone deacetylase 6) countered deviant pathway activities driven by Stk11 loss. Our study demonstrates that Stk11 is a critical mediator in both the Hh and the Wnt pathways, and our approach provides a platform to support the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

Jacob, Leni S.; Wu, Xiaofeng; Dodge, Michael E.; Fan, Chih-Wei; Kulak, Ozlem; Chen, Baozhi; Tang, Wei; Wang, Baolin; Amatruda, James F.; Lum, Lawrence

2013-01-01

129

Mutational screening of the USH2A gene in Spanish USH patients reveals 23 novel pathogenic mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Usher Syndrome type II (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by moderate to severe hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Among the three genes implicated, mutations in the USH2A gene account for 74-90% of the USH2 cases. Methods To identify the genetic cause of the disease and determine the frequency of USH2A mutations in a cohort of 88 unrelated USH Spanish patients, we carried out a mutation screening of the 72 coding exons of this gene by direct sequencing. Moreover, we performed functional minigene studies for those changes that were predicted to affect splicing. Results As a result, a total of 144 DNA sequence variants were identified. Based upon previous studies, allele frequencies, segregation analysis, bioinformatics' predictions and in vitro experiments, 37 variants (23 of them novel) were classified as pathogenic mutations. Conclusions This report provide a wide spectrum of USH2A mutations and clinical features, including atypical Usher syndrome phenotypes resembling Usher syndrome type I. Considering only the patients clearly diagnosed with Usher syndrome type II, and results obtained in this and previous studies, we can state that mutations in USH2A are responsible for 76.1% of USH2 disease in patients of Spanish origin.

2011-01-01

130

A Targeted Glycan-Related Gene Screen Reveals Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Sulfation Regulates WNT and BMP Trans-Synaptic Signaling  

PubMed Central

A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st) and sulfatase (sulf1), which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG) sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st) and increased (sulf1) neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg) and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb) ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects.

Dani, Neil; Nahm, Minyeop; Lee, Seungbok; Broadie, Kendal

2012-01-01

131

A mutant screen reveals RNase E as a silencer of group II intron retromobility in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Group II introns are mobile retroelements that invade their hosts. The Lactococcus lactis group II intron recruits cellular polymerases, nucleases, and DNA ligase to complete the retromobility process in Escherichia coli. Here we describe a genetic screen with a Tn5 transposon library to identify other E. coli functions involved in retromobility of the L. lactis LtrB intron. Thirteen disruptions that reproducibly resulted in increased or decreased retrohoming levels into the E. coli chromosome were isolated. These functions were classified as factors involved in RNA processing, DNA replication, energy metabolism, and global regulation. Here we characterize a novel mutant in the rne promoter region, which regulates RNase E expression. Retrohoming and retrotransposition levels are elevated in the rne?Tn5 mutant. The stimulatory effect of the mutation on retromobility results from intron RNA accumulation in the RNase E mutant. These results suggest that RNase E, which is the central component of the RNA degradosome, could regulate retrohoming levels in response to cellular physiology.

Coros, Colin J.; Piazza, Carol Lyn; Chalamcharla, Venkata R.; Belfort, Marlene

2008-01-01

132

A targeted glycan-related gene screen reveals heparan sulfate proteoglycan sulfation regulates WNT and BMP trans-synaptic signaling.  

PubMed

A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st) and sulfatase (sulf1), which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG) sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st) and increased (sulf1) neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg) and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb) ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects. PMID:23144627

Dani, Neil; Nahm, Minyeop; Lee, Seungbok; Broadie, Kendal

2012-11-08

133

RNAi screening reveals requirement for host cell secretory pathway in infection by diverse families of negative-strand RNA viruses  

PubMed Central

Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses comprise many pathogens that cause serious diseases in humans and animals. Despite their clinical importance, little is known about the host factors required for their infection. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic NS RNA virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, we conducted a human genome-wide siRNA screen and identified 72 host genes required for viral infection. Many of these identified genes were also required for infection by two other NS RNA viruses, the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus of the Arenaviridae family and human parainfluenza virus type 3 of the Paramyxoviridae family. Genes affecting different stages of VSV infection, such as entry/uncoating, gene expression, and assembly/release, were identified. Depletion of the proteins of the coatomer complex I or its upstream effectors ARF1 or GBF1 led to detection of reduced levels of VSV RNA. Coatomer complex I was also required for infection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3. These results highlight the evolutionarily conserved requirements for gene expression of diverse families of NS RNA viruses and demonstrate the involvement of host cell secretory pathway in the process.

Panda, Debasis; Das, Anshuman; Dinh, Phat X.; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Nayak, Debasis; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Pearson, James L.; Thompson, Jesse; Kelly, David L.; Ladunga, Istvan; Pattnaik, Asit K.

2011-01-01

134

RNAi screen in apoptotic cancer cell-stimulated human macrophages reveals co-regulation of IL-6/IL-10 expression.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are a major supportive component within neoplasms and are characterized by a plethora of functions that facilitate tumor outgrowth. Mechanisms of macrophage attraction and differentiation to a tumor-promoting phenotype, defined among others by distinct cytokine patterns such as pronounced interleukin (IL-10) production, are ill-defined. We aimed to identify signaling pathways that contribute to the generation of TAM-like macrophages using an adenoviral RNAi-based approach. Primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were stimulated with apoptotic tumor cell supernatants (ACM) to induce a TAM-like phenotype, characterized by secretion of IL-10, IL-6, IL-8 but repression of IL-12. For the high-throughput screen, macrophages were transduced with 8495 constructs of the adenoviral shRNA SilenceSelect(®) library of Galapagos BV, which aims at identifying druggable targets. We identified 96 genes involved in IL-10 production in response to ACM and observed a pronounced cluster of targets regulating both IL-10 and IL-6. Validation of five targets within the IL-10/IL-6 cluster was performed using siRNA or pharmacological inhibitors in human primary macrophages. Among those, interleukin 4 receptor-? and cannabinoid receptor 2 were confirmed as regulators of IL-10 and IL-6 secretion by ACM-stimulated macrophages. Our approach characterizes cellular functions of transfection-resistant, highly plastic and versatile cells and identifies novel targets involved in the generation of a TAM-like phenotype in human macrophages. PMID:22445721

Ley, Stephanie; Weigert, Andreas; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Mille-Baker, Blandine; Janssen, Richard A J; Brüne, Bernhard

2012-02-02

135

Multi-Mycotoxin Screening Reveals the Occurrence of 139 Different Secondary Metabolites in Feed and Feed Ingredients  

PubMed Central

The development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/mass spectrometry (MS) methods for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a broad spectrum of mycotoxins has facilitated the screening of a larger number of samples for contamination with a wide array of less well-known “emerging” mycotoxins and other metabolites. In this study, 83 samples of feed and feed raw materials were analysed. All of them were found to contain seven to 69 metabolites. The total number of detected metabolites amounts to 139. Fusarium mycotoxins were most common, but a number of Alternaria toxins also occurred very often. Furthermore, two so-called masked mycotoxins (i.e., mycotoxin conjugates), namely deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (75% positives) and zearalenone-4-sulfate (49% positives), were frequently detected. Although the observed median concentrations of the individual analytes were generally in the low ?g/kg range, evaluating the toxicological potential of a given sample is difficult. Toxicity data on less well-known mycotoxins and other detected metabolites are notoriously scarce, as an overview on the available information on the most commonly detected metabolites shows. Besides, the possible synergistic effects of co-occurring substances have to be considered.

Streit, Elisabeth; Schwab, Christina; Sulyok, Michael; Naehrer, Karin; Krska, Rudolf; Schatzmayr, Gerd

2013-01-01

136

Minimizing over-diagnosis in lung cancer screening.  

PubMed

Overestimation of the frequency and impact of over-diagnosis bias in lung cancer screening has contributed to long delays in implementation of lung cancer screening programs. Literature review reveals little evidence of substantial numbers of over-diagnosed non-lethal lung cancer. There is now strong evidence that lung cancers that would not cause symptoms or kill during normal anticipated survival are uncommon and mostly limited to in situ adenocarcinomas, identifiable as CT non-solid nodules. Prevention of overtreatment is possible within well-constructed diagnostic algorithms. J. Surg. Oncol. 2013 108:289-293. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037999

Grannis, Frederic W

2013-08-26

137

Regulators of the Actin Cytoskeleton Mediate Lethality in a Caenorhabditis elegans dhc-1 Mutant  

PubMed Central

Functional analysis of cytoplasmic dynein in Caenorhabditis elegans has revealed a wide range of cellular functions for this minus-end–directed motor protein. Dynein transports a variety of cargos to diverse cellular locations, and thus cargo selection and destination are likely regulated by accessory proteins. The microtubule-associated proteins LIS-1 and dynein interact, but the nature of this interaction remains poorly understood. Here we show that both LIS-1 and the dynein heavy-chain DHC-1 are required for integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in C. elegans. Although both dhc-1(or195ts) and lis-1 loss-of-function disrupt the actin cytoskeleton and produce embryonic lethality, a double mutant suppresses these defects. A targeted RNA interference screen revealed that knockdown of other actin regulators, including actin-capping protein genes and prefoldin subunit genes, suppresses dhc-1(or195ts)–induced lethality. We propose that release or relocation of the mutant dynein complex mediates this suppression of dhc-1(or195ts)--induced phenotypes. These results reveal an unexpected direct or indirect interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and dynein activity.

Gil-Krzewska, Aleksandra J.; Farber, Erica; Buttner, Edgar A.

2010-01-01

138

Screening the 3{prime} region of the polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) gene reveals six novel mutations  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the gene for the most common form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1), has been fully characterized and shown to encode an integral membrane protein, polycystin, involved in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions. Study of the PKD1 gene has been complicated because most of the gene lies in a genomic region reiterated several times elsewhere on the same chromosome, and consequently only seven mutations have been described so far. Here we report a systematic screen covering {approximately}80% of the {approximately}-2.75 kb of translated transcript that is encoded by single-copy DNA. We have identified and characterized six novel mutations that, together with the previously described changes, amount to a detection rate of 10%-15% in the population studied. The newly described mutations are two deletions, an insertion of a T-nucleotide causing a frameshift, two single-base-pair substitutions resulting in premature stop codons, and a G{yields}C transversion that may be a missense mutation. These results have important implications for genetic diagnosis of PKD1 because they indicate that the majority of mutations lie within the duplicated area, which is difficult to study. The regions of polycystin removed in each mutation so far described are assessed for their functional significance; an area disrupted by two new small in-frame changes is highlighted. PKD1 mutations are contrasted with those in the PKD1/TSC2 contiguous-gene syndrome, and the likely mutational mechanism in PKD1 is considered. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Peral, B.; San Millan, J.L.; Ong, A.C.M. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

1996-01-01

139

A Genetic Screen Reveals Arabidopsis Stomatal and/or Apoplastic Defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infection of plants often begins with colonization of the plant surface, followed by entry into the plant through wounds and natural openings (such as stomata), multiplication in the intercellular space (apoplast) of the infected tissues, and dissemination of bacteria to other plants. Historically, most studies assess bacterial infection based on final outcomes of disease and/or pathogen growth using whole infected tissues; few studies have genetically distinguished the contribution of different host cell types in response to an infection. The phytotoxin coronatine (COR) is produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. COR-deficient mutants of P. s. tomato (Pst) DC3000 are severely compromised in virulence, especially when inoculated onto the plant surface. We report here a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants that could rescue the virulence of COR-deficient mutant bacteria. Among the susceptible to coronatine-deficient Pst DC3000 (scord) mutants were two that were defective in stomatal closure response, two that were defective in apoplast defense, and four that were defective in both stomatal and apoplast defense. Isolation of these three classes of mutants suggests that stomatal and apoplastic defenses are integrated in plants, but are genetically separable, and that COR is important for Pst DC3000 to overcome both stomatal guard cell- and apoplastic mesophyll cell-based defenses. Of the six mutants defective in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure, three are defective in salicylic acid (SA)-induced stomatal closure, but exhibit normal stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA), and scord7 is compromised in both SA- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. We have cloned SCORD3, which is required for salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, and SCORD5, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, AtGCN20/AtABCF3, predicted to be involved in stress-associated protein translation control. Identification of SCORD5 begins to implicate an important role of stress-associated protein translation in stomatal guard cell signaling in response to microbe-associated molecular patterns and bacterial infection.

Zeng, Weiqing; Brutus, Alexandre; Kremer, James M.; Withers, John C.; Gao, Xiaoli; Jones, A. Daniel; He, Sheng Yang

2011-01-01

140

Caenorhabditis elegans Semi-Automated Liquid Screen Reveals a Specialized Role for the Chemotaxis Gene cheB2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes infections in a variety of animal and plant hosts. Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model with which one can identify bacterial virulence genes. Previous studies with C. elegans have shown that depending on the growth medium, P. aeruginosa provokes different pathologies: slow or fast killing, lethal paralysis and red death. In this study, we developed a high-throughput semi-automated liquid-based assay such that an entire genome can readily be scanned for virulence genes in a short time period. We screened a 2,200-member STM mutant library generated in a cystic fibrosis airway P. aeruginosa isolate, TBCF10839. Twelve mutants were isolated each showing at least 70% attenuation in C. elegans killing. The selected mutants had insertions in regulatory genes, such as a histidine kinase sensor of two-component systems and a member of the AraC family, or in genes involved in adherence or chemotaxis. One mutant had an insertion in a cheB gene homologue, encoding a methylesterase involved in chemotaxis (CheB2). The cheB2 mutant was tested in a murine lung infection model and found to have a highly attenuated virulence. The cheB2 gene is part of the chemotactic gene cluster II, which was shown to be required for an optimal mobility in vitro. In P. aeruginosa, the main player in chemotaxis and mobility is the chemotactic gene cluster I, including cheB1. We show that, in contrast to the cheB2 mutant, a cheB1 mutant is not attenuated for virulence in C. elegans whereas in vitro motility and chemotaxis are severely impaired. We conclude that the virulence defect of the cheB2 mutant is not linked with a global motility defect but that instead the cheB2 gene is involved in a specific chemotactic response, which takes place during infection and is required for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity.

Garvis, Steven; Munder, Antje; Ball, Genevieve; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Ewbank, Jonathan J.; Tummler, Burkhard; Filloux, Alain

2009-01-01

141

An unconventional IAP-binding motif revealed by target-assisted iterative screening (TAIS) of the BIR3-cIAP1 domain  

PubMed Central

Target-assisted iterative screening (TAIS) has been applied to a random phage-displayed peptide library in a search for novel ligands of the third baculovirus IAP (‘inhibitors of apoptosis’) repeat (BIR) domain of cIAP1. The peptides selected in the screen fall into two distinct specificity groups, one that conforms to a known IAP-binding motif (IBM) and another one that reveals a novel BIR domain interactingmotif, NH2-SR(V/P)W. The biochemical profiling of selected sequences with synthetic peptides, which included alanine scanning and N- and C-terminal truncations as well as competition with the Smac peptide, suggests a major energetic contribution of tryptophan at the +4 position of peptide ligands to binding and identifies the latter together with the respective pocket on the BIR domain surface as a ‘hot spot’ of the interaction. A peptide featuring the novel motif selectively binds the full-length cIAP1 protein in cell lysates. A ‘two-pocket’ model of BIR domain recognition mechanism is proposed as the basis of differential BIR domain interactions with different IBMs.

Kurakin, Alexei; Bredesen, Dale E.

2007-01-01

142

An unconventional IAP-binding motif revealed by target-assisted iterative screening (TAIS) of the BIR3-cIAP1 domain.  

PubMed

Target-assisted iterative screening (TAIS) has been applied to a random phage-displayed peptide library in a search for novel ligands of the third baculovirus IAP ('inhibitors of apoptosis') repeat (BIR) domain of cIAP1. The peptides selected in the screen fall into two distinct specificity groups, one that conforms to a known IAP-binding motif (IBM) and another one that reveals a novel BIR domain interacting motif, NH(2)-SR(V/P)W. The biochemical profiling of selected sequences with synthetic peptides, which included alanine scanning and N- and C-terminal truncations as well as competition with the Smac peptide, suggests a major energetic contribution of tryptophan at the +4 position of peptide ligands to binding and identifies the latter together with the respective pocket on the BIR domain surface as a 'hot spot' of the interaction. A peptide featuring the novel motif selectively binds the full-length cIAP1 protein in cell lysates. A 'two-pocket' model of BIR domain recognition mechanism is proposed as the basis of differential BIR domain interactions with different IBMs. PMID:17094177

Kurakin, Alexei; Bredesen, Dale E

143

In silico screening reveals structurally diverse, nanomolar inhibitors of NQO2 that are functionally active in cells and can modulate NF?B signalling  

PubMed Central

The NCI chemical database has been screened using in silico docking to identify novel nanomolar inhibitors of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2). The inhibitors identified from the screen exhibit a diverse range of scaffolds and the structure of one of the inhibitors, NSC13000 co-crystalized with NQO2, has been solved. This has been used to aid the generation of a structure/activity relationship between the computationally derived binding affinity and experimentally measured enzyme inhibitory potency. Many of the compounds are functionally active as inhibitors of NQO2 in cells at non toxic concentrations. To demonstrate this, advantage was taken of the NQO2-mediated toxicity of the chemotherapeutic drug CB1954. The toxicity of this drug is substantially reduced when the function of NQO2 is inhibited and many of the compounds achieve this in cells at nanomolar concentrations. The NQO2 inhibitors also attenuated TNF?-mediated, NF?B-driven transcriptional activity. The link between NQO2 and the regulation of NF?B was confirmed by using siRNA to NQO2 and by the observation that NRH, the cofactor for NQO2 enzyme activity, could regulate NF?B activity in an NQO2 dependent manner. NF?B is a potential therapeutic target and this study reveals an underlying mechanism that may exploitable for developing new anti-cancer drugs.

Nolan, Karen A.; Dunstan, Mark S.; Caraher, Mary C.; Scott, Katherine A.; Leys, David; Stratford, Ian J.

2011-01-01

144

A genome-wide RNA interference screen reveals an essential CREB3L2/ATF5/MCL1 survival pathway in malignant glioma with therapeutic implications  

PubMed Central

Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is highly expressed in malignant glioma and plays an important role in promoting cell survival. Here we perform a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify transcriptional regulators of ATF5. Our results reveal an essential survival pathway in malignant glioma, whereby activation of a RAS/MAPK or PI3K signaling cascade leads to induction of the transcription factor CREB3L2, which directly activates ATF5 expression. ATF5, in turn, promotes survival by stimulating transcription of MCL1, an anti-apoptotic BCL2 family member. Analysis of human malignant glioma samples indicates that ATF5 expression inversely correlates with disease prognosis. The RAF inhibitor sorafenib suppresses ATF5 expression in glioma stem cells and inhibits malignant glioma growth in cell culture and mouse xenografts. Our results demonstrate that ATF5 plays an essential role in malignant glioma genesis, and reveal that the ATF5-mediated survival pathway described here provides potential therapeutic targets for treatment of malignant glioma.

Sheng, Zhi; Li, Li; Zhu, Lihua J.; Smith, Thomas W.; Demers, Andrea; Ross, Alonzo H.; Moser, Richard P.; Green, Michael R.

2010-01-01

145

Caenorhabditis elegans Semi-Automated Liquid Screen Reveals a Specialized Role for the Chemotaxis Gene cheB2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes infections in a variety of animal and plant hosts. Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model with which one can identify bacterial virulence genes. Previous studies with C. elegans have shown that depending on the growth medium, P. aeruginosa provokes different pathologies: slow or fast killing, lethal paralysis and red death. In

Steven Garvis; Antje Munder; Geneviève Ball; Sophie de Bentzmann; Lutz Wiehlmann; Jonathan J. Ewbank; Burkhard Tümmler; Alain Filloux

2009-01-01

146

Chemical genomic screening of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomewide mutant collection reveals genes required for defense against four antimicrobial peptides derived from proteins found in human saliva.  

PubMed

To compare the effects of four antimicrobial peptides (MUC7 12-mer, histatin 12-mer, cathelicidin KR20, and a peptide containing lactoferricin amino acids 1 to 11) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we employed a genomewide fitness screen of combined collections of mutants with homozygous deletions of nonessential genes and heterozygous deletions of essential genes. When an arbitrary fitness score cutoffs of 1 (indicating a fitness defect, or hypersensitivity) and -1 (indicating a fitness gain, or resistance) was used, 425 of the 5,902 mutants tested exhibited altered fitness when treated with at least one peptide. Functional analysis of the 425 strains revealed enrichment among the identified deletions in gene groups associated with the Gene Ontology (GO) terms "ribosomal subunit," "ribosome biogenesis," "protein glycosylation," "vacuolar transport," "Golgi vesicle transport," "negative regulation of transcription," and others. Fitness profiles of all four tested peptides were highly similar, particularly among mutant strains exhibiting the greatest fitness defects. The latter group included deletions in several genes involved in induction of the RIM101 signaling pathway, including several components of the ESCRT sorting machinery. The RIM101 signaling regulates response of yeasts to alkaline and neutral pH and high salts, and our data indicate that this pathway also plays a prominent role in regulating protective measures against all four tested peptides. In summary, the results of the chemical genomic screens of S. cerevisiae mutant collection suggest that the four antimicrobial peptides, despite their differences in structure and physical properties, share many interactions with S. cerevisiae cells and consequently a high degree of similarity between their modes of action. PMID:23208710

Lis, Maciej; Bhatt, Sanjay; Schoenly, Nathan E; Lee, Anna Y; Nislow, Corey; Bobek, Libuse A

2012-12-03

147

A Buoyancy-Based Screen of Drosophila Larvae for Fat-Storage Mutants Reveals a Role for Sir2 in Coupling Fat Storage to Nutrient Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has a strong genetic component, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity are known. Genetic screens in invertebrates have the potential to identify genes and pathways that regulate the levels of stored fat, many of which are likely to be conserved in humans. To facilitate such screens, we have developed a simple buoyancy-based screening method for identifying

Tânia Reis; Marc R. Van Gilst; Iswar K. Hariharan

2010-01-01

148

Assembly of anthrax toxin pore: lethal-factor complexes into lipid nanodiscs.  

PubMed

We have devised a procedure to incorporate the anthrax protective antigen (PA) pore complexed with the N-terminal domain of anthrax lethal factor (LFN ) into lipid nanodiscs and analyzed the resulting complexes by negative-stain electron microscopy. Insertion into nanodiscs was performed without relying on primary and secondary detergent screens. The preparations were relatively pure, and the percentage of PA pore inserted into nanodiscs on EM grids was high (?43%). Three-dimensional analysis of negatively stained single particles revealed the LFN -PA nanodisc complex mirroring the previous unliganded PA pore nanodisc structure, but with additional protein density consistent with multiple bound LFN molecules on the PA cap region. The assembly procedure will facilitate collection of higher resolution cryo-EM LFN -PA nanodisc structures and use of advanced automated particle selection methods. PMID:23389868

Akkaladevi, N; Hinton-Chollet, L; Katayama, H; Mitchell, J; Szerszen, L; Mukherjee, S; Gogol, E P; Pentelute, B L; Collier, R J; Fisher, M T

2013-02-26

149

The Rorschach Suicide Constellation: assessing various degrees of lethality.  

PubMed

In this article we examine the relation between the Rorschach Comprehensive System's Suicide Constellation (S-CON; Exner, 1993; Exner & Wiley, 1977) and lethality of suicide attempts during the course of patients' hospitalization at the Austen Riggs Center (Stockbridge, MA). Patient records were rated as nonsuicidal (n = 37), parasuicidal (n = 37), or near-lethal (n = 30) based on the presence and lethality of self-destructive acts. Diagnostic efficiency statistics utilizing a cutoff score of 7 or more positive indicators successfully predicted which patients would engage in near-lethal suicidal activity relative to parasuicidal patients (overall correct classification rate [OCC] = .79), nonsuicidal inpatients (OCC = .79), and college students (OCC = .89). Although these predictions were influenced by relatively high base rates in the hospital population (14.5%), base rate estimates were calculated for other hypothetical populations revealing different prediction estimates that should be considered when judging the relative efficacy of the S-CON. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an S-CON score of 7 or more was the sole predictor of near-lethal suicide attempts among 9 psychiatric and demographic variables. PMID:11393464

Fowler, J C; Piers, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Holdwick, D J; Padawer, J R

2001-04-01

150

A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.  

PubMed

The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys are urgently needed to avoid underestimating tropical diversity, and the use of mtDNA markers can be instrumental in identifying and prioritizing taxa for species discovery. PMID:22815761

Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

2012-07-17

151

Determinants of lethal and nonlethal violence: Some theoretical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores some possible theoretical distinctions between lethal and nonlethal encounters. Generally, theories of interpersonal violence have not focused on differences between these types of outcomes as involving factors intrinsic to the interaction process itself. It is argued that the logic of control theory offers a perspective which could direct future research to reveal differences in the interaction processes

William B. Bankston

1988-01-01

152

Vagal nerve-mediated vasospasm-induced lethal ventricular fibrillation.  

PubMed

We report a case of variant angina complicated by lethal ventricular fibrillation. Serial ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring revealed high-frequency spectra reflecting augmented vagal nerve activity preceding the vasospastic episodes. Our case suggests that heart rate variability analysis can help identify potential unexpected sudden cardiac death in patients with variant angina. PMID:16580417

Takase, Bonpei; Kato, Ryuichi; Arakawa, Ko; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Masayuki

2006-04-01

153

Zygotic Lethals with Specific Maternal Effect Phenotypes in Drosophila Melanogaster. I. Loci on the X Chromosome  

PubMed Central

In order to identify all X-linked zygotic lethal loci that exhibit a specific maternal effect on embryonic development, germline clonal analyses of X-linked zygotic lethal mutations have been performed. Two strategies were employed. In Screen A germline clonal analysis of 441 mutations at 211 previously mapped X-linked loci within defined regions was performed. In Screen B germline clonal analysis of 581 larval and pupal mutations distributed throughout the entire length of the X chromosome was performed. These approaches provide an 86% level of saturation for X-linked late zygotic lethals (larval and pupal) with specific maternal effect embryonic lethal phenotypes. The maternal effect phenotypes of these mutations are described.

Perrimon, N.; Engstrom, L.; Mahowald, A. P.

1989-01-01

154

Successful Nutrition Screening Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial nutrition screening can be a labor intensive activity that is a key to the entire nutrition care process. A flow chart of a nutrition screening protocol for a tertiary care hospital revealed a need for improved timeliness and efficiency. The original screening protocol relied on medical record review and patient interviews to obtain screen data. Patient interviews were frequently

P. Fraker; J. Christy-Given

1995-01-01

155

Lethal Chemical Warfare: Option or Myth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The events which led to the US obtaining a lethal chemical offensive capability are examined, as are intelligence indicators of Soviet policy concerning lethal chemical warfare. US public opinion is assessed to the extent of determining the general trends...

R. J. Baird

1974-01-01

156

Anthrax lethal toxin induces endothelial barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Hemorrhage and pleural effusion are prominent pathological features of systemic anthrax infection. We examined the effect of anthrax lethal toxin (LT), a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, on the barrier function of primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. We also examined the distribution patterns of cytoskeletal actin and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), both of which are involved in barrier function regulation. Endothelial monolayers cultured on porous membrane inserts were treated with the LT components lethal factor (LF) and protective antigen (PA) individually, or in combination. LT induced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance that correlated with increased permeability to fluorescently labeled albumin. LT also produced a marked increase in central actin stress fibers and significantly altered VE-cadherin distribution as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy and cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with LF, PA, or the combination of an inactive LF mutant and PA did not alter barrier function or the distribution of actin or VE-cadherin. LT-induced barrier dysfunction was not dependent on endothelial apoptosis or necrosis. The present findings support a possible role for LT-induced barrier dysfunction in the vascular permeability changes accompanying systemic anthrax infection. PMID:15920171

Warfel, Jason M; Steele, Amber D; D'Agnillo, Felice

2005-06-01

157

Empirical Complexities in the Genetic Foundations of Lethal Mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias—mutagenesis of virions—but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it.

Bull, James J.; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J.

2013-01-01

158

High-Throughput Chemical Screen Identifies a Novel Potent Modulator of Cellular Circadian Rhythms and Reveals CKI? as a Clock Regulatory Kinase  

PubMed Central

The circadian clock underlies daily rhythms of diverse physiological processes, and alterations in clock function have been linked to numerous pathologies. To apply chemical biology methods to modulate and dissect the clock mechanism with new chemical probes, we performed a circadian screen of ?120,000 uncharacterized compounds on human cells containing a circadian reporter. The analysis identified a small molecule that potently lengthens the circadian period in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequent analysis showed that the compound also lengthened the period in a variety of cells from different tissues including the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus, the central clock controlling behavioral rhythms. Based on the prominent period lengthening effect, we named the compound longdaysin. Longdaysin was amenable for chemical modification to perform affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to identify target proteins. Combined with siRNA-mediated gene knockdown, we identified the protein kinases CKI?, CKI?, and ERK2 as targets of longdaysin responsible for the observed effect on circadian period. Although individual knockdown of CKI?, CKI?, and ERK2 had small period effects, their combinatorial knockdown dramatically lengthened the period similar to longdaysin treatment. We characterized the role of CKI? in the clock mechanism and found that CKI?-mediated phosphorylation stimulated degradation of a clock protein PER1, similar to the function of CKI?. Longdaysin treatment inhibited PER1 degradation, providing insight into the mechanism of longdaysin-dependent period lengthening. Using larval zebrafish, we further demonstrated that longdaysin drastically lengthened circadian period in vivo. Taken together, the chemical biology approach not only revealed CKI? as a clock regulatory kinase but also identified a multiple kinase network conferring robustness to the clock. Longdaysin provides novel possibilities in manipulating clock function due to its ability to simultaneously inhibit several key components of this conserved network across species.

Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Jae Wook; Lewis, Warren G.; Zhang, Eric E.; Breton, Ghislain; Liu, Xianzhong; Garcia, Michael; Peters, Eric C.; Etchegaray, Jean-Pierre; Traver, David; Schultz, Peter G.; Kay, Steve A.

2010-01-01

159

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons\\/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a

Marjorie Lundquist

2008-01-01

160

Introduction to Lethal School Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we offer an introduction to the topic of the book, lethal school violence (LSV). We begin with an introduction\\u000a to and definition of LSV, and then highlight five different situations that often result in fatalities (i.e., suicide, rampage\\u000a shootings, gang-related deaths, domestic murder\\/suicide that occurs on campus, and barricaded captive events). We then turn\\u000a our attention to

Jeffrey A. Daniels; Mary C. Bradley

161

Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by glucocerebrosidase deficiency. Although purely visceral in most cases, some Gaucher disease patients have neurological signs. Signs of Gaucher disease appear after a symptom-free period, except in rare cases with fetal onset. The description of such cases was based mainly on single reports and siblings. We report here a series of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease cases highlighting the specificity of this phenotype. We retrospectively studied eight original cases of proven Gaucher disease with fetal onset. Non-immune hydrops fetalis was present in all cases but one, and associated with hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis, arthrogryposis, and facial dysmorphy. The similarities between our cases and 33 previously described cases allow us to better delineate the perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease phenotype. Hydrops fetalis, in utero fetal death and neonatal distress are prominent features. When hydrops is absent, neurological involvement begins in the first week and leads to death within three months. Hepatosplenomegaly is a major sign, and associated with ichthyosis, arthrogryposis, and facial dysmorphy in some 35-43% of cases. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is a specific entity defined by its particular course and signs that are absent in classical type 2 Gaucher disease. Our study provides clues to the diagnosis of this likely underdiagnosed condition, which must be biochemically confirmed in order to propose appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:12838552

Mignot, C; Gelot, A; Bessières, B; Daffos, F; Voyer, M; Menez, F; Fallet Bianco, C; Odent, S; Le Duff, D; Loget, P; Fargier, P; Costil, J; Josset, P; Roume, J; Vanier, M T; Maire, I; Billette de Villemeur, T

2003-07-30

162

Genome-scale gene/reaction essentiality and synthetic lethality analysis  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethals are to pairs of non-essential genes whose simultaneous deletion prohibits growth. One can extend the concept of synthetic lethality by considering gene groups of increasing size where only the simultaneous elimination of all genes is lethal, whereas individual gene deletions are not. We developed optimization-based procedures for the exhaustive and targeted enumeration of multi-gene (and by extension multi-reaction) lethals for genome-scale metabolic models. Specifically, these approaches are applied to iAF1260, the latest model of Escherichia coli, leading to the complete identification of all double and triple gene and reaction synthetic lethals as well as the targeted identification of quadruples and some higher-order ones. Graph representations of these synthetic lethals reveal a variety of motifs ranging from hub-like to highly connected subgraphs providing a birds-eye view of the avenues available for redirecting metabolism and uncovering complex patterns of gene utilization and interdependence. The procedure also enables the use of falsely predicted synthetic lethals for metabolic model curation. By analyzing the functional classifications of the genes involved in synthetic lethals, we reveal surprising connections within and across clusters of orthologous group functional classifications.

Suthers, Patrick F; Zomorrodi, Alireza; Maranas, Costas D

2009-01-01

163

A Forward-Genetic Screen and Dynamic Analysis of Lambda Phage Host-Dependencies Reveals an Extensive Interaction Network and a New Anti-Viral Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latently infecting viruses are an important class of virus that plays a key role in viral evolution and human health. Here we report a genome-scale forward-genetics screen for host-dependencies of the latently-infecting bacteriophage lambda. This screen identified 57 Escherichia coli (E. coli) genes—over half of which have not been previously associated with infection—that when knocked out inhibited lambda phage's ability

Nathaniel D. Maynard; Elsa W. Birch; Jayodita C. Sanghvi; Lu Chen; Miriam V. Gutschow; Markus W. Covert

2010-01-01

164

Harnessing synthetic lethal interactions in anticancer drug discovery  

PubMed Central

Unique features of tumours that can be exploited by targeted therapies are a key focus of current cancer research. One such approach is known as synthetic lethality screening, which involves searching for genetic interactions of two mutations whereby the presence of either mutation alone has no effect on cell viability but the combination of the two mutations results in cell death. The presence of one of these mutations in cancer cells but not in normal cells can therefore create opportunities to selectively kill cancer cells by mimicking the effect of the second genetic mutation with targeted therapy. Here, we summarize strategies that can be used to identify synthetic lethal interactions for anticancer drug discovery, describe examples of such interactions that are currently being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies of targeted anticancer therapies, and discuss the challenges of realizing the full potential of such therapies.

Chan, Denise A.; Giaccia, Amato J.

2013-01-01

165

Early events of lethal action by tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 {mu}g/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of {sup 3}H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, {beta}-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment.

Raulston, J.E.

1988-01-01

166

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

Lundquist, Marjorie

2008-03-01

167

Tracking the clonal origin of lethal prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Recent controversies surrounding prostate cancer overtreatment emphasize the critical need to delineate the molecular features associated with progression to lethal metastatic disease. Here, we have used whole-genome sequencing and molecular pathological analyses to characterize the lethal cell clone in a patient who died of prostate cancer. We tracked the evolution of the lethal cell clone from the primary cancer to metastases through samples collected during disease progression and at the time of death. Surprisingly, these analyses revealed that the lethal clone arose from a small, relatively low-grade cancer focus in the primary tumor, and not from the bulk, higher-grade primary cancer or from a lymph node metastasis resected at prostatectomy. Despite being limited to one case, these findings highlight the potential importance of developing and implementing molecular prognostic and predictive markers, such as alterations of tumor suppressor proteins PTEN or p53, to augment current pathological evaluation and delineate clonal heterogeneity. Furthermore, this case illustrates the potential need in precision medicine to longitudinally sample metastatic lesions to capture the evolving constellation of alterations during progression. Similar comprehensive studies of additional prostate cancer cases are warranted to understand the extent to which these issues may challenge prostate cancer clinical management. PMID:24135135

Haffner, Michael C; Mosbruger, Timothy; Esopi, David M; Fedor, Helen; Heaphy, Christopher M; Walker, David A; Adejola, Nkosi; Gürel, Meltem; Hicks, Jessica; Meeker, Alan K; Halushka, Marc K; Simons, Jonathan W; Isaacs, William B; De Marzo, Angelo M; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

2013-10-25

168

Tracking the clonal origin of lethal prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent controversies surrounding prostate cancer overtreatment emphasize the critical need to delineate the molecular features associated with progression to lethal metastatic disease. Here, we have used whole-genome sequencing and molecular pathological analyses to characterize the lethal cell clone in a patient who died of prostate cancer. We tracked the evolution of the lethal cell clone from the primary cancer to metastases through samples collected during disease progression and at the time of death. Surprisingly, these analyses revealed that the lethal clone arose from a small, relatively low-grade cancer focus in the primary tumor, and not from the bulk, higher-grade primary cancer or from a lymph node metastasis resected at prostatectomy. Despite being limited to one case, these findings highlight the potential importance of developing and implementing molecular prognostic and predictive markers, such as alterations of tumor suppressor proteins PTEN or p53, to augment current pathological evaluation and delineate clonal heterogeneity. Furthermore, this case illustrates the potential need in precision medicine to longitudinally sample metastatic lesions to capture the evolving constellation of alterations during progression. Similar comprehensive studies of additional prostate cancer cases are warranted to understand the extent to which these issues may challenge prostate cancer clinical management.

Haffner, Michael C.; Mosbruger, Timothy; Esopi, David M.; Fedor, Helen; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Walker, David A.; Adejola, Nkosi; Gurel, Meltem; Hicks, Jessica; Meeker, Alan K.; Halushka, Marc K.; Simons, Jonathan W.; Isaacs, William B.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

2013-01-01

169

Yeast Three-Hybrid Screening of Rous Sarcoma Virus Mutants with Randomly Mutagenized Minimal Packaging Signals Reveals Regions Important for Gag Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that the yeast three-hybrid system provides a genetic assay of both RNA and protein components for avian retroviral RNA encapsidation. In the current study, we used this assay to precisely define cis-acting determinants involved in avian leukosis sarcoma virus packaging RNA binding to Gag protein. In vivo screening of Rous sarcoma virus mutants was performed with randomly

EUN-GYUNG LEE; MAXINE L. LINIAL

2000-01-01

170

A signal peptide secretion screen in Fucus distichus embryos reveals expression of glucanase, EGF domain-containing, and LRR receptor kinase-like polypeptides during asymmetric cell growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zygotes of the brown alga Fucus distichus (L.) Powell develop polarity prior to the first embryonic cell division and retain a pattern of asymmetric growth during early embryogenesis. In order to identify F. distichus polypeptides secreted during asymmetric cell growth, we used a functional assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to screen a cDNA library generated from asymmetrically growing Fucus embryos for

Kenneth D. Belanger; Aaron J. Wyman; Michelle N. Sudol; Sneh L. Singla-Pareek; Ralph S. Quatrano

2003-01-01

171

A detective story in drug discovery: elucidation of a screening artifact reveals polymeric carboxylic acids as potent inhibitors of RNA polymerase.  

PubMed

Chasing the active impurity: In the validation of a screening hit it was discovered that a polymeric trace impurity was responsible for the biological activity. Such a side product can be formed with similar compounds. During the investigations it was discovered that the negatively charged macromolecule interacts very efficiently with the protein surface of E.?coli RNAP via electrostatic interactions. PMID:23681768

Zhu, Weixing; Groh, Matthias; Haupenthal, Jörg; Hartmann, Rolf W

2013-05-16

172

An enzymatic electrochemiluminescence assay for the lethal factor of anthrax.  

PubMed

The lethal factor (LF) of anthrax toxin is the toxic component of the exotoxin (lethal toxin) secreted by toxic strains of Bacillus anthracis. The lethal factor is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that specifically cleaves the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) family of enzymes. We took advantage of this substrate specificity to develop an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) peptide cleavage assay. The ECL assay uses the stable ruthenium (Ru) metal chelate that, in the presence of tripropylamine, generates a light reaction triggered by the application of an electric potential. The Ru label is specifically incorporated into the C-terminal CYS residue of a synthetic peptide (23mer) containing the MAPKK2 cleavage sequence of LF. Streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads were the solid phase and facilitated separation and characterization of the enzymatic reaction products based upon N-terminal biotinylation of the peptide substrate. Intact peptide bound via the biotin moiety generated high signal due to the Ru label, whereas binding of the cleaved peptide fragment devoid of Ru label reduced the ECL signal. The proposed assay provides a novel opportunity for the screening of potential therapeutics against anthrax. PMID:12963063

Rivera, Victor R; Merrill, Gerald A; White, Jill A; Poli, Mark A

2003-10-01

173

Type I procollagen in the severe non-lethal form of osteogenesis imperfecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have screened type I procollagen synthesized in vitro by skin fibroblasts from several patients with the severe non-lethal form of osteogenesis imperfecta. Cells from one patient synthesized and secreted both normal and a larger amount of abnormal type I procollagen. The abnormal alpha chains are larger in size due to post-translational overmodifications involving the whole triple helical domain. Abnormal

Ruggero Tenni; Giuseppe Cetta; Katharine Dyne; Antonio Rossi; Daniela Quacci; Luciano Lenzi; Alessandro A. Castellani

1988-01-01

174

Lethal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in a hypomorphic Med30 mouse mutant is ameliorated by ketogenic diet.  

PubMed

Deficiencies of subunits of the transcriptional regulatory complex Mediator generally result in embryonic lethality, precluding study of its physiological function. Here we describe a missense mutation in Med30 causing progressive cardiomyopathy in homozygous mice that, although viable during lactation, show precipitous lethality 2-3 wk after weaning. Expression profiling reveals pleiotropic changes in transcription of cardiac genes required for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial integrity. Weaning mice to a ketogenic diet extends viability to 8.5 wk. Thus, we establish a mechanistic connection between Mediator and induction of a metabolic program for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, in which lethal cardiomyopathy is mitigated by dietary intervention. PMID:22106289

Krebs, Philippe; Fan, Weiwei; Chen, Yen-Hui; Tobita, Kimimasa; Downes, Michael R; Wood, Malcolm R; Sun, Lei; Li, Xiaohong; Xia, Yu; Ding, Ning; Spaeth, Jason M; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Boyer, Thomas G; Lo, Cecilia Wen Ya; Yen, Jeffrey; Evans, Ronald M; Beutler, Bruce

2011-11-21

175

Lethal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in a hypomorphic Med30 mouse mutant is ameliorated by ketogenic diet  

PubMed Central

Deficiencies of subunits of the transcriptional regulatory complex Mediator generally result in embryonic lethality, precluding study of its physiological function. Here we describe a missense mutation in Med30 causing progressive cardiomyopathy in homozygous mice that, although viable during lactation, show precipitous lethality 2–3 wk after weaning. Expression profiling reveals pleiotropic changes in transcription of cardiac genes required for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial integrity. Weaning mice to a ketogenic diet extends viability to 8.5 wk. Thus, we establish a mechanistic connection between Mediator and induction of a metabolic program for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, in which lethal cardiomyopathy is mitigated by dietary intervention.

Krebs, Philippe; Fan, Weiwei; Chen, Yen-Hui; Tobita, Kimimasa; Downes, Michael R.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Sun, Lei; Xia, Yu; Ding, Ning; Spaeth, Jason M.; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Boyer, Thomas G.; Lo, Cecilia Wen Ya; Yen, Jeffrey; Evans, Ronald M.; Beutler, Bruce

2011-01-01

176

Prenatally diagnosed lethal type Larsen-like syndrome associated with bifid tongue.  

PubMed

Larsen syndrome is characterized by multiple joint dislocations, associated with a typical facial appearance and frequently other abnormalities. Both dominant and recessive patterns of inheritance have been reported. A lethal form of Larsen syndrome (Larsen-like syndrome) has been described as a combination of the Larsen phenotype and pulmonary hypoplasia. In this report, we present a 24-week-old female fetus with a possible prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia in whom postmortem examination revealed lethal type Larsen-like syndrome associated with bifid tongue, severe micrognathia and non-immune hydrops fetalis. These findings have not been reported previously in the lethal type Larsen syndrome. PMID:19014058

Orhan, Diclehan; Balci, Sevim; Deren, Ozgür; Utine, Eda Gülen; Ba?aran, Ahmet; Kale, Gülsev

177

Genetic Modifier Screens on Hairless Gain-of-Function Phenotypes Reveal Genes Involved in Cell Differentiation, Cell Growth and Apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression of Hairless (H) causes a remarkable degree of tissue loss and apoptosis during imaginal development. H functions as antagonist in the Notch-signaling pathway in Drosophila, and the link to growth and apoptosis is poorly understood. To further our insight into H-mediated apoptosis, we per- formed two large-scale screens for modifiers of a small rough eye phenotype caused by H

Dominik Muller; Sabrina J. Kugler; Anette Preiss; Dieter Maier; Anja C. Nagel

2005-01-01

178

A Screen for Modifiers of Cyclin E Function in Drosophila melanogaster Identifies Cdk2 Mutations, Revealing the Insignificance of Putative Phosphorylation Sites in Cdk2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher eukaryotes, cyclin E is thought to control the progression from G1 into S phase of the cell cycle by associating as a regulatory subunit with cdk2. To identify genes interacting with cyclin E, we have screened in Drosophila melanogaster for mutations that act as dominant modifiers of an eye phenotype caused by a Sevenless-CycE transgene that directs ectopic

Marion Elend; Doris Heidmann; Anabel Herr; Sandra Marzodko; Alf Herzig; Christian F. Lehner

2000-01-01

179

Screening of Random Peptide Library of Hemagglutinin from Pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Virus Reveals Unexpected Antigenically Important Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antigenic structure of the membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) from the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus was dissected with a high-throughput screening method using complex antisera. The approach involves generating yeast cell libraries displaying a pool of random peptides of controllable lengths on the cell surface, followed by one round of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) against antisera from mouse, goat and

Wanghui Xu; Lu Han; Zhanglin Lin

2011-01-01

180

A Quantitative, High-Throughput Reverse Genetic Screen Reveals Novel Connections between Pre–mRNA Splicing and 5? and 3? End Transcript Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the development and implementation of a genome-wide reverse genetic screen in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that couples high-throughput strain growth, robotic RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, and quantitative PCR to allow for a robust determination of the level of nearly any cellular RNA in the background of 5,500 different mutants. As an initial test of this

Laura-Oana Albulescu; Nevin Sabet; Mohanram Gudipati; Nicholas Stepankiw; Zane J. Bergman; Tim C. Huffaker; Jeffrey A. Pleiss

2012-01-01

181

Screening of 336 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 85 obesity-related genes revealed McKusick–Kaufman syndrome gene variants are associated with metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factors are important in the development of metabolic syndrome. However, the genetic background of metabolic syndrome remains unclear. We screened polymorphisms in 85 obesity-related genes to determine which may be associated with metabolic syndrome. A total of 336 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 85 genes selected from the JSNP database were genotyped. We conducted case–control association analyses using patients with

Kikuko Hotta; Takahiro Nakamura; Junichi Takasaki; Hiroshi Takahashi; Atsushi Takahashi; Yoshio Nakata; Seika Kamohara; Kazuaki Kotani; Ryoya Komatsu; Naoto Itoh; Ikuo Mineo; Jun Wada; Hiroaki Masuzaki; Masato Yoneda; Atsushi Nakajima; Tohru Funahashi; Shigeru Miyazaki; Katsuto Tokunaga; Kazuyuki Hamaguchi; Kiyoji Tanaka; Kentaro Yamada; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Shinichi Oikawa; Hironobu Yoshimatsu; Kazuwa Nakao; Toshiie Sakata; Yuji Matsuzawa; Naoyuki Kamatani; Yusuke Nakamura

2009-01-01

182

Fragment library screening reveals remarkable similarities between the G protein-coupled receptor histamine H4 and the ion channel serotonin 5-HT3A  

PubMed Central

A fragment library was screened against the G protein-coupled histamine H4 receptor (H4R) and the ligand-gated ion channel serotonin 5-HT3A (5-HT3AR). Interestingly, significant overlap was found between H4R and 5-HT3AR hit sets. The data indicates that dual active H4R and 5 HT3AR fragments have a higher complexity than the selective compounds which has important implications for chemical genomics approaches. The results of our fragment-based library screening study illustrate similarities in ligand recognition between H4R and 5-HT3AR and have important consequences for selectivity profiling in ongoing drug discovery efforts on H4R and 5-HT3AR. The affinity profiles of our fragment screening studies furthermore match the chemical properties of the H4R and 5-HT3AR binding sites and can be used to define molecular interaction fingerprints to guide the in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions and structure.

Verheij, Mark H.P.; de Graaf, Chris; de Kloe, Gerdien E.; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Vischer, Henry F.; Smits, Rogier A.; Zuiderveld, Obbe P.; Hulscher, Saskia; Silvestri, Linda; Thompson, Andrew J.; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J.P.

2011-01-01

183

Empirical complexities in the genetic foundations of lethal mutagenesis.  

PubMed

From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias-mutagenesis of virions-but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it. PMID:23934886

Bull, James J; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J

2013-08-09

184

Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

2002-01-01

185

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the lethal factor component of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin.  

PubMed Central

The lethal toxin of Bacillus anthracis consists of two components, protective antigen and lethal factor. Protective antigen is cleaved after binding to cell receptors, yielding a receptor-bound fragment that binds lethal factor. Sixty-one monoclonal antibodies to the lethal factor protein have been characterized for specificity, antibody subtype, and ability to neutralize lethal toxin. Three monoclonal antibodies (10G3, 2E7, and 3F6) neutralized lethal toxin in Fisher 344 rats. However, in a macrophage cytolysis assay, monoclonal antibodies 10G3, 2E7, 10G4, 10D4, 13D10, and 1D8, but not 3F6, were found to neutralize lethal toxin. Binding studies showed that five of the monoclonal antibodies that neutralized lethal toxin in the macrophage assay (10G3, 2E7, 10G4, 10D4, and 13D10) did so by inhibiting the binding of lethal factor to the protective antigen fragment bound to cells. Monoclonal antibody 1D8, which was also able to neutralize lethal toxin activity after lethal factor was prebound to cell-bound protective antigen, only partially inhibited binding of lethal factor to protective antigen. Monoclonal antibody 3F6 did not inhibit the binding of lethal factor to protective antigen. A competitive-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that at least four different antigenic regions on lethal factor were recognized by these seven neutralizing hybridomas. The anomalous behavior of 3F6 suggests that it may induce a conformational change in lethal factor. Differences in neutralizing activity of monoclonal antibodies were related to their relative affinity and epitope specificity and the type of assay.

Little, S F; Leppla, S H; Friedlander, A M

1990-01-01

186

PPS, a large multidomain protein, functions with sex-lethal to regulate alternative splicing in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing controls the expression of many genes, including the Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). Sxl expression is controlled via a negative regulatory mechanism where inclusion of the translation-terminating male exon is blocked in females. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism leading to exon skipping is autoregulatory and requires the SXL protein to antagonize exon inclusion by interacting with core spliceosomal proteins, including the U1 snRNP protein Sans-fille (SNF). In studies begun by screening for proteins that interact with SNF, we identified PPS, a previously uncharacterized protein, as a novel component of the machinery required for Sxl male exon skipping. PPS encodes a large protein with four signature motifs, PHD, BRK, TFS2M, and SPOC, typically found in proteins involved in transcription. We demonstrate that PPS has a direct role in Sxl male exon skipping by showing first that loss of function mutations have phenotypes indicative of Sxl misregulation and second that the PPS protein forms a complex with SXL and the unspliced Sxl RNA. In addition, we mapped the recruitment of PPS, SXL, and SNF along the Sxl gene using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which revealed that, like many other splicing factors, these proteins bind their RNA targets while in close proximity to the DNA. Interestingly, while SNF and SXL are specifically recruited to their predicted binding sites, PPS has a distinct pattern of accumulation along the Sxl gene, associating with a region that includes, but is not limited to, the SxlPm promoter. Together, these data indicate that PPS is different from other splicing factors involved in male-exon skipping and suggest, for the first time, a functional link between transcription and SXL-mediated alternative splicing. Loss of zygotic PPS function, however, is lethal to both sexes, indicating that its role may be of broad significance. PMID:20221253

Johnson, Matthew L; Nagengast, Alexis A; Salz, Helen K

2010-03-05

187

PPS, a Large Multidomain Protein, Functions with Sex-Lethal to Regulate Alternative Splicing in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing controls the expression of many genes, including the Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). Sxl expression is controlled via a negative regulatory mechanism where inclusion of the translation-terminating male exon is blocked in females. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism leading to exon skipping is autoregulatory and requires the SXL protein to antagonize exon inclusion by interacting with core spliceosomal proteins, including the U1 snRNP protein Sans-fille (SNF). In studies begun by screening for proteins that interact with SNF, we identified PPS, a previously uncharacterized protein, as a novel component of the machinery required for Sxl male exon skipping. PPS encodes a large protein with four signature motifs, PHD, BRK, TFS2M, and SPOC, typically found in proteins involved in transcription. We demonstrate that PPS has a direct role in Sxl male exon skipping by showing first that loss of function mutations have phenotypes indicative of Sxl misregulation and second that the PPS protein forms a complex with SXL and the unspliced Sxl RNA. In addition, we mapped the recruitment of PPS, SXL, and SNF along the Sxl gene using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which revealed that, like many other splicing factors, these proteins bind their RNA targets while in close proximity to the DNA. Interestingly, while SNF and SXL are specifically recruited to their predicted binding sites, PPS has a distinct pattern of accumulation along the Sxl gene, associating with a region that includes, but is not limited to, the SxlPm promoter. Together, these data indicate that PPS is different from other splicing factors involved in male-exon skipping and suggest, for the first time, a functional link between transcription and SXL–mediated alternative splicing. Loss of zygotic PPS function, however, is lethal to both sexes, indicating that its role may be of broad significance.

Johnson, Matthew L.; Nagengast, Alexis A.; Salz, Helen K.

2010-01-01

188

Off-target effects dominate a large-scale RNAi screen for modulators of the TGF-? pathway and reveal microRNA regulation of TGFBR2  

PubMed Central

Background RNA interference (RNAi) screens have been used to identify novel components of signal-transduction pathways in a variety of organisms. We performed a small interfering (si)RNA screen for novel members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? pathway in a human keratinocyte cell line. The TGF-? pathway is integral to mammalian cell proliferation and survival, and aberrant TGF-? responses have been strongly implicated in cancer. Results We assayed how strongly single siRNAs targeting each of 6,000 genes affect the nuclear translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SMAD2 reporter fusion protein. Surprisingly, we found no novel TGF-? pathway members, but we did find dominant off-target effects. All siRNA hits, whatever their intended direct target, reduced the mRNA levels of two known upstream pathway components, the TGF-? receptors 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), via micro (mi)RNA-like off-target effects. The scale of these off-target effects was remarkable, with at least 1% of the sequences in the unbiased siRNA library having measurable off-target effects on one of these two genes. It seems that relatively minor reductions of message levels via off-target effects can have dominant effects on an assay, if the pathway output is very dose-sensitive to levels of particular pathway components. In search of mechanistic details, we identified multiple miRNA-like sequence characteristics that correlated with the off-target effects. Based on these results, we identified miR-20a, miR-34a and miR-373 as miRNAs that inhibit TGFBR2 expression. Conclusions Our findings point to potential improvements for miRNA/siRNA target prediction methods, and suggest that the type II TGF-? receptor is regulated by multiple miRNAs. We also conclude that the risk of obtaining misleading results in siRNA screens using large libraries with single-assay readout is substantial. Control and rescue experiments are essential in the interpretation of such screens, and improvements to the methods to reduce or predict RNAi off-target effects would be beneficial.

2011-01-01

189

Zygotic Lethal Mutations with Maternal Effect Phenotypes in Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Loci on the Second and Third Chromosomes Identified by P-Element-Induced Mutations  

PubMed Central

Screens for zygotic lethal mutations that are associated with specific maternal effect lethal phenotypes have only been conducted for the X chromosome. To identify loci on the autosomes, which represent four-fifths of the Drosophila genome, we have used the autosomal ``FLP-DFS'' technique to screen a collection of 496 P element-induced mutations established by the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project. We have identified 64 new loci whose gene products are required for proper egg formation or normal embryonic development.

Perrimon, N.; Lanjuin, A.; Arnold, C.; Noll, E.

1996-01-01

190

High-Throughput Screening Reveals a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of the Renal Outer Medullary Potassium Channel and Kir7.1  

PubMed Central

The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) is expressed in the kidney tubule and critically regulates sodium and potassium balance. The physiological functions of other inward rectifying K+ (Kir) channels expressed in the nephron, such as Kir7.1, are less well understood in part due to the lack of selective pharmacological probes targeting inward rectifiers. In an effort to identify Kir channel probes, we performed a fluorescence-based, high-throughput screen (HTS) of 126,009 small molecules for modulators of ROMK function. Several antagonists were identified in the screen. One compound, termed VU590, inhibits ROMK with submicromolar affinity, but has no effect on Kir2.1 or Kir4.1. Low micromolar concentrations inhibit Kir7.1, making VU590 the first small-molecule inhibitor of Kir7.1. Structure-activity relationships of VU590 were defined using small-scale parallel synthesis. Electrophysiological analysis indicates that VU590 is an intracellular pore blocker. VU590 and other compounds identified by HTS will be instrumental in defining Kir channel structure, physiology, and therapeutic potential.

Lewis, L. Michelle; Bhave, Gautam; Chauder, Brian A.; Banerjee, Sreedatta; Lornsen, Katharina A.; Redha, Rey; Fallen, Katherine; Lindsley, Craig W.; Weaver, C. David

2009-01-01

191

Identification and classification of genes required for tolerance to freeze-thaw stress revealed by genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains.  

PubMed

Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to freeze-thaw stress during frozen-dough baking. To clarify the genes required for freeze-thaw tolerance, genome-wide screening was performed using the complete deletion strain collection of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screening identified 58 gene deletions that conferred freeze-thaw sensitivity. These genes were then classified based on their cellular function and on the localization of their products. The results showed that the genes required for freeze-thaw tolerance were frequently involved in vacuole functions and cell wall biogenesis. The highest numbers of gene products were components of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Next, the cross-sensitivity of the freeze-thaw-sensitive mutants to oxidative stress and to cell wall stress was studied; both of these are environmental stresses closely related to freeze-thaw stress. The results showed that defects in the functions of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase conferred sensitivity to oxidative stress and to cell wall stress. In contrast, defects in gene products involved in cell wall assembly conferred sensitivity to cell wall stress but not to oxidative stress. Our results suggest the presence of at least two different mechanisms of freeze-thaw injury: oxidative stress generated during the freeze-thaw process, and defects in cell wall assembly. PMID:16989656

Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide; Murata, Yoshinori; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

2006-09-21

192

Screening in ALS and FTD patients reveals 3 novel UBQLN2 mutations outside the PXX domain and a pure FTD phenotype.  

PubMed

Mutations in UBQLN2 have recently been shown to cause dominant X-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS plus frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Information on their frequency in different populations is still rare, and a pure FTD phenotype has not yet been reported. Moreover, the mutational spectrum of known UBQLN2 mutations is still limited to its PXX repeat region. Based on a screening of 206 ALS and FTD patients, we here report 3 novel UBQLN2 mutations, accounting for 1.2% (2/161) ALS and 2.2% (1/45) FTD patients, including a patient with pure FTD. All mutations were located in highly conserved domains outside the PXX repeat region and not observed in 1450 ethnically matched control X-chromosomes. All affected patients presented with apparently sporadic disease. UBQLN2 mutations are rare in Central European ALS and FTD patients, but contribute significantly to patients with seemingly sporadic disease. UBQLN2 is able to cause any disease on the ALS-FTD continuum, including pure FTD. Because the pathogenic mechanism of UBQLN2 mutations is not limited to its PXX region, UBQLN2 screening in neurodegenerative patients should not be limited to this region. PMID:22892309

Synofzik, Matthis; Maetzler, Walter; Grehl, Torsten; Prudlo, Johannes; Vom Hagen, Jennifer Müller; Haack, Tobias; Rebassoo, Piret; Munz, Marita; Schöls, Ludger; Biskup, Saskia

2012-08-11

193

Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, S. G.

1995-01-01

194

Screening for and purification of novel self-aggregatable lectins reveal a new functional lectin group in the bark of leguminous trees.  

PubMed

A solubility-insolubility transition assay was used to screen the bark and stems of seven leguminous trees and plants for self-aggregatable lectins. Novel lectins were found in two trees, Robinia pseudoacacia and Wisteria floribunda, but not in the leguminous plants. The Robinia lectin was isolated from coexisting lectin by combined affinity chromatographies on various sugar adsorbents. The purified lectins proved to be differently glycosylated glycoproteins. One lectin exhibited the remarkable characteristics of self-aggregatable lectins: localization in the bark of legume trees, self-aggregation dissociated by N-acetylglucosamine/mannose, and coexistence with N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose-specific lectins, which are potential endogenous receptors. Self-aggregatable lectins are a functional lectin group that can link enhanced photosynthesis to dissociation of glycoproteins. PMID:16216416

Ina, Chieko; Sano, Kotone; Yamamoto-Takahashi, Makiko; Matsushita-Oikawa, Hiroko; Takekawa, Hiroko; Takehara, Yayoi; Ueda, Haruko; Ogawa, Haruko

2005-09-16

195

Drug Repurposing Screen Reveals FDA-Approved Inhibitors of Human HMG-CoA Reductase and Isoprenoid Synthesis That Block Cryptosporidium parvum Growth  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis in humans, can result in fulminant diarrhea and death in AIDS patients and chronic infection and stunting in children. Nitazoxanide, the current standard of care, has limited efficacy in children and is no more effective than placebo in patients with advanced AIDS. Unfortunately, the lack of financial incentives and the technical difficulties associated with working with Cryptosporidium parasites have crippled efforts to develop effective treatments. In order to address these obstacles, we developed and validated (Z? score = 0.21 to 0.47) a cell-based high-throughput assay and screened a library of drug repurposing candidates (the NIH Clinical Collections), with the hopes of identifying safe, FDA-approved drugs to treat cryptosporidiosis. Our screen yielded 21 compounds with confirmed activity against C. parvum growth at concentrations of <10 ?M, many of which had well-defined mechanisms of action, making them useful tools to study basic biology in addition to being potential therapeutics. Additional work, including structure-activity relationship studies, identified the human 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor itavastatin as a potent inhibitor of C. parvum growth (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 0.62 ?M). Bioinformatic analysis of the Cryptosporidium genomes indicated that the parasites lack all known enzymes required for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. Additionally, itavastatin-induced growth inhibition of C. parvum was partially reversed by the addition of exogenous isopentenyl pyrophosphate, suggesting that itavastatin reduces Cryptosporidium growth via on-target inhibition of host HMG-CoA reductase and that the parasite is dependent on the host cell for synthesis of isoprenoid precursors.

Bessoff, Kovi; Sateriale, Adam; Lee, K. Kyungae

2013-01-01

196

A Genetic Screen for Dihydropyridine (DHP)-Resistant Worms Reveals New Residues Required for DHP-Blockage of Mammalian Calcium Channels  

PubMed Central

Dihydropyridines (DHPs) are L-type calcium channel (Cav1) blockers prescribed to treat several diseases including hypertension. Cav1 channels normally exist in three states: a resting closed state, an open state that is triggered by membrane depolarization, followed by a non-conducting inactivated state that is triggered by the influx of calcium ions, and a rapid change in voltage. DHP binding is thought to alter the conformation of the channel, possibly by engaging a mechanism similar to voltage dependent inactivation, and locking a calcium ion in the pore, thereby blocking channel conductance. As a Cav1 channel crystal structure is lacking, the current model of DHP action has largely been achieved by investigating the role of candidate Cav1 residues in mediating DHP-sensitivity. To better understand DHP-block and identify additional Cav1 residues important for DHP-sensitivity, we screened 440,000 randomly mutated Caenorhabditis elegans genomes for worms resistant to DHP-induced growth defects. We identified 30 missense mutations in the worm Cav1 pore-forming (?1) subunit, including eleven in conserved residues known to be necessary for DHP-binding. The remaining polymorphisms are in eight conserved residues not previously associated with DHP-sensitivity. Intriguingly, all of the worm mutants that we analyzed phenotypically exhibited increased channel activity. We also created orthologous mutations in the rat ?1C subunit and examined the DHP-block of current through the mutant channels in culture. Six of the seven mutant channels examined either decreased the DHP-sensitivity of the channel and/or exhibited significant residual current at DHP concentrations sufficient to block wild-type channels. Our results further support the idea that DHP-block is intimately associated with voltage dependent inactivation and underscores the utility of C. elegans as a screening tool to identify residues important for DHP interaction with mammalian Cav1 channels.

Kostelecki, Wojciech; Ricker, Nicole; Selman, Guillermo; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Roy, Peter John

2008-01-01

197

A Genome-wide In Vitro Bacterial-Infection Screen Reveals Human Variation in the Host Response Associated with Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in cataloguing common genetic variation has made possible genome-wide studies that are beginning to elucidate the causes and consequences of our genetic differences. Approaches that provide a mechanistic understanding of how genetic variants function to alter disease susceptibility and why they were substrates of natural selection would complement other approaches to human-genome analysis. Here we use a novel cell-based screen of bacterial infection to identify human variation in Salmonella-induced cell death. A loss-of-function allele of CARD8, a reported inhibitor of the proinflammatory protease caspase-1, was associated with increased cell death in vitro (p = 0.013). The validity of this association was demonstrated through overexpression of alternative alleles and RNA interference in cells of varying genotype. Comparison of mammalian CARD8 orthologs and examination of variation among different human populations suggest that the increase in infectious-disease burden associated with larger animal groups (i.e., herds and colonies), and possibly human population expansion, may have naturally selected for loss of CARD8. We also find that the loss-of-function CARD8 allele shows a modest association with an increased risk of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a small study (p = 0.05). Therefore, a by-product of the selected benefit of loss of CARD8 could be increased inflammatory diseases. These results demonstrate the utility of genome-wide cell-based association screens with microbes in the identification of naturally selected variants that can impact human health.

Ko, Dennis C.; Shukla, Kajal P.; Fong, Christine; Wasnick, Michael; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Holden, Tarah D.; O'Keefe, Grant E.; Van Yserloo, Brian; Akey, Joshua M.; Miller, Samuel I.

2009-01-01

198

Drug repurposing screen reveals FDA-approved inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase and isoprenoid synthesis that block Cryptosporidium parvum growth.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis in humans, can result in fulminant diarrhea and death in AIDS patients and chronic infection and stunting in children. Nitazoxanide, the current standard of care, has limited efficacy in children and is no more effective than placebo in patients with advanced AIDS. Unfortunately, the lack of financial incentives and the technical difficulties associated with working with Cryptosporidium parasites have crippled efforts to develop effective treatments. In order to address these obstacles, we developed and validated (Z' score = 0.21 to 0.47) a cell-based high-throughput assay and screened a library of drug repurposing candidates (the NIH Clinical Collections), with the hopes of identifying safe, FDA-approved drugs to treat cryptosporidiosis. Our screen yielded 21 compounds with confirmed activity against C. parvum growth at concentrations of <10 ?M, many of which had well-defined mechanisms of action, making them useful tools to study basic biology in addition to being potential therapeutics. Additional work, including structure-activity relationship studies, identified the human 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor itavastatin as a potent inhibitor of C. parvum growth (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 0.62 ?M). Bioinformatic analysis of the Cryptosporidium genomes indicated that the parasites lack all known enzymes required for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. Additionally, itavastatin-induced growth inhibition of C. parvum was partially reversed by the addition of exogenous isopentenyl pyrophosphate, suggesting that itavastatin reduces Cryptosporidium growth via on-target inhibition of host HMG-CoA reductase and that the parasite is dependent on the host cell for synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. PMID:23380723

Bessoff, Kovi; Sateriale, Adam; Lee, K Kyungae; Huston, Christopher D

2013-02-04

199

Directed Energy Non-lethal Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This basic research initiative has been an ongoing interdisciplinary effort to lay the foundation for developing, novel effective and safe non- lethal technologies that alter skeletal muscle contraction and/or neural functioning (i.e., neurosecretion) via...

G. L. Craviso I. Chatterjee

2010-01-01

200

Reaming experiments for the lethality test system  

SciTech Connect

Various reaming techniques were tried for use on the barrel of the Lethality Test System railgun. This report covers the successes and failures of the reamers and the techniques that were tried. 5 figs.

Hooten, D.; Stanley, P.

1988-01-01

201

Hypomorphic Lethal Mutations and Their Implications for the Interpretation of Lethal Complementation Studies in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In a small region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, we have found that a third of the mutations that appear to act as lethals in segmental haploids are viable in homozygous mutant individuals. These viable mutations fall into four complementation groups. The most reasonable explanation of these mutations is that they are a subset of functionally hypomorphic alleles of essential genes: hypomorphic mutations with activity levels above a threshold required for survival, but below twice that level, should behave in this manner. We refer to these mutations as "haplo-specific lethal mutations." In studies of autosomal lethals, haplo-specific lethal mutations can be included in lethal complementation tests without being identified as such. Accidental inclusion of disguised haplo-specific lethals in autosomal complementation tests will generate spurious examples of interallelic complementation.

Nash, David; Janca, Frank C.

1983-01-01

202

Crystallographic studies of the Anthrax lethal toxin. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The lethal form of Anthrax results from the inhalation of anthrax spores. Death is primarily due to the effects of the lethal toxin (Protective Antigen (PA) + Lethal Factor) from the causative agent, Bacillus anthracis. All the Anthrax vaccines currently in use or under development contain or produce PA, the major antigenic component of anthrax toxin, and there is a clear need for an improved vaccine for human use. In the previous report we described the first atomic resolution structure of PA, revealing that the molecule is composed largely of beta-sheets organized into four domains. This information can be used in the design. of recombinant PA vaccines. In this report we describe additional features of the full-length PA molecule derived from further crystallographic refinement and careful examination of the structure. We compare two crystal forms of PA grown at different pH values and discuss the functional implications. A complete definition of the function of each domain must await the crystal structure of the PA63 heptamer. We have grown crystals of the heptamer under both detergent and detergent-free conditions, and made substantial progress towards the crystal structure. The mechanism of anthrax intoxication in the light of our results is reviewed.

Frederick, C.A.

1996-07-01

203

Dominant lethal mutations in male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant lethal mutations are due to chromosome aberrations as demonstrated by analysis of first cleavage. With a sample size of 40–45 mice per dose the induction of dominant lethal mutations by 10 mg\\/kg of methyl methanesulfonat (MMS) can be detected in spermatids in the mating interval 9–12 days posttreatment (6–11%). In the same mating interval a dose of 150 mg\\/kg

U. H. Ehling

1977-01-01

204

Genome-wide RNAi Screen Reveals a New Role of a WNT/CTNNB1 Signaling Pathway as Negative Regulator of Virus-induced Innate Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-? (IFNB1) promoter following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of ?-catenin (CTNNB1) upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fink, Karin; Pham, Tram; Raymond, Valerie-Ann; Audette, Karine; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Servant, Marc; Bilodeau, Marc; Cohen, Eric; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Lamarre, Daniel

2013-01-01

205

A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals that mRNA decapping restricts bunyaviral replication by limiting the pools of Dcp2-accessible targets for cap-snatching.  

PubMed

Bunyaviruses are an emerging group of medically important viruses, many of which are transmitted from insects to mammals. To identify host factors that impact infection, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila and identified 131 genes that impacted infection of the mosquito-transmitted bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Dcp2, the catalytic component of the mRNA decapping machinery, and two decapping activators, DDX6 and LSM7, were antiviral against disparate bunyaviruses in both insect cells and adult flies. Bunyaviruses 5' cap their mRNAs by "cap-snatching" the 5' ends of poorly defined host mRNAs. We found that RVFV cap-snatches the 5' ends of Dcp2 targeted mRNAs, including cell cycle-related genes. Loss of Dcp2 allows increased viral transcription without impacting viral mRNA stability, while ectopic expression of Dcp2 impedes viral transcription. Furthermore, arresting cells in late S/early G2 led to increased Dcp2 mRNA targets and increased RVFV replication. Therefore, RVFV competes for the Dcp2-accessible mRNA pool, which is dynamically regulated and can present a bottleneck for viral replication. PMID:23824541

Hopkins, Kaycie C; McLane, Laura M; Maqbool, Tariq; Panda, Debasis; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Cherry, Sara

2013-07-01

206

Yeast Three-Hybrid Screening of Rous Sarcoma Virus Mutants with Randomly Mutagenized Minimal Packaging Signals Reveals Regions Important for Gag Interactions  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that the yeast three-hybrid system provides a genetic assay of both RNA and protein components for avian retroviral RNA encapsidation. In the current study, we used this assay to precisely define cis-acting determinants involved in avian leukosis sarcoma virus packaging RNA binding to Gag protein. In vivo screening of Rous sarcoma virus mutants was performed with randomly mutated minimal packaging sequences (M?) made using PCR amplification after cotransformation with Gag?PR protein into yeast cells. Colonies with low ?-galactosidase activity were analyzed to locate mutations in M? sequences affecting binding to Gag proteins. This genetic assay delineated secondary structural elements that are important for efficient RNA binding, including a single-stranded small bulge containing the initiation codon for uORF3, as well as adjacent stem structures. This implies a possible tertiary structure favoring the high-affinity binding sites for Gag. In most cases, results from the three-hybrid assay were well correlated with those from the viral RNA packaging assays. The results from random mutagenesis using the rapid three-hybrid binding assay are consistent with those from site-directed mutagenesis using in vivo packaging assays.

Lee, Eun-Gyung; Linial, Maxine L.

2000-01-01

207

Genetic Screening Identifies Cyanogenesis-Deficient Mutants of Lotus japonicus and Reveals Enzymatic Specificity in Hydroxynitrile Glucoside Metabolism[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cyanogenesis, the release of hydrogen cyanide from damaged plant tissues, involves the enzymatic degradation of amino acid–derived cyanogenic glucosides (?-hydroxynitrile glucosides) by specific ?-glucosidases. Release of cyanide functions as a defense mechanism against generalist herbivores. We developed a high-throughput screening method and used it to identify cyanogenesis deficient (cyd) mutants in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Mutants in both biosynthesis and catabolism of cyanogenic glucosides were isolated and classified following metabolic profiling of cyanogenic glucoside content. L. japonicus produces two cyanogenic glucosides: linamarin (derived from Val) and lotaustralin (derived from Ile). Their biosynthesis may involve the same set of enzymes for both amino acid precursors. However, in one class of mutants, accumulation of lotaustralin and linamarin was uncoupled. Catabolic mutants could be placed in two complementation groups, one of which, cyd2, encoded the ?-glucosidase BGD2. Despite the identification of nine independent cyd2 alleles, no mutants involving the gene encoding a closely related ?-glucosidase, BGD4, were identified. This indicated that BGD4 plays no role in cyanogenesis in L. japonicus in vivo. Biochemical analysis confirmed that BGD4 cannot hydrolyze linamarin or lotaustralin and in L. japonicus is specific for breakdown of related hydroxynitrile glucosides, such as rhodiocyanoside A. By contrast, BGD2 can hydrolyze both cyanogenic glucosides and rhodiocyanosides. Our genetic analysis demonstrated specificity in the catabolic pathways for hydroxynitrile glucosides and implied specificity in their biosynthetic pathways as well. In addition, it has provided important tools for elucidating and potentially modifying cyanogenesis pathways in plants.

Takos, Adam; Lai, Daniela; Mikkelsen, Lisbeth; Abou Hachem, Maher; Shelton, Dale; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Wang, Trevor L.; Martin, Cathie; Rook, Fred

2010-01-01

208

An extended association screen in multiple sclerosis using 202 microsatellite markers targeting apoptosis-related genes does not reveal new predisposing factors  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis, the programmed death of cells, plays a distinct role in the etiopathogenesis of Multiple sclerosis (MS), a common disease of the central nervous system with complex genetic background. Yet, it is not clear whether the impact of apoptosis is due to altered apoptotic behaviour caused by variations of apoptosis-related genes. Instead, apoptosis in MS may also represent a secondary response to cellular stress during acute inflammation in the central nervous system. Here, we screened 202 apoptosis-related genes for association by genotyping 202 microsatellite markers in initially 160 MS patients and 160 controls, both divided in 4 sets of pooled DNA samples, respectively. When applying Bonferroni correction, no significant differences in allele frequencies were detected between MS patients and controls. Nevertheless, we chose 7 markers for retyping in individual DNA samples, thereby eliminating 6 markers from the list of candidates. The remaining candidate, the ERBB3 gene microsatellite, was genotyped in additional 245 MS patients and controls. No association of the ERBB3 marker with the disease was detected in these additional cohorts. In consequence, we did not find further evidence for apoptosis-related genes as predisposition factors in MS.

Godde, Rene; Brune, Stefanie; Jagiello, Peter; Sindern, Eckhart; Haupts, Michael; Schimrigk, Sebastian; Muller, Norbert; Epplen, Jorg T

2005-01-01

209

A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a Trio-regulated Rho GTPase circuitry transducing mitogenic signals initiated by G protein-coupled receptors.  

PubMed

Activating mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, encoding members of the G?(q) family of G protein ? subunits, are the driver oncogenes in uveal melanoma, and mutations in Gq-linked G protein-coupled receptors have been identified recently in numerous human malignancies. How G?(q) and its coupled receptors transduce mitogenic signals is still unclear because of the complexity of signaling events perturbed upon Gq activation. Using a synthetic-biology approach and a genome-wide RNAi screen, we found that a highly conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Trio, is essential for activating Rho- and Rac-regulated signaling pathways acting on JNK and p38, and thereby transducing proliferative signals from G?(q) to the nucleus independently of phospholipase C-?. Indeed, whereas many biological responses elicited by Gq depend on the transient activation of second-messenger systems, Gq utilizes a hard-wired protein-protein-interaction-based signaling circuitry to achieve the sustained stimulation of proliferative pathways, thereby controlling normal and aberrant cell growth. PMID:23177739

Vaqué, Jose P; Dorsam, Robert T; Feng, Xiaodong; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Forsthoefel, David J; Chen, Qianming; Debant, Anne; Seeger, Mark A; Ksander, Bruce R; Teramoto, Hidemi; Gutkind, J Silvio

2012-11-21

210

Screening of different metal oxide nanoparticles reveals selective toxicity and inflammatory potential of silica nanoparticles in lung epithelial cells and macrophages.  

PubMed

In cell culture studies, foetal calf serum (FCS) comprising numerous different proteins is added, which might coat the surface of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and thus could profoundly alter their biological activities. In this study, a panel of industrially most relevant metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was screened for toxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages in the presence and absence of FCS. In medium without FCS amorphous SiO2-NPs were the most cytotoxic NPs and induced a significant pro-inflammatory response in both cell types. An increased anti-oxidative response after exposure to SiO2-NPs was, however, only observed in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, pre-coating of SiO2-NPs with FCS proteins or simply bovine serum albumin abrogated responses in A549 lung epithelial cells. Thus, the protein corona bound to the surface of SiO2-NPs suppresses their biological effects, an issue which needs to be more carefully considered for in vitro-in vivo extrapolations. PMID:22276741

Panas, A; Marquardt, C; Nalcaci, O; Bockhorn, H; Baumann, W; Paur, H-R; Mülhopt, S; Diabaté, S; Weiss, C

2012-01-26

211

A touch screen-automated cognitive test battery reveals impaired attention, memory abnormalities, and increased response inhibition in the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with abundant ?-amyloid develop memory impairments. However, multiple nonmnemonic cognitive domains such as attention and executive control are also compromised early in AD individuals, but have not been routinely assessed in animal models. Here, we assessed the cognitive abilities of TgCRND8 mice—a widely used model of ?-amyloid pathology—with a touch screen-based automated test battery. The test battery comprises highly translatable tests of multiple cognitive constructs impaired in human AD, such as memory, attention, and response control, as well as appropriate control tasks. We found that familial AD mutations affect not only memory, but also cause significant alterations of sustained attention and behavioral flexibility. Because changes in attention and response inhibition may affect performance on tests of other cognitive abilities including memory, our findings have important consequences for the assessment of disease mechanisms and therapeutics in animal models of AD. A more comprehensive phenotyping with specialized, multicomponent cognitive test batteries for mice might significantly advance translation from preclinical mouse studies to the clinic.

Romberg, Carola; Horner, Alexa E.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

212

Cyclic AMP Effectors in African Trypanosomes Revealed by Genome-Scale RNA Interference Library Screening for Resistance to the Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor CpdA.  

PubMed

One of the most promising new targets for trypanocidal drugs to emerge in recent years is the cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity encoded by TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2. These genes were genetically confirmed as essential, and a high-affinity inhibitor, CpdA, displays potent antitrypanosomal activity. To identify effectors of the elevated cAMP levels resulting from CpdA action and, consequently, potential sites for adaptations giving resistance to PDE inhibitors, resistance to the drug was induced. Selection of mutagenized trypanosomes resulted in resistance to CpdA as well as cross-resistance to membrane-permeable cAMP analogues but not to currently used trypanocidal drugs. Resistance was not due to changes in cAMP levels or in PDEB genes. A second approach, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) library screen, returned four genes giving resistance to CpdA upon knockdown. Validation by independent RNAi strategies confirmed resistance to CpdA and suggested a role for the identified cAMP Response Proteins (CARPs) in cAMP action. CARP1 is unique to kinetoplastid parasites and has predicted cyclic nucleotide binding-like domains, and RNAi repression resulted in >100-fold resistance. CARP2 and CARP4 are hypothetical conserved proteins associated with the eukaryotic flagellar proteome or with flagellar function, with an orthologue of CARP4 implicated in human disease. CARP3 is a hypothetical protein, unique to Trypanosoma. CARP1 to CARP4 likely represent components of a novel cAMP signaling pathway in the parasite. As cAMP metabolism is validated as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei, cAMP effectors highly divergent from the mammalian host, such as CARP1, lend themselves to further pharmacological development. PMID:23877697

Gould, Matthew K; Bachmaier, Sabine; Ali, Juma A M; Alsford, Sam; Tagoe, Daniel N A; Munday, Jane C; Schnaufer, Achim C; Horn, David; Boshart, Michael; de Koning, Harry P

2013-07-22

213

Isotope-Assisted Screening for Iron-Containing Metabolites Reveals a High Degree of Diversity among Known and Unknown Siderophores Produced by Trichoderma spp.  

PubMed Central

Due to low iron availability under environmental conditions, many microorganisms excrete iron-chelating agents (siderophores) to cover their iron demands. A novel screening approach for the detection of siderophores using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was developed to study the production of extracellular siderophores of 10 wild-type Trichoderma strains. For annotation of siderophores, an in-house library comprising 422 known microbial siderophores was established. After 96 h of cultivation, 18 different iron chelators were detected. Four of those (dimerum acid, fusigen, coprogen, and ferricrocin) were identified by measuring authentic standards. cis-Fusarinine, fusarinine A and B, and des-diserylglycylferrirhodin were annotated based on high-accuracy mass spectral analysis. In total, at least 10 novel iron-containing metabolites of the hydroxamate type were found. On average Trichoderma spp. produced 12 to 14 siderophores, with 6 common to all species tested. The highest number (15) of siderophores was detected for the most common environmental opportunistic and strongly fungicidic species, Trichoderma harzianum, which, however, did not have any unique compounds. The tropical species T. reesei had the most distinctive pattern, producing one unique siderophore (cis-fusarinine) and three others that were present only in T. harzianum and not in other species. The diversity of siderophores did not directly correlate with the antifungal potential of the species tested. Our data suggest that the high diversity of siderophores produced by Trichoderma spp. might be the result of further modifications of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) products and not due to diverse NRPS-encoding genes.

Lehner, Sylvia M.; Atanasova, Lea; Neumann, Nora K. N.; Krska, Rudolf; Lemmens, Marc; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2013-01-01

214

Functional Enhancement of AT1R Potency in the Presence of the TP?R Is Revealed by a Comprehensive 7TM Receptor Co-Expression Screen  

PubMed Central

Background Functional cross-talk between seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors can dramatically alter their pharmacological properties, both in vitro and in vivo. This represents an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics that potentially target more specific biological effects while causing fewer adverse events. Although several studies convincingly have established the existence of 7TM receptor cross-talk, little is known about the frequencey and biological significance of this phenomenon. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the extent of synergism in 7TM receptor signaling, we took a comprehensive approach and co-expressed 123 different 7TM receptors together with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and analyzed how each receptor affected the angiotensin II (AngII) response. To monitor the effect we used integrative receptor activation/signaling assay called Receptor Selection and Amplification Technology (R-SAT). In this screen the thromboxane A2? receptor (TP?R) was the only receptor which significantly enhanced the AngII-mediated response. The TP?R-mediated enhancement of AngII signaling was significantly reduced when a signaling deficient receptor mutant (TP?R R130V) was co-expressed instead of the wild-type TP?R, and was completely blocked both by TP?R antagonists and COX inhibitors inhibiting formation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Conclusions/Significance We found a functional enhancement of AT1R only when co-expressed with TP?R, but not with 122 other 7TM receptors. In addition, the TP?R must be functionally active, indicating the AT1R enhancement is mediated by a paracrine mechanism. Since we only found one receptor enhancing AT1R potency, our results suggest that functional augmentation through 7TM receptor cross-talk is a rare event that may require specific conditions to occur.

Hansen, Jonas Tind; Lyngs?, Christina; Speerschneider, Tobias; Hansen, Pernille B. L.; Gales, Celine; Weiner, David M.; Sheikh, S?ren P.; Burstein, Ethan S.; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

2013-01-01

215

Developing a Combined Lethal and Non-Lethal Capability for the Individual Marine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Marine Corps should research, develop, and field a new weapon that provides both a lethal and non-lethal capability for the individual Marine. Discussion: The future of military conflict will include a cluttered battlefield mixed with bo...

G. T. Polland

2010-01-01

216

Lethality and synthetic lethality in the genome-wide metabolic network of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent genomic analyses on the cellular metabolic network show that reaction flux across enzymes are diverse and exhibit power-law behavior in its distribution. While intuition might suggest that the reactions with larger fluxes are more likely to be lethal under the blockade of its catalysing gene products or gene knockouts, we find, by in silico flux analysis, that the lethality

Cheol-Min Ghim; Kwang-Il Goh; Byungnam Kahng

2005-01-01

217

Lethality and synthetic lethality in the genome-wide metabolic network of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent genomic analyses on the cellular metabolic network show that reaction flux across enzymes are diverse and exhibit power-law behavior in its distribution. While one may guess that the reactions with larger fluxes are more likely to be lethal under the blockade of its catalyzing gene products or gene knockouts, we find, by in silico flux analysis, that the lethality

C.-M. Ghim; K.-I. Goh; B. Kahng

2004-01-01

218

Direct activation of Sex-lethal transcription by the Drosophila runt protein.  

PubMed

Runt functions as a transcriptional regulator in multiple developmental pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. Recent evidence indicates that Runt represses the transcription of several downstream target genes in the segmentation pathway. Here we demonstrate that runt also functions to activate transcription. The initial expression of the female-specific sex-determining gene Sex-lethal in the blastoderm embryo requires runt activity. Consistent with a role as a direct activator, Runt shows sequence-specific binding to multiple sites in the Sex-lethal early promoter. Using an in vivo transient assay, we demonstrate that Runt's DNA-binding activity is essential for Sex-lethal activation in vivo. These experiments further reveal that increasing the dosage of runt alone is sufficient for triggering the transcriptional activation of Sex-lethal in males. In addition, a Runt fusion protein, containing a heterologous transcriptional activation domain activates Sex-lethal expression, indicating that this regulation is direct and not via repression of other repressors. Moreover, we demonstrate that a small segment of the Sex-lethal early promoter that contains Runt-binding sites mediates Runt-dependent transcriptional activation in vivo. PMID:9834198

Kramer, S G; Jinks, T M; Schedl, P; Gergen, J P

1999-01-01

219

A draft genome sequence and functional screen reveals the repertoire of type III secreted proteins of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci 11528  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial pathogen that causes disease on a broad range of economically important plant species. Pathogenicity of P. syringae strains is dependent on the type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of up to about thirty virulence 'effector' proteins into the host cytoplasm where they subvert the eukaryotic cell physiology and disrupt host defences. P. syringae pathovar tabaci naturally causes disease on wild tobacco, the model member of the Solanaceae, a family that includes many crop species as well as on soybean. Results We used the 'next-generation' Illumina sequencing platform and the Velvet short-read assembly program to generate a 145X deep 6,077,921 nucleotide draft genome sequence for P. syringae pathovar tabaci strain 11528. From our draft assembly, we predicted 5,300 potential genes encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids long, of which 303 (5.72%) had no significant sequence similarity to those encoded by the three previously fully sequenced P. syringae genomes. Of the core set of Hrp Outer Proteins that are conserved in three previously fully sequenced P. syringae strains, most were also conserved in strain 11528, including AvrE1, HopAH2, HopAJ2, HopAK1, HopAN1, HopI, HopJ1, HopX1, HrpK1 and HrpW1. However, the hrpZ1 gene is partially deleted and hopAF1 is completely absent in 11528. The draft genome of strain 11528 also encodes close homologues of HopO1, HopT1, HopAH1, HopR1, HopV1, HopAG1, HopAS1, HopAE1, HopAR1, HopF1, and HopW1 and a degenerate HopM1'. Using a functional screen, we confirmed that hopO1, hopT1, hopAH1, hopM1', hopAE1, hopAR1, and hopAI1' are part of the virulence-associated HrpL regulon, though the hopAI1' and hopM1' sequences were degenerate with premature stop codons. We also discovered two additional HrpL-regulated effector candidates and an HrpL-regulated distant homologue of avrPto1. Conclusion The draft genome sequence facilitates the continued development of P. syringae pathovar tabaci on wild tobacco as an attractive model system for studying bacterial disease on plants. The catalogue of effectors sheds further light on the evolution of pathogenicity and host-specificity as well as providing a set of molecular tools for the study of plant defence mechanisms. We also discovered several large genomic regions in Pta 11528 that do not share detectable nucleotide sequence similarity with previously sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. These regions may include horizontally acquired islands that possibly contribute to pathogenicity or epiphytic fitness of Pta 11528.

Studholme, David J; Ibanez, Selena Gimenez; MacLean, Daniel; Dangl, Jeffery L; Chang, Jeff H; Rathjen, John P

2009-01-01

220

Development of ELISA based detection system for lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Clostridium sordellii and its toxins are associated with diseases in animals as well as human. C. sordellii produces two protein toxins (lethal toxin and haemorrhagic toxin). Lethal toxin has gained more importance due its high toxicity. The present study was carried out to develop a sandwich ELISA for detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii. Methods: The catalytic domain (1.6kb) of lethal toxin of C. sordellii was PCR amplified, cloned into pQE30 UA vector and transformed into Escherichia coli SG 13009. Expression conditions were optimized and the recombinant protein was purified under native condition using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Antibody was generated against the purified recombinant protein using Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants (FCA and FIA) in BALB/c mice and rabbit. A sandwich ELISA was optimized for the detection of lethal toxin. Results: The maximum recombinant protein expression was achieved at 0.5 mM IPTG (isopropylthiogalactoside) induction 4.0 h of post-induction. The polyclonal antibody raised in mice and rabbit showed a titre up to 1:512000. The produced antibody was highly sensitive with the detection limit of 0.3 ng/ml of lethal toxin at 1:4000 dilutions of mice (capturing) and rabbit (revealing) antibody. Interpretation & conclusions: An ELISA based detection system was developed for the detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii. The developed detection system was found to be specific as there was no cross-reactivity with any other clostridial toxins. It will be useful for the detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii in clinical and environmental samples.

Arya, Preetika; Ponmariappan, S.; Singh, Lokendra; Kumar, Om

2013-01-01

221

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating cancers that harbor cohesin mutations.

Barrett, Irene; Ferree, Elizabeth; van Pel, Derek M.; Ushey, Kevin; Sipahimalani, Payal; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann M.; Hieter, Philip

2012-01-01

222

Dominant lethal testing of theobromine in rats.  

PubMed

Theobromine (TBR) 3,7-dimethylxanthine, the major purine alkaloid present in chocolate and cocoa products, was evaluated for dominant lethality in male Sprague-Dawley rats after administration of subacute oral doses of 0, 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg. Dominant lethal mutations were assessed weekly for a 10-week period by killing the females 13 days after the midweek of presumptive mating with treated males and counting total implants (living and dead), corpora lutea and number of pregnant females. Dead implants per total implants and preimplantation loss per total corpora lutea were evaluated statistically. No significant dose-dependent effects were observed in the % dead implants of preimplantation loss throughout the study; pregnancy rate averaged 94%. These results indicated no induction of dominant lethal mutations or adverse effects on pregnancy rate after TBR doses equivalent to 25-225 times the maximum human consumption level. PMID:6701919

Shively, C A; White, D M; Blauch, J L; Tarka, S M

1984-03-01

223

Loss of Desmoplakin Tail Causes Lethal Acantholytic Epidermolysis Bullosa*  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), which is located in desmosomes, plays a major role in epithelial and muscle cell adhesion by linking the transmembrane cadherins to the cytoplasmic intermediate filament network. Mutations of DP may cause striate palmoplantar keratoderma, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, skin fragility/woolly hair syndrome, Naxos-like disease, and Carvajal syndrome. DP must be indispensable, because DP-/- mice are early abortive. Here, we report a patient with severe fragility of skin and mucous membranes caused by genetic truncation of the DP tail. The new phenotype is lethal in the neonatal period because of immense transcutaneous fluid loss. The phenotype also comprised universal alopecia, neonatal teeth, and nail loss. Histology showed suprabasal clefting and acantholysis throughout the spinous layer, mimicking pemphigus. Electron microscopy revealed disconnection of keratin intermediate filaments from desmosomes. Immunofluorescence staining of DP showed a distinct punctate intercellular pattern in the patient’s skin. Protein analysis revealed expression of truncated DP polypeptides. Mutational analysis of the patient demonstrated compound heterozygosity for two DP mutations, 6079C?T (R1934X) and 6370delTT, respectively. Aberrant mRNA transcripts that predict premature termination of translation with loss of the three intermediate filament-binding subdomains in the DP tail were detected by RT-PCR. The new dramatic phenotype, which we named “lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa,” underscores the paramount role of DP in epidermal integrity.

Jonkman, Marcel F.; Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; ter Horst, Henk J.; Timmer, Albertus; Pas, Hendri H.

2005-01-01

224

Genome-Wide P-Element Screen for Drosophila Synaptogenesis Mutants  

PubMed Central

A molecular understanding of synaptogenesis is a critical step toward the goal of understanding how brains “wire themselves up,” and then “rewire” during development and experience. Recent genomic and molecular advances have made it possible to study synaptogenesis on a genomic scale. Here, we describe the results of a screen for genes involved in formation and development of the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We screened 2185 P-element transposon mutants representing insertions in ?16% of the entire Drosophila genome. We first identified recessive lethal mutants, based on the hypothesis that mutations causing severe disruptions in synaptogenesis are likely to be lethal. Two hundred twenty (10%) of all insertions were homozygous lethal. Two hundred five (93%) of these lethal mutants developed at least through late embryogenesis and formed neuromusculature. We examined embryonic/larval NMJs in 202 of these homozygous mutants using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. We identified and classified 88 mutants with altered NMJ morphology. Insertion loci in these mutants encode several different types of proteins, including ATP- and GTPases, cytoskeletal regulators, cell adhesion molecules, kinases, phosphatases, RNA regulators, regulators of protein formation, transcription factors, and transporters. Thirteen percent of insertions are in genes that encode proteins of novel or unknown function. Complementation tests and RT-PCR assays suggest that approximately 51% of the insertion lines carry background mutations. Our results reveal that synaptogenesis requires the coordinated action of many different types of proteins—perhaps as much as 44% of the entire genome—and that transposon mutageneses carry important caveats that must be respected when interpreting results generated using this method.

Liebl, Faith L.W.; Werner, Kristen M.; Sheng, Qi; Karr, Julie E.; McCabe, Brian D.; Featherstone, David E.

2006-01-01

225

Monoclonal Antibody to Fungal Glucosylceramide Protects Mice against Lethal Cryptococcus neoformans Infection?  

PubMed Central

Glucosylceramides (GlcCer) are involved in the regulation of Cryptococcus neoformans virulence. In the present study, we demonstrate that passive immunization with a monoclonal antibody to GlcCer significantly reduces host inflammation and prolongs the survival of mice lethally infected with C. neoformans, revealing a potential therapeutic strategy to control cryptococcosis.

Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Shi, Li; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Farias, Sandra E.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

2007-01-01

226

Recognition of suicide lethality factors by physicians, mental health professionals, ministers, and college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 180 persons for recognition of suicide lethality factors. Physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, ministers, and college students (30 Ss per group) were studied. Each person completed a 4-choice, multiple-choice test consisting of 13 questions based on factors from the Suicide Potential Rating Scale. Results reveal that physicians and psychiatrists were equal in recognizing the suicide signs and significantly better

Cooper B. Holmes; Michael E. Howard

1980-01-01

227

Monoclonal antibody to fungal glucosylceramide protects mice against lethal Cryptococcus neoformans infection.  

PubMed

Glucosylceramides (GlcCer) are involved in the regulation of Cryptococcus neoformans virulence. In the present study, we demonstrate that passive immunization with a monoclonal antibody to GlcCer significantly reduces host inflammation and prolongs the survival of mice lethally infected with C. neoformans, revealing a potential therapeutic strategy to control cryptococcosis. PMID:17715331

Rodrigues, Marcio L; Shi, Li; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Farias, Sandra E; Rodrigues, Elaine G; Travassos, Luiz R; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

2007-08-22

228

Lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism: a severe lethal condition resembling Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.  

PubMed Central

We report eight cases of a lethal association of failure to thrive, facial dysmorphism, ambiguous genitalia, syndactyly, postaxial polydactyly, and internal developmental anomalies (Hirschsprung's disease, cardiac and renal malformation). This syndrome is likely to be autosomal recessive and resembles Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. However, the lethality, the common occurrence of polydactyly, and the sexual ambiguity distinguishes this condition from SLO syndrome. A review of published reports supports the separate classification of this syndrome for which we propose the name lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism. Images

Merrer, M L; Briard, M L; Girard, S; Mulliez, N; Moraine, C; Imbert, M C

1988-01-01

229

Could Antidepressant Combat Lethal Lung Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Could Antidepressant Combat Lethal Lung Cancer? Little-used depression drug shows early promise in ... Friday, September 27, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Antidepressants Lung Cancer FRIDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- An older and ...

230

Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

231

Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

232

Sarcocystis Species Lethal for Domestic Pigeons  

PubMed Central

A large number of Sarcocystis spp. infect birds as intermediate hosts, but pigeons are rarely affected. We identified a novel Sarcocystis sp. that causes lethal neurologic disease in domestic pigeons in Germany. Experimental infections indicated transmission by northern goshawks, and sequence analyses indicated transnational distribution. Worldwide spread is possible.

Gruber, Achim D.; Kohls, Andrea; Hafez, Hafez M.; Heydorn, Alfred Otto; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Lierz, Michael

2010-01-01

233

The evolution of lethal intergroup violence  

PubMed Central

Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

Kelly, Raymond C.

2005-01-01

234

Hypervelocity impact and lethality: Experiment, theory, computation  

SciTech Connect

A study directed at experimental, theoretical and computational issues in hypervelocity impact and lethality phenomena is described. The work is in progress. A series of lead-on-lead impact experiments has provided the focus for testing theoretical and computational capabilities. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Grady, D.E.; Trucano, T.G.; McGlaun, J.M.

1988-01-01

235

Lethal Malaria: Marchiafava and Bignami Were Right  

PubMed Central

One hundred and twenty years ago, the Italian malariologists Marchiafava and Bignami proposed that the fundamental pathological process underlying lethal falciparum malaria was microvascular obstruction. Since then, several alternative hypotheses have been proposed. These formed the basis for adjunctive interventions, which have either been ineffective or harmful. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Marchiafava and Bignami were right.

White, Nicholas J.; Turner, Gareth D. H.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

2013-01-01

236

Screening for Cutaneous Melanoma by Skin Self-Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although some evidence indicates that early detection protects against the development of lethal melanoma, no randomized clinical trials have been con- ducted to measure the efficacy of early detection (or screen- ing) in preventing death from this disease. Since melanoma incidence in the United States is relatively rare, a ran- domized clinical trial to test the efficacy of screening

Marianne Berwick; Colin B. Begg; Judith A. Fine; George C. Roush; Raymond L. Barnhill

1996-01-01

237

Upregulation of the host SLC11A1 gene by Clostridium difficile toxin B facilitates glucosylation of Rho GTPases and enhances toxin lethality.  

PubMed

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis associated with Clostridium difficile infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients being treated with antibiotics. Two closely related large protein toxins produced by C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, which act identically but at different efficiencies to glucosylate low-molecular-weight Rho GTPases, underlie the microbe's pathogenicity. Using antisense RNA encoded by a library of human expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we randomly inactivated host chromosomal genes in HeLa cells and isolated clones that survived exposure to ordinarily lethal doses of TcdB. This phenotypic screening and subsequent analysis identified solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1; formerly NRAMP1), a divalent cation transporter crucial to host defense against certain microbes, as an enhancer of TcdB lethality. Whereas SLC11A1 normally is poorly expressed in human cells of nonmyeloid lineage, TcdB increased SLC11A1 mRNA abundance in such cells through the actions of the RNA-binding protein HuR. We show that short hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed against SLC11A1 reduced TcdB glucosylation of small Rho GTPases and, consequently, toxin lethality. Consistent with the previously known role of SLC11A1 in cation transport, these effects were enhanced by elevation of Mn(2+) in media; conversely, they were decreased by treatment with a chelator of divalent cations. Our findings reveal an unsuspected role for SLC11A1 in determining C. difficile pathogenicity, demonstrate the novel ability of a bacterial toxin to increase its cytotoxicity, establish a mechanistic basis for these effects, and suggest a therapeutic approach to mitigate cell killing by C. difficile toxins A and B. PMID:23690404

Feng, Yanan; Cohen, Stanley N

2013-05-20

238

In silico screening for palmitoyl substrates reveals a role for DHHC1/3/10 (zDHHC1/3/11)-mediated neurochondrin palmitoylation in its targeting to Rab5-positive endosomes.  

PubMed

Protein palmitoylation, a common post-translational lipid modification, plays an important role in protein trafficking and functions. Recently developed palmitoyl-proteomic methods identified many novel substrates. However, the whole picture of palmitoyl substrates has not been clarified. Here, we performed global in silico screening using the CSS-Palm 2.0 program, free software for prediction of palmitoylation sites, and selected 17 candidates as novel palmitoyl substrates. Of the 17 candidates, 10 proteins, including 6 synaptic proteins (Syd-1, transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) ?-2, TARP ?-8, cornichon-2, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II?, and neurochondrin (Ncdn)/norbin), one focal adhesion protein (zyxin), two ion channels (TRPM8 and TRPC1), and one G-protein-coupled receptor (orexin 2 receptor), were palmitoylated. Using the DHHC palmitoylating enzyme library, we found that all tested substrates were palmitoylated by the Golgi-localized DHHC3/7 subfamily. Ncdn, a regulator for neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity, was robustly palmitoylated by the DHHC1/10 (zDHHC1/11; z1/11) subfamily, whose substrate has not yet been reported. As predicted by CSS-Palm 2.0, Cys-3 and Cys-4 are the palmitoylation sites for Ncdn. Ncdn was specifically localized in somato-dendritic regions, not in the axon of rat cultured neurons. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy revealed that Ncdn was localized to Rab5-positive early endosomes in a palmitoylation-dependent manner, where DHHC1/10 (z1/11) were also distributed. Knockdown of DHHC1, -3, or -10 (z11) resulted in the loss of Ncdn from Rab5-positive endosomes. Thus, through in silico screening, we demonstrate that Ncdn and the DHHC1/10 (z1/11) and DHHC3/7 subfamilies are novel palmitoyl substrate-enzyme pairs and that Ncdn palmitoylation plays an essential role in its specific endosomal targeting. PMID:23687301

Oku, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Naoki; Fukata, Yuko; Fukata, Masaki

2013-05-16

239

Chemical mutagenesis testing in Drosophila. I. Comparison of positive and negative control data for sex-linked recessive lethal mutations and reciprocal translocations in three laboratories  

SciTech Connect

As part of the validation phase of the Drosophila melanogaster segment of the National Toxicology Program, a comparison has been made of positive and negative controls for sex-linked recessive lethal mutations and reciprocal translocations from three laboratories. This comparison involves approximately 700,000 spontaneous recessive lethal mutation tests, 70,000 spontaneous translocation tests, and screens for genetic damage induced by N-nitrosodimethylamine and ..beta..-propiolactone. Spontaneous frequencies for lethal mutations and translocations were homogeneous in the laboratories regardless of solvent or broods sampled. Inhomogeneity was observed in induced frequencies among laboratories, but the variation was no greater than that found within a laboratory.

Woodruff, R.C.; Mason, J.M.; Valencia, R.; Zimmering, S.

1984-01-01

240

Lethal Time of Centruroides Sculpturatus Venom in Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of sex, weight, and dosage on the lethal time of scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus venom was studied. Sex and weight of the rats did not significantly alter lethal time whereas increased dosages of venom did.

H. L. Stahnke

1967-01-01

241

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5450 Rodent dominant lethal assay. (a) Purpose. Dominant lethal (DL) effects cause...

2013-07-01

242

Concomitant Lethal Mutagenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

RNA virus population dynamics is complex, and sophisticated approaches are needed in many cases for therapeutic intervention. One such approach, termed lethal mutagenesis, is directed at targeting the virus population structure for extinction or error catastrophe. Previous studies have demonstrated the concept of this approach with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by use of chemical mutagens (i.e., 5-azacytidine) as well as by host factors with mutagenic properties (i.e., APOBEC3G). In this study, these two unrelated mutagenic agents were used concomitantly to investigate the interplay of these distinct mutagenic mechanisms. Specifically, an HIV-1 was produced from APOBEC3G (A3G)-expressing cells and used to infect permissive target cells treated with 5-azacytidine (5-AZC). Reduced viral infectivity and increased viral mutagenesis was observed with both the viral mutagen (i.e., G-to-C mutations) and the host restriction factor (i.e., G-to-A mutations); however, when combined, had complex interactions. Intriguingly, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that concomitant HIV-1 exposure to both 5-AZC and A3G resulted in an increase of G-to-A viral mutagenesis at the expense of G-to-C mutagenesis. A3G catalytic activity was required for the diminution in G-to-C mutagenesis. Taken together, our findings provide the first demonstration for potentiation of the mutagenic effect of a cytosine analog by A3G expression, resulting in concomitant HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis.

Dapp, Michael J.; Holtz, Colleen M.; Mansky, Louis M.

2012-01-01

243

Cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer screening is a complicated science. Each screening intervention must be carefully assessed before it is widely implemented. A screening test can falsely appear useful as it finds disease at an early stage and leads to intervention and cure. Such a test can be harmful to the population screened if it commonly finds disease that fulfills the pathologic criteria of

Otis W Brawley

2004-01-01

244

Androstenediol regulates systemic resistance against lethal infections in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We previously reported that subcutaneous injection of DHEA (5-androsten-3 ß-ol-17-one, dehydroepiandrosterone) protected mice from lethal infection. This included both a lethal herpes virus type 2 encephalitis and a lethal systemic coxsackievirus B 4 (CB 4) infection. Androstenediol (5-andros-ten-3 ß-17 ß-diol, AED), a metabolic product of DHEA is up to 100×more effective in regulating systemic resistance against lethal infection with

R. M. Loria; D. A. Padgett

1992-01-01

245

Small Arms Mortality: Access to Firearms and Lethal Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an intuitive appeal to the notion that the more lethal the weaponry the more lethal the violence. We explore one aspect of lethal weaponry, firearm accessibility. Using nation-level (N = 168) data from the Small Arms Survey and the World Health Organization's measures of mortality we examine whether rates of small arm ownership have a positive effect on rates of

Mark Konty; Brian Schaefer

2012-01-01

246

Induction of dominant lethal mutations in male mice by fosfestrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the dominant lethal assay, the ability of fosfestrol, a diethylstilboestrol derivate, to induce mutations in male mice was tested and confirmed. Up to 300 mg\\/kg of fosfestrol the induction of mutations occurs exclusively in spermatozoa. A dose of 600 mg\\/kg of fosfestrol induces dominant lethal mutations up to 10 days posttreatment. The majority of induced dominant lethal mutations in

U. H. Ehling; Ingolstiidter Landstrasse

1978-01-01

247

Lethality in Desbuquois dysplasia: three new cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new cases of Desbuquois syndrome in two brothers and a sporadic male, all of whom died in early infancy, are presented\\u000a to emphasize the high rate (33 %) of lethality in this variable, but serious skeletal dysplasia. Including the three presented\\u000a patients and 10 of the 36 cases in the literature who died, most did so between birth and

Bryan D. Hall

2001-01-01

248

Bullying and Lethal Acts of School Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Chap. 3, we address a topic that has received considerable research attention over the past decade and has been implicated as a causal\\u000a factor in LSV. It has been reported that many lethal school shootings were in part in retaliation for being bullied. Within\\u000a this chapter, we address prevalence of bullying in the USA and then discuss different forms

Jeffrey A. Daniels; Mary C. Bradley

249

Potentially lethal complications of tracheostomy: autopsy considerations.  

PubMed

Tracheostomy is widely used to facilitate respiration by protecting the airways. It may be performed to relieve upper airway obstruction from congenital stenoses or from acquired conditions such as foreign body impaction, swelling from neck trauma or anaphylaxis, benign or malignant tumors, and infection. Tracheostomy may also be performed in individuals with respiratory impairment who require suctioning for accumulated mucoid secretions and in those with obstructive sleep apnea. Review of autopsy files and the literature was undertaken to demonstrate the range of lethal circumstances that may involve tracheostomy. Unexpected death may result from incorrect positioning of an endotracheal tube with failure of oxygenation, tracheal perforation with pneumothorax, mucus plugging, accidental extubation, and hemorrhage from tracheovascular fistulas. Lethal tracheovascular fistulas usually involve the innominate artery and result from mural perforation by the tip of a tracheostomy tube, mural necrosis from a high-pressure cuff, prolonged intubation, radiotherapy, and low tracheal incisions. Increased movement of tubes in patients with impaired consciousness and excessive head movements may also increase the chances of hemorrhage, as may infiltrating tumors. Given the wide range of potential fatal mechanisms that may be found in such cases, careful autopsy evaluation and dissection will be required to demonstrate the exact nature and site of the lethal lesion in individuals who underwent tracheostomy and die unexpectedly. PMID:21817868

Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D

2011-12-01

250

Fluorescence-Based Phenotypic Selection Allows Forward Genetic Screens in Haploid Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of haploid cell lines has recently allowed the power of forward genetic screens to be applied to mammalian cells. The interest in applying this powerful genetic approach to a mammalian system is only tempered by the limited utility of these screens, if confined to lethal phenotypes. Here we expand the scope of these approaches beyond live\\/dead screens and

Lidia M. Duncan; Richard T. Timms; Eszter Zavodszky; Florencia Cano; Gordon Dougan; Felix Randow; Paul J. Lehner

2012-01-01

251

Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality) and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in feeding reduction. However, there were some isolates where either feeding decline was not associated with high virulence, or virulence did not automatically prompt large declines in feeding. These results are discussed in the context of choosing optimum fungal isolates for biopesticide development.

2012-01-01

252

Health Screening  

MedlinePLUS

Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... pressure High cholesterol Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

253

mRNA Expression Signature of Gleason Grade Predicts Lethal Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prostate-specific antigen screening has led to enormous overtreatment of prostate cancer because of the inability to distinguish potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. We reasoned that by identifying an mRNA signature of Gleason grade, the best predictor of prognosis, we could improve prediction of lethal disease among men with moderate Gleason 7 tumors, the most common grade, and the most indeterminate in terms of prognosis. Patients and Methods Using the complementary DNA–mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation assay, we measured the mRNA expression of 6,100 genes in prostate tumor tissue in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (n = 358) and Physicians' Health Study (PHS; n = 109). We developed an mRNA signature of Gleason grade comparing individuals with Gleason ? 6 to those with Gleason ? 8 tumors and applied the model among patients with Gleason 7 to discriminate lethal cases. Results We built a 157-gene signature using the Swedish data that predicted Gleason with low misclassification (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91); when this signature was tested in the PHS, the discriminatory ability remained high (AUC = 0.94). In men with Gleason 7 tumors, who were excluded from the model building, the signature significantly improved the prediction of lethal disease beyond knowing whether the Gleason score was 4 + 3 or 3 + 4 (P = .006). Conclusion Our expression signature and the genes identified may improve our understanding of the de-differentiation process of prostate tumors. Additionally, the signature may have clinical applications among men with Gleason 7, by further estimating their risk of lethal prostate cancer and thereby guiding therapy decisions to improve outcomes and reduce overtreatment.

Penney, Kathryn L.; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Fall, Katja; Pawitan, Yudi; Hoshida, Yujin; Kraft, Peter; Stark, Jennifer R.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Perner, Sven; Finn, Stephen; Calza, Stefano; Flavin, Richard; Freedman, Matthew L.; Setlur, Sunita; Sesso, Howard D.; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Martin, Neil; Kantoff, Philip W.; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Rubin, Mark A.; Loda, Massimo; Golub, Todd R.; Andren, Ove; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

2011-01-01

254

Fireplace screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fireplace screen arrangement is disclosed which includes a frame upon which a pair of mesh screen doors are pivotally mounted for movement between closed and open positions with respect to the fireplace. A damper assembly is provided for regulating the amount of air which is admitted to the fireplace through the screen arrangement. In order to provide convenient opening

Larkins

1985-01-01

255

Dominant lethal mutagenicity study on hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dominant lethal mutagenicity study was performed in rats with the following chemicals that may be used to dye hair: 2?nitro?p?phenylenediamine, 4?nitro?o?phenylenediamine, m?phenylenediamine, o?phenylenediamine, p?phenylenediamine, p?toluenediamine, 2,4?diaminoanisole, 2,5?diaminoanlsole, 2?amino?4?nitrophenol, 2?amino?5?nitrophenol, and 4?amino?2?nitrophenol. The compounds were administered intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks to groups of 20 sexually mature Charles River CD male rats at a dose of 20 mg\\/kg.

C. Burnett; R. Loehr; J. Corbett

1977-01-01

256

Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.

Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

2012-01-01

257

Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.  

PubMed

Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures. PMID:19025423

Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

2008-12-01

258

Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

2004-01-01

259

Gonadosomatic mosaicism for lethal mutations in Drosophila lethal mutations disturbing larval development  

SciTech Connect

Phenogenetic analysis of autonomous lethal mutations obtained by the method of gonadosomatic mosaicism which manifested during larval stages, established that the nuclei of hypodermal cells, salivary glands suprapharyngeal ganglion, pharynx, esophagus, gizzard, and hindgut are the derivatives of the same nucleus (from the first two nuclei of cleavage) as the nuclei of the cells of the imaginal-somatic tissues.

Ivanov, A.I.; Sakharova, N.Yu.

1988-11-01

260

Synthetic Lethal Targeting of Superoxide Dismutase 1 Selectively Kills RAD54B-Deficient Colorectal Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality is a rational approach to identify candidate drug targets for selective killing of cancer cells harboring somatic mutations that cause chromosome instability (CIN). To identify a set of the most highly connected synthetic lethal partner genes in yeast for subsequent testing in mammalian cells, we used the entire set of 692 yeast CIN genes to query the genome-wide synthetic lethal datasets. Hierarchical clustering revealed a highly connected set of synthetic lethal partners of yeast genes whose human orthologs are somatically mutated in colorectal cancer. Testing of a small matrix of synthetic lethal gene pairs in mammalian cells suggested that members of a pathway that remove reactive oxygen species that cause DNA damage would be excellent candidates for further testing. We show that the synthetic lethal interaction between budding yeast rad54 and sod1 is conserved within a human colorectal cancer context. Specifically, we demonstrate RAD54B-deficient cells are selectively killed relative to controls via siRNA-based silencing and chemical inhibition and further demonstrate that this interaction is conserved in an unrelated cell type. We further show that the DNA double strand breaks, resulting from increased reactive oxygen species following SOD1 inhibition, persist within the RAD54B-deficient cells and result in apoptosis. Collectively, these data identify SOD1 as a novel candidate cancer drug target and suggest that SOD1 inhibition may have broad-spectrum applicability in a variety of tumor types exhibiting RAD54B deficiencies.

Sajesh, Babu V.; Bailey, Melanie; Lichtensztejn, Zelda; Hieter, Philip; McManus, Kirk J.

2013-01-01

261

Genes in S and T Subgenomes Are Responsible for Hybrid Lethality in Interspecific Hybrids between Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana occidentalis  

PubMed Central

Background Many species of Nicotiana section Suaveolentes produce inviable F1 hybrids after crossing with Nicotiana tabacum (genome constitution SSTT), a phenomenon that is often called hybrid lethality. Through crosses with monosomic lines of N. tabacum lacking a Q chromosome, we previously determined that hybrid lethality is caused by interaction between gene(s) on the Q chromosome belonging to the S subgenome of N. tabacum and gene(s) in Suaveolentes species. Here, we examined if hybrid seedlings from the cross N. occidentalis (section Suaveolentes)×N. tabacum are inviable despite a lack of the Q chromosome. Methodology/Principal Findings Hybrid lethality in the cross of N. occidentalis×N. tabacum was characterized by shoots with fading color. This symptom differed from what has been previously observed in lethal crosses between many species in section Suaveolentes and N. tabacum. In crosses of monosomic N. tabacum plants lacking the Q chromosome with N. occidentalis, hybrid lethality was observed in hybrid seedlings either lacking or possessing the Q chromosome. N. occidentalis was then crossed with two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris (SS) and N. tomentosiformis (TT), to reveal which subgenome of N. tabacum contains gene(s) responsible for hybrid lethality. Hybrid seedlings from the crosses N. occidentalis×N. tomentosiformis and N. occidentalis×N. sylvestris were inviable. Conclusions/Significance Although the specific symptoms of hybrid lethality in the cross N. occidentalis×N. tabacum were similar to those appearing in hybrids from the cross N. occidentalis×N. tomentosiformis, genes in both the S and T subgenomes of N. tabacum appear responsible for hybrid lethality in crosses with N. occidentalis.

Tezuka, Takahiro; Marubashi, Wataru

2012-01-01

262

Cancer screening.  

PubMed

Cancer screening is a complicated science. Each screening intervention must be carefully assessed before it is widely implemented. A screening test can falsely appear useful as it finds disease at an early stage and leads to intervention and cure. Such a test can be harmful to the population screened if it commonly finds disease that fulfills the pathologic criteria of cancer but behaves indolently (meaning it would never harm the host). Such "pseudo-disease" or "overdiagnosed disease" has been demonstrated in many malignancies including cancers of the lung, breast, and especially the prostate. The nature of each specific screening test and each disease is such that some screened patients may receive unnecessary treatment with all its complications and risk. Alternatively, some screening technologies have been proven useful providing net benefit to the population screened. Often these beneficial technologies are underused. These screening technologies if widely implemented have the potential of saving countless lives. Many available screening tests have tremendous potential in terms of benefit, but have yet to be fully assessed. At the minimum, patients should be informed of what is known, what is not known, and what is believed about these tests. PMID:15124134

Brawley, Otis W

2004-04-01

263

Genetic Screening  

PubMed Central

Current approaches to genetic screening include newborn screening to identify infants who would benefit from early treatment, reproductive genetic screening to assist reproductive decision making, and family history assessment to identify individuals who would benefit from additional prevention measures. Although the traditional goal of screening is to identify early disease or risk in order to implement preventive therapy, genetic screening has always included an atypical element—information relevant to reproductive decisions. New technologies offer increasingly comprehensive identification of genetic conditions and susceptibilities. Tests based on these technologies are generating a different approach to screening that seeks to inform individuals about all of their genetic traits and susceptibilities for purposes that incorporate rapid diagnosis, family planning, and expediting of research, as well as the traditional screening goal of improving prevention. Use of these tests in population screening will increase the challenges already encountered in genetic screening programs, including false-positive and ambiguous test results, overdiagnosis, and incidental findings. Whether this approach is desirable requires further empiric research, but it also requires careful deliberation on the part of all concerned, including genomic researchers, clinicians, public health officials, health care payers, and especially those who will be the recipients of this novel screening approach.

Burke, Wylie; Tarini, Beth; Press, Nancy A.; Evans, James P.

2011-01-01

264

Riot Control Agents, Tasers, and Other Less Lethal Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less lethal weapons have become increasingly popular for law enforcement use when confronting dangerous, combative individuals\\u000a in the field. On the use-of-force continuum, these technologies occupy an intermediate level between verbal and physical control\\u000a methods and lethal force such as actual firearms. Less lethal weapons include riot control agents, electric stun devices such\\u000a as tasers, and other blunt projectile weapons.

Christian Sloane; Gary M. Vilke

265

Analysis of hybrid lethality in F 1 wheat-rye hybrid embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Embryo lethality mutant (Eml) of rye was studied in crosses between hexaploid wheat and corresponding inbred rye line (L2). Histological analysis of hybrid\\u000a embryos revealed morphological differences 16 days after pollination. Eml was found to arrest the formation of shoot meristem but had no influence on root meristem formation. The effect of Eml cannot be overcome by

N. Tikhenko; T. Rutten; A. Voylokov; A. Houben

2008-01-01

266

Evolution of antibiotic resistance at non-lethal drug concentrations.  

PubMed

Human use of antimicrobials in the clinic, community and agricultural systems has driven selection for resistance in bacteria. Resistance can be selected at antibiotic concentrations that are either lethal or non-lethal, and here we argue that selection and enrichment for antibiotic resistant bacteria is often a consequence of weak, non-lethal selective pressures - caused by low levels of antibiotics - that operates on small differences in relative bacterial fitness. Such conditions may occur during antibiotic therapy or in anthropogenically drug-polluted natural environments. Non-lethal selection increases rates of mutant appearance and promotes enrichment of highly fit mutants and stable mutators. PMID:22516308

Andersson, Dan I; Hughes, Diarmaid

2012-04-18

267

Lethal fish hook attachment - An unusual occurrence.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old fisherman is reported who was dragged into the water from a boat after he became entangled in fishing line. His death was attributed to salt water drowning. At autopsy the cause of death was confirmed and the mechanism of the lethal event elucidated. Specifically, a large fish hook attached to line was embedded in his right wrist. The hook had passed beneath flexor tendons and had firmly attached him to fishing line that was being dropped from the vessel. There were no other significant injuries or underlying diseases present. This case demonstrates another rare situation in the commercial fishing industry that may result in a victim being dragged from a boat and drowned. PMID:23357398

Byard, Roger W

2012-06-17

268

Abdominal tuberculosis: still a potentially lethal disease.  

PubMed

The findings in a 4-yr survey of 82 patients with abdominal tuberculosis are described and compared with those encountered in previous surveys. Fourteen cases of intestinal, 11 of mesenteric-lymphnodal, and 57 of peritoneal tuberculosis were identified. The disease occurred essentially in patients living under worsening socioeconomic conditions, and 51 of them had associated pulmonary tuberculosis. Symptoms and clinical findings were again nonspecific, but newer imaging, endoscopic, and other invasive procedures were helpful in establishing a definite diagnosis. In addition, adenosine deaminase determination showed great promise as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure in patients with tuberculous ascites. The six hospital deaths in the series highlight the hazard of potentially lethal delays in early diagnosis and treatment, even in centers with a high awareness of the disease. PMID:8480741

Lingenfelser, T; Zak, J; Marks, I N; Steyn, E; Halkett, J; Price, S K

1993-05-01

269

Hyporesponsiveness of SPRET/Ei mice to lethal shock induced by tumor necrosis factor and implications for a TNF-based antitumor therapy  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a central mediator in lethal shock and an interesting cytokine for anticancer therapy. To inhibit TNF-induced lethal shock, it is important to identify protective genes. Here we demonstrate that the SPRET/Ei mouse strain, derived from Mus spretus, exhibits an extremely dominant resistance to TNF-induced lethal inflammation. An interspecific backcross experiment revealed that the TNF hyporesponse is linked to loci on chromosomes 2, 6, and 11. Treatment of inoculated tumors with TNF and IFN-? leads to regression and a highly reduced toxicity in (C57BL/6 × SPRET/Ei)F1 mice.

Staelens, Jan; Wielockx, Ben; Puimege, Leen; Van Roy, Frans; Guenet, Jean-Louis; Libert, Claude

2002-01-01

270

Screens for piwi suppressors in Drosophila identify dosage-dependent regulators of germline stem cell division.  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila piwi gene is the founding member of the only known family of genes whose function in stem cell maintenance is highly conserved in both animal and plant kingdoms. piwi mutants fail to maintain germline stem cells in both male and female gonads. The identification of piwi-interacting genes is essential for understanding how stem cell divisions are regulated by piwi-mediated mechanisms. To search for such genes, we screened the Drosophila third chromosome ( approximately 36% of the euchromatic genome) for suppressor mutations of piwi2 and identified six strong and three weak piwi suppressor genes/sequences. These genes/sequences interact negatively with piwi in a dosage-sensitive manner. Two of the strong suppressors represent known genes--serendipity-delta and similar, both encoding transcription factors. These findings reveal that the genetic regulation of germline stem cell division involves dosage-sensitive mechanisms and that such mechanisms exist at the transcriptional level. In addition, we identified three other types of piwi interactors. The first type consists of deficiencies that dominantly interact with piwi2 to cause male sterility, implying that dosage-sensitive regulation also exists in the male germline. The other two types are deficiencies that cause lethality and female-specific lethality in a piwi2 mutant background, revealing the zygotic function of piwi in somatic development.

Smulders-Srinivasan, Tora K; Lin, Haifan

2003-01-01

271

Cancer screening.  

PubMed

Table 3 provides a summary of key recommendations for each cancer site discussed in this chapter. One of the unifying principles of cancer screening is that every clinician or group practice needs to define an explicit screening policy. Resources must then be devoted to implementing this policy, evaluating adherence, and improving performance. PMID:12529905

Wender, Richard C; Smith, Robert; Harper, Diane

2002-09-01

272

Genetic Screening  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many genetic disorders can be detected with tests of blood and chromosomes. Genetic screening is the large-scale use of these tests as part of the public health program. Different members of society, worldwide, have advocated genetic screening to achieve different goals. This chapter provides a critical analysis of this controversial issue.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

273

Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts  

PubMed Central

Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l?1 TSS (25 mg cm?2 day?1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l?1 TSS (83 mg cm?2 day?1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

274

Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.  

PubMed

Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1) TSS (25 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1) TSS (83 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Smith, Luke D; Cooper, Timothy F; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P

2012-05-25

275

Non-Lethal Weaponry: Applications to AC-130 Gunships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory and application of non-lethal weapons is not new and has been in use by ground combat troops and civil authorities for some time, in situations requiring the application of less than lethal force, With the increasing involvement of US military ...

J. L. Bobb

2002-01-01

276

Non?lethal weapons for UN military operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid advances in Non?Lethal Weapons (NLWs) technology are offering UN military peacekeepers and peace enforcers a wider range of options before having to resort to lethal force. In this article we define and review the operational history of NLWs; discuss the issues and controversies, such as the legal and ethical implications, which surround the development and deployment of NLWs; and

Nick Lewer; Steven Schofield

1997-01-01

277

Synthetic lethal interaction between oncogenic KRAS dependency and STK33 suppression in human cancer cells.  

PubMed

An alternative to therapeutic targeting of oncogenes is to perform "synthetic lethality" screens for genes that are essential only in the context of specific cancer-causing mutations. We used high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) to identify synthetic lethal interactions in cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS, the most commonly mutated human oncogene. We find that cells that are dependent on mutant KRAS exhibit sensitivity to suppression of the serine/threonine kinase STK33 irrespective of tissue origin, whereas STK33 is not required by KRAS-independent cells. STK33 promotes cancer cell viability in a kinase activity-dependent manner by regulating the suppression of mitochondrial apoptosis mediated through S6K1-induced inactivation of the death agonist BAD selectively in mutant KRAS-dependent cells. These observations identify STK33 as a target for treatment of mutant KRAS-driven cancers and demonstrate the potential of RNAi screens for discovering functional dependencies created by oncogenic mutations that may enable therapeutic intervention for cancers with "undruggable" genetic alterations. PMID:19490892

Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan; Dunn, Ian F; Schinzel, Anna C; Barbie, David A; Kim, So Young; Silver, Serena J; Tamayo, Pablo; Wadlow, Raymond C; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Döhner, Konstanze; Bullinger, Lars; Sandy, Peter; Boehm, Jesse S; Root, David E; Jacks, Tyler; Hahn, William C; Gilliland, D Gary

2009-05-29

278

Residue Histidine 669 Is Essential for the Catalytic Activity of Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor?  

PubMed Central

The lethal factor (LF) of Bacillus anthracis is a Zn2+-dependent metalloprotease which plays an important role in anthrax virulence. This study was aimed at identifying the histidine residues that are essential to the catalytic activities of LF. The site-directed mutagenesis was employed to replace the 10 histidine residues in domains II, III, and IV of LF with alanine residues, respectively. The cytotoxicity of these mutants was tested, and the results revealed that the alanine substitution for His-669 completely abolished toxicity to the lethal toxin (LT)-sensitive RAW264.7 cells. The reason for the toxicity loss was further explored. The zinc content of this LF mutant was the same as that of the wild type. Also this LF mutant retained its protective antigan (PA)-binding activity. Finally, the catalytic cleavage activity of this mutant was demonstrated to be drastically reduced. Thus, we conclude that residue His-669 is crucial to the proteolytic activity of LF.

Cao, Sha; Guo, Aizhen; Wu, Gaobing; Liu, Ziduo; Chen, Wei; Feng, Chunfang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Chen, Huanchun

2010-01-01

279

PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia: coping with lethality.  

PubMed

The X-linked dominant trait focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, Goltz syndrome) is a developmental defect with focal distribution of affected tissues due to a block of Wnt signal transmission from cells carrying a detrimental PORCN mutation on an active X-chromosome. Molecular characterization of 24 unrelated patients from different ethnic backgrounds revealed 23 different mutations of the PORCN gene in Xp11.23. Three were microdeletions eliminating PORCN and encompassing neighboring genes such as EBP, the gene associated with Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome (CDPX2). 12/24 patients carried nonsense mutations resulting in loss of function. In one case a canonical splice acceptor site was mutated, and 8 missense mutations exchanged highly conserved amino acids. FDH patients overcome the consequences of potentially lethal X-chromosomal mutations by extreme skewing of X-chromosome inactivation in females, enabling transmission of the trait in families, or by postzygotic mosaicism both in male and female individuals. Molecular characterization of the PORCN mutations in cases diagnosed as Goltz syndrome is particularly relevant for genetic counseling of patients and their families since no functional diagnostic test is available and carriers of the mutation might otherwise be overlooked due to considerable phenotypic variability associated with the mosaic status. PMID:19309688

Bornholdt, Dorothea; Oeffner, Frank; König, Arne; Happle, Rudolf; Alanay, Yasemin; Ascherman, Jeffrey; Benke, Paul J; Boente, María del Carmen; van der Burgt, Ineke; Chassaing, Nicolas; Ellis, Ian; Francisco, Christina Raissa I; Della Giovanna, Patricia; Hamel, Ben; Has, Cristina; Heinelt, Kaatje; Janecke, Andreas; Kastrup, Wolfgang; Loeys, Bart; Lohrisch, Ingo; Marcelis, Carlo; Mehraein, Yasmin; Nicolas, Marie Eleanore O; Pagliarini, Dana; Paradisi, Mauro; Patrizi, Annalisa; Piccione, Maria; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Prager, Bettina; Prescott, Katrina; Strien, Juliane; Utine, G Eda; Zeller, Marc S; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz

2009-05-01

280

Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor.  

PubMed

Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl(2), and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl(2). Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co(2+) per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co(2+) ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co(2+)-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co(2+):TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions. PMID:22093822

Säbel, Crystal E; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R; Lo, Suet Y; Siemann, Stefan

2011-11-10

281

Internet suicide: communities of affirmation and the lethality of communication.  

PubMed

As a tool of instant information dissemination and social networking, the Internet has made possible the formation and affirmation of public identities based on personality traits that are usually characterized by clinicians as pathological. The wide variety of online communities of affirmation reveals new conditions for permissiveness and inclusiveness in expressions of these socially marginal and clinically pathologized identities. Much the same kind of discourse common to these online communities is evident in some suicide forums. Web sites with suicide as their central raison d'être, taken together, encompass a wide range of ideas and commitments, including many that provide collective affirmation outside of (and often with hostility toward) professional intervention. The paradox of a potentially life-affirming effect of such forums runs counter to a stark dualism between online therapy versus "prochoice" forums and, by extension, to simple models of the influence of ideas on the lethality of suicide. Different forums either intensify or mitigate self-destructive tendencies in ways that are significant for understanding the place of communication in the occurrence of suicide and for therapeutic practice. PMID:23315147

Niezen, Ronald

2013-01-11

282

Bacillus anthracis cell wall produces injurious inflammation but paradoxically decreases the lethality of anthrax lethal toxin in a rat model  

PubMed Central

Objectives The in vivo inflammatory effects of the Bacillus anthracis cell wall are unknown. We therefore investigated these effects in rats and, for comparison, those of known inflammatory stimulants, Staphylococcus aureus cell wall or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Method and Results Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 103) were challenged with increasing B. anthracis cell wall doses (10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg) or diluent (control) as a bolus or 24-h infusion. The three highest bolus doses were lethal (20–64% lethality rates) as were the two highest infused doses (13% with each). Comparisons among lethal or nonlethal doses on other measured parameters were not significantly different, and these were combined for analysis. Over the 24 h after challenge initiation with lethal bolus or infusion, compared to controls, ten inflammatory cytokines and NO levels were increased and circulating neutrophils and platelets decreased (P ? 0.05). Changes with lethal doses were greater than changes with nonlethal doses (P ? 0.01). Lethal bolus or infusion doses produced hypotension or hypoxemia, respectively (P ? 0.05). The effects with B. anthracis cell wall were similar to those of S. aureus cell wall or LPS. However, paradoxically administration of B. anthracis cell wall or LPS decreased the lethality of concurrently administered B. anthracis lethal toxin (P < 0.0001 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusion B. anthracis cell wall has the potential to produce inflammatory injury during anthrax infection clinically. However, understanding why cell wall or LPS paradoxically reduced lethality with lethal toxin may help understand this toxin’s pathogenic effects.

Cui, Xizhong; Su, Junwu; Li, Yan; Shiloach, Joseph; Solomon, Steven; Kaufman, Jeanne B.; Mani, Haresh; Fitz, Yvonne; Weng, Jia; Altaweel, Laith; Besch, Virginia; Eichacker, Peter Q.

2012-01-01

283

Lethal body burdens of polar narcotics: Chlorophenols  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the present study was to measure in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) the lethal body burden (LBB) of three chlorophenols that are known as polar narcotic chemicals. The LBBs of the chlorophenols were compared to LBBs of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to consider if the two classes of narcotic chemicals differ on a body burden level. The LBB of the most acidic chlorophenol was measured at two different levels of pH exposure to determine the influence of the degree of ionization on the magnitude of the LBB. Both n-octanol/water partition coefficients and n-hexane/water partition coefficients of the chlorophenols were determined at different pH levels to consider the influence of ionization on the partition coefficient and to determine the importance of a polar group in the organic phase on the partitioning behavior. Partitioning to n-octanol and n-hexane was used as input in a model to simulate the equilibrium partitioning between hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic and target and nontarget compartments in the fish.

Wezel, A.P. van; Punte, S.S. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Chemistry Group; Opperhuizen, A. [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague (Netherlands). National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management

1995-09-01

284

Human cooperation by lethal group competition  

PubMed Central

Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival (“looting”). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as “all-out war” (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W.

2013-01-01

285

Newborn Screening  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... as poor growth or mental retardation, or even death. Newborn screening commonly may include either a blood ... Once diagnosed, treatment can save the baby from death or lifelong health problems. This reference summary explains ...

286

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. 552.25...less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The...less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only...

2013-07-01

287

Prenatal screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the role of prenatal screening in preventing congenital abnormalities or, when prevention is not possible,\\u000a in avoiding the conception or the birth of those who would have untreatable abnormalities. Women who are found by screening\\u000a not to be immune to rubella can be safely vaccinated prior to pregnancy; those found to be at risk of having children

Neil A. Holtzman

1990-01-01

288

Dominant-lethal mutation and heritable translocation tests in mice  

SciTech Connect

The spontaneous occurrence of chromosome breakage-related genetic anomalies in humans is estimated to be 0.24%, not including spontaneous abortions. More balanced reciprocal translocations are being discovered among mentally handicapped individuals. Chromosome breakage can result in chromosome loss, which often leads to embryonic lethality and occassionally to viable aneuploids, or to viable reciprocal translocations and inversions. In mice, transmitted chromosome breakage effects may be measured by using dominant-lethal mutations, heritable translocations, heritable inversions, sex-chromosome loss, and chromosome breakage and rearrangement scored cytologically in early embryos. The dominant-lethal mutation and the heritable translocation tests are the most widely used tests. The heritable translocation procedure described here applies only to the induction of translocations in male germ cells. The use of treated females in the dominant-lethal test has its drawback too. When the fertility of treated female is reduced or when embryonic lethality is observed, it is difficult to ascertain whether these effects are attributable to true genetic damage or to physiological imbalances in the treated females. Therefore the dominant-lethal test as it is used in practical testing has almost exclusively employed the treatment of males. This is not to say that treatment of females has no advantages whatsoever. On the contrary, there is a good example of a case whereby dominant-lethal effects of the test compound was unequivocably demonstrated in treated females but not in treated males.

Generoso, W.M.

1980-01-01

289

Portable screen  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A portable privacy screen is provided, which enables a user to quickly and easily create a zone of personal space where cosmetics may be applied, clothes put on and adjusted, and changes and improvements in appearance made. The screen is constructed from a plurality of individual, smaller panels and is foldable into a compact and easily carried configuration. The screen may also have a mirror and can carry advertising messages or other printing. The portable screen is arranged in the general form of a triptych, preferably including an upper and a lower array of panels. Each individual array is also in the general form of a triptych. A carrying bag, which is dimensioned to snugly contain the portable screen in disassembled form and itself is sufficiently configured to be carried over the shoulder of a user like a duffle bag, is also provided. The lower array, is reversibly interconnected to the upper array and is held in spaced-apart relation therefrom. The privacy screen further includes at least one preferably battery powered fluorescent light removably attached by hook and loop fastener to the front surface of the central upper panel, at least one mirror, and support members for hanging various articles such as clothes therefrom.

Fremont; Donna A. (Port Orange, FL)

2001-09-25

290

Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway.  

PubMed

We screened Saccharomyces strains for mutants that are synthetically lethal with deletion of the major chitin synthase gene CHS3. In addition to finding, not surprisingly, that mutations in major cell wall-related genes such as FKS1 (glucan synthase) and mutations in any of the Golgi glycosylation complex genes (MNN9 family) are lethal in combination with chs3Delta, we found that a mutation in Srv2p, a bifunctional regulatory gene, is notably lethal in the chs3 deletion. In extending studies of fks1-chitin synthase 3 interactions, we made the surprising discovery that deletion of CSD3/CHS6, a gene normally required for Chs3p delivery and activity in vivo, was not lethal with fks1 and, in fact, that lack of Csd3p/Chs6p did not decrease the high level of stress-related chitin made in the fks1 mutant. This finding suggests that "stress response" chitin synthesis proceeds through an alternate Chs3p targeting pathway. PMID:10500155

Osmond, B C; Specht, C A; Robbins, P W

1999-09-28

291

Lethal and sub lethal effects of the biocide chlorhexidine on aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Chlorhexidine is among the most used biocides in Europe, however its toxicity to aquatic organisms is scarcely known. The main objective of this study was to assess the lethal and sub lethal effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (ChD) on four aquatic model organisms: the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the embryos of the fish Danio rerio. ChD was very toxic to algae and crustaceans, with a 72 h-EC50 of 62.2 ?g/l and a 48 h-EC50 of 45.0 ?g/l, respectively. Toxicity to fish embryos and the bacteria was lower, with a 96 h-EC50 of 804.0 ?g/l and a 15 min-EC50 of 1,694.0 ?g/l, respectively. Concerning sub lethal effects on D. magna (feeding inhibition) a 6 h-EC50 of 503.7 ?g/l was obtained. In fish, ChD caused developmental abnormalities, namely alterations in the amniotic fluid (48 h-EC20 of 753.6 ?g/l) and early hatching. Moreover, enzymatic biomarkers on fish embryos showed an induction of cholinesterase activity in all ChD tested concentrations (80-900 ?g/l). The catalase activity was also induced at the highest concentration tested (900 ?g/l) whereas no changes were observed for glutathione-S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The toxicity of ChD to the algae and crustacean raises concerns about its potential effects in aquatic food webs, since these organisms are in the base of trophic chains, and highlights the need for further studies on ChD toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:24026526

Jesus, Fátima T; Oliveira, Rhaul; Silva, Andreia; Catarino, Ana L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A; Domingues, Inês

2013-09-13

292

Synthetic lethal interactions for the development of cancer therapeutics: biological and methodological advancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic lethal interaction is defined as a combination of two mutations that is lethal when present in the same cell; each\\u000a individual mutation is non-lethal. Synthetic lethal interactions attract attention in cancer research fields since the discovery\\u000a of synthetic lethal genes with either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) provides novel cancer therapeutic targets.\\u000a Due to the selective lethal effect

Shinji Mizuarai; Hidehito Kotani

2010-01-01

293

A screen for modifiers of RacGAP(84C) gain-of-function in the Drosophila eye revealed the LIM kinase Cdi\\/TESK1 as a downstream effector of Rac1 during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila, RotundRacGAP\\/RacGAP(84C) is critical to retinal organisation and spermatogenesis. We show that eye-directed expression of RacGAP(84C) or its GTPase activating protein (GAP) domain induces a dominant rough eye phenotype which we used as a starting point in a gain-of-function screen to identify new partners of RacGAP(84C). Proteins known to function in Ras, Rho and Rac signalling were identified confirming

Karine Raymond; Evelyne Bergeret; Amélie Avet-Rochex; Ruth Griffin-Shea; Marie-Odile Fauvarque

2004-01-01

294

An evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction network identifies FEN1 as a broad-spectrum target for anticancer therapeutic development.  

PubMed

Harnessing genetic differences between cancerous and noncancerous cells offers a strategy for the development of new therapies. Extrapolating from yeast genetic interaction data, we used cultured human cells and siRNA to construct and evaluate a synthetic lethal interaction network comprised of chromosome instability (CIN) genes that are frequently mutated in colorectal cancer. A small number of genes in this network were found to have synthetic lethal interactions with a large number of cancer CIN genes; these genes are thus attractive targets for anticancer therapeutic development. The protein product of one highly connected gene, the flap endonuclease FEN1, was used as a target for small-molecule inhibitor screening using a newly developed fluorescence-based assay for enzyme activity. Thirteen initial hits identified through in vitro biochemical screening were tested in cells, and it was found that two compounds could selectively inhibit the proliferation of cultured cancer cells carrying inactivating mutations in CDC4, a gene frequently mutated in a variety of cancers. Inhibition of flap endonuclease activity was also found to recapitulate a genetic interaction between FEN1 and MRE11A, another gene frequently mutated in colorectal cancers, and to lead to increased endogenous DNA damage. These chemical-genetic interactions in mammalian cells validate evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interactions and demonstrate that a cross-species candidate gene approach is successful in identifying small-molecule inhibitors that prove effective in a cell-based cancer model. PMID:23382697

van Pel, Derek M; Barrett, Irene J; Shimizu, Yoko; Sajesh, Babu V; Guppy, Brent J; Pfeifer, Tom; McManus, Kirk J; Hieter, Philip

2013-01-31

295

Less-Than-Lethal Weapons: New Solutions for Law Enforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the search for less-than-lethal (LTL) weapons for United States police organizations. The National Institute of Justice's Science and Technology Division has devised an LTL strategy to develop new technologies that will improve polic...

L. Pilant

1993-01-01

296

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is lethal to the fertilized egg or developing embryo. ...For example, in a typical experiment, the number of males in...shall be included in each experiment. When acceptable positive...results are available from experiments conducted recently...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is lethal to the fertilized egg or developing embryo. ...For example, in a typical experiment, the number of males in...shall be included in each experiment. When acceptable positive...results are available from experiments conducted recently...

2009-07-01

298

Bleomycin: Female-Specific Dominant Lethal Effects in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Limited comparative data in mice indicate that chemical mutagens that induce dominant lethal mutations in males are not necessarily effective in females, but those which are effective in females are generally equally or more effective in males. Recently, ...

P. D. Sudman J. C. Rutledge J. B. Bishop W. M. Generoso

1992-01-01

299

Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This toxicological research report addresses lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. We have presented the work in progress in the first interim report to improve 1) ecotoxicological test, 2) field procedures and 3) standardization ...

A. Rida J. Y. Gal M. B. Bouche P. Brun

1987-01-01

300

Georgia Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OneWorld Journeys.com and Washingtonpost.com present Georgia Revealed: Searching for the Soul of the Caucasus. The site showcases a Georgia expedition that occurred April 16-29, the first of three explorations OneWorldJourneys.com have planned this year. Wilderness and nature photographers, journalists, and technicians collaborate here to bring users on their journey through the Caucasus Mountains Region of the Country of Georgia. Georgia Revealed not only features daily journal entries (text, streaming video and audio, and photographs) of the expedition, but also has sections providing background on history, travel, culture, and more. Altogether, this is a very well organized, educational site. We look forward to the next expedition to the Sonoran Desert.

301

America Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tagline on the America Revealed website says it all: "America Revealed explores the hidden patterns and rhythms that make America work." A remarkable series from PBS, the show talks about everything from how fresh seafood is sourced to how farmers combat crop pests. The Stories section includes a collage of images that, when scrolled over, provide accounts from a variety of people and industries. First-time visitors might want to watch the "Introduction to Manufacturing" series, which explores items that are made in the United States. Visitors can also use the Map section to look for stories of note from around the country, from Long Island to Southern California. The Teachers area includes ten lesson plans and links to additional resources. Finally, visitors can click on the Episodes area to watch complete episodes of the program.

2013-04-22

302

Targeted mutation of Ncam to produce a secreted molecule results in a dominant embryonic lethality.  

PubMed Central

The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-associated member of the immunoglobulin superfamily capable of both homophilic and heterophilic binding. To investigate the significance of this binding, a gene targeting strategy in embryonic stem (ES) cells was used to replace the membrane-associated forms of NCAM with a soluble, secreted form of its extracellular domain. Although the heterozygous mutant ES cells were able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, only the wild-type allele was transmitted, suggesting the possibility of dominant lethality. Analysis of chimeric embryos with high level of ES cell contribution revealed severe growth retardation and morphological defects by E8.5-E9.5. The second allele was also targeted, and embryos derived almost entirely from the homozygous mutant ES cells exhibited the same lethal phenotype as observed with heterozygous chimeras. Together, these results indicate that dominant lethality associated with the secreted NCAM does not require the presence of membrane-associated NCAM. Furthermore, the data indicate that potent bioactive cues or signals can be generated by NCAM. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Rabinowitz, J E; Rutishauser, U; Magnuson, T

1996-01-01

303

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies on anthrax lethal toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthrax lethal toxin is a binary bacterial toxin consisting of two proteins, protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF), that self-assemble on receptor-bearing eukaryotic cells to form toxic, non-covalent complexes. PA63, a proteolytically activated form of PA, spontaneously oligomerizes to form ring-shaped heptamers that bind LF and translocate it into the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute cysteine for

John C. Croney; Kristina M. Cunningham; R. John Collier; David M. Jameson

2003-01-01

304

Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of

Generoso

1983-01-01

305

Mechanism by Which Caffeine Potentiates Lethality of Nitrogen Mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is synergistic with many DNA-damaging agents in increasing lethality to mammalian cells. The mechanism is not well understood. Our results show that caffeine potentiates the lethality of the nitrogen mustard 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-methylethanamine (HN2) by inducing damaged cells to undergo mitosis before properly repairing lesions in their DNA. Treatment with low doses of HN2 (0.5 mu M for 1 hr) caused

Ching C. Lau; Arthur B. Pardee

1982-01-01

306

GPS targeting methods for non-lethal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-lethal systems consist of devices and methods which can be used to incapacitate an adversary's capability, while minimizing casualties and collateral property or environmental damages. Examples of military non-lethal concepts include wire mesh entanglements to snag tank treads, highly expansive sticky foams to immobilize personnel and material, anti-material agents to degrade supplies, and information warfare tactics such as the use

Gerald Frost; Calvin Shipbaugh

1994-01-01

307

REACTIVATION OF PHAGE FROM LETHAL ULTRAVIOLET DAMAGE IN DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactivation phenomena can be used to discriminate between different ; types of lethal effects in phage. This report deals with the relationship ; between photorestoration (PhR) and u gene reactivation (uR). The uR is initiated ; by the u gene in T4 phage in which it exists obligatorily, but not in T2. The ; lethal uv lesions reactivable by PhR

Harm

1961-01-01

308

Molecular Foundations of Reproductive Lethality in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SeedGenes database (www.seedgenes.org) contains information on more than 400 genes required for embryo development in Arabidopsis. Many of these EMBRYO-DEFECTIVE (EMB) genes encode proteins with an essential function required throughout the life cycle. This raises a fundamental question. Why does elimination of an essential gene in Arabidopsis often result in embryo lethality rather than gametophyte lethality? In other words,

Rosanna Muralla; Johnny Lloyd; David Meinke

2011-01-01

309

Screening for cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

Miller, A.B.

1985-01-01

310

Immunoneutralization of the aminoprocalcitonin peptide of procalcitonin protects rats from lethal endotoxaemia: neuroendocrine and systemic studies.  

PubMed

Severe sepsis and septic shock are an important cause of mortality and morbidity. These illnesses can be triggered by the bacterial endotoxin LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-? (tumour necrosis factor-?) and IL (interleukin)-1?. Severity and mortality of sepsis have also been associated with high concentrations of N-PCT (aminoprocalcitonin), a 57-amino-acid neuroendocrine peptide derived from ProCT (procalcitonin). Previous studies in a lethal model of porcine polymicrobial sepsis have revealed that immunoneutralization with IgG that is reactive to porcine N-PCT significantly improves short-term survival. To explore further the pathophysiological role of N-PCT in sepsis, we developed an antibody raised against a highly conserved amino acid sequence of human N-PCT [N-PCT-(44-57)]. This sequence differs by only one amino acid from rat N-PCT. First, we demonstrated the specificity of this antibody in a well-proven model of anorexia induced in rats by central administration of human N-PCT-(1-57). Next we explored further the therapeutic potential of anti-N-PCT-(44-57) in a rat model of lethal endotoxaemia and determined how this immunoneutralization affected LPS-induced lethality and cytokine production. We show that this specific antibody inhibited the LPS-induced early release of TNF-? and IL-1? and increased survival, even if treatment began after the cytokine response had occurred. In addition, anti-N-PCT-(44-57) may increase long-term survival in LPS-treated rats by up-regulating the late production of counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory mediators such as ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and IL-10. In conclusion, these results support N-PCT as a pro-inflammatory factor in both the early and the late stages of lethal endotoxaemia, and suggest anti-N-PCT as a candidate for septic shock therapy. PMID:20569200

Tavares, Eva; Miñano, Francisco J

2010-12-01

311

Bioassay Protocol for Lethal and Sub-Lethal Effects of Fungal Pathogens on 'Chrysoperla carnea' (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protocol describes procedures for evaluating the lethal and sublethal effects of exposure to fungal pathogens on larvae and adults of the predatory insect Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). The protocol was developed and tested with the fungal insect path...

K. Donegan B. Lighthart

1991-01-01

312

Hearing Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.|

Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

2012-01-01

313

Genetic screening.  

PubMed

The family planning nurse practitioner may be the client's only link to genetic screening, education, and counseling. The principles of genetics, the types of genetic defects and their causes are presented. Clients at risk and the nurse practitioner's role in providing education, support, counseling, and referrals are discussed. PMID:6562263

Worthington, S

314

Laser Screen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes a light screen device for measuring the velocity of a projectile, comprising a laser disposed opposite to one end of a first plane reflecting mirror and inclined with respect thereto to cause a laser beam to strike the first plane ref...

J. Kuchmas G. E. Bubb

1978-01-01

315

Spin Screening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown that the flavor singlet contribution of the constituents of the nucleon to the first moment of the spin structure function is suppressed in the deep inelastic limit, due to a nonperturbative screening mechanism catalyzed by the axial anomaly. ...

R. D. Ball

1991-01-01

316

Laptop Screens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Physics 2000 page, from the University of Colorado, offers an introductory explanation of how the flat screens used in laptop computers work. The discussion included a discussion of polarization, twisted cells, the used of electrical field to control twisted cells, liquid crystal displays, and how we view colors.

Goldman, Martin

2011-01-03

317

Large Scale RNAi Screen Reveals That the Inhibitor of DNA Binding 2 (ID2) Protein Is Repressed by p53 Family Member p63 and Functions in Human Keratinocyte Differentiation*  

PubMed Central

The inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, ID2, acts as an oncogene and elevated levels of ID2 have been reported in several malignancies. Whereas some inducers of the ID2 gene have been characterized, little is known regarding the proteins capable to repress its expression. We developed siRNA microarrays to perform a large scale loss-of-function screen in human adult keratinocytes engineered to express GFP under the control of the upstream region of ID2 gene. We screened the effect of siRNA-dependent inhibition of 220 cancer-associated genes on the expression of the ID2::GFP reporter construct. Three genes NBN, RAD21, and p63 lead to a repression of ID2 promoter activity. Strikingly NBN and RAD21 are playing on major role in cell cycle progression and mitosis arrest. These results underline the pregnant need to silence ID2 expression at transcript level to promote cell cycle exit. Central to this inhibitory mechanism we find p63, a key transcription factor in epithelial development and differentiation, which binds specific cis-acting sequence within the ID2 gene promoter both in vitro and in vivo. P63 would not suppress ID2 expression, but would rather prevent excessive expression of that protein to enable the onset of keratinocyte differentiation.

Wu, Ning; Castel, David; Debily, Marie-Anne; Vigano, Maria Alessandra; Alibert, Olivier; Mantovani, Roberto; Iljin, Kristina; Romeo, Paul-Henri; Gidrol, Xavier

2011-01-01

318

Radiation Rescue: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect from Lethal Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. Methods and Findings Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs) were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures) and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i) decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii) boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. Conclusions Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis thereby serving as fast and effective first-line treatment to combat radiation-induced hematopoietic failure.

Lange, Claudia; Brunswig-Spickenheier, Barbel; Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Eggert, Katharina; Gehling, Ursula M.; Rudolph, Cornelia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Cornils, Kerstin; Zustin, Jozef; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai; Zander, Axel R.

2011-01-01

319

Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.  

PubMed

Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC??) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization. PMID:21072022

Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

2010-11-10

320

Newborn Screening  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There's been a lot of talk recently about national testing standards for students. But now, some doctors are calling for national testing standards for newborns. In some states, every newborn baby gets a blood test that can detect more than thirty serious diseases. But in other states, it's a very different story. According to geneticist Piero Rinaldo of the Mayo Clinic, just having a state senator with an affected child could make the difference. Now, he and dozens of other experts have developed uniform standards for newborn screening. And they're calling on the federal government to adopt them. This Science update details many of the obstacles by which individual states and the U.S. government face when challenged with newborn screening practices. Additional links for further inquiry are provided.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-03-07

321

[Is lung cancer screening reasonable?].  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in men and the second leading cause in women. Smoking cessation is the most effective measure to prevent development of lung cancer. Early detection trials with chest x-ray and sputum cytology failed to show reduction lung cancer mortality, despite the larger proportion of early-stage lung cancer diagnosed in the screened arm. The advent of low-dose chest computed tomography disclosed new perspectives. In 2011 an innovative, large prospective randomized controlled trial called "Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening" was published and revealed reduced lung-cancer and overall mortality when persons at risk were annually screened by low-dose computed tomography compared to annually chest x-rays. At the moment, lung cancer screening cannot be recommended in general. It is uncertain for which duration screening should be continued, which screening modality is most appropriate and cost effective and what the psychological impact in case of indeterminate findings is. To avoid lung cancer screening programs being started imprudently, the Swiss healthcare system needs a provider independent commission mandated to continuously monitor ongoing screening trials, evaluate the results as well as the economical aspects, and make evidence based recommendations. PMID:22753286

Latshang, T; Lo Cascio, C; Russi, E

2012-07-01

322

Susceptibility of the Heat, Acid, and Bile-Adapted Vibrio vulnificus to Lethal Low-Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a marine pathogenic bacterium that inhabits seawater or seafood, Vibrio vulnificus encounters low salinity and other stresses in the natural environment and during food processing. This investigation explores the cross-protective response of sublethal heat-, acid-, or bile-adapted V. vulnificus YJ03 against lethal low-salinity stress. Experimental results reveal that the acid (pH 4.4)- and heat (41C)-adapted V. vulnificus were not

HIN-CHUNG WONG; SHU-HUI LIU

2006-01-01

323

Conditionally lethal nusAts mutation of Escherichia coli reduces transcription termination but does not affect antitermination of bacteriophage lambda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Termination of transcription at bacteriophage ? terminators as well as at the Escherichia coli trp a attenuator was examined in the conditionally lethal mutant (nusAts11) defective in the NusA protein of E. coli. Experiments using terminator-assay ? vectors revealed that the efficiency of termination at both ?-dependent (?tL1) and ?-independent (?tL2 and trp a) terminators decreases in the mutant. The

Yoshikazu Nakamura; Saeko Mizusawa; Akiko Tsugawa; Mutsuo Imai

1986-01-01

324

Revealing Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Revealing Things is the Smithsonian Institution's first specifically web based exhibit; both the content and design of the site are fascinating. This work in progress is a prototype of a future, more fully-developed exhibit. It concentrates on "common, everyday objects to tell stories about people, their cultures, and the meanings they associate with their possessions." Items discussed include a 1937 chemistry set, a Vietnam memorial offering, a duckpin bowling ball, an early TV, and a celery vase, among many others. Organized according to theme, era, and object, the exhibit is presented in a new pop-up browser window. Within that window, navigation takes place via "maplets," a connected series of moving colored labels representing the three ways that the exhibit is organized. Users can move slider bars to effect the placement of the labels, and search on terms to create their own thematic or object-based exhibit. When the cursor is placed over an object label, scrolling text introduces it. Alternatively, the site can be navigated via a series of icons that run down the middle of the exhibition page. When an icon is clicked, the series of icons may rearrange. Each exhibit contains a photo of the object, along with written commentary on it. In addition, sound is sometimes available to play period music, or render out loud the exhibition text. The most fully-developed object at this time is "Patched Bellbottoms." Users are advised to read the help files on both the main page and the exhibit page for navigation tips. The exhibit is a fascinating precursor of what could be a new way to interactively view museum exhibits, allowing the user to cast off the restraints of a linear orientation. Note that the exhibit is extremely browser and bandwidth intensive.

1998-01-01

325

Identification of Ras farnesyltransferase inhibitors by microbial screening.  

PubMed

A microbial screen using a yeast strain with conditional deficiency in the GPA1 gene was carried out to search for inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase (PFT). A strain of Streptomyces was found to produce active compounds named UCF1-A, UCF1-B, and UCF1-C. Structural determination of these compounds revealed that UCF1-C is identical to the known antibiotic, manumycin, whereas UCF1-A and UCF1-B are structurally related to manumycin. All three UCF1 compounds suppress the lethality of gpa1 disruption, with UCF1-C exhibiting the strongest activity. UCF1 inhibits yeast as well as rat brain PFT. Fifty percent inhibition of yeast PFT activity is observed with 5 microM UCF1-C. Kinetic analyses of the inhibition suggest that UCF1-C acts as a competitive inhibitor of PFT with respect to farnesyl pyrophosphate, exhibiting a Ki of 1.2 microM, whereas the same compound appears to act as a noncompetitive inhibitor of PFT with respect to the farnesyl acceptor, the Ras protein. UCF1-C shows significant activity to inhibit the growth of Ki-ras-transformed fibrosarcoma, raising the possibility of its use as an antitumor drug. PMID:8460134

Hara, M; Akasaka, K; Akinaga, S; Okabe, M; Nakano, H; Gomez, R; Wood, D; Uh, M; Tamanoi, F

1993-03-15

326

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

What is cervical cancer screening? Cervical cancer screening is used to find changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead ... includes the FAQ Human Papillomavirus Infection]. How is cervical cancer screening done? Cervical cancer screening is simple and ...

327

Isolation and characterization of the Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the sex determining Sex-lethal and doublesex genes of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the isolation and characterization of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining genes Sex-lethal (Sxl) and doublesex (dsx). Fragments of the Sxl and dsx orthologous were isolated with RT-PCR. Genomic and cDNA clones were then obtained by screening a genomic library and separate male and female cDNA adult libraries using the

Dimitrios Lagos; M. Fernanda Ruiz; Lucas Sánchez; Katia Komitopoulou

2005-01-01

328

Advantages of less-tech, less-than-lethal technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper illustrates the advantages of developing less-tech technologies by reporting on two less-tech, less-than-lethal prototype law enforcement tools developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The devices were developed for the National Institute of Justice, less- than-lethal weapons program: 1) an air bag restraint device for use in restraining suspects who become violent during transport in patrol vehicles, and 2) a retractable spiked barrier strip for stopping fleeing vehicles during high-speed pursuit. The success of both projects relied on developing design requirements in conjunction with the actual users of the devices.

Marts, Donna J.; Overlin, Trudy K.

1995-05-01

329

Palliative care for prenatally diagnosed lethal fetal abnormality  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of lethal fetal abnormality raises challenging decisions for parents and clinicians. Most parents opt for termination, which may include feticide. Advances in imaging seem unlikely to lead to earlier diagnoses. Perinatal palliative care offers an alternative. Parental decision making and the clinical aspects of perinatal palliative care were studied after a prenatal diagnosis of lethal fetal abnormality in 20 pregnancies. 40% of parents chose to continue the pregnancy and pursue perinatal palliative care. Six of these eight babies were liveborn and lived for between 1½?h and 3?weeks.

Breeze, A C G; Lees, C C; Kumar, A; Missfelder-Lobos, H H; Murdoch, E M

2007-01-01

330

[Prospective study of lethal blood concentration of organophosphorous in humans].  

PubMed

Total cases of organophosphorous (dichlorvos, methamidophos, dimethoate) poisoning outpatients from six hospitals during four years were collected consecutively for lethal blood concentration study. Blood samples were detected with gas chromatography. The probabilities of death, coma were analyzed with Bliss method and their linear regressive equations of probit were obtained respectively, their 50% lethal concentrations (LC50) and 50% coma concentrations(CC50) were calculated by the formulas above. As the death rate was influenced by therapy, its natural death probability has been discussed and estimated their natural LC50 were between the LC50 and CC50 themselves. Combined LC50 and CC50, their natural LC50 were calculated. PMID:12533887

Bu, J; Yan, L; Chen, Y; Chu, J X; Xie, X F; Chen, T P

2001-02-01

331

Zellweger syndrome - a lethal peroxisome biogenesis disorder.  

PubMed

Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is the severest variety of peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD). This is a fatal hereditary, autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by the absence of peroxisomes in the cells which are essential for many metabolic functions especially beta oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). We report the case of a female Saudi toddler. She presented with dysmorphism, profound hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, seizures, and loss of hearing and vision with findings of optic atrophy. Biochemical study revealed significantly elevated level of VLCFAs, cerotic acid and phytanic acid. She also had periventricular leukomalacia and abnormal electroencephalography results and a PEX 1 gene mutation. The clinical data and investigations were consistent with ZS. As it is fatal in early life, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis are thus crucial. PMID:23327810

Rafique, Muhammad; Zia, Shumaila; Rana, Muhammad Nasir; Mostafa, Ossama A

2013-01-01

332

Lethal neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to amisulpride.  

PubMed

A 42-year old-man was found lying in his bed having seizures. Later he became unconscious and hypotonic developing mydriasis as well as rigidity. The body core temperature (rectal temperature) was above 42 °C. Blood pH was decreased during treatment, and his general condition deteriorated. The patient developed gasping respiration, ventricular fibrillation, and died. During autopsy and histological investigation cerebral and pulmonary edema were noted together with general congestion of the internal organs. Further observations included contraction bands of myocytes, a contracted spleen, fibrosis of the liver, and gall stones. Toxicological analyses of peripheral blood revealed the following results: amisulpride 4.65 mg/l, biperiden 0.12 mg/l, imipramine 0.33 mg/l, and desipramine 0.68 mg/l. An amisulpride-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome was therefore diagnosed as the patho-physiological mechanism leading to death. PMID:23504701

Musshoff, Frank; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

2013-03-16

333

A survey of new temperature-sensitive, embryonic-lethal mutations in C. elegans: 24 alleles of thirteen genes.  

PubMed

To study essential maternal gene requirements in the early C. elegans embryo, we have screened for temperature-sensitive, embryonic lethal mutations in an effort to bypass essential zygotic requirements for such genes during larval and adult germline development. With conditional alleles, multiple essential requirements can be examined by shifting at different times from the permissive temperature of 15°C to the restrictive temperature of 26°C. Here we describe 24 conditional mutations that affect 13 different loci and report the identity of the gene mutations responsible for the conditional lethality in 22 of the mutants. All but four are mis-sense mutations, with two mutations affecting splice sites, another creating an in-frame deletion, and one creating a premature stop codon. Almost all of the mis-sense mutations affect residues conserved in orthologs, and thus may be useful for engineering conditional mutations in other organisms. We find that 62% of the mutants display additional phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature as L1 larvae, in addition to causing embryonic lethality after L4 upshifts. Remarkably, we also found that 13 out of the 24 mutations appear to be fast-acting, making them particularly useful for careful dissection of multiple essential requirements. Our findings highlight the value of C. elegans for identifying useful temperature-sensitive mutations in essential genes, and provide new insights into the requirements for some of the affected loci. PMID:21390299

O'Rourke, Sean M; Carter, Clayton; Carter, Luke; Christensen, Sara N; Jones, Minh P; Nash, Bruce; Price, Meredith H; Turnbull, Douglas W; Garner, Aleena R; Hamill, Danielle R; Osterberg, Valerie R; Lyczak, Rebecca; Madison, Erin E; Nguyen, Michael H; Sandberg, Nathan A; Sedghi, Noushin; Willis, John H; Yochem, John; Johnson, Eric A; Bowerman, Bruce

2011-03-01

334

A yeast two-hybrid screen reveals that osteopontin associates with MAP1A and MAP1B in addition to other proteins linked to microtubule stability, apoptosis and protein degradation in the human brain.  

PubMed

Osteopontin (OPN) expression is reduced in surviving dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinson's disease (PD), and protects against MPP(+) -induced cell death in primary mesencephalic cultures and 6-OHDA-induced cell loss in the rat, while inactivation of OPN aggravates cell death. OPN is thought to act through interactions with integrin receptors or CD44. However, the specific protein interactions involved in OPN-mediated neuroprotection are unknown and are the focus of this study. The yeast two-hybrid (YTH) technique was utilised to investigate OPN-protein interactions, using full-length human OPN to screen a human foetal brain cDNA library. Proteins involved in apoptosis, protein degradation and microtubule stability were identified as OPN binding partners. These included: MAP1A and MAP1B, which regulate microtubule stability; RNF138, an E3 ubiquitin-ligase; proteasome ?1 subunit, a subunit of the 20S proteasome involved in the ubiquitin-dependent cleavage of peptides; BAG6, SGT? and EF1A, proteins implicated in control of apoptosis; DnaJB1, a co-chaperone of Hsp70s; and pleiotrophin, a growth factor. The use of site-directed mutagenesis to modify known OPN protein binding sites outside the RGD integrin binding domain, specifically Y165A and D139E, inhibited some of these interactions. Further investigation using affinity pull-down assays, co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry confirmed that OPN associates with MAP1A and MAP1B in rat SN and striatum. These findings indicate a role for OPN in the regulation of microtubule dynamics, apoptosis and proteolysis in the brain, suggesting that OPN may act as an endogenous multifunctional protective protein in PD. PMID:22779921

Long, Philip; Samnakay, Parwez; Jenner, Peter; Rose, Sarah

2012-07-11

335

Lethal gas bursts from Cameroon Crater Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 15, 1984, a cloud of gas burst out of Lake Monoun in Cameroon, killing 37 people by asphyxiation. A study of the lake revealed that it occupies a 96-m-deep crater and that very high levels of dissolved carbon dioxide prevail in the anoxic deep waters [Sigurdsson et al., 1987]. The carbon isotope characteristics of Lake Monoun indicate derivation of the CO2 from mantle source (high 14C age of lake; ?13C of -7) , but the chemistry of the lake showed no indication of input of hot magmatic gases, such as elevated levels of sulfur or evidence of halogen compounds or gases in the water. We therefore proposed that the Lake Monoun event was not related to a volcanic explosion but was rather the consequence of long-term buildup of mantlederived CO2, which was dissolved in the anoxic lake waters and was derived from soda springs or other carbon dioxide-rich groundwater flow into the submerged crater. Sudden degassing of the CO2-rich waters was attributed to an upset of the density stratification of the lake by a landslide from the crater's eastern rim.

Sigurdsson, Haraldur

336

Acute Lethality of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc to Northern Squawfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 micrograms/liter for copper, 1,104 micrograms/liter for cadmium, a...

J. D. Andros R. R. Garton

1980-01-01

337

The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

338

Prison Inmate Characteristics and Suicide Attempt Lethality: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working with suicidal inmates is among the most demanding elements of clinical practice in corrections, yet few studies regarding the characteristics of prison inmate suicide attempters or their attempts exist. This represents a significant gap as the method of attempt, the prison context, and the resulting lethality of these incidents may be different from attempts made outside of prison. This

Philip R. Magaletta; Marc W. Patry; Ben Wheat; Jeffery Bates

2008-01-01

339

Physicians' Attitudes About Involvement in Lethal Injection for Capital Punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physicians could play various roles in car- rying out capital punishment via lethal injection. Medi- cal societies like the American Medical Association (AMA) and American College of Physicians have established which roles are acceptable and which are disallowed. No one has explored physicians' attitudes toward their po- tential roles in this process. Methods: We surveyed physicians about how accept-

Neil Farber; Elizabeth B. Davis; Joan Weiner; Janine Jordan; E. Gil Boyer; Peter A. Ubel

2000-01-01

340

Temperature tolerances and upper lethal limits of Salmo Apache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerlings of the endangered trout species Salmo apache Miller were subjected to increasing temperatures to determine upper lethal temperature limits. Most fish refused to take food at temperatures above 20°C. Equilibrium loss occurred between 21.2 and 22.3°C. Death occurred when temperatures exceeded 23°C.

STEVEN R. ALCORN

1976-01-01

341

Temperature Tolerances and Upper Lethal Limits of Salmo apache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerlings of the endangered trout species Salmo apache Miller were subjected to increasing temperatures to determine upper lethal temperature limits. Most fish refused to take food at temperatures above 20 C. Equilibrium loss occurred between 21.2 C and 22.3 C. Death occurred when temperatures exceeded 23 C.

Steven R. Alcorn

1976-01-01

342

66 MM Non-Lethal Grenade: Human Effects Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to assess the target effectiveness and the risks of severe (unacceptable) injury to those individuals who are impacted by the 66mm Non-Lethal Grenades (NLG) submunitions or projectiles (specifically the XM99 and the XM98) fro...

D. L. Gonzalez R. Constable T. Dayton J. Wilder B. J. Klauenberg

2003-01-01

343

Dominant lethal mutations induced by 14 C in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mutagenic potential of 1.0 ?Ci14C was evaluated in Swiss albino male mice by the dominant lethal assay. A significant increase in post-implantation loss was seen, the maximum being in the 3rd week after treatment.

S. N. Goud; O. S. Reddi; P. P. Reddy

1981-01-01

344

Dominant-lethal mutation and heritable translocation tests in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous occurrence of chromosome breakage-related genetic anomalies in humans is estimated to be 0.24%, not including spontaneous abortions. More balanced reciprocal translocations are being discovered among mentally handicapped individuals. Chromosome breakage can result in chromosome loss, which often leads to embryonic lethality and occassionally to viable aneuploids, or to viable reciprocal translocations and inversions. In mice, transmitted chromosome breakage

Generoso

1980-01-01

345

Women Smokers Face Increased Risk of Lethal Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Women Smokers Face Increased Risk of Lethal Stroke: Review Hemorrhagic, or bleeding, stroke odds 17 percent higher than for men who ... Thursday, August 22, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Smoking Stroke Women's Health THURSDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Men ...

346

An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.  

PubMed

During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests. PMID:11578037

Alexander, J B

347

Lethal and mutagenic effects of elevated temperature on haploid yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lethal and cytoplasmic mutagenic effects of 52°C incubation during the cell cycle of a haploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined. Both effects varied periodically in a rather parallel pattern: the maximum thermosensitivity was seen at budding time, corresponding to the S period (Williamson, 1965). The 52°C induction of a nuclear forward mutation was also examined: canavanine-resistant mutants were

Ana Schenberg-Frascino; Ethel Moustacchi

1972-01-01

348

A pedigree study of perinatally lethal renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family study of perinatally lethal renal disease (PLRD) was undertaken in the State of Victoria, Australia, for the years 1961 to 1980. A total of 221 cases was ascertained through hospital and necropsy records and confirmed by necropsy findings. There were 134 cases of bilateral renal agenesis (BRA), 34 cases of unilateral agenesis with dysplasia of the other kidney

A Bankier; M de Campo; R Newell; J G Rogers; D M Danks

1985-01-01

349

Double lethal coconut crab ( Birgus latro L.) poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a double lethal coconut crab Birgus latro L. poisoning in New Caledonia. Both patients died after showing gastro-intestinal symptoms, major bradycardia with marked low blood pressure, and finally asystolia. Both had significative hyperkaliemia, suggesting a digitaline-like substance intoxication. Traditional knowledge in the Loyalty Islands relates coconut crab toxicity to the consumption of the Cerbera manghas fruit by the

C. Maillaud; S. Lefebvre; C. Sebat; Y. Barguil; P. Cabalion; M. Cheze; E. Hnawia; M. Nour; F. Durand

2010-01-01

350

Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

Generoso, W.M.

1983-01-01

351

Cardiotoxic and Lethal Effects of Listeria monocytogenes Hemolysin  

PubMed Central

Cardiotoxic and lethal effects of Listeria monocytogenes hemolysin were studied in CD-1 mice injected with varying doses of hemolysin. Intravenous injection of 100 complete hemolytic units (CHU) caused 100% lethality within 4 to 5 min. Doses ranging from 40 to 50 CHU caused death of approximately 50% of the animals. Adrenergic blocking agents and antihistamine failed to protect mice against lethality and thereby suggested that death was not due to release of vasoactive agents by hemolysin. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase increased after intravenous administration of hemolysin and suggested myopathy, possibly of the myocardium. Electrocardiograms from hemolysin-treated mice indicated serious alterations in heart rate and rhythm, suggesting damage to contractile and pacemaker cardiac tissue. In addition, there were indications of increased potassium levels influencing the heart. Presumably, death was due to functional damage to heart muscle and electrical arrest. The cardiotoxic and lethal effects could be prevented by prior incubation of hemolysin with cholesterol, heating, or failure to reactivate the preparation with cysteine.

Kingdon, G. Charles; Sword, C. P.

1970-01-01

352

The Zebra fish cassiopeia Mutant Reveals that SIL Is Required for Mitotic Spindle Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical step in cell division is formation of the mitotic spindle, which is a bipolar array of microtubules that mediates chromosome separation. Here, we report that the SCL-interrupting locus (SIL), a vertebrate-specific cytosolic protein, is necessary for proper mitotic spindle organization in zebrafish and human cells. A homozygous lethal zebrafish mutant, cassiopeia (csp), was identified by a genetic screen

Kathleen L. Pfaff; Christian T. Straub; Ken Chiang; Daniel M. Bear; Yi Zhou; Leonard I. Zon

2007-01-01

353

Alcohol Screening, Evaluation, and Referral for Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six Veterans' Administration primary care clinics were studied for practice patterns of guidelines for alcohol problem screening and referral for further evaluation and treatment. Analysis of 31 primary care provider interviews and 650 patient electronic records revealed 75 patients (14%) scored positive on the AUDIT–C, but only 4 (5%) were referred. Electronic record prompt with practice guidelines ensured screening, but

Nancy Claiborne; Lynn Videka; Paul Postiglione; Allan Finkelstein; Patricia McDonnell; Robin D. Krause

2010-01-01

354

Newborn Screening  

PubMed Central

Early detection of many disorders, mainly inherited, is feasible with population-wide analysis of newborn dried blood spot samples. Phenylketonuria was the prototype disorder for newborn screening (NBS) and early dietary treatment has resulted in vastly improved outcomes for this disorder. Testing for primary hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis (CF) was later added to NBS programs following the development of robust immunoassays and molecular testing. Current CF testing usually relies on a combined immunoreactive trypsin/mutation detection strategy. Multiplex testing for approximately 25 inborn errors of metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry is a relatively recent addition to NBS. The simultaneous introduction of many disorders has caused some re-evaluation of the traditional guidelines for NBS, because very rare disorders or disorders without good treatments can be included with minimal effort. NBS tests for many other disorders have been developed, but these are less uniformly applied or are currently considered developmental. This review focuses on Australasian NBS practices.

Pitt, James J

2010-01-01

355

Exosomes from Plasmodium yoelii-Infected Reticulocytes Protect Mice from Lethal Infections  

PubMed Central

Exosomes are 30–100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released after the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane. While initial studies suggested that the role of exosomes was limited to the removal of proteins during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes, recent studies indicate that they are produced by different types of cells and are involved in promoting inter-cellular communication and antigen presentation. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of exosomes from peripheral blood of BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii 17X strain. Importantly, proteomic analysis revealed the presence of parasite proteins in these vesicles. Moreover, immunization of mice with purified exosomes elicited IgG antibodies capable of recognizing P. yoelii-infected red blood cells. Furthermore, lethal challenge of immunized mice with the normocyte-prone lethal P. yoelii 17XL strain caused a significant attenuation in the course of parasitaemia, increased survival time, and altered the cell tropism to reticulocytes. These results were obtained also when the exosomes were isolated from a P. yoelii-infected reticulocyte culture indicating that reticulocyte-derived exosomes carry antigens and are involved in immune modulation. Moreover, inclusion of CpG ODN 1826 in exosome immunizations elicited IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies and promoted survival, clearance of parasites and subsequent sterile protection of 83% of the animals challenged with P. yoelli 17XL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses elicited by exosomes derived from reticulocytes opening new avenues for the modulation of anti-malaria responses.

Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ferrer, Mireia; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

2011-01-01

356

Podophyllum hexandrum-Mediated Survival Protection and Restoration of Other Cellular Injuries in Lethally Irradiated Mice  

PubMed Central

This study aims at the development of a safe and effective formulation to counter the effects of lethal irradiation. The sub-fraction (G-001M), prepared from Podophyllum hexandrum has rendered high degree of survival (>90%) at a dose of 6?mg?kg?1 body weight (intramuscular) in lethally irradiated mice. Therapeutic dose of G-001M, at about 20 times lower concentration than its LD100, has revealed a DRF of 1.62. Comet assay studies in peripheral blood leukocytes have reflected that, treatment of G-001M before irradiation has significantly reduced DNA tail length (P < .001) and DNA damage score (P < .001), as compared to radiation-only group. Spleen cell counts in irradiated animals had declined drastically at the very first day of exposure, and the fall continued till the 5th day (P < .001). In the treated irradiated groups, there was a steep reduction in the counts initially, but this phase did not prolong. More than 60% decline in thymocytes of irradiated group animals was registered at 5?h of irradiation when compared with controls, and the fall progressed further downwards with the similar pace till 5th day of exposure (P < .001). At later intervals, thymus was found fully regressed. In G-001M pre-treated irradiated groups also, thymocytes decreased till the 5th day but thereafter rejuvenated and within 30 days of treatment the values were close to normal. Current studies have explicitly indicated that, G-001M in very small doses has not only rendered high survivability in lethally irradiated mice, but also protected their cellular DNA, besides supporting fast replenishment of the immune system.

Sankhwar, Sanghmitra; Gupta, Manju Lata; Gupta, Vanita; Verma, Savita; Suri, Krishna Avtar; Devi, Memita; Sharma, Punita; Khan, Ehsan Ahmed; Alam, M. Sarwar

2011-01-01

357

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay.

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

358

Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

2013-05-07

359

Disruption of the rice plastid ribosomal protein s20 leads to chloroplast developmental defects and seedling lethality.  

PubMed

Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) are essential for ribosome biogenesis, plastid protein biosynthesis, chloroplast differentiation, and early chloroplast development. This study identifies the first rice PRP mutant, asl1 (albino seedling lethality1), which exhibits an albino lethal phenotype at the seedling stage. This albino phenotype was associated with altered chlorophyll (Chl) content and chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that ASL1 encodes PRP S20 (PRPS20), which localizes to the chloroplast. ASL1 showed tissue-specific expression, as it was highly expressed in plumule and young seedlings but expressed at much lower levels in other tissues. In addition, ASL1 expression was regulated by light. The transcript levels of nuclear genes for Chl biosynthesis and chloroplast development were strongly affected in asl1 mutants; transcripts of some plastid genes for photosynthesis were undetectable. Our findings indicate that nuclear-encoded PRPS20 plays an important role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:23979931

Gong, Xiaodi; Jiang, Quan; Xu, Jianlong; Zhang, Jianhui; Teng, Sheng; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun

2013-10-03

360

Disruption of the Rice Plastid Ribosomal Protein S20 Leads to Chloroplast Developmental Defects and Seedling Lethality  

PubMed Central

Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) are essential for ribosome biogenesis, plastid protein biosynthesis, chloroplast differentiation, and early chloroplast development. This study identifies the first rice PRP mutant, asl1 (albino seedling lethality1), which exhibits an albino lethal phenotype at the seedling stage. This albino phenotype was associated with altered chlorophyll (Chl) content and chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that ASL1 encodes PRP S20 (PRPS20), which localizes to the chloroplast. ASL1 showed tissue-specific expression, as it was highly expressed in plumule and young seedlings but expressed at much lower levels in other tissues. In addition, ASL1 expression was regulated by light. The transcript levels of nuclear genes for Chl biosynthesis and chloroplast development were strongly affected in asl1 mutants; transcripts of some plastid genes for photosynthesis were undetectable. Our findings indicate that nuclear-encoded PRPS20 plays an important role in chloroplast development in rice.

Gong, Xiaodi; Jiang, Quan; Xu, Jianlong; Zhang, Jianhui; Teng, Sheng; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun

2013-01-01

361

Strategy for enhanced transgenic strain development for embryonic conditionnal lethality in Anastrepha suspensa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here the first reproductive sterility system for the tephritid pest, Anastrepha suspensa, is presented, based on lethality primarily in embryos heterozygous for a lethal conditional transgene combination. The tetracycline-suppressible system uses the cellularization-specific A. suspensa serendipity...

362

77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses AGENCY: Department of the...survivability, lethality and vulnerability (SLV) analyses. ARL/SLAD conducts SLV analyses, using the MUVES-S2 vulnerability model, to quantify...

2012-02-08

363

Significant conservation of synthetic lethal genetic interaction networks between distantly related eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethal genetic interaction networks define genes that work together to control essential functions and have been studied extensively in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis technique (ScSGA). The extent to which synthetic lethal or other genetic interaction networks are conserved between species remains uncertain. To address this question, we compared literature-curated and experimentally derived genetic interaction networks for two distantly related yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. cerevisiae. We find that 23% of interactions in a novel, high-quality S. pombe literature-curated network are conserved in the existing S. cerevisiae network. Next, we developed a method, called S. pombe SGA analysis (SpSGA), enabling rapid, high-throughput isolation of genetic interactions in this species. Direct comparison by SpSGA and ScSGA of ?220 genes involved in DNA replication, the DNA damage response, chromatin remodeling, intracellular transport, and other processes revealed that ?29% of genetic interactions are common to both species, with the remainder exhibiting unique, species-specific patterns of genetic connectivity. We define a conserved yeast network (CYN) composed of 106 genes and 144 interactions and suggest that this network may help understand the shared biology of diverse eukaryotic species.

Dixon, Scott J.; Fedyshyn, Yaroslav; Koh, Judice L. Y.; Prasad, T. S. Keshava; Chahwan, Charly; Chua, Gordon; Toufighi, Kiana; Baryshnikova, Anastasija; Hayles, Jacqueline; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Myers, Chad L.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Durocher, Daniel; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles

2008-01-01

364

IL-6 trans-signaling promotes pancreatitis-associated lung injury and lethality.  

PubMed

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with a high mortality rate. Although typically seen in individuals with sepsis, ALI is also a major complication in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The pathophysiology of SAP-associated ALI is poorly understood, but elevated serum levels of IL-6 is a reliable marker for disease severity. Here, we used a mouse model of acute pancreatitis-associated (AP-associated) ALI to determine the role of IL-6 in ALI lethality. Il6-deficient mice had a lower death rate compared with wild-type mice with AP, while mice injected with IL-6 were more likely to develop lethal ALI. We found that inflammation-associated NF-?B induced myeloid cell secretion of IL-6, and the effects of secreted IL-6 were mediated by complexation with soluble IL-6 receptor, a process known as trans-signaling. IL-6 trans-signaling stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and production of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in pancreatic acinar cells. Examination of human samples revealed expression of IL-6 in combination with soluble IL-6 receptor was a reliable predictor of ALI in SAP. These results demonstrate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an essential mediator of ALI in SAP across species and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may prevent SAP-associated ALI. PMID:23426178

Zhang, Hong; Neuhöfer, Patrick; Song, Liang; Rabe, Björn; Lesina, Marina; Kurkowski, Magdalena U; Treiber, Matthias; Wartmann, Thomas; Regnér, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik; Saur, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Halangk, Walter; Mizgerd, Joseph P; Schmid, Roland M; Rose-John, Stefan; Algül, Hana

2013-02-15

365

IL-6 trans-signaling promotes pancreatitis-associated lung injury and lethality  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with a high mortality rate. Although typically seen in individuals with sepsis, ALI is also a major complication in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The pathophysiology of SAP-associated ALI is poorly understood, but elevated serum levels of IL-6 is a reliable marker for disease severity. Here, we used a mouse model of acute pancreatitis–associated (AP-associated) ALI to determine the role of IL-6 in ALI lethality. Il6-deficient mice had a lower death rate compared with wild-type mice with AP, while mice injected with IL-6 were more likely to develop lethal ALI. We found that inflammation-associated NF-?B induced myeloid cell secretion of IL-6, and the effects of secreted IL-6 were mediated by complexation with soluble IL-6 receptor, a process known as trans-signaling. IL-6 trans-signaling stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and production of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in pancreatic acinar cells. Examination of human samples revealed expression of IL-6 in combination with soluble IL-6 receptor was a reliable predictor of ALI in SAP. These results demonstrate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an essential mediator of ALI in SAP across species and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may prevent SAP-associated ALI.

Zhang, Hong; Neuhofer, Patrick; Song, Liang; Rabe, Bjorn; Lesina, Marina; Kurkowski, Magdalena U.; Treiber, Matthias; Wartmann, Thomas; Regner, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik; Saur, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Halangk, Walter; Mizgerd, Joseph P.; Schmid, Roland M.; Rose-John, Stefan; Algul, Hana

2013-01-01

366

Genetic loci controlling lethal cell death in tomato caused by viral satellite RNA infection.  

PubMed

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) associated with D satellite RNA (satRNA) causes lethal systemic necrosis (LSN) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which involves programmed cell death. No resistance to this disease has been found in tomato. We obtained a line of wild tomato, S. habrochaitis, with a homogeneous non-lethal response (NLR) to the infection. This line of S. habrochaitis was crossed with tomato to generate F1 plants that survived the infection with NLR, indicating that NLR is a dominant trait. The NLR trait was successfully passed on to the next generation. The phenotype and genotype segregation was analyzed in the first backcross population. The analyses indicate that the NLR trait is determined by quantitative trait loci (QTL). Major QTL associated with the NLR trait were mapped to chromosomes 5 and 12. Results from Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the F1 and S. habrochaitis plants accumulated minus-strand satRNA more slowly than tomato, and fewer vascular cells were infected. In addition, D satRNA-induced LSN in tomato is correlated with higher accumulation of the minus-strand satRNA compared with the accumulation of the minus strand of a non-necrogenic mutant D satRNA. PMID:22746824

Xu, Ping; Wang, Hua; Coker, Frank; Ma, Jun-Ying; Tang, Yuhong; Taylor, Mark; Roossinck, Marilyn J

2012-08-01

367

Enteral formula composition does not affect response to lethal infectious challenge in mice.  

PubMed

The effects of enteral formulations on the response of mice to infectious challenge with Listeria monocytogenes, influenza A or Candida albicans were studied to test the efficacy of specialized ingredients. CF-1 outbred female mice (12-15 g) were fed nonpurified diet (Purina No. 5002) or commercially available liquid formulas: Osmolite HN, Perative or Impact. There were no differences between the groups fed the liquid formulas with regards to mean survival time or percentage of survivors in any of these models of infection. Examination of spleens from the groups challenged with L. monocytogenes, lungs from mice infected with Influenza A and kidneys from the groups challenged with C. albicans revealed no differences in cure rate of survivors. Pre-feeding periods of up to 8 d before infection produced similar results for mice fed enteral formulations compared to nonpurified diet. Contrary to previous reports, the use of Impact did not improve resistance to disease in mice challenged with lethal doses of L. monocytogenes, as compared with mice fed Osmolite HN. Additionally, mice fed Impact, Perative, or nonpurified diet responded similarly to challenge with L. monocytogenes, C. albicans or influenza A. The results indicate that these acute lethal animal models of infectious challenge may be of limited use to distinguish effects of modified nutrient composition of enteral formulas. PMID:7965199

Alder, J D; Meulbroek, J; Jarvis, K; Mitten, M; Hutch, T; Paige, L; Shipkowitz, N; Henningfield, M F; Clement, J

1994-11-01

368

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552...Inmates § 552.25 Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons...

2009-07-01

369

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552...Inmates § 552.25 Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons...

2010-07-01

370

THE DOSAGE RESPONSE CURVE FOR RADIATION INDUCED DOMINANT LETHAL MUTATIONS IN THE HONEYBEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dosage of gamma radiation required to inactivate honeybee sperm is ; several fold higher than the nearly 100 percent domxaminant lethal dosage, as in ; Habrobracon. Nearly all the induced dominant lethals cansed death in the egg ; stage. The proportion of dominant lethals in irradiated spermatozoa did not ; change after one year of storage in the spermatheca

1958-01-01

371

How many loci on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster can mutate to recessive lethals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the sex-linked recessive lethal test is due to the fact that a very large number of loci are included in the mutation study. From extensive studies on the spontaneous sex-linked recessive lethal frequency and spontaneous specific locus mutation rates, it is possible to derive an estimate of the number of loci included in the recessive lethal test.

S. Abrahamson; F. E. Wuergler; C. DeJongh; H. Unger Meyer

1980-01-01

372

The Evolution of Lethals in the t-Haplotype System of the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of lethal haplotypes in the t-haplotype segregation distortion system of Mus is examined by mathematical and computer models. The models assume that there is reproductive compensation for the loss of lethal embryos, such that the net reproductive success of a female is not reduced in proportion to the frequency of lethal offspring which she produces. The initial population

Brian Charlesworth

1994-01-01

373

KEAP1-Dependent Synthetic Lethality Induced by AKT and TXNRD1 Inhibitors in Lung Cancer.  

PubMed

Intrinsic resistance to agents targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is one of the major challenges in cancer treatment with such agents. The objective of this study is to identify the genes or pathways that can be targeted to overcome the resistance of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) to the AKT inhibitor MK2206, which is currently being evaluated in phase I and II clinical trials. Using a genome-wide siRNA library screening and biologic characterization, we identified that inhibition of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1), one of the key antioxidant enzymes, with siRNAs or its inhibitor, auranofin, sensitized NSCLC cells to MK2206 treatment in vitro and in vivo. We found that simultaneous inhibition of TXNRD1 and AKT pathways induced robust reactive oxygen species production, which was involved in c-jun-NH2-kinase (JNK; MAPK8) activation and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic lethality interaction between the TXNRD1 and AKT pathways occurred through the KEAP1/NRF2 cellular antioxidant pathway. Finally, we found that synthetic lethality induced by TXNRD1 and AKT inhibitors relied on wild-type KEAP1 function. Our study indicates that targeting the interaction between AKT and TXNRD1 antioxidant pathways with MK2206 and auranofin, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, is a rational strategy to treat lung cancer and that KEAP1 mutation status may offer a predicative biomarker for such combination approaches. Cancer Res; 73(17); 5532-43. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23824739

Dai, Bingbing; Yoo, Suk-Young; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Graham, Ryan A; Majidi, Mourad; Yan, Shaoyu; Meng, Jieru; Ji, Lin; Coombes, Kevin; Minna, John D; Fang, Bingliang; Roth, Jack A

2013-07-03

374

Screening Tests and Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Screening Tests and Vaccines Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important ... updates. Enter email address Submit Screening Tests and Vaccines news October 17, 2013 - U.S. Teens More Vulnerable ...

375

Invasive pneumococcal disease: association between serotype, clinical presentation and lethality.  

PubMed

To ascertain the factors linked to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by the different serotypes in the period 2007-2009, following the conjugate vaccine's inclusion in the childhood vaccination schedule, a total of 2013 IPD cases were reviewed. The mean annual incidence in this period was 10.74 cases per 100,000 inhabitans and the lethality was 8.8%. Overall serotype distribution displayed certain peculiarities, such as the high frequency of serotype 5. Serotype 3, male gender, sepsis and presence of risk factors were significantly associated with lethality. Vaccinated children under 5 years of age had a higher risk of disease due to serotype 19A. Serotype 8 was associated with the presence of underlying risk factors. PMID:21683112

Rodríguez, M Angeles Gutiérrez; González, Amai Varela; Gavín, María Ascensión Ordobás; Martínez, Fernando Martín; Marín, Natividad García; Blázquez, Belén Ramos; Moreno, Juan Carlos Sanz

2011-06-15

376

Molecular Foundations of Reproductive Lethality in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The SeedGenes database (www.seedgenes.org) contains information on more than 400 genes required for embryo development in Arabidopsis. Many of these EMBRYO-DEFECTIVE (EMB) genes encode proteins with an essential function required throughout the life cycle. This raises a fundamental question. Why does elimination of an essential gene in Arabidopsis often result in embryo lethality rather than gametophyte lethality? In other words, how do mutant (emb) gametophytes survive and participate in fertilization when an essential cellular function is disrupted? Furthermore, why do some mutant embryos proceed further in development than others? To address these questions, we first established a curated dataset of genes required for gametophyte development in Arabidopsis based on information extracted from the literature. This provided a basis for comparison with EMB genes obtained from the SeedGenes dataset. We also identified genes that exhibited both embryo and gametophyte defects when disrupted by a loss-of-function mutation. We then evaluated the relationship between mutant phenotype, gene redundancy, mutant allele strength, gene expression pattern, protein function, and intracellular protein localization to determine what factors influence the phenotypes of lethal mutants in Arabidopsis. After removing cases where continued development potentially resulted from gene redundancy or residual function of a weak mutant allele, we identified numerous examples of viable mutant (emb) gametophytes that required further explanation. We propose that the presence of gene products derived from transcription in diploid (heterozygous) sporocytes often enables mutant gametophytes to survive the loss of an essential gene in Arabidopsis. Whether gene disruption results in embryo or gametophyte lethality therefore depends in part on the ability of residual, parental gene products to support gametophyte development. We also highlight here 70 preglobular embryo mutants with a zygotic pattern of inheritance, which provide valuable insights into the maternal-to-zygotic transition in Arabidopsis and the timing of paternal gene activation during embryo development.

Muralla, Rosanna; Lloyd, Johnny; Meinke, David

2011-01-01

377

Lethal mitochondrial genotypes in Podospora anserina : A model for senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosses between spg1 and spg2, two mitochondrial mutants of Podospora anserina, yield a new type of strain, called pseudo wild-type (PSW), in addition to wild-type recombinants. PSW strains are characterized by a variable phenotype for germination of ascospores and a variable longevity. By autofecondation, PSW strains yield early lethal strains (which die soon after the germination of the spores and

Léon Belcour; Odile Begel

1978-01-01

378

SOCS1 Deficiency Causes a Lymphocyte-Dependent Perinatal Lethality  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOCS1 is an SH2-containing protein that is primarily expressed in thymocytes in a cytokine- and T cell receptor–independent manner. SOCS1 deletion causes perinatal lethality with death by 2–3 weeks. During this period thymic changes include a loss of cellularity and a switch from predominantly CD4+CD8+ to single positive cells. Peripheral T cells express activation antigens and proliferate to IL-2 in

Jean-Christophe Marine; David J Topham; Catriona McKay; Demin Wang; Evan Parganas; Dimitrios Stravopodis; Akihiko Yoshimura; James N Ihle

1999-01-01

379

Chlornaphazine and chlorambucil induce dominant lethal mutations in male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two antineoplastic agents, chlornaphazine (CN) and chlorambucil (CHL), were tested for the induction of dominant lethal mutations in male mice. Both compounds are nitrogen mustard derivatives and have been shown to be genotoxic in a variety of organisms. CN was administered intraperitoneally to DBA\\/2J male mice at a dosage of 0, 500, 1000, or 1500mg\\/kg body weight (bw). Immediately following

Lois B Barnett; Susan E Lewis

2003-01-01

380

EXCALIBIR - A space experiment in orbital debris lethality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study proposes a space experiment using extended Space Shuttle external tanks to test the impact of orbital debris. The External Tank Calibrated Impact Response test, EXCALIBIR, is a low-cost low-risk, high-payoff approach to investigating the threat to resident space objects posed by untrackable orbital debris, to provide lethality data to the kinetic energy weapons community, and to aid in

Robert D. Culp; Michael R. Dickey

1991-01-01

381

Lethality of taurine and alcohol coadministration in mice.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption by mothers during pregnancy causes a fetal alcohol syndrome associated with massive neuronal apoptosis. We have recently shown that taurine at a dose of 2 g/kg saves about 50% of dying cerebellar neurons from ethanol-induced apoptosis in 7-day-old mice. However, a further increase in the taurine dose to ethanol-treated mice had a toxic and in some cases lethal effect. In the present work we studied the toxic effects of taurine and ethanol coadministration in three age groups: 7-day-old, adult (5 to 6 months old), and old (12 to 13 months old) mice. Taurine and ethanol were injected in two half-doses: taurine at 0 and 4 h and ethanol at 1 and 3 h. The minimal 100% lethal doses in coadministration of taurine and ethanol were the following: 7-day-old mice-6 g/kg taurine + 5 g/kg ethanol, adult mice-10 g/kg of taurine + 8 g/kg of ethanol, and old mice-above 6 g/kg of taurine + 6 g/kg of ethanol. All mice treated with taurine or ethanol alone survived. The adult and old mice dying from the combined toxicity of taurine and ethanol showed a marked fall in blood glucose, which may be one reason for lethality. A comparison of the lethal doses of taurine and ethanol coadministration in different age groups allows us to conclude that the adverse effect of the combined toxicity of taurine and ethanol is age dependent. PMID:23392868

Taranukhin, Andrey G; Saransaari, Pirjo; Oja, Simo S

2013-01-01

382

Diversity of Neuromuscular Pathology in Lethal Multiple Pterygium Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome (LMPS) is an uncommon fetal-onset disorder of unknown etiology. The pathogenesis of LMPS\\u000a has been suggested to be early-onset fetal akinesia, fragile collagen, or generalized edema. Information on the neuromuscular\\u000a pathology of LMPS in the literature is generally scanty. We present the findings from a review of 14 fetuses with features\\u000a of LMPS from the

Phillip M. Cox; Louise A. Brueton; Predrag Bjelogrlic; Penelope Pomroy; Caroline A. Sewry

2003-01-01

383

Review: D-Galactosamine lethality model: scope and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

D-Galactosamine (D-galN) is well established as sensitizing mice and other animals to the lethal effects of TNF, specifically, and by several orders of magnitude. Protection by anti-TNF neutralizing antibody is complete, as is (metabolically-based) protection by uridine. Sensitization occurs regardless of the origin of the released TNF, whether it is released from macrophages and\\/or T-cells. The same is true for

Richard Silverstein

2004-01-01

384

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-Wide Mutant Screen for Altered Sensitivity to K1 Killer Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants individually deleted for 5718 yeast genes, we screened for altered sensitivity to the antifungal protein, K1 killer toxin, that binds to a cell wall -glucan receptor and subsequently forms lethal pores in the plasma membrane. Mutations in 268 genes, including 42 in genes of unknown function, had a phenotype, often mild, with 186

Nicolas Page ´; Manon Gerard-Vincent; Patrice Menard; Maude Beaulieu; Masayuki Azuma; Gerrit J. P. Dijkgraaf; Thuy Nguyen; Tim Dowse; Anne-Marie Sdicu; Howard Bussey

385

Successful Gene Therapy in Utero for Lethal Murine Hypophosphatasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hypophosphatasia (HPP), caused by mutations in the gene ALPL encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP), is an inherited systemic skeletal disease characterized by mineralization defects of bones and teeth. The clinical severity of HPP varies widely, from a lethal perinatal form to mild odontohypophosphatasia showing only dental manifestations. HPP model mice (Akp2?/?) phenotypically mimic the severe infantile form of human HPP; they appear normal at birth but die by 2 weeks of age because of growth failure, hypomineralization, and epileptic seizures. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of fetal gene therapy using the lethal HPP model mice. On day 15 of gestation, the fetuses of HPP model mice underwent transuterine intraperitoneal injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) expressing bone-targeted TNALP. Treated and delivered mice showed normal weight gain and seizure-free survival for at least 8 weeks. Vector sequence was detected in systemic organs including bone at 14 days of age. ALP activities in plasma and bone were consistently high. Enhanced mineralization was demonstrated on X-ray images of the chest and forepaw. Our data clearly demonstrate that systemic injection of AAV9 in utero is an effective strategy for the treatment of lethal HPP mice. Fetal gene therapy may be an important choice after prenatal diagnosis of life-threatening HPP.

Sugano, Hanako; Matsumoto, Tae; Miyake, Koichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Iijima, Osamu; Migita, Makoto; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millan, Jose Luis; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

2011-01-01

386

Distress screening: experiences of oncology social workers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this pilot study was to explore oncology social workers experiences with the introduction and use of distress screening tools with patients who are diagnosed with cancer. Focus groups were conducted with 15 oncology social workers, who were primarily employed in large hospitals or cancer centers. The results fell into three broad areas: initiating distress screening, adapting distress screening to the setting, and evaluating distress screening. Findings revealed that social workers face many decisions as they adapt distress screening to their settings, including when and how to measure distress, and how to refer patients to services. Social workers were concerned about being overwhelmed with referrals and sought to manage the screening to better identify those who are likely to benefit from services. This research suggests a need for further study, the development of practice guidelines, and training of oncology social workers. PMID:23101549

Oktay, Julianne S; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances R; Davis, Cindy; Kern, Kathleen C

2012-11-01

387

Decrease of Foxp3+ Treg cell number and acquisition of effector cell phenotype during lethal infection  

PubMed Central

Using a model of lethal oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii, we examined the fate of both induced and natural regulatory T (Treg) cells in the face of strong inflammatory responses occurring in a tolerogenic-prone environment. We found that during highly T helper 1 (Th1) cell-polarized mucosal immune responses, Treg cell numbers collapsed via multiple pathways including blockade of Treg cell induction and disruption of endogenous Treg cell homeostasis. In particular, shutdown of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the highly Th1 cell-polarized environment triggered by infection directly contributed to Treg cell incapacity to suppress effector responses and eventually leads to immunopathogenesis. Furthermore, we found that environmental cues provided by both local dendritic cells and effector T cells can induce the expression of T-bet transcription factor and IFN-? by Treg cells. These data reveal a mechanism for Th1 cell pathogenicity that extends beyond their proinflammatory program to limit Treg cell survival.

Oldenhove, Guillaume; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Wohlfert, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Jason; Chou, David; Dos santos, Liliane; O'Brien, Shaun; Blank, Rebecca; Lamb, Erika; Natarajan, Sundar; Kastenmayer, Robin; Hunter, Christopher; Grigg, Michael E.; Belkaid, Yasmine

2009-01-01

388

Neonatal Lethality of LGR5 Null Mice Is Associated with Ankyloglossia and Gastrointestinal Distension  

PubMed Central

The physiological role of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, LGR5, was investigated by targeted deletion of this seven-transmembrane protein containing a large N-terminal extracellular domain with leucine-rich repeats. LGR5 null mice exhibited 100% neonatal lethality characterized by gastrointestinal tract dilation with air and an absence of milk in the stomach. Gross and histological examination revealed fusion of the tongue to the floor of oral cavity in the mutant newborns and immunostaining of LGR5 expression in the epithelium of the tongue and in the mandible of the wild-type embryos. The observed ankyloglossia phenotype provides a model for understanding the genetic basis of this craniofacial defect in humans and an opportunity to elucidate the physiological role of the LGR5 signaling system during embryonic development.

Morita, Hiroki; Mazerbourg, Sabine; Bouley, Donna M.; Luo, Ching-Wei; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kuwabara, Yoshimitsu; Baribault, Helene; Tian, Hui; Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

2004-01-01

389

The association between general practitioners' attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women's screening participation  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs) are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s participation in the screening programme. Methods Data on women’s screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. Results The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7%) had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34%) more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. Conclusion The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

2012-01-01

390

LRP5 and LRP6 Are Not Required for Protective Antigen–Mediated Internalization or Lethality of Anthrax Lethal Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthrax toxin (AnTx) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of anthrax. AnTx is composed of three proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor, and lethal factor (LF). PA is not toxic but serves to bind cells and translocate the toxic edema factor or LF moieties to the cytosol. Recently, the low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein LRP6 has been reported to mediate

John J Young; Jennifer L Bromberg-White; Cassandra Zylstra; Joseph T Church; Elissa Boguslawski; James H Resau; Bart O Williams; Nicholas S Duesbery

2007-01-01

391

Japanese quail acute exposure to methamidophos: experimental design, lethal, sub-lethal effects and cholinesterase biochemical and histochemical expression.  

PubMed

We exposed the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to the organophosphate methamidophos using acute oral test. Mortality and sub-lethal effects were recorded in accordance to internationally accepted protocols. In addition cholinesterases were biochemically estimated in tissues of the quail: brain, liver and plasma. Furthermore, brain, liver and duodenum cryostat sections were processed for cholinesterase histochemistry using various substrates and inhibitors. Mortalities occurred mainly in the first 1-2h following application. Sub-lethal effects, such as ataxia, ruffled feathers, tremor, salivation and reduced or no reaction to external stimuli were observed. Biochemical analysis in the brain, liver and plasma indicates a strong cholinesterase dependent inhibition with respect to mortality and sub-lethal effects of the quail. The histochemical staining also indicated a strong cholinesterase inhibition in the organs examined and the analysis of the stained sections allowed for an estimation and interpretation of the intoxication effects of methamidophos, in combination with tissue morphology visible by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. We conclude that the use of biochemistry and histochemistry for the biomarker cholinesterase, may constitute a significantly novel approach for understanding the results obtained by the acute oral test employed in order to assess the effects of methamidophos and other chemicals known to inhibit this very important nervous system enzyme. PMID:23146311

Foudoulakis, Manousos; Balaskas, Christos; Csato, Attila; Szentes, Csaba; Arapis, Gerassimos

2012-11-09

392

[Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].  

PubMed

Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p < 0.000. Bladder tumours accounts in CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented. PMID:9807870

Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

393

Toxicological screening in trauma  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To determine the prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use in patients with major trauma. Methods—Consecutive trauma patient enrolment, 24 hours a day, was envisaged with anonymised patient data on gender, age band, and mechanism of injury collected. The study group had surplus plasma quantitatively analysed for ethanol concentration, and urine samples were initially screened, via immunoassay, for opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and methadone. Confirmation and specification of individual positive results was then performed using thin layer or gas-liquid chromatography. Drugs of treatment given in the resuscitation room, if subsequently detected in the urine samples, were excluded from the final results. Results—There were 116 eligible trauma patients assessed and treated in the resuscitation room over a six month period, of which 93 (80%) were enrolled. Altogether 27% of this trauma population had plasma ethanol concentrations greater than 80 mg/dl. There was a significantly higher prevalence of alcohol intoxication in the group not involved in a road traffic accident (RTA) compared with the group who were involved in a RTA. Initial screening of urine for drugs revealed a prevalence of 51%. After 12 exclusions due to iatrogenic administration of opiates, the final confirmed prevalence was 35% in this trauma population. The individual drug prevalence was 13% for cannabinoids, 11% for codeine, 8% for morphine, 6% for amphetamine, 6% for benzodiazepines, 3% for cocaine, 1% for dihydrocodeine, and 1% for methadone. Conclusions—There is a notable prevalence of drug and alcohol use in this British accident and emergency trauma population. A significantly higher prevalence for alcohol intoxication was found in the non-RTA group compared with the RTA group. The patterns of drug usage detected reflect local influences and less cocaine use is seen compared with American studies. The association between alcohol, drugs, and trauma, together with ethically acceptable methods of screening, are discussed.

Carrigan, T; Field, H; Illingworth, R; Gaffney, P; Hamer, D

2000-01-01

394

Involvement of heat shock protein 27 in the susceptibility of KT human breast cancer cells to UVC and interferon lethality  

PubMed Central

Revealing the key molecules regulating the stress-response pathways in human cells is an intriguing problem. Chaperones, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), are important molecules for protecting the viability of human cells; however, it remains to be further clarified whether the molecules differentially modulate cellular responses to various types of stressors, such as DNA-damaging ultraviolet ray C (principally 254-nm wavelength, UVC) and cytocidal cytokine interferons. In the present study, the human breast cancer cell lines KT and MCF-7 were examined for GRP78 and HSP27 expression following exposure to UVC and human interferon-? (HuIFN-?). The KT cells demonstrated a higher sensitivity to both UVC and HuIFN-? lethality than MCF-7 cells. The cellular expression levels of GRP78 in KT cells, assessed by western blot analysis, were approximately 2-fold higher than that in MCF-7 cells, while the expression of HSP27 in the KT cells was 20% of the expression in the MCF-7 cells. Decreased resistance to UVC lethality was observed in GRP78 siRNA-transfected KT cells. In addition, HSP27 cDNA transfection of KT cells resulted in an increased resistance to UVC lethality. The cDNA-transfected KT cells showed an increased viability against HuIFN-?, compared with that of empty vector-transfected cells. By contrast, KT cells pretreated with HuIFN-? and irradiated with UVC demonstrated an increased resistance to UVC lethality, in association with increased levels of HSP27 expression. Thus, HSP27 may control the survival response pathways to both UVC and HuIFN-? in the human cells examined.

TONG, XIAO-BO; KITA, KAZUKO; CHEN, SHI-PING; JIANG, XIA; SUGAYA, SHIGERU; JING, WEN-LI; ZHANG, SHU-FENG; SUZUKI, NOBUO

2012-01-01

395

Prenatal screening and genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are

SCILLA ALDERSON; ARJA R. ARO; THALIA DRAGONAS; ELIZABETH ETTORRE; ELINA HEMMINKI; PIIA JALINOJA; TJEERD TYMSTRA

396

Colorectal Cancer Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, the burden of this disease could be dramatically reduced by increased utilization of screening. Evidence-based recommendations and guidelines from national societies recommend screening all average risk adults starting at age 50 years. However, the myriad screening options and slight differences in screening recommendations between guidelines

Joseph A. Diaz; Teresa Slomka

2012-01-01

397

Breast Cancer (PDQ): Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen ... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Risks of Breast Cancer Screening Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be ...

398

Standard protocol for the dominant lethal test on male mice set up by the work group “dominant lethal mutations of the ad hoc Committee Chemogenetics”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The members of the work group “Dominant Lethal Mutations of the ad hoc Committee Chemogenetics” jointly carried out experimental studies in the period from November 1972 until February 1976. On the basis of the results obtained and the experience gained, they worked out on February 27, 1976, a standard protocol for the dominant lethal test (DLT) on male mice. The

U. H. Ehling; L. Machemer; W. Buselmaier; J. Dýcka; H. Frohberg; J. Kratochvilova; R. Lang; D. Lorke; D. Müller; J. Peh; G. Röhrborn; R. Roll; M. Schulze-Schencking; H. Wiemann

1978-01-01

399

MHO1, an evolutionarily conserved gene, is synthetic lethal with PLC1; Mho1p has a role in invasive growth.  

PubMed

The novel protein Memo (Mediator of ErbB2 driven cell motility) was identified in a screen for ErbB2 interacting proteins and found to have an essential function in cell motility. Memo is evolutionarily conserved with homologs found in all branches of life; the human and yeast proteins have a similarity of >50%. In the present study we used the model organism S. cerevisiae to characterize the Memo-homologue Mho1 (Yjr008wp) and to investigate its function in yeast. In a synthetic lethal screen we found MHO1 as a novel synthetic lethal partner of PLC1, which encodes the single phospholipase C in yeast. Double-deleted cells lacking MHO1 and PLC1, proliferate for up to ten generations. Introduction of human Memo into the memo?plc1? strain rescued the synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that yeast and human proteins have similar functions. Mho1 is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of yeast cells; the same distribution of Memo was found in mammalian cells. None of the Memo homologues have a characteristic nuclear localization sequence, however, a conserved nuclear export sequence is found in all. In mammalian cells, blocking nuclear export with Leptomycin B led to nuclear Memo accumulation, suggesting that it is actively exported from the nucleus. In yeast MHO1 expression is induced by stress conditions. Since invasive growth in S. cerevisiea is also stress-induced, we tested Mho1's role in this response. MHO1 deletion had no effect on invasion induced by nutrient deprivation, however, Mho1 overexpression blocked the invasive ability of yeast cells, suggesting that Mho1 might be acting in a dominant negative manner. Taken together, our results show that MHO1 is a novel synthetic lethal interactor with PLC1, and that both gene products are required for proliferation. Moreover, a role for Memo in cell motility/invasion appears to be conserved across species. PMID:22412880

Schlatter, Ivan D; Meira, Maria; Ueberschlag, Vanessa; Hoepfner, Dominic; Movva, Rao; Hynes, Nancy E

2012-03-07

400

MHO1, an Evolutionarily Conserved Gene, Is Synthetic Lethal with PLC1; Mho1p Has a Role in Invasive Growth  

PubMed Central

The novel protein Memo (Mediator of ErbB2 driven cell motility) was identified in a screen for ErbB2 interacting proteins and found to have an essential function in cell motility. Memo is evolutionarily conserved with homologs found in all branches of life; the human and yeast proteins have a similarity of >50%. In the present study we used the model organism S. cerevisiae to characterize the Memo-homologue Mho1 (Yjr008wp) and to investigate its function in yeast. In a synthetic lethal screen we found MHO1 as a novel synthetic lethal partner of PLC1, which encodes the single phospholipase C in yeast. Double-deleted cells lacking MHO1 and PLC1, proliferate for up to ten generations. Introduction of human Memo into the memo?plc1? strain rescued the synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that yeast and human proteins have similar functions. Mho1 is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of yeast cells; the same distribution of Memo was found in mammalian cells. None of the Memo homologues have a characteristic nuclear localization sequence, however, a conserved nuclear export sequence is found in all. In mammalian cells, blocking nuclear export with Leptomycin B led to nuclear Memo accumulation, suggesting that it is actively exported from the nucleus. In yeast MHO1 expression is induced by stress conditions. Since invasive growth in S. cerevisiea is also stress-induced, we tested Mho1's role in this response. MHO1 deletion had no effect on invasion induced by nutrient deprivation, however, Mho1 overexpression blocked the invasive ability of yeast cells, suggesting that Mho1 might be acting in a dominant negative manner. Taken together, our results show that MHO1 is a novel synthetic lethal interactor with PLC1, and that both gene products are required for proliferation. Moreover, a role for Memo in cell motility/invasion appears to be conserved across species.

Schlatter, Ivan D.; Meira, Maria; Ueberschlag, Vanessa; Hoepfner, Dominic; Movva, Rao; Hynes, Nancy E.

2012-01-01

401

Screening for Hemochromatosis in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we screened 3060 consecutive blood donors for an unbound iron-binding capacity level of <28 µM and then performed HFE mutation analysis in these subjects. Sixty-five of the 75 subjects with a low initial unbound iron-binding capacity (all had normal ferritin levels) came back and only 5 (8%) had a low fasting unbound iron-binding capacity. Mutational analysis revealed

Hakan Bozkaya; Mehmet Bektas; Olga Metin; Ozlem Erkan; Dicle Ibrahimoglu; Klara Dalva; Filiz Akbiyik; Selim Gurel; Abdurrahman Mithat Bozdayi; Cemal Akay; Cihan Yurdaydin; Onder Aslan; Ozden Uzunalimoglu

2004-01-01

402

Filgrastim improves survival in lethally irradiated nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Treatment of individuals exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation is of paramount concern to health professionals and government agencies. We evaluated the efficacy of filgrastim to increase survival of nonhuman primates (NHP) exposed to an approximate mid-lethal dose (LD(50/60)) (7.50 Gy) of LINAC-derived photon radiation. Prior to total-body irradiation (TBI), nonhuman primates were randomized to either a control (n = 22) or filgrastim-treated (n = 24) cohorts. Filgrastim (10 ?g/kg/d) was administered beginning 1 day after TBI and continued daily until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was >1,000/?L for 3 consecutive days. All nonhuman primates received medical management as per protocol. The primary end point was all cause overall mortality over the 60 day in-life study. Secondary end points included mean survival time of decedents and all hematologic-related parameters. Filgrastim significantly (P < 0.004) reduced 60 day overall mortality [20.8% (5/24)] compared to the controls [59.1% (13/22)]. Filgrastim significantly decreased the duration of neutropenia, but did not affect the absolute neutrophil count nadir. Febrile neutropenia (ANC <500/?L and body temperature ? 103°F) was experienced by 90.9% (20/22) of controls compared to 79.2% (19/24) of filgrastim-treated animals (P = 0.418). Survival was significantly increased by 38.3% over controls. Filgrastim, administered at this dose and schedule, effectively mitigated the lethality of the hematopoietic subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome. PMID:23210705

Farese, Ann M; Cohen, Melanie V; Katz, Barry P; Smith, Cassandra P; Gibbs, Allison; Cohen, Daniel M; MacVittie, Thomas J

2012-12-04

403

Left ventricular function during lethal and sublethal endotoxemia in swine  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies suggested that after a median lethal dose (LD50) of endotoxin, cardiac contractility was depressed in nonsurviving dogs. The canine cardiovascular system is unlike humans in that dogs have a hepatic vein sphincter that is susceptible to adrenergic stimulation capable of raising hepatic and splanchnic venous pressures. The authors retested the hypothesis that lethality after endotoxin administration is associated with cardiac contractile depression in pigs, because of the hepatic circulation in this species is similar to that of humans. They compared cardiac mechanical function of pigs administered a high dose (250 g/kg) or a low dose (100 g/kg) endotoxin by use of the slope of the end-systolic pressure-diameter relationship (ESPDR) as well as other measurements of cardiac performance. In all the pigs administered a high dose, ESPDR demonstrated a marked, time-dependent depression whereas we observed no significant ESPDR changes after low endotoxin doses. The other cardiodynamic variables were uninterpretable, due to the significant changes in heart rate, end-diastolic diameter (preload), and aortic diastolic pressure (afterload). Plasma myocardia depressant factor activity accumulated in all endotoxin-administered animals, tending to be greater in the high-dose group. In this group, both subendocardial blood flow and global function were depressed, whereas pigs administered the low dose endotoxin demonstrated slight, but nonsignificant, increases in flow and function. These observations indicate that myocardial contractile depression is associated with a lethal outcome to high doses of endotoxin. Myocardial perfusion was measured using radiolabeled microspheres infused into the left atria.

Goldfarb, R.D.; Nightingale, L.M.; Kish, P.; Weber, P.B.; Loegering, D.J.

1986-08-01

404

The Mutational Landscape of Lethal Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains/losses, including ETS gene fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, that drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)1. As less is known about the role of mutations2–4, here we sequenced the exomes of 50 lethal, heavily-pretreated metastatic CRPCs obtained at rapid autopsy (including three different foci from the same patient) and 11 treatment naïve, high-grade localized prostate cancers. We identified low overall mutation rates even in heavily treated CRPC (2.00/Mb) and confirmed the monoclonal origin of lethal CRPC. Integrating exome copy number analysis identified disruptions of CHD1, which define a subtype of ETS fusionnegative prostate cancer. Similarly, we demonstrate that ETS2, which is deleted in ~1/3 of CRPCs (commonly through TMPRSS2:ERG fusions), is also deregulated through mutation. Further, we identified recurrent mutations in multiple chromatin/histone modifying genes, including MLL2 (mutated in 8.6% of prostate cancers), and demonstrate interaction of the MLL complex with AR, which is required for AR-mediated signaling. We also identified novel recurrent mutations in the AR collaborating factor FOXA1, which is mutated in 5 of 147 (3.4%) prostate cancers (both untreated localized prostate cancer and CRPC), and showed that mutated FOXA1 represses androgen signaling and increases tumour growth. Proteins that physically interact with AR, such as the ERG gene fusion product, FOXA1, MLL2, UTX, and ASXL1 were found to be mutated in CRPC. In summary, we describe the mutational landscape of a heavily treated metastatic cancer, identify novel mechanisms of AR signaling deregulated in prostate cancer, and prioritize candidates for future study.

Grasso, Catherine S.; Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan R.; Cao, Xuhong; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M.; Khan, Amjad P.; Quist, Michael J.; Jing, Xiaojun; Lonigro, Robert J.; Brenner, J. Chad; Asangani, Irfan A.; Ateeq, Bushra; Chun, Sang Y.; Siddiqui, Javed; Sam, Lee; Anstett, Matt; Mehra, Rohit; Prensner, John R.; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Ryslik, Gregory A.; Vandin, Fabio; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Tomlins, Scott A.

2012-01-01

405

Statistical efforts for Los Alamos Crew Member Lethality Program  

SciTech Connect

To date the Crew Member Lethality Program at Los Alamos has involved 42 behind armor effects tests conducted at Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Data management for these tests has involved a series of activities ranging from experimental design to data file organization, with an objective of recording relevant test parameters and data and of providing the capability to perform theoretically sound statistical analyses in an efficient manner. This paper describes the approach that has been taken and anticipated future directions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Bement, T.R.; Picard, R.R.; Peck, C.E.; Moore, L.M.; Hemphill, G.M.

1988-01-01

406

Lethal giant larvae take on a life of their own.  

PubMed

Cell polarization requires the segregation of the plasma membrane into domains of distinct protein composition. The Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) protein of Drosophila, initially identified as a tumor suppressor, establishes such domains by localizing specific proteins to specific regions of the plasma membrane. However, how it does this remains puzzling and controversial. Recent studies of the yeast orthologs show a molecular pathway through which Lgl is activated locally to promote the targeted fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane. Here, we reconcile these data with conflicting findings on the mechanism of Lgl in animals and consider if a similar model explains its role in epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. PMID:16616850

Wirtz-Peitz, Frederik; Knoblich, Juergen A

2006-04-17

407

Metformin is synthetically lethal with glucose withdrawal in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Glucose deprivation is a distinctive feature of the tumor microecosystem caused by the imbalance between poor supply and an extraordinarily high consumption rate. The metabolic reprogramming from mitochondrial respiration to aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (the "Warburg effect") is linked to oncogenic transformation in a manner that frequently implies the inactivation of metabolic checkpoints such as the energy rheostat AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Because the concept of synthetic lethality in oncology can be applied not only to genetic and epigenetic intrinsic differences between normal and cancer cells but also to extrinsic ones such as altered microenvironment, we recently hypothesized that stress-energy mimickers such as the AMPK agonist metformin should produce metabolic synthetic lethality in a glucose-starved cell culture milieu imitating the adverse tumor growth conditions in vivo. Under standard high-glucose conditions, metformin supplementation mostly caused cell cycle arrest without signs of apoptotic cell death. Under glucose withdrawal stress, metformin supplementation circumvented the ability of oncogenes (e.g., HER2) to protect breast cancer cells from glucose-deprivation apoptosis. Significantly, representative cell models of breast cancer heterogeneity underwent massive apoptosis (by >90% in some cases) when glucose-starved cell cultures were supplemented with metformin. Our current findings may uncover crucial issues regarding the cell-autonomous metformin's anti-cancer actions: (1) The offently claimed clinically irrelevant, non-physiological concentrations needed to observe the metformin's anti-cancer effects in vitro merely underlie the artifactual interference of erroneous glucose-rich experimental conditions that poorly reflect glucose-starved in vivo conditions; (2) the preferential killing of cancer stem cells (CSC) by metformin may simply expose the best-case scenario for its synthetically lethal activity because an increased dependency on Warburg-like aerobic glycolysis (hyperglycolytic phenotype) is critical to sustain CSC stemness and immortality; (3) the microenvironment-mediated contextual synthetic lethality of metformin should be expected to enormously potentiate the anti-cancer effect of anti-angiogenesis agents that promote severe oxygen and glucose deprivation in certain areas of the tumor tissues. PMID:22809961

Menendez, Javier A; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro

2012-08-01

408

Superoxide protects Escherichia coli from bleomycin mediated lethality.  

PubMed

Superoxide and its products, especially hydroxyl radical, were recently proposed to be instrumental in cell death following treatment with a wide range of antimicrobials. Surprisingly, bleomycin lethality to Escherichia coli was ameliorated by a genetic deficiency of superoxide dismutase or by furnishing the superoxide generator plumbagin. Rescue by plumbagin was similar in strains containing or lacking recA or with inactive, inducible, or constitutive soxRS regulons. Thus, superoxide interferes with bleomycin cytotoxicity in ways not readily explained by genetic pathways expected to protect from oxidative damage. PMID:19679357

Burger, Richard M; Drlica, Karl

2009-07-17

409

EVALUATING THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF SUICIDAL INTENT AND MEDICAL LETHALITY IN YOUTH  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (Mage at hospitalization = 14.83; 51% female; 80% Caucasian) were characterized using the Subjective Intent Rating Scale and Lethality of Attempt Rating Scale. Anderson-Gill recurrent events survival models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess predictive validity. Generalized linear models were used to examine stability of characteristics across attempts. Results Neither intent nor lethality from the most recent attempt predicted future attempts. The highest level of intent and most severe lethality of attempts during the follow-up predicted subsequent attempts, but the degree to which highest intent and most severe lethality contributed to prediction after considering methods of suicide attempts, past number of attempts, or psychiatric diagnoses was mixed. Across successive attempts, there was little consistency in reported characteristics. Intent and lethality were related to each other only for attempts occurring in early adulthood. Conclusions Highest intent and lethality were better predictors of future attempts than intent and lethality of the most recent attempt. However, these characteristics should only be considered as predictors within the context of other factors. For youth, clinicians should not infer true intent from the lethality of attempts, nor assume that characteristics of future suicide attempts will be similar to previous attempts.

Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

2012-01-01

410

The Role of Protein Interactions in Mediating Essentiality and Synthetic Lethality  

PubMed Central

Genes are characterized as essential if their knockout is associated with a lethal phenotype, and these “essential genes” play a central role in biological function. In addition, some genes are only essential when deleted in pairs, a phenomenon known as synthetic lethality. Here we consider genes displaying synthetic lethality as “essential pairs” of genes, and analyze the properties of yeast essential genes and synthetic lethal pairs together. As gene duplication initially produces an identical pair or sets of genes, it is often invoked as an explanation for synthetic lethality. However, we find that duplication explains only a minority of cases of synthetic lethality. Similarly, disruption of metabolic pathways leads to relatively few examples of synthetic lethality. By contrast, the vast majority of synthetic lethal gene pairs code for proteins with related functions that share interaction partners. We also find that essential genes and synthetic lethal pairs cluster in the protein-protein interaction network. These results suggest that synthetic lethality is strongly dependent on the formation of protein-protein interactions. Compensation by duplicates does not usually occur mainly because the genes involved are recent duplicates, but is more commonly due to functional similarity that permits preservation of essential protein complexes. This unified view, combining genes that are individually essential with those that form essential pairs, suggests that essentiality is a feature of physical interactions between proteins protein-protein interactions, rather than being inherent in gene and protein products themselves.

Talavera, David; Robertson, David L.; Lovell, Simon C.

2013-01-01

411

Deletion of Candida albicans SPT6 Is Not Lethal but Results in Defective Hyphal Growth  

PubMed Central

As a means to study surface proteins involved in the yeast to hypha transition, human monoclonal antibody fragments (single chain variable fragments, scFv) have been generated that bind to antigens expressed on the surface of Candida albicans yeast and/or hyphae. A cDNA expression library was constructed from hyphae, and screened for immunoreactivity with scFv5 as a means to identify its cognate antigen. A reactive clone contained the 3? end of the C. albicans gene, orf 19.7136, designated SPT6 based on homology to S. cerevisiae, where its product functions as a transcription elongation factor. A mutant containing a homozygous deletion of SPT6 was isolated, demonstrating that unlike S. cerevisiae, deletion of this gene in C. albicans is not lethal. Growth of this strain was severely impaired, however, as was its capacity to undergo filamentous growth. Reactivity with scFv5 was not detected in the mutant strain, although its impaired growth complicates the interpretation of this finding. To assess C. albicans SPT6 function, expression of the C. albicans gene was induced in a defined S. cerevisiae spt6 mutant. Partial complementation was seen, confirming that the C. albicans and S. cerevisiae genes are functionally related in these species.

Al-Rawi, Nada; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S.; Bliss, Joseph M.

2010-01-01

412

Interactions between the crumbs, lethal giant larvae and bazooka pathways in epithelial polarization.  

PubMed

Several protein complexes that are involved in epithelial apicobasal polarity have been identified. However, the mechanism by which these complexes interact to form an integrated polarized cell morphology remains unclear. Crumbs (Crb) and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) are components of distinct complexes that regulate epithelial polarization in Drosophila melanogaster, but may not interact directly as they localize to the apical and basolateral membrane, respectively. Nevertheless, a genetic screen identifies marked functional interactions between crb and lgl. These interactions extend to other genes within the crb (stardust, sdt) and lgl (discs large, dlg; scribble, scrib) pathways. Our findings suggest that the crb and lgl pathways function competitively to define apical and basolateral surfaces. They also suggest that in the absence of lgl pathway activity, the crb pathway is not required to maintain epithelial polarity. Moreover, we show that crb and lgl cooperate in zonula adherens formation early in development. At later stages, epithelial cells in these mutants acquire normal polarity, indicating the presence of compensatory mechanisms. We find that bazooka (baz) functions redundantly with crb/sdt to support apical polarity at mid- to late-embryogenesis. Despite regaining cell polarity, however, epithelial cells in crb and lgl pathway mutants fail to re-establish normal overall tissue architecture, indicating that the timely acquisition of polarized cell structure is essential for normal tissue organization. PMID:12510193

Tanentzapf, Guy; Tepass, Ulrich

2003-01-01

413

Conditional mutations in gamma-tubulin reveal its involvement in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis.  

PubMed

gamma-Tubulin is a conserved essential protein required for assembly and function of the mitotic spindle in humans and yeast. For example, human gamma-tubulin can replace the gamma-tubulin gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To understand the structural/functional domains of gamma-tubulin, we performed a systematic alanine-scanning mutagenesis of human gamma-tubulin (TUBG1) and studied phenotypes of each mutant allele in S. pombe. Our screen, both in the presence and absence of the endogenous S. pombe gamma-tubulin, resulted in 11 lethal mutations and 12 cold-sensitive mutations. Based on structural mapping onto a homology model of human gamma-tubulin generated by free energy minimization, all deleterious mutations are found in residues predicted to be located on the surface, some in positions to interact with alpha- and/or beta-tubulins in the microtubule lattice. As expected, one class of tubg1 mutations has either an abnormal assembly or loss of the mitotic spindle. Surprisingly, a subset of mutants with abnormal spindles does not arrest in M phase but proceeds through anaphase followed by abnormal cytokinesis. These studies reveal that in addition to its previously appreciated role in spindle microtubule nucleation, gamma-tubulin is involved in the coordination of postmetaphase events, anaphase, and cytokinesis. PMID:11514629

Hendrickson, T W; Yao, J; Bhadury, S; Corbett, A H; Joshi, H C

2001-08-01

414

Conditional Mutations in ?-Tubulin Reveal Its Involvement in Chromosome Segregation and Cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

?-Tubulin is a conserved essential protein required for assembly and function of the mitotic spindle in humans and yeast. For example, human ?-tubulin can replace the ?-tubulin gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To understand the structural/functional domains of ?-tubulin, we performed a systematic alanine-scanning mutagenesis of human ?-tubulin (TUBG1) and studied phenotypes of each mutant allele in S. pombe. Our screen, both in the presence and absence of the endogenous S. pombe ?-tubulin, resulted in 11 lethal mutations and 12 cold-sensitive mutations. Based on structural mapping onto a homology model of human ?-tubulin generated by free energy minimization, all deleterious mutations are found in residues predicted to be located on the surface, some in positions to interact with ?- and/or ?-tubulins in the microtubule lattice. As expected, one class of tubg1 mutations has either an abnormal assembly or loss of the mitotic spindle. Surprisingly, a subset of mutants with abnormal spindles does not arrest in M phase but proceeds through anaphase followed by abnormal cytokinesis. These studies reveal that in addition to its previously appreciated role in spindle microtubule nucleation, ?-tubulin is involved in the coordination of postmetaphase events, anaphase, and cytokinesis.

Hendrickson, Triscia W.; Yao, Joyce; Bhadury, Saswata; Corbett, Anita H.; Joshi, Harish C.

2001-01-01

415

Synthetic Lethal Targeting of PTEN-Deficient Cancer Cells Using Selective Disruption of Polynucleotide Kinase/Phosphatase.  

PubMed

A recent screen of 6,961 siRNAs to discover possible synthetic lethal partners of the DNA repair protein polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) led to the identification of the potent tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Here, we have confirmed the PNKP/PTEN synthetic lethal partnership in a variety of different cell lines including the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, which is naturally deficient in PTEN. We provide evidence that codepletion of PTEN and PNKP induces apoptosis. In HCT116 colon cancer cells, the loss of PTEN is accompanied by an increased background level of DNA double-strand breaks, which accumulate in the presence of an inhibitor of PNKP DNA 3'-phosphatase activity. Complementation of PC3 cells with several well-characterized mutated PTEN cDNAs indicated that the critical function of PTEN required to prevent toxicity induced by an inhibitor of PNKP is most likely associated with its cytoplasmic lipid phosphatase activity. Finally, we show that modest inhibition of PNKP in a PTEN knockout background enhances cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting that such a "synthetic sickness" approach involving the combination of PNKP inhibition with radiotherapy may be applicable to PTEN-deficient tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(10); 2135-44. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23883586

Mereniuk, Todd R; El Gendy, Mohamed A M; Mendes-Pereira, Ana M; Lord, Christopher J; Ghosh, Sunita; Foley, Edan; Ashworth, Alan; Weinfeld, Michael

2013-07-24

416

Synthetic lethality with fibrillarin identifies NOP77p, a nucleolar protein required for pre-rRNA processing and modification.  

PubMed Central

The nucleolar protein fibrillarin (encoded by the NOP1 gene in yeast), is required for many post-transcriptional steps in yeast ribosome synthesis. A screen for mutations showing synthetic lethality with a temperature sensitive nop1-5 allele led to the identification of the NOP77 gene. NOP77 is essential for viability and encodes a nucleolar protein with a predicted molecular weight of 77 kDa. Depletion of NOP77p impairs both the processing and methylation of the pre-rRNA. The processing defect is greatest for the pathway leading to 25S rRNA synthesis, and is distinctly different from that observed for mutations in other nucleolar components. NOP77p contains three canonical RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), suggesting that it is an RNA binding protein. The NOP77 allele which complements the synthetic lethal nop1 strains has an alanine at position 308, predicted to lie in helix alpha 1 of RRM3, whereas the non-complementing nop77-1 allele contains a proline at the corresponding position. We propose that NOP77p mediates specific interactions between NOP1p and the pre-rRNA. Images

Berges, T; Petfalski, E; Tollervey, D; Hurt, E C

1994-01-01

417

Experimental evaluation of the relationship between lethal or non-lethal virulence and transmission success in malaria parasite infections  

PubMed Central

Background Evolutionary theory suggests that the selection pressure on parasites to maximize their transmission determines their optimal host exploitation strategies and thus their virulence. Establishing the adaptive basis to parasite life history traits has important consequences for predicting parasite responses to public health interventions. In this study we examine the extent to which malaria parasites conform to the predicted adaptive trade-off between transmission and virulence, as defined by mortality. The majority of natural infections, however, result in sub-lethal virulent effects (e.g. anaemia) and are often composed of many strains. Both sub-lethal effects and pathogen population structure have been theoretically shown to have important consequences for virulence evolution. Thus, we additionally examine the relationship between anaemia and transmission in single and mixed clone infections. Results Whereas there was a trade-off between transmission success and virulence as defined by host mortality, contradictory clone-specific patterns occurred when defining virulence by anaemia. A negative relationship between anaemia and transmission success was found for one of the parasite clones, whereas there was no relationship for the other. Notably the two parasite clones also differed in a transmission phenotype (gametocyte sex ratio) that has previously been shown to respond adaptively to a changing blood environment. In addition, as predicted by evolutionary theory, mixed infections resulted in increased anaemia. The increased anaemia was, however, not correlated with any discernable parasite trait (e.g. parasite density) or with increased transmission. Conclusions We found some evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is an adaptive basis correlating virulence (as defined by host mortality) and transmission success in malaria parasites. This confirms the validity of applying evolutionary virulence theory to biomedical research and adds support to the prediction that partially effective vaccines may select for increasingly virulent malaria parasite strains. By contrast, there was no consistent correlation between transmission and sub-lethal anaemia, a more common outcome of malaria infection. However, overall, the data are not inconsistent with the recent proposal that sub-lethal effects may impose an upper limit on virulence. Moreover, clone specific differences in transmission phenotypes linked to anaemia do suggest that there is considerable adaptive potential relating anaemia and transmission that may lead to uncertain consequences following intervention strategies.

Paul, REL; Lafond, T; Muller-Graf, CDM; Nithiuthai, S; Brey, PT; Koella, JC

2004-01-01

418