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1

Chemistry & Biology Synthetic Lethal Screening Identifies Compounds  

E-print Network

Chemistry & Biology Article Synthetic Lethal Screening Identifies Compounds Activating IronDepartment of Biological Sciences 2Department of Chemistry Columbia University, Fairchild Center, MC2406, 1212 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA *Correspondence: stockwell@biology.columbia.edu DOI 10

Stockwell, Brent R.

2

Synthetic Lethality Reveals Mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to ?-Lactams  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Most ?-lactam antibiotics are ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to the microbe’s innate resistance. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains has prompted interest to repurpose this class of drugs. To identify the genetic determinants of innate ?-lactam resistance, we carried out a synthetic lethality screen on a transposon mutant library for susceptibility to imipenem, a carbapenem ?-lactam antibiotic. Mutations in 74 unique genes demonstrated synthetic lethality. The majority of mutations were in genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis. A second quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based synthetic lethality screen of randomly selected mutants confirmed the role of cell wall biosynthesis in ?-lactam resistance. The global transcriptional response of the bacterium to ?-lactams was investigated, and changes in levels of expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes were identified. Finally, we validated these screens in vivo using the MT1616 transposon mutant, which lacks a functional acyl-transferase gene. Mice infected with the mutant responded to ?-lactam treatment with a 100-fold decrease in bacillary lung burden over 4 weeks, while the numbers of organisms in the lungs of mice infected with wild-type bacilli proliferated. These findings reveal a road map of genes required for ?-lactam resistance and validate synthetic lethality screening as a promising tool for repurposing existing classes of licensed, safe, well-characterized antimicrobials against tuberculosis. PMID:25227469

Lun, Shichun; Miranda, David; Kubler, Andre; Guo, Haidan; Maiga, Mariama C.; Winglee, Kathryn; Pelly, Shaaretha

2014-01-01

3

Actin Dosage Lethality Screening in Yeast Mediated by Selective Ploidy Ablation Reveals Links to Urmylation/Wobble Codon Recognition and Chromosome Stability  

PubMed Central

The actin cytoskeleton exists in a dynamic equilibrium with monomeric and filamentous states of its subunit protein actin. The spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics is critical to the many functions of actin. Actin levels are remarkably constant, suggesting that cells have evolved to function within a narrow range of actin concentrations. Here we report the results of screens in which we have increased actin levels in strains deleted for the ~4800 nonessential yeast genes using a technical advance called selective ploidy ablation. We detected 83 synthetic dosage interactions with actin, 78 resulted in reduced growth, whereas in 5 cases overexpression of actin suppressed the growth defects caused by the deleted genes. The genes were highly enriched in several classes, including transfer RNA wobble uridine modification, chromosome stability and segregation, cell growth, and cell division. We show that actin overexpression sequesters a limited pool of eEF1A, a bifunctional protein involved in aminoacyl-transfer RNA recruitment to the ribosome and actin filament cross-linking. Surprisingly, the largest class of genes is involved in chromosome stability and segregation. We show that actin mutants have chromosome segregation defects, suggesting a possible role in chromosome structure and function. Monomeric actin is a core component of the INO80 and SWR chromatin remodeling complexes and the NuA4 histone modification complex, and our results suggest these complexes may be sensitive to actin stoichiometry. We propose that the resulting effects on chromatin structure can lead to synergistic effects on chromosome stability in strains lacking genes important for chromosome maintenance. PMID:23450344

Haarer, Brian; Mi-Mi, Lei; Cho, Jessica; Cortese, Matthew; Viggiano, Susan; Burke, Daniel; Amberg, David

2013-01-01

4

A Genome-wide RNAi Screen Identifies Multiple Synthetic Lethal Interactions with the Ras Oncogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Oncogenic mutations in the small GTPase Ras are highly prevalent in cancer, but an understanding of the vulnerabilities of these cancers is lacking. We undertook a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with the KRAS onco- gene. We discovered a diverse set of proteins whose depletion selectively impaired the viability of Ras mutant cells. Among these we

Ji Luo; Michael J. Emanuele; Danan Li; Chad J. Creighton; Michael R. Schlabach; Thomas F. Westbrook; Kwok-Kin Wong; Stephen J. Elledge

2009-01-01

5

Pitfalls of the synthetic lethality screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an improved design.  

PubMed

The colony color assay in yeast enables the visual identification of plasmid-loss events. In combination with a plasmid-dependence assay, it is commonly used to identify synthetic interactions between functionally related genes. Frequently, the plasmid carries the ADE3 gene and mutants are recognized as red colonies that fail to produce sectors. In these assays, a high percentage of false-positives is obtained, most of which result from synthetic lethality with the ade3 mutation. Here, we study the nature of these mutants. We report that mutations in the HIP1 and SHM1 genes exhibit synthetic lethality with ade3 deletions. A similar interaction is found between the fur1 and ura3 mutations. Lethality in the absence of the mitochondrial Shm1 and the cytoplasmic Ade3 enzymes indicates that, under certain circumstances, these cellular compartments cooperate in carrying out essential metabolic processes. In addition, we report the identification of a truncated ADE3 allele with a unique coloration phenotype and show that it can be used to improve synthetic lethal screens. PMID:12684846

Koren, Amnon; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Steinlauf, Rivka; Kupiec, Martin

2003-04-01

6

A Novel RNAi Lethality Rescue Screen to Identify Regulators of Adipogenesis  

PubMed Central

Adipogenesis, the differentiation of fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells into mature adipocytes, is tightly regulated by a complex cascade of transcription factors, including the nuclear receptor Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?). RNAi-mediated knock down libraries may present an atractive method for the identification of additional adipogenic factors. However, using in vitro adipogenesis model systems for high-throughput screening with siRNA libraries is limited since (i) differentiation is not homogeneous, but results in mixed cell populations, and (ii) the expression levels (and activity) of adipogenic regulators is highly dynamic during differentiation, indicating that the timing of RNAi-mediated knock down during differentiation may be extremely critical. Here we report a proof-of-principle for a novel RNAi screening method to identify regulators of adipogenesis that is based on lethality rescue rather than differentiation, using microRNA expression driven by a PPAR? responsive RNA polymerase II promoter. We validated this novel method through screening of a dedicated deubiquitinase knock down library, resulting in the identification of UCHL3 as an essential deubiquitinase in adipogenesis. This system therefore enables the identification of novel genes regulating PPAR?-mediated adipogenesis in a high-throughput setting. PMID:22679485

Berger, Ruud; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric

2012-01-01

7

A synthetic lethal screen identifies FAT1 as an antagonist of caspase-8 in extrinsic apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The extrinsic apoptosis pathway is initiated by binding of death ligands to death receptors resulting in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). Activation of procaspase-8 within the DISC and its release from the signaling complex is required for processing executor caspases and commiting cell death. Here, we report that the atypical cadherin FAT1 interacts with caspase-8 preventing the association of caspase-8 with the DISC. We identified FAT1 in a genome-wide siRNA screen for synthetic lethal interactions with death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of FAT1 sensitized established and patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines for apoptosis transduced by cell death ligands. Depletion of FAT1 resulted in enhanced procaspase-8 recruitment to the DISC and increased formation of caspase-8 containing secondary signaling complexes. In addition, FAT1 knockout cell lines generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering were more susceptible for death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Our findings provide evidence for a mechanism to control caspase-8-dependent cell death by the atypical cadherin FAT1. These results contribute towards the understanding of effector caspase regulation in physiological conditions. PMID:24442637

Kranz, Dominique; Boutros, Michael

2014-01-01

8

An Arrayed Genome-Scale Lentiviral-Enabled Short Hairpin RNA Screen Identifies Lethal and Rescuer Gene Candidates  

PubMed Central

Abstract RNA interference technology is becoming an integral tool for target discovery and validation.; With perhaps the exception of only few studies published using arrayed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) libraries, most of the reports have been either against pooled siRNA or shRNA, or arrayed siRNA libraries. For this purpose, we have developed a workflow and performed an arrayed genome-scale shRNA lethality screen against the TRC1 library in HeLa cells. The resulting targets would be a valuable resource of candidates toward a better understanding of cellular homeostasis. Using a high-stringency hit nomination method encompassing criteria of at least three active hairpins per gene and filtered for potential off-target effects (OTEs), referred to as the Bhinder–Djaballah analysis method, we identified 1,252 lethal and 6 rescuer gene candidates, knockdown of which resulted in severe cell death or enhanced growth, respectively. Cross referencing individual hairpins with the TRC1 validated clone database, 239 of the 1,252 candidates were deemed independently validated with at least three validated clones. Through our systematic OTE analysis, we have identified 31 microRNAs (miRNAs) in lethal and 2 in rescuer genes; all having a seed heptamer mimic in the corresponding shRNA hairpins and likely cause of the OTE observed in our screen, perhaps unraveling a previously unknown plausible essentiality of these miRNAs in cellular viability. Taken together, we report on a methodology for performing large-scale arrayed shRNA screens, a comprehensive analysis method to nominate high-confidence hits, and a performance assessment of the TRC1 library highlighting the intracellular inefficiencies of shRNA processing in general. PMID:23198867

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Ramirez, Christina N.; Shum, David; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Radu, Constantin; Frattini, Mark G.

2013-01-01

9

Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening  

PubMed Central

Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data. PMID:23519032

Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J.; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A.; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

2013-01-01

10

Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening.  

PubMed

Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data. PMID:23519032

Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D E; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

2013-05-01

11

Synthetic lethal interactions in yeast reveal functional roles of J protein co-chaperones.  

PubMed

J proteins are a diverse family of co-chaperones that cooperate with heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) to coordinate protein quality control, especially in response to cellular stress. Current models suggest that individual J proteins might play roles in recruiting Hsp70s to specific functions, such as maintaining cell wall integrity or promoting ribosome biogenesis. However, relatively few stresses have been used to test this model and, as a result, only a few specific activities have been identified. To expand our understanding of the J protein network, we used a synthetic lethal approach in which 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains were treated with 12 well-characterized chemical inhibitors. The results defined new roles for specific J proteins in major signaling pathways. For example, an important role for Swa2 in cell wall integrity was identified and activities of the under-explored Jjj1, Apj1, Jjj3 and Caj1 proteins were suggested. More generally, these findings support a model in which some J proteins, such as Ydj1 and Zuo1, play "generalist" roles, while others, such as Apj1 and Jjj2, are "specialists", having roles in relatively few pathways. Together, these results provide new insight into the network of J proteins. PMID:22851130

Gillies, Anne T; Taylor, Rebecca; Gestwicki, Jason E

2012-11-01

12

Synthetic lethal interactions in yeast reveal functional roles of J protein co-chaperones  

PubMed Central

J proteins are a diverse family of co-chaperones that cooperate with heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) to coordinate protein quality control, especially in response to cellular stress. Current models suggest that individual J proteins might play roles in recruiting Hsp70s to specific functions, such as maintaining cell wall integrity or promoting ribosome biogenesis. However, relatively few stresses have been used to test this model and, as a result, only a few specific activities have been identified. To expand our understanding of the J protein network, we used a synthetic lethal approach in which 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains were treated with 12 well-characterized chemical inhibitors. The results defined new roles for specific J proteins in major signaling pathways. For example, an important role for Swa2 in cell wall integrity was identified and activities of the under-explored Jjj1, Apj1, Jjj3 and Caj1 proteins were suggested. More generally, these findings support a model in which some J proteins, such as Ydj1 and Zuo1, play “generalist” roles, while others, such as Apj1 and Jjj2, are “specialists”, having roles in relatively few pathways. Together, these results provide new insight into the network of J proteins. PMID:22851130

Gillies, Anne; Taylor, Rebecca; Gestwicki, Jason E.

2012-01-01

13

Synthetic lethal screening with small molecule inhibitors provides a pathway to rational combination therapies for melanoma  

PubMed Central

Recent data demonstrate that extracellular signals are transmitted through a network of proteins rather than hierarchical signaling pathways suggesting why inhibition of a single component of a canonical pathway is insufficient for the treatment of cancer. The biological outcome of signaling through a network is inherently more robust and resistant to inhibition of a single network component. In this study, we performed a functional chemical genetic screen to identify novel interactions between signaling inhibitors that would not be predicted based on our current understanding of signaling networks. We screened over 300 drug combinations in nine melanoma cell lines and have identified pairs of compounds that show synergistic cytotoxicity. The synergistic cytotoxicities identified did not correlate with the known RAS and BRAF mutational status of the melanoma cell lines. Among the most robust results was synergy between sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor with activity against RAF, and diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Drug substitution experiments using the NSAIDs celecoxib and ibuprofen or the MEK inhibitor PD325901 and the RAF inhibitor RAF265 suggest that inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and MAP kinase signaling are targets for the synergistic cytotoxicity of sorafenib and diclofenac. Co-treatment with sorafenib and diclofenac interrupts a positive feedback signaling loop involving ERK, cPLA2, and COX. Genome-wide expression profiling demonstrates synergy-specific down-regulation of survival-related genes. This study has uncovered novel functional drug combinations and suggests that the underlying signaling networks that control responses to targeted agents can vary substantially depending on unexplored components of the cell genotype. PMID:22962324

Roller, Devin; Axelrod, Mark; Capaldo, Brian; Jensen, Karin; Mackey, Aaron; Weber, Michael J; Gioeli, Daniel

2012-01-01

14

Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis.  

PubMed

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum). To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase) using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes, and the six that exhibited the most change were analyzed further. These six genes included a gene that encodes a putative nitrate-induced NOI protein (VfNOI), and another was homologous to an Arabidopsis gene that encodes a glycine- and proline-rich protein GPRP (VfGPRP). We recently reported that necrotic symptom development in ClYVV-infected pea is associated with expression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and requires SA-dependent host responses. Interestingly, VfNOI and VfGPRP expression was correlated with that of the putative SA-dependent PR proteins in ClYVV-infected broad bean. However, broad bean infected with a recombinant ClYVV expressing the VfGPRP protein showed weaker symptoms and less viral multiplication than that infected with ClYVV expressing the GFP protein. These results imply that VfGPRP plays a role in defense against ClYVV rather than in necrotic symptom expression. PMID:21767375

Nakahara, Kenji S; Kitazawa, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Suzuki, Yuji; Uyeda, Ichiro

2011-01-01

15

A Genetic Screen for High Copy Number Suppressors of the Synthetic Lethality Between elg1? and srs2? in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Elg1 and Srs2 are two proteins involved in maintaining genome stability in yeast. After DNA damage, the homotrimeric clamp PCNA, which provides stability and processivity to DNA polymerases and serves as a docking platform for DNA repair enzymes, undergoes modification by the ubiquitin-like molecule SUMO. PCNA SUMOylation helps recruit Srs2 and Elg1 to the replication fork. In the absence of Elg1, both SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 accumulate at the chromatin fraction, indicating that Elg1 is required for removing SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 from DNA. Despite this interaction, which suggests that the two proteins work together, double mutants elg1? srs2? have severely impaired growth as haploids and exhibit synergistic sensitivity to DNA damage and a synergistic increase in gene conversion. In addition, diploid elg1? srs2? double mutants are dead, which implies that an essential function in the cell requires at least one of the two gene products for survival. To gain information about this essential function, we have carried out a high copy number suppressor screen to search for genes that, when overexpressed, suppress the synthetic lethality between elg1? and srs2?. We report the identification of 36 such genes, which are enriched for functions related to DNA- and chromatin-binding, chromatin packaging and modification, and mRNA export from the nucleus. PMID:23704284

Gazy, Inbal; Liefshitz, Batia; Bronstein, Alex; Parnas, Oren; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Kupiec, Martin

2013-01-01

16

Lethal course of meconium ileus in preterm twins revealing a novel cystic fibrosis mutation (p.Cys524Tyr)  

PubMed Central

Background In term newborns meconium ileus is frequently associated with cystic fibrosis. Reports on meconium ileus in preterm infants being diagnosed with cystic fibrosis early after birth are very scarce. Associations between genotype and phenotype in cystic fibrosis and its particular comorbidities have been reported. Case presentation Two extremely preterm twin infants (26 weeks of gestation) born from a Malaysian mother and a Caucasian father were presented with typical signs of meconium ileus. Despite immediate surgery both displayed a unique and finally lethal course. Mutation analysis revealed a novel, probably pathogenic cystic fibrosis mutation, p.Cys524Tyr. The novel mutation might explain the severity of disease next to typical sequelae of prematurity. Conclusion Preterm neonates with meconium ileus have to be evaluated for cystic fibrosis beyond ethnical boundaries, but may take devastating clinical courses despite early treatment. The novel, potentially pathogenic CF mutation p.Cys524Tyr might be associated with severe meconium ileus in neonates. Disease-modifying loci are important targets for intestinal comorbidity of cystic fibrosis. PMID:24433235

2014-01-01

17

Functional Genomics Reveals the Induction of Inflammatory Response and Metalloproteinase Gene Expression during Lethal Ebola Virus Infection?†  

PubMed Central

Ebola virus is the etiologic agent of a lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with mortality rates of up to 90%. Previous studies with Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), mouse-adapted virus (MA-ZEBOV), and mutant viruses (ZEBOV-NPma, ZEBOV-VP24ma, and ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma) allowed us to identify the mutations in viral protein 24 (VP24) and nucleoprotein (NP) responsible for acquisition of high virulence in mice. To elucidate specific molecular signatures associated with lethality, we compared global gene expression profiles in spleen samples from mice infected with these viruses and performed an extensive functional analysis. Our analysis showed that the lethal viruses (MA-ZEBOV and ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma) elicited a strong expression of genes 72 h after infection. In addition, we found that although the host transcriptional response to ZEBOV-VP24ma was nearly the same as that to ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma, the contribution of a mutation in the NP gene was required for a lethal phenotype. Further analysis indicated that one of the most relevant biological functions differentially regulated by the lethal viruses was the inflammatory response, as was the induction of specific metalloproteinases, which were present in our newly identify functional network that was associated with Ebola virus lethality. Our results suggest that this dysregulated proinflammatory response increased the severity of disease. Consequently, the newly discovered molecular signature could be used as the starting point for the development of new drugs and therapeutics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that clearly defines unique molecular signatures associated with Ebola virus lethality. PMID:21734050

Cilloniz, Cristian; Ebihara, Hideki; Ni, Chester; Neumann, Gabriele; Korth, Marcus J.; Kelly, Sara M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G.

2011-01-01

18

A novel system of fertility rescue in Drosophila hybrids reveals a link between hybrid lethality and female sterility.  

PubMed Central

Hybrid daughters of crosses between Drosophila melanogaster females and males from the D. simulans species clade are fully viable at low temperature but have agametic ovaries and are thus sterile. We report here that mutations in the D. melanogaster gene Hybrid male rescue (Hmr), along with unidentified polymorphic factors, rescue this agametic phenotype in both D. melanogaster/D. simulans and D. melanogaster/D. mauritiana F(1) female hybrids. These hybrids produced small numbers of progeny in backcrosses, their low fecundity being caused by incomplete rescue of oogenesis as well as by zygotic lethality. F(1) hybrid males from these crosses remained fully sterile. Hmr(+) is the first Drosophila gene shown to cause hybrid female sterility. These results also suggest that, while there is some common genetic basis to hybrid lethality and female sterility in D. melanogaster, hybrid females are more sensitive to fertility defects than to lethality. PMID:12586709

Barbash, Daniel A; Ashburner, Michael

2003-01-01

19

Chemical screen reveals small molecules suppressing fragile X premutation rCGG repeat-mediated neurodegeneration in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder recognized in fragile X premutation carriers. Using Drosophila, we previously identified elongated non-coding CGG repeats in FMR1 allele as the pathogenic cause of FXTAS. Here, we use this same FXTAS Drosophila model to conduct a chemical screen that reveals small molecules that can ameliorate the toxic effects of fragile X premutation ribo-CGG (rCGG) repeats, among them several known phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors. We show that specific inhibition of PLA2 activity could mitigate the neuronal deficits caused by fragile X premutation rCGG repeats, including lethality and locomotion deficits. Furthermore, through a genetic screen, we identified a PLA2 Drosophila ortholog that specifically modulates rCGG repeat-mediated neuronal toxicity. Our results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila models for unbiased small molecule screens and point to PLA2 as a possible therapeutic target to treat FXTAS. PMID:22298836

Qurashi, Abrar; Liu, Huijie; Ray, Laurie; Nelson, David L.; Duan, Ranhui; Jin, Peng

2012-01-01

20

Combining chemical genomics screens in yeast to reveal spectrum of effects of chemical inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Single genome-wide screens for the effect of altered gene dosage on drug sensitivity in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae provide only a partial picture of the mechanism of action of a drug. Results Using the example of the tumor cell invasion inhibitor dihydromotuporamine C, we show that a more complete picture of drug action can be obtained by combining different chemical genomics approaches – analysis of the sensitivity of ?0 cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, drug-induced haploinsufficiency, suppression of drug sensitivity by gene overexpression and chemical-genetic synthetic lethality screening using strains deleted of nonessential genes. Killing of yeast by this chemical requires a functional mitochondrial electron-transport chain and cytochrome c heme lyase function. However, we find that it does not require genes associated with programmed cell death in yeast. The chemical also inhibits endocytosis and intracellular vesicle trafficking and interferes with vacuolar acidification in yeast and in human cancer cells. These effects can all be ascribed to inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by dihydromotuporamine C. Conclusion Despite their similar conceptual basis, namely altering drug sensitivity by modifying gene dosage, each of the screening approaches provided a distinct set of information that, when integrated, revealed a more complete picture of the mechanism of action of a drug on cells. PMID:19144191

2009-01-01

21

Phenotypic screening with oleaginous microalgae reveals modulators of lipid productivity.  

PubMed

Here we describe the first phenotypic screening with microalgae to study lipid metabolism and to discover organic small molecules as chemical triggers that increase growth and lipid production. A microplate assay has been developed for analysis of intracellular lipids using Nile Red fluorescence in order to screen a collection of diverse bioactive organic molecules (e.g., kinase inhibitors) with four strains of oleaginous microalgae (Nannochloropsis salina, Nannochloropsis oculata, Nannochloris sp., and Phaeodactylum tricornutum). Several small molecules identified in microplate screening increased lipid productivity >200% without decreasing growth and biomass production. Selected compounds were further investigated in the context of larger batch culture experiments (e.g., 500 mL) and demonstrated to increase lipid levels (up to 84%) while maintaining or increasing the specific growth rate. Bioactive molecules such as forskolin and quinacrine were identified as promising probes of microalgae lipid pathways. We have also determined that common antioxidants such as epigallocatechin gallate and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) increase lipid productivity and may represent new probes of oxidative signaling pathways for photooxidative protection. PMID:23521767

Franz, Annaliese K; Danielewicz, Megan A; Wong, Diana M; Anderson, Lisa A; Boothe, Jordan R

2013-05-17

22

High throughput RNAi screening identifies ID1 as a synthetic sick/lethal gene interacting with the common TP53 mutation R175H  

PubMed Central

The TP53 mutation (R175H) is one of the most common mutations in human cancer. It is a highly attractive strategy for cancer therapy to find the genes that lead the R175H-expressing cancer cells. The aim of this study was to identify the synthetic sick/lethal gene interacting with R175H. Using lentiviral bar-coded comprehensive shRNA library and a tetracycline-inducible R175H expressed in the SF126 human glioblastoma cell line (SF126-tet-R175H), we conducted high-throughput screening to identify the candidate genes that induce synthetic sickness/lethality in R175H-expressing cells. We identified 906 candidate gene suppressions that may lead to accelerated cell growth inhibition in the presence of R175H. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) was one of the candidate genes, and its suppression by siRNA resulted in the acceleration of growth inhibition in cell lines both transiently and endogenously expressing R175H but not in TP53-null cell lines or other common p53 mutants (such as R273H). Flow cytometry analysis showed that ID1 suppression resulted in G1 arrest, and the arrest was accelerated by the expression of R175H. ID1 is a synthetic sick/lethal gene that interacts with R175H and is considered to be a novel molecular target for cancer therapy in R175H-expressing cells. PMID:24378760

IMAI, HIROO; KATO, SHUNSUKE; SAKAMOTO, YASUHIRO; KAKUDO, YUICHI; SHIMODAIRA, HIDEKI; ISHIOKA, CHIKASHI

2014-01-01

23

A synthetic lethal screen identifies a role for the cortical actin patch/endocytosis complex in the response to nutrient deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae whi2Delta cells are unable to halt cell division in response to nutrient limitation and are sensitive to a wide variety of stresses. A synthetic lethal screen resulted in the isolation of siw mutants that had a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta. Among these were mutations affecting SIW14, FEN2, SLT2, and THR4. Fluid-phase endocytosis is severely reduced or abolished in whi2Delta, siw14Delta, fen2Delta, and thr4Delta mutants. Furthermore, whi2Delta and siw14Delta mutants produce large actin clumps in stationary phase similar to those seen in prk1Delta ark1Delta mutants defective in protein kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of SIW14 in a prk1Delta strain resulted in a loss of cortical actin patches and cables and was lethal. Overexpression of SIW14 also rescued the caffeine sensitivity of the slt2 mutant isolated in the screen, but this was not due to alteration of the phosphorylation state of Slt2. These observations suggest that endocytosis and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for the proper response to nutrient limitation. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that rvs161Delta, sla1Delta, sla2Delta, vrp1Delta, ypt51Delta, ypt52Delta, and end3Delta mutations, which disrupt the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and/or reduce endocytosis, have a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta mutants. PMID:15020461

Care, Alison; Vousden, Katherine A; Binley, Katie M; Radcliffe, Pippa; Trevethick, Janet; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Sudbery, Peter E

2004-01-01

24

An arf1Delta synthetic lethal screen identifies a new clathrin heavy chain conditional allele that perturbs vacuolar protein transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is a small GTP-binding protein that is thought to regulate the assembly of coat proteins on transport vesicles. To identify factors that functionally interact with ARF, we have performed a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mutations that exhibit synthetic lethality with an arf1Delta allele and defined seven genes by complementation tests (SWA1-7 for synthetically lethal with arf1Delta). Most of the swa mutants exhibit phenotypes comparable to arf1Delta mutants such as temperature-conditional growth, hypersensitivity to fluoride ions, and partial protein transport and glycosylation defects. Here, we report that swa5-1 is a new temperature-sensitive allele of the clathrin heavy chain gene (chc1-5), which carries a frameshift mutation near the 3' end of the CHC1 open reading frame. This genetic interaction between arf1 and chc1 provides in vivo evidence for a role for ARF in clathrin coat assembly. Surprisingly, strains harboring chc1-5 exhibited a significant defect in transport of carboxypeptidase Y or carboxypeptidase S to the vacuole that was not observed in other chc1 ts mutants. The kinetics of invertase secretion or transport of alkaline phosphatase to the vacuole were not significantly affected in the chc1-5 mutant, further implicating clathrin specifically in the Golgi to vacuole transport pathway for carboxypeptidase Y. PMID:9755191

Chen, C Y; Graham, T R

1998-01-01

25

Kinase requirements in human cells: III. Altered kinase requirements in VHL-\\/- cancer cells detected in a pilot synthetic lethal screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear cell renal carcinomas are the most common form of kidney cancer and frequently are linked to biallelic inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. The VHL gene product, pVHL, has multiple functions including directing the polyubiquitylation of the HIF transcription factor. We screened 100 shRNA vectors, directed against 88 kinases, for their ability to inhibit the viability

Archana Bommi-Reddy; Ingrid Almeciga; Jacqueline Sawyer; Christoph Geisen; Wenliang Li; Ed Harlow; William G. Kaelin; Dorre A. Grueneberg

2008-01-01

26

Lethal, potentially lethal lesion model  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical framework to describe the formation of lethal mutations by radiation is presented. Lesions that are repaired (and misrepaired) in each type of experiment described (delayed plating and split dose) are assumed to be the same. In this model the same (potentially lethal) lesions cause both sublethal and potentially lethal damage. Potentially lethal damage is defined as damage which may be modified by alterations in postirradiation conditions. Sublethal damage is cellular damage whose accumulation may lead to lethality. A crucial consideration in the expression of the damage is the kind of medium in which the cells are placed during the repair period. Fresh or growth medium (F-medium) is assumed to cause fixation of damage after about 3 hours, while no fixation (only misrepair) occurs in conditioned medium (C-medium).

Curtis, S.B.

1983-07-01

27

Small Molecule Screen Reveals Regulation of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Abundance by Ras Proteins  

E-print Network

Small Molecule Screen Reveals Regulation of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Abundance by Ras Proteins States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Small molecule modulators of protein activity have proven are relatively common, small molecules that can increase protein abundance are rare. Small molecule protein

Stockwell, Brent R.

28

A Translational Murine Model of Sub-Lethal Intoxication with Shiga Toxin 2 Reveals Novel Ultrastructural Findings in the Brain Striatum  

PubMed Central

Infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), acute renal failure, and also central nervous system complications in around 30% of the children affected. Besides, neurological deficits are one of the most unrepairable and untreatable outcomes of HUS. Study of the striatum is relevant because basal ganglia are one of the brain areas most commonly affected in patients that have suffered from HUS and since the deleterious effects of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin have never been studied in the striatum, the purpose of this study was to attempt to simulate an infection by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in a murine model. To this end, intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 (0.5 ?g per mouse) was used and the correlation between neurological manifestations and ultrastructural changes in striatal brain cells was studied in detail. Neurological manifestations included significant motor behavior abnormalities in spontaneous motor activity, gait, pelvic elevation and hind limb activity eight days after administration of the toxin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the toxin caused early perivascular edema two days after administration, as well as significant damage in astrocytes four days after administration and significant damage in neurons and oligodendrocytes eight days after administration. Interrupted synapses and mast cell extravasation were also found eight days after administration of the toxin. We thus conclude that the chronological order of events observed in the striatum could explain the neurological disorders found eight days after administration of the toxin. PMID:23383285

Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Cangelosi, Adriana; Pinto, Alipio; Loidl, C. Fabian; Goldstein, Jorge

2013-01-01

29

The lethal giant larvae Gene in Tribolium castaneum: Molecular Properties and Roles in Larval and Pupal Development as Revealed by RNA Interference  

PubMed Central

We identified and characterized the TcLgl gene putatively encoding lethal giant larvae (Lgl) protein from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Analyses of developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns revealed that TcLgl was constitutively expressed. To examine the role of TcLgl in insect development, RNA interference was performed in early (1-day) larvae, late (20-day) larvae, and early (1-day) pupae. The early larvae injected with double-stranded RNA of TcLgl (dsTcLgl) at 100, 200, and 400 ng/larva failed to pupate, and 100% mortality was achieved within 20 days after the injection or before the pupation. The late larvae injected with dsTcLgl at these doses reduced the pupation rates to only 50.3%, 36.0%, and 18.2%, respectively. The un-pupated larvae gradually died after one week, and visually unaffected pupae failed to emerge into adults and died during the pupal stage. Similarly, when early pupae were injected with dsTcLgl at these doses, the normal eclosion rates were reduced to only 22.5%, 18.0%, and 11.2%, respectively, on day 7 after the injection, and all the adults with abnormal eclosion died in two days after the eclosion. These results indicate that TcLgl plays an essential role in insect development, especially during their metamorphosis. PMID:24758930

Xiao, Da; Liang, Xiao; Gao, Xiwu; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Kun Yan

2014-01-01

30

A chemical genetic screen reveals a resistance mechanism to PI3K inhibitors in cancer  

PubMed Central

Linking the molecular aberrations of cancer to drug responses could guide treatment choice and identify new therapeutic applications. However, there has been no systematic approach for analyzing gene-drug interactions in human cells. We establish a multiplexed assay to study the cellular fitness of a panel of engineered isogenic cancer cells in response to a collection of drugs, enabling the systematic analysis of thousands of gene-drug interactions. Applying this approach to breast cancer revealed various synthetic-lethal interactions and drug resistance mechanisms, some of which were known, thereby validating the method. NOTCH pathway activation, which occurs frequently in breast cancer, unexpectedly conferred resistance to PI3K inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials in breast cancer patients. NOTCH1 and downstream induction of c-MYC overrode the dependency of cells on the PI3K/mTOR pathway for proliferation. These data reveal a novel mechanism of resistance to PI3K inhibitors with direct clinical implications. PMID:21946274

Muellner, Markus K; Uras, Iris Z; Gapp, Bianca V; Kerzendorfer, Claudia; Smida, Michal; Lechtermann, Hannelore; Craig-Mueller, Nils; Colinge, Jacques; Duernberger, Gerhard; Nijman, Sebastian MB

2011-01-01

31

Small Molecule Screen Reveals Regulation of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Abundance by Ras Proteins  

PubMed Central

Small molecule modulators of protein activity have proven invaluable in the study of protein function and regulation. While inhibitors of protein activity are relatively common, small molecules that can increase protein abundance are rare. Small molecule protein upregulators with targeted activities would be of value in the study of the mechanisms underlying loss-of-function diseases. We developed a high-throughput screening approach to identify small molecule upregulators of the Survival of Motor Neuron protein (SMN), whose decreased levels cause the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). We screened 69,189 compounds for SMN upregulators and performed mechanistic studies on the most active compound, a bromobenzophenone analog designated cuspin-1. Mechanistic studies of cuspin-1 revealed that increasing Ras signaling upregulates SMN protein abundance via an increase in translation rate. These findings suggest that controlled modulation of the Ras signaling pathway may benefit patients with SMA. PMID:23496866

Letso, Reka R.; Bauer, Andras J.; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Yang, Wan Seok; Stockwell, Brent R.

2013-01-01

32

Imaging-based chemical screening reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

Mammalian pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an important venue for understanding basic principles regulating tissue-specific differentiation and discovering new tools that may facilitate clinical applications. Mechanisms that direct neural differentiation of PSCs involve growth factor signaling and transcription regulation. However, it is unknown whether and how electrical activity influences this process. Here we report a high throughput imaging-based screen, which uncovers that selamectin, an anti-helminthic therapeutic compound with reported activity on invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channels, promotes neural differentiation of PSCs. We show that selamectin’s pro-neurogenic activity is mediated by ?2-containing GABAA receptors in subsets of neural rosette progenitors, accompanied by increased proneural and lineage-specific transcription factor expression and cell cycle exit. In vivo, selamectin promotes neurogenesis in developing zebrafish. Our results establish a chemical screening platform that reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation from PSCs. Compounds identified in this and future screening might prove therapeutically beneficial for treating neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00508.001 PMID:24040509

Sun, Yaping; Dong, Zhiqiang; Jin, Taihao; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Huang, Miller; Haston, Kelly M; Peng, Jisong; Zhong, Tao P; Finkbeiner, Steven; Weiss, William A; Arkin, Michelle R; Jan, Lily Y; Guo, Su

2013-01-01

33

A zebrafish model of lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 reveals Gle1 function in spinal neural precursor survival and motor axon arborization  

PubMed Central

In humans, GLE1 is mutated in lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 (LCCS1) leading to prenatal death of all affected fetuses. Although the molecular roles of Gle1 in nuclear mRNA export and translation have been documented, no animal models for this disease have been reported. To elucidate the function of Gle1 in vertebrate development, we used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system. gle1 mRNA is maternally deposited and widely expressed. Altering Gle1 using an insertional mutant or antisense morpholinos results in multiple defects, including immobility, small eyes, diminished pharyngeal arches, curved body axis, edema, underdeveloped intestine and cell death in the central nervous system. These phenotypes parallel those observed in LCCS1 human fetuses. Gle1 depletion also results in reduction of motoneurons and aberrant arborization of motor axons. Unexpectedly, the motoneuron deficiency results from apoptosis of neural precursors, not of differentiated motoneurons. Mosaic analyses further indicate that Gle1 activity is required extrinsically in the environment for normal motor axon arborization. Importantly, the zebrafish phenotypes caused by Gle1 deficiency are only rescued by expressing wild-type human GLE1 and not by the disease-linked FinMajor mutant form of GLE1. Together, our studies provide the first functional characterization of Gle1 in vertebrate development and reveal its essential role in actively dividing cells. We propose that defective GLE1 function in human LCCS1 results in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic defects linked to the apoptosis of proliferative organ precursors. PMID:22357925

Jao, Li-En; Appel, Bruce; Wente, Susan R.

2012-01-01

34

High-throughput sequencing screen reveals novel, transforming RAS mutations in myeloid leukemia patients  

PubMed Central

Transforming mutations in NRAS and KRAS are thought to play a causative role in the development of numerous cancers, including myeloid malignancies. Although mutations at amino acids 12, 13, or 61 account for the majority of oncogenic Ras variants, we hypothesized that less frequent mutations at alternate residues may account for disease in some patients with cancer of unexplained genetic etiology. To search for additional, novel RAS mutations, we sequenced all coding exons in NRAS, KRAS, and HRAS in 329 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, 32 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients, and 96 healthy individuals. We detected 4 “noncanonical” point mutations in 7 patients: N-RasG60E, K-RasV14I, K-RasT74P, and K-RasA146T. All 4 Ras mutants exhibited oncogenic properties in comparison with wild-type Ras in biochemical and functional assays. The presence of transforming RAS mutations outside of positions 12, 13, and 61 reveals that alternate mechanisms of transformation by RAS may be overlooked in screens designed to detect only the most common RAS mutations. Our results suggest that RAS mutations may play a greater role in leukemogenesis than currently believed and indicate that high-throughput screening for mutant RAS alleles in cancer should include analysis of the entire RAS coding region. PMID:19075190

Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Erickson, Heidi; Deininger, Michael W. N.; Willis, Stephanie G.; Eide, Christopher A.; Levine, Ross L.; Heinrich, Michael C.; Gattermann, Norbert; Gilliland, D. Gary; Druker, Brian J.

2009-01-01

35

A Genomewide Screen for Suppressors of Alu-Mediated Rearrangements Reveals a Role for PIF1  

PubMed Central

Alu-mediated rearrangement of tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, this mechanism contributes to loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele in inherited disease and to loss of heterozygosity in sporadic cancer. To identify genes required for suppression of Alu-mediated recombination we performed a genomewide screen of a collection of 4672 yeast gene deletion mutants using a direct repeat recombination assay. The primary screen and subsequent analysis identified 12 candidate genes including TSA, ELG1, and RRM3, which are known to play a significant role in maintaining genomic stability. Genetic analysis of the corresponding human homologs was performed in sporadic breast tumors and in inherited BRCA1-associated carcinomas. Sequencing of these genes in high risk breast cancer families revealed a potential role for the helicase PIF1 in cancer predisposition. PIF1 variant L319P was identified in three breast cancer families; importantly, this variant, which is predicted to be functionally damaging, was not identified in a large series of controls nor has it been reported in either dbSNP or the 1000 Genomes Project. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pfh1 is required to maintain both mitochondrial and nuclear genomic integrity. Functional studies in yeast of human PIF1 L319P revealed that this variant cannot complement the essential functions of Pfh1 in either the nucleus or mitochondria. Our results provide a global view of nonessential genes involved in suppressing Alu-mediated recombination and implicate variation in PIF1 in breast cancer predisposition. PMID:22347400

Chisholm, Karen M.; Aubert, Sarah D.; Freese, Krister P.; Zakian, Virginia A.; King, Mary-Claire; Welcsh, Piri L.

2012-01-01

36

Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control Revealed by a Systematic and Quantitative Overexpression Screen in S. cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Regulation of cell cycle progression is fundamental to cell health and reproduction, and failures in this process are associated with many human diseases. Much of our knowledge of cell cycle regulators derives from loss-of-function studies. To reveal new cell cycle regulatory genes that are difficult to identify in loss-of-function studies, we performed a near-genome-wide flow cytometry assay of yeast gene overexpression-induced cell cycle delay phenotypes. We identified 108 genes whose overexpression significantly delayed the progression of the yeast cell cycle at a specific stage. Many of the genes are newly implicated in cell cycle progression, for example SKO1, RFA1, and YPR015C. The overexpression of RFA1 or YPR015C delayed the cell cycle at G2/M phases by disrupting spindle attachment to chromosomes and activating the DNA damage checkpoint, respectively. In contrast, overexpression of the transcription factor SKO1 arrests cells at G1 phase by activating the pheromone response pathway, revealing new cross-talk between osmotic sensing and mating. More generally, 92%–94% of the genes exhibit distinct phenotypes when overexpressed as compared to their corresponding deletion mutants, supporting the notion that many genes may gain functions upon overexpression. This work thus implicates new genes in cell cycle progression, complements previous screens, and lays the foundation for future experiments to define more precisely roles for these genes in cell cycle progression. PMID:18617996

Niu, Wei; Li, Zhihua; Zhan, Wenjing; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Marcotte, Edward M.

2008-01-01

37

Subtractive screening reveals up-regulation of NADPH oxidase expression in Crohn's disease intestinal macrophages  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play a central role during the pathogenesis of inflammation. In normal intestinal mucosa surface expression of typical macrophage markers such as CD14, CD16, CD11b or T-cell co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 or CD86 is low indicating anergy and low pro-inflammatory activity of these cells. During inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) the mucosa is invaded by a population of macrophages displaying these markers, secreting higher cytokine levels and representing an activated cell population. CD33+ cells (macrophages) were isolated from normal and Crohn's disease mucosa and mRNA was isolated by polyT magnetic beads. A subtractive screening was performed subtracting mRNA from normal macrophages from those of Crohn's disease macrophages. Oxidative burst activity was determined by flow cytometry. Seventy clones were obtained by the subtractive mRNA screening. Sequencing showed >99% homology to mRNA of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) for three clones. Five clones obtained by subtraction revealed >99% homology to mRNA of cytochrome b (subunit gp91). Differential expression of the cytochrome b subunit gp91 and the cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunit p67 was confirmed by RT-PCR and ‘virtual’ Northern blots. The fluorescence ratio of stimulated versus unstimulated cells was 0·9 ± 0·16 in control macrophages indicating a lack of oxidative burst activity. In Crohn's disease this ratio was significantly increased to 1·80 ± 0·8 (P = 0·004) confirming the molecular data. In conclusion NADPH oxidase mRNA is down-regulated or absent in macrophages from normal mucosa correlating with a lack of oxidative burst activity. In IBD macrophage-oxidative burst activity is increased and NADPH oxidase mRNA induced. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase could be a new therapeutical target in IBD and reduce mucosal tissue damage in active IBD. PMID:11472425

Hausmann, M; Spottl, T; Andus, T; Rothe, G; Falk, W; Scholmerich, J; Herfarth, H; Rogler, G

2001-01-01

38

Elaborate cellulosome architecture of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus revealed by selective screening of cohesin-dockerin interactions  

PubMed Central

Cellulosic waste represents a significant and underutilized carbon source for the biofuel industry. Owing to the recalcitrance of crystalline cellulose to enzymatic degradation, it is necessary to design economical methods of liberating the fermentable sugars required for bioethanol production. One route towards unlocking the potential of cellulosic waste lies in a highly complex class of molecular machines, the cellulosomes. Secreted mainly by anaerobic bacteria, cellulosomes are structurally diverse, cell surface-bound protein assemblies that can contain dozens of catalytic components. The key feature of the cellulosome is its modularity, facilitated by the ultra-high affinity cohesin–dockerin interaction. Due to the enormous number of cohesin and dockerin modules found in a typical cellulolytic organism, a major bottleneck in understanding the biology of cellulosomics is the purification of each cohesin- and dockerin-containing component, prior to analyses of their interaction. As opposed to previous approaches, the present study utilized proteins contained in unpurified whole-cell extracts. This strategy was made possible due to an experimental design that allowed for the relevant proteins to be “purified” via targeted affinity interactions as a function of the binding assay. The approach thus represents a new strategy, appropriate for future medium- to high-throughput screening of whole genomes, to determine the interactions between cohesins and dockerins. We have selected the cellulosome of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus for this work due to its exceptionally complex cellulosome systems and intriguing diversity of its cellulosomal modular components. Containing 41 cohesins and 143 dockerins, A. cellulolyticus has one of the largest number of potential cohesin–dockerin interactions of any organism, and contains unusual and novel cellulosomal features. We have surveyed a representative library of cohesin and dockerin modules spanning the cellulosome’s total cohesin and dockerin sequence diversity, emphasizing the testing of unusual and previously-unknown protein modules. The screen revealed several novel cell-bound cellulosome architectures, thus expanding on those previously known, as well as soluble cellulose systems that are not bound to the bacterial cell surface. This study sets the stage for screening the entire complement of cellulosomal components from A. cellulolyticus and other organisms with large cellulosome systems. The knowledge gained by such efforts brings us closer to understanding the exceptional catalytic abilities of cellulosomes and will allow the use of novel cellulosomal components in artificial assemblies and in enzyme cocktails for sustainable energy-related research programs. PMID:25374780

Hamberg, Yuval; Ruimy-Israeli, Vered; Dassa, Bareket; Barak, Yoav; Lamed, Raphael; Cameron, Kate; Fontes, Carlos M.G.A.

2014-01-01

39

Three-cohort targeted gene screening reveals a non-synonymous TRKA polymorphism associated with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is thought to be induced by an interaction between predisposing genes and environmental stressors. To identify predisposing genetic factors, we performed a targeted (mostly neurodevelopmental) gene approach involving the screening of 396 selected non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three independent Caucasian schizophrenia case-control cohorts (USA, Denmark and Norway). A meta-analysis revealed ten non-synonymous SNPs that were nominally associated with schizophrenia, nine of which have not been previously linked to the disorder. Risk alleles are in TRKA (rs6336), BARD1 (rs28997576), LAMA5 (rs3810548), DKK2 (rs7037102), NOD2 (rs2066844) and RELN (rs2229860), whereas protective alleles are in NOD2 (rs2066845), NRG1 (rs10503929), ADAM7 (rs13259668) and TNR (rs859427). Following correction for multiple testing, the most attractive candidate for further study concerns SNP rs6336 (q=0.12) that causes the substitution of an evolutionarily highly conserved amino acid residue in the kinase domain of the neurodevelopmentally important receptor TRKA. Thus, TRKA signaling may represent a novel susceptibility pathway for schizophrenia. PMID:19435634

van Schijndel, Jessica E; van Loo, Karen M J; van Zweeden, Martine; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Hansen, Thomas; Werge, Thomas; Kallunki, Pekka; Pedersen, Jan T; Martens, Gerard J M

2009-10-01

40

Effects of ?-glucan polysaccharide revealed by the dominant lethal assay and micronucleus assays, and reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide  

PubMed Central

?-glucan is a well-known polysaccharide for its chemopreventive effect. This study aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive ability of ?-glucan in somatic and germ cells through the dominant lethal and micronucleus assays, and its influence on the reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide. The results indicate that ?-glucan is capable of preventing changes in DNA in both germ cells and somatic ones. Changes in germ cells were evaluated by the dominant lethal assay and showed damage reduction percentages of 46.46% and 43.79% for the doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg. For the somatic changes, evaluated by micronucleus assay in peripheral blood cells in the first week of treatment, damage reduction percentages from 80.63–116.32% were found. In the fifth and sixth weeks, the percentage ranged from 10.20–52.54% and ?0.95–62.35%, respectively. Besides the chemopreventive efficiency it appears that the ?-glucan, when combined with cyclophosphamide, is able to improve the reproductive performance of males verified by the significant reduction in rates of post-implantation losses and reabsorption in the mating of nulliparous females with males treated with cyclophosphamide. PMID:24688298

Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Pesarini, Joao Renato; Sparca Salles, Maria Jose; Nakamura Kanno, Tatiane Yumi; dos Santos Lourenco, Ana Carolina; da Silva Leite, Vessia; da Silva, Ariane Fernanda; Matiazi, Hevenilton Jose; Ribeiro, Lucia Regina; Mantovani, Mario Sergio

2014-01-01

41

Effects of ?-glucan polysaccharide revealed by the dominant lethal assay and micronucleus assays, and reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide.  

PubMed

?-glucan is a well-known polysaccharide for its chemopreventive effect. This study aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive ability of ?-glucan in somatic and germ cells through the dominant lethal and micronucleus assays, and its influence on the reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide. The results indicate that ?-glucan is capable of preventing changes in DNA in both germ cells and somatic ones. Changes in germ cells were evaluated by the dominant lethal assay and showed damage reduction percentages of 46.46% and 43.79% for the doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg. For the somatic changes, evaluated by micronucleus assay in peripheral blood cells in the first week of treatment, damage reduction percentages from 80.63-116.32% were found. In the fifth and sixth weeks, the percentage ranged from 10.20-52.54% and -0.95-62.35%, respectively. Besides the chemopreventive efficiency it appears that the ?-glucan, when combined with cyclophosphamide, is able to improve the reproductive performance of males verified by the significant reduction in rates of post-implantation losses and reabsorption in the mating of nulliparous females with males treated with cyclophosphamide. PMID:24688298

Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Pesarini, João Renato; Sparça Salles, Maria José; Nakamura Kanno, Tatiane Yumi; Dos Santos Lourenço, Ana Carolina; da Silva Leite, Véssia; da Silva, Ariane Fernanda; Matiazi, Hevenilton José; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

2014-03-01

42

Comprehensive Bee Pathogen Screening in Belgium Reveals Crithidia mellificae as a New Contributory Factor to Winter Mortality  

PubMed Central

Since the last decade, unusually high honey bee colony losses have been reported mainly in North-America and Europe. Here, we report on a comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality. Our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to Varroa destructor, the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae in summer are also predictive markers of winter mortality, with a negative synergy being observed between the two in terms of their effects on colony mortality. Furthermore, we document the first occurrence of a parasitizing phorid fly in Europe, identify a new fourth strain of Lake Sinai Virus (LSV), and confirm the presence of other little reported pathogens such as Apicystis bombi, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV), Spiroplasma apis, Spiroplasma melliferum and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus (VdMLV). Finally, we provide evidence that ALPV and VdMLV replicate in honey bees and show that viruses of the LSV complex and Black Queen Cell Virus tend to non-randomly co-occur together. We also noticed a significant correlation between the number of pathogen species and colony losses. Overall, our results contribute significantly to our understanding of honey bee diseases and the likely causes of their current decline in Europe. PMID:23991113

Ravoet, Jorgen; Maharramov, Jafar; Meeus, Ivan; De Smet, Lina; Wenseleers, Tom; Smagghe, Guy; de Graaf, Dirk C.

2013-01-01

43

Comparative drug pair screening across multiple glioblastoma cell lines reveals novel drug-drug interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults, and despite state-of-the-art treatment, survival remains poor and novel therapeutics are sorely needed. The aim of the present study was to identify new synergistic drug pairs for GBM. In addition, we aimed to explore differences in drug-drug interactions across multiple GBM-derived cell cultures and predict such differences by use of transcriptional biomarkers. Methods We performed a screen in which we quantified drug-drug interactions for 465 drug pairs in each of the 5 GBM cell lines U87MG, U343MG, U373MG, A172, and T98G. Selected interactions were further tested using isobole-based analysis and validated in 5 glioma-initiating cell cultures. Furthermore, drug interactions were predicted using microarray-based transcriptional profiling in combination with statistical modeling. Results Of the 5 × 465 drug pairs, we could define a subset of drug pairs with strong interaction in both standard cell lines and glioma-initiating cell cultures. In particular, a subset of pairs involving the pharmaceutical compounds rimcazole, sertraline, pterostilbene, and gefitinib showed a strong interaction in a majority of the cell cultures tested. Statistical modeling of microarray and interaction data using sparse canonical correlation analysis revealed several predictive biomarkers, which we propose could be of importance in regulating drug pair responses. Conclusion We identify novel candidate drug pairs for GBM and suggest possibilities to prospectively use transcriptional biomarkers to predict drug interactions in individual cases. PMID:24101737

Schmidt, Linnéa; Kling, Teresia; Monsefi, Naser; Olsson, Maja; Hansson, Caroline; Baskaran, Sathishkumar; Lundgren, Bo; Martens, Ulf; Häggblad, Maria; Westermark, Bengt; Forsberg Nilsson, Karin; Uhrbom, Lene; Karlsson-Lindahl, Linda; Gerlee, Philip; Nelander, Sven

2013-01-01

44

Manipulating Individual Decisions and Environmental Conditions Reveal Individual Quality in Decision-Making and Non-Lethal Costs of Predation Risk  

PubMed Central

Habitat selection is a crucial decision for any organism. Selecting a high quality site will positively impact survival and reproductive output. Predation risk is an important component of habitat quality that is known to impact reproductive success and individual condition. However, separating the breeding consequences of decision-making of wild animals from individual quality is difficult. Individuals face reproductive decisions that often vary with quality such that low quality individuals invest less. This reduced reproductive performance could appear a cost of increased risk but may simply reflect lower quality. Thus, teasing apart the effects of individual quality and the effect of predation risk is vital to understand the physiological and reproductive costs of predation risk alone on breeding animals. In this study we alter the actual territory location decisions of pied flycatchers by moving active nests relative to breeding sparrowhawks, the main predators of adult flycatchers. We experimentally measure the non-lethal effects of predation on adults and offspring while controlling for effects of parental quality, individual territory choice and initiation of breeding. We found that chicks from high predation risk nests (<50 m of hawk) were significantly smaller than chicks from low risk nests (>200 m from hawk). However, in contrast to correlative results, females in manipulated high risk nests did not suffer decreased body condition or increased stress response (HSP60 and HSP70). Our results suggest that territory location decisions relative to breeding avian predators cause spatial gradients in individual quality. Small adjustments in territory location decisions have crucial consequences and our results confirm non-lethal costs of predation risk that were expressed in terms of smaller offspring produced. However, females did not show costs in physiological condition which suggests that part of the costs incurred by adults exposed to predation risk are quality determined. PMID:23272226

Thomson, Robert L.; Tomas, Gustavo; Forsman, Jukka T.; Monkkonen, Mikko

2012-01-01

45

MicroSCALE Screening Reveals Genetic Modifiers of Therapeutic Response in Melanoma  

E-print Network

Cell microarrays are a promising tool for performing large-scale functional genomic screening in mammalian cells at reasonable cost, but owing to technical limitations they have been restricted for use with a narrow range ...

Sabatini, David M.

46

ResponseNet: revealing signaling and regulatory networks linking genetic and transcriptomic screening data  

E-print Network

Cellular response to stimuli is typically complex and involves both regulatory and metabolic processes. Large-scale experimental efforts to identify components of these processes often comprise of genetic screening and ...

Lan, Alex

47

ResponseNet: revealing signaling and regulatory networks linking genetic transcriptomic screening data  

E-print Network

Cellular response to stimuli is typically complex and involves both regulatory and metabolic processes. Large-scale experimental efforts to identify components of these processes often comprise of genetic screening and ...

Lan, Alex

48

Disease fingerprinting with cDNA microarrays reveals distinct gene expression profiles in lethal type 1 and type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammatory reactions.  

PubMed

Development of polarized immune responses controls resistance and susceptibility to many microorganisms. However, studies of several infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases have shown that chronic type-1 and type-2 cytokine responses can also cause significant morbidity and mortality if left unchecked. We used mouse cDNA microarrays to molecularly phenotype the gene expression patterns that characterize two disparate but equally lethal forms of liver pathology that develop in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice polarized for type-1 and type-2 cytokine responses. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified at least three groups of genes associated with a polarized type-2 response and two linked with an extreme type-1 cytokine phenotype. Predictions about liver fibrosis, apoptosis, and granulocyte recruitment and activation generated by the microarray studies were confirmed later by traditional biological assays. The data show that cDNA microarrays are useful not only for determining coordinated gene expression profiles but are also highly effective for molecularly "fingerprinting" diseased tissues. Moreover, they illustrate the potential of genome-wide approaches for generating comprehensive views on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating infectious disease pathogenesis. PMID:11641263

Hoffmann, K F; McCarty, T C; Segal, D H; Chiaramonte, M; Hesse, M; Davis, E M; Cheever, A W; Meltzer, P S; Morse, H C; Wynn, T A

2001-11-01

49

Large-scale in vivo femtosecond laser neurosurgery screen reveals small-molecule enhancer of regeneration  

E-print Network

neurite regeneration. We performed thousands of microsurgeries at single-axon precision in the nematode. Currently, small-molecule screens for neuronal regen- eration are performed in simple in vitro cell culture maintenance prevent large-scale studies on these animals. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple

Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

50

A Network of Conserved Damage Survival Pathways Revealed by a Genomic RNAi Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage initiates a pleiotropic cellular response aimed at cellular survival when appropriate. To identify genes required for damage survival, we used a cell-based RNAi screen against the Drosophila genome and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). Similar studies performed in other model organisms report that damage response may involve pleiotropic cellular processes other than the central DNA repair components, yet

Dashnamoorthy Ravi; Amy M. Wiles; Selvaraj Bhavani; Jianhua Ruan; Philip Leder; Alexander J. R. Bishop

2009-01-01

51

MicroSCALE Screening Reveals Genetic Modifiers of Therapeutic Response in Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Cell microarrays are a promising tool for performing large-scale functional genomic screening in mammalian cells at reasonable cost, but due to technical limitations, have been restricted for use with a narrow range of cell lines and short-term assays. Here, we describe MicroSCALE (Microarrays of Spatially Confined Adhesive Lentiviral Features), a cell microarray-based platform that enables application of this technology to a wide range of cell types and longer term assays. We used MicroSCALE to uncover kinases that when overexpressed partially desensitized B-RAFV600E-mutant melanoma cells to inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) RAF, the MAPKKs MEK1 and 2, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), or PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase). These screens indicated that cells treated with inhibitors acting through common mechanisms were affected by a similar profile of overexpressed proteins. In contrast, screens involving inhibitors acting through distinct mechanisms yielded unique profiles, a finding that has potential relevance for small molecule target identification and combination drugging studies. Further, by integrating large-scale functional screening results with cancer cell line gene expression and pharmacological sensitivity data, we validated the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway as a potential mediator of resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors. The MicroSCALE platform described here may enable new classes of large-scale, resource-efficient screens that were not previously feasible, including those involving combinations of cell lines, perturbations, and assay outputs or those involving limited numbers of cells and limited or expensive reagents. PMID:22589389

Wood, Kris C.; Konieczkowski, David J.; Johannessen, Cory M.; Boehm, Jesse S.; Tamayo, Pablo; Botvinnik, Olga B.; Mesirov, Jill P.; Hahn, William C.; Root, David E.; Garraway, Levi A.; Sabatini, David M.

2012-01-01

52

Phenotypic Screening Reveals Topoisomerase I as a Breast Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation generally thought to be responsible for cancer initiation and progression. Because CSCs are often rare in the total tumor cell population and differentiate rapidly when grown in culture, it has been challenging to uncover compounds that selectively target CSCs. We previously described CSC-emulating cells derived from breast cancer cell lines that maintained a stable undifferentiated state. We optimized a phenotypic assay with these cells and screened 1,280-bioactive compounds, identifying five that preferentially inhibited CSC-like cell proliferation. Using a compound-guided target identification approach, we found high topoisomerase I (Topo I) expression levels in breast CSC-like cells and primary breast CSCs. Structurally unrelated small molecules targeting Topo I preferentially inhibited CSC-like cells. These results illustrate the substantial power of this CSC phenotypic screening platform and promote Topo I as a potential molecular therapeutic target for therapies aimed at expunging CSCs. PMID:22948175

Zhang, Fang; Rothermund, Kristi; Gangadharan, Sajithlal B.; Pommier, Yves; Prochownik, Edward V.; Lazo, John S.

2012-01-01

53

A Zebrafish Compound Screen Reveals Modulation of Neutrophil Reverse Migration as an Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Diseases of failed inflammation resolution are common and largely incurable. Therapeutic induction of inflammation resolution is an attractive strategy to bring about healing without increasing susceptibility to infection. However, therapeutic targeting of inflammation resolution has been hampered by a lack of understanding of the underlying molecular controls. To address this drug development challenge, we developed an in vivo screen for proresolution therapeutics in a transgenic zebrafish model. Inflammation induced by sterile tissue injury was assessed for accelerated resolution in the presence of a library of known compounds. Of the molecules with proresolution activity, tanshinone IIA, derived from a Chinese medicinal herb, potently induced inflammation resolution in vivo both by induction of neutrophil apoptosis and by promoting reverse migration of neutrophils. Tanshinone IIA blocked proinflammatory signals in vivo, and its effects are conserved in human neutrophils, supporting a potential role in treating human inflammation and providing compelling evidence of the translational potential of this screening strategy. PMID:24574340

Robertson, Anne L.; Holmes, Geoffrey R.; Bojarczuk, Aleksandra N.; Burgon, Joseph; Loynes, Catherine A.; Chimen, Myriam; Sawtell, Amy K.; Hamza, Bashar; Willson, Joseph; Walmsley, Sarah R.; Anderson, Sean R.; Coles, Mark C.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Solari, Roberto; Jones, Simon; Prince, Lynne R.; Irimia, Daniel; Rainger, G. Ed; Kadirkamanathan, Visakan; Whyte, Moira K. B.; Renshaw, Stephen A.

2014-01-01

54

Genomic screening for genes upregulated by demethylation revealed novel targets of epigenetic silencing in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer arises through the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations and epigenetic changes such as methylation,\\u000a which silences gene expression in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we applied genomic screening to identify genes\\u000a upregulated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (DAC) in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). We identified\\u000a 288 genes upregulated and 29 genes downregulated

Tomoko Fujikane; Noriko Nishikawa; Minoru Toyota; Hiromu Suzuki; Masanori Nojima; Reo Maruyama; Masami Ashida; Mutsumi Ohe-Toyota; Masahiro Kai; Toshihiko Nishidate; Yasushi Sasaki; Tousei Ohmura; Koichi Hirata; Takashi Tokino

2010-01-01

55

An ER-Mitochondria Tethering Complex Revealed by a Synthetic Biology Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication between organelles is an important feature of all eukaryotic cells. To uncover components involved in mitochondria\\/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) junctions, we screened for mutants that could be complemented by a synthetic protein designed to artificially tether the two organelles. We identified the Mmm1\\/Mdm10\\/Mdm12\\/Mdm34 complex as a molecular tether between ER and mitochondria. The tethering complex was composed of proteins resident

Benoît Kornmann; Erin Currie; Sean R. Collins; Maya Schuldiner; Jodi Nunnari; Jonathan S. Weissman; Peter Walter

2009-01-01

56

A Whole Cell Pathway Screen Reveals Seven Novel Chemosensitizers to Combat Chloroquine Resistant Malaria  

PubMed Central

Due to the widespread prevalence of resistant parasites, chloroquine (CQ) was removed from front-line antimalarial chemotherapy in the 1990s despite its initial promise of disease eradication. Since then, resistance-conferring mutations have been identified in transporters such as the PfCRT, that allow for the efflux of CQ from its primary site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chemosensitizing/chemoreversing compounds interfere with the function of these transporters thereby sensitizing parasites to CQ once again. However, compounds identified thus far have disappointing in vivo efficacy and screening for alternative candidates is required to revive this strategy. In this study, we propose a simple and direct means to rapidly screen for such compounds using a fluorescent-tagged CQ molecule. When this screen was applied to a small library, seven novel chemosensitizers (octoclothepin, methiothepin, metergoline, loperamide, chlorprothixene, L-703,606 and mibefradil) were quickly elucidated, including two which showed greater potency than the classical chemosensitizers verapamil and desipramine. PMID:23615863

Ch'ng, Jun-Hong; Mok, Sachel; Bozdech, Zbynek; Lear, Martin James; Boudhar, Aicha; Russell, Bruce; Nosten, Francois; Tan, Kevin Shyong-Wei

2013-01-01

57

Core Site-Moiety Maps Reveal Inhibitors and Binding Mechanisms of Orthologous Proteins by Screening Compound Libraries  

PubMed Central

Members of protein families often share conserved structural subsites for interaction with chemically similar moieties despite low sequence identity. We propose a core site-moiety map of multiple proteins (called CoreSiMMap) to discover inhibitors and mechanisms by profiling subsite-moiety interactions of immense screening compounds. The consensus anchor, the subsite-moiety interactions with statistical significance, of a CoreSiMMap can be regarded as a “hot spot” that represents the conserved binding environments involved in biological functions. Here, we derive the CoreSiMMap with six consensus anchors and identify six inhibitors (IC50<8.0 µM) of shikimate kinases (SKs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori from the NCI database (236,962 compounds). Studies of site-directed mutagenesis and analogues reveal that these conserved interacting residues and moieties contribute to pocket-moiety interaction spots and biological functions. These results reveal that our multi-target screening strategy and the CoreSiMMap can increase the accuracy of screening in the identification of novel inhibitors and subsite-moiety environments for elucidating the binding mechanisms of targets. PMID:22393385

Chen, Yen-Fu; Wang, Hung-Jung; Li, Ling-Ting; Wang, Wen-Ching; Yang, Jinn-Moon

2012-01-01

58

Systematic analysis of RNAi reports identifies dismal commonality at gene-level and reveals an unprecedented enrichment in pooled shRNA screens.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) has opened promising avenues to better understand gene function. Though many RNAi screens report on the identification of genes, very few, if any, have been further studied and validated. Data discrepancy is emerging as one of RNAi main pitfalls. We reasoned that a systematic analysis of lethality-based screens, since they score for cell death, would examine the extent of hit discordance at inter-screen level. To this end, we developed a methodology for literature mining and overlap analysis of several screens using both siRNA and shRNA flavors, and obtained 64 gene lists censoring an initial list of 7,430 nominated genes. We further performed a comparative analysis first at a global level followed by hit re-assessment under much more stringent conditions. To our surprise, none of the hits overlapped across the board even for PLK1, which emerged as a strong candidate in siRNA screens; but only marginally in the shRNA ones. Furthermore, EIF5B emerges as the most common hit only in the shRNA screens. A highly unusual and unprecedented result was the observation that 5,269 out of 6,664 nominated genes (~80%) in the shRNA screens were exclusive to the pooled format, raising concerns as to the merits of pooled screens which qualify hits based on relative depletions, possibly due to multiple integrations per cell, data deconvolution or inaccuracies in intracellular processing causing off-target effects. Without golden standards in place, we would encourage the community to pay more attention to RNAi screening data analysis practices, bearing in mind that it is combinatorial in nature and one active siRNA duplex or shRNA hairpin per gene does not suffice credible hit nomination. Finally, we also would like to caution interpretation of pooled shRNA screening outcomes. PMID:23848309

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

2013-11-01

59

Systematic analysis of RNAi reports identifies dismal commonality at gene-level & reveals an unprecedented enrichment in pooled shRNA screens  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has opened promising avenues to better understand gene function. Though many RNAi screens report on the identification of genes, very few, if any, have been further studied and validated. Data discrepancy is emerging as one of RNAi main pitfalls. We reasoned that a systematic analysis of lethality-based screens, since they score for cell death, would examine the extent of hit discordance at inter-screen level. To this end, we developed a methodology for literature mining and overlap analysis of several screens using both siRNA and shRNA flavors, and obtained 64 gene lists censoring an initial list of 7,430 nominated genes. We further performed a comparative analysis first at a global level followed by hit re-assessment under much more stringent conditions. To our surprise, none of the hits overlapped across the board even for PLK1, which emerged as a strong candidate in siRNA screens; but only marginally in the shRNA ones. Furthermore, EIF5B emerges as the most common hit only in the shRNA screens. A highly unusual and unprecedented result was the observation that 5,269 out of 6,664 nominated genes (~80%) in the shRNA screens were exclusive to the pooled format, raising concerns as to the merits of pooled screens which qualify hits based on relative depletions, possibly due to multiple integrations per cell, data deconvolution or inaccuracies in intracellular processing causing off-target effects. Without golden standards in place, we would encourage the community to pay more attention to RNAi screening data analysis practices, bearing in mind that it is combinatorial in nature and one active siRNA duplex or shRNA hairpin per gene does not suffice credible hit nomination. Finally, we also would like to caution interpretation of pooled shRNA screening outcomes. PMID:23848309

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

2013-01-01

60

Revealing Molecular Mechanisms by Integrating High-Dimensional Functional Screens with Protein Interaction Data  

PubMed Central

Functional genomics screens using multi-parametric assays are powerful approaches for identifying genes involved in particular cellular processes. However, they suffer from problems like noise, and often provide little insight into molecular mechanisms. A bottleneck for addressing these issues is the lack of computational methods for the systematic integration of multi-parametric phenotypic datasets with molecular interactions. Here, we present Integrative Multi Profile Analysis of Cellular Traits (IMPACT). The main goal of IMPACT is to identify the most consistent phenotypic profile among interacting genes. This approach utilizes two types of external information: sets of related genes (IMPACT-sets) and network information (IMPACT-modules). Based on the notion that interacting genes are more likely to be involved in similar functions than non-interacting genes, this data is used as a prior to inform the filtering of phenotypic profiles that are similar among interacting genes. IMPACT-sets selects the most frequent profile among a set of related genes. IMPACT-modules identifies sub-networks containing genes with similar phenotype profiles. The statistical significance of these selections is subsequently quantified via permutations of the data. IMPACT (1) handles multiple profiles per gene, (2) rescues genes with weak phenotypes and (3) accounts for multiple biases e.g. caused by the network topology. Application to a genome-wide RNAi screen on endocytosis showed that IMPACT improved the recovery of known endocytosis-related genes, decreased off-target effects, and detected consistent phenotypes. Those findings were confirmed by rescreening 468 genes. Additionally we validated an unexpected influence of the IGF-receptor on EGF-endocytosis. IMPACT facilitates the selection of high-quality phenotypic profiles using different types of independent information, thereby supporting the molecular interpretation of functional screens. PMID:25188415

Collinet, Claudio; Galvez, Thierry; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Zerial, Marino; Beyer, Andreas

2014-01-01

61

Screening the Budding Yeast Genome Reveals Unique Factors Affecting K2 Toxin Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding how biotoxins kill cells is of prime importance in biomedicine and the food industry. The budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) killers serve as a convenient model to study the activity of biotoxins consistently supplying with significant insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host cell interactions and toxin entry into eukaryotic target cells. K1 and K2 toxins are active at the cell wall, leading to the disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequent cell death by ion leakage. K28 toxin is active in the cell nucleus, blocking DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, thereby triggering apoptosis. Genome-wide screens in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae identified several hundred effectors of K1 and K28 toxins. Surprisingly, no such screen had been performed for K2 toxin, the most frequent killer toxin among industrial budding yeasts. Principal Findings We conducted several concurrent genome-wide screens in S. cerevisiae and identified 332 novel K2 toxin effectors. The effectors involved in K2 resistance and hypersensitivity largely map in distinct cellular pathways, including cell wall and plasma membrane structure/biogenesis and mitochondrial function for K2 resistance, and cell wall stress signaling and ion/pH homeostasis for K2 hypersensitivity. 70% of K2 effectors are different from those involved in K1 or K28 susceptibility. Significance Our work demonstrates that despite the fact that K1 and K2 toxins share some aspects of their killing strategies, they largely rely on different sets of effectors. Since the vast majority of the host factors identified here is exclusively active towards K2, we conclude that cells have acquired a specific K2 toxin effectors set. Our work thus indicates that K1 and K2 have elaborated different biological pathways and provides a first step towards the detailed characterization of K2 mode of action. PMID:23227207

Serviene, Elena; Luksa, Juliana; Orentaite, Irma

2012-01-01

62

Staphylococcus aureus Mutant Screen Reveals Interaction of the Human Antimicrobial Peptide Dermcidin with Membrane Phospholipids ?  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) form an important part of the innate host defense. In contrast to most AMPs, human dermcidin has an anionic net charge. To investigate whether bacteria have developed specific mechanisms of resistance to dermcidin, we screened for mutants of the leading human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, with altered resistance to dermcidin. To that end, we constructed a plasmid for use in mariner-based transposon mutagenesis and developed a high-throughput cell viability screening method based on luminescence. In a large screen, we did not find mutants with strongly increased susceptibility to dermcidin, indicating that S. aureus has no specific mechanism of resistance to this AMP. Furthermore, we detected a mutation in a gene of unknown function that resulted in significantly increased resistance to dermcidin. The mutant strain had an altered membrane phospholipid pattern and showed decreased binding of dermcidin to the bacterial surface, indicating that dermcidin interacts with membrane phospholipids. The mode of this interaction was direct, as shown by assays of dermcidin binding to phospholipid preparations, and specific, as the resistance to other AMPs was not affected. Our findings indicate that dermcidin has an exceptional value for the human innate host defense and lend support to the idea that it evolved to evade bacterial resistance mechanisms targeted at the cationic character of most AMPs. Moreover, they suggest that the antimicrobial activity of dermcidin is dependent on the interaction with the bacterial membrane and might thus assist with the determination of the yet unknown mode of action of this important human AMP. PMID:19596877

Li, Min; Rigby, Kevin; Lai, Yuping; Nair, Vinod; Peschel, Andreas; Schittek, Birgit; Otto, Michael

2009-01-01

63

Screening of Predicted Secreted Antigens from Mycobacterium bovis Reveals the Immunodominance of the ESAT-6 Protein Family? †  

PubMed Central

Results of previous studies utilizing bioinformatic approaches in antigen-mining experiments revealed that secreted proteins are among the most frequently recognized antigens from Mycobacterium bovis. Thus, we hypothesized that the analysis of secreted proteins is likely to reveal additional immunogenic antigens that can be used to increase the specificity of diagnostic tests or be suitable vaccination candidates for mycobacterial infections. To test this hypothesis, 382 pools of overlapping peptides spanning 119 M. bovis secreted and potentially secreted proteins were screened for the ability to stimulate a gamma interferon response in vitro using whole blood from tuberculin-positive reactor (TB reactor) cattle. Of the 119 proteins screened, 70 (59%) induced positive responses in the TB reactor animals to various degrees. Strikingly, all but one of the 15 ESAT-6 proteins tested were recognized by at least 30% of the TB reactor animals, with 12 of the 22 most commonly recognized antigens belonging to this protein family. Further analysis of these data demonstrated that there was no significant difference in immunogenicity between the ESAT-6 proteins that were components of potentially intact ESX secretory systems and those corresponding to additional partial esx loci. Importantly for vaccine design, antigenic epitopes in some highly conserved regions shared by numerous ESAT-6 proteins were identified. However, despite this considerable homology, peptide-mapping experiments also revealed that immunodominant peptides were located in regions of amino acid variability. PMID:20086089

Jones, Gareth J.; Gordon, Stephen V.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Vordermeier, H. Martin

2010-01-01

64

Mass spectrometry screening reveals widespread diversity in trichome specialized metabolites of tomato chromosomal substitution lines  

PubMed Central

Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and close relatives produce a variety of structurally diverse volatile and non-volatile specialized (‘secondary’) metabolites, including terpenes, flavonoids and acyl sugars. A genetic screen is described here to profile leaf trichome and surface metabolite extracts of nearly isogenic chromosomal substitution lines covering the tomato genome. These lines contain specific regions of the Solanum pennellii LA0716 genome in an otherwise ‘wild-type’ M82 tomato genetic background. Regions that have an impact on the total amount of extractable mono- and sesquiterpenes (IL2-2) or only sesquiterpenes (IL10-3) or specifically influence accumulation of the monoterpene ?-thujene (IL1-3 and IL1-4) were identified using GC-MS. A rapid LC-TOF-MS method was developed and used to identify changes in non-volatile metabolites through non-targeted analysis. Metabolite profiles generated using this approach led to the discovery of introgression lines producing different acyl chain substitutions on acyl sugar metabolites (IL1-3/1-4 and IL8-1/8-1-1), as well as two regions that influence the quantity of acyl sugars (IL5-3 and IL11-3). Chromosomal region 1-1/1-1-3 was found to influence the types of glycoalkaloids that are detected in leaf surface extracts. These results show that direct chemical screening is a powerful way to characterize genetic diversity in trichome specialized metabolism. PMID:20113441

Schilmiller, Anthony; Shi, Feng; Kim, Jeongwoon; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Holmes, Daniel; Daniel Jones, A; Last, Robert L

2010-01-01

65

A Sleeping Beauty screen reveals NF-kB activation in CLL mouse model.  

PubMed

TCL1 oncogene is overexpressed in aggressive form of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and its dysregulation in mouse B cells causes a CD5-positive leukemia similar to the aggressive form of human CLLs. To identify oncogenes that cooperate with Tcl1, we performed genetic screen in E?-TCL1 mice using Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated mutagenesis. Analysis of transposon common insertion sites identified 7 genes activated by transposon insertions. Overexpression of these genes in mouse CLL was confirmed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, the main known function of 4 of 7 genes (Nfkb1, Tab2, Map3K14, and Nfkbid) is participation in or activation of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway. In addition, activation of the NF-kB is 1 of main functions of Akt2, also identified in the screen. These findings demonstrate cooperation of Tcl1 and the NF-kB pathway in the pathogenesis of aggressive CLL. Identification cooperating cancer genes will result in the development of combinatorial therapies to treat CLL. PMID:23591791

Zanesi, Nicola; Balatti, Veronica; Riordan, Jesse; Burch, Aaron; Rizzotto, Lara; Palamarchuk, Alexey; Cascione, Luciano; Lagana, Alessandro; Dupuy, Adam J; Croce, Carlo M; Pekarsky, Yuri

2013-05-23

66

Novel skin phenotypes revealed by a genome-wide mouse reverse genetic screen  

PubMed Central

Permanent stop-and-shop large-scale mouse mutant resources provide an excellent platform to decipher tissue phenogenomics. Here we analyse skin from 538 knockout mouse mutants generated by the Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project. We optimize immunolabelling of tail epidermal wholemounts to allow systematic annotation of hair follicle, sebaceous gland and interfollicular epidermal abnormalities using ontology terms from the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. Of the 50 mutants with an epidermal phenotype, 9 map to human genetic conditions with skin abnormalities. Some mutant genes are expressed in the skin, whereas others are not, indicating systemic effects. One phenotype is affected by diet and several are incompletely penetrant. In-depth analysis of three mutants, Krt76, Myo5a (a model of human Griscelli syndrome) and Mysm1, provides validation of the screen. Our study is the first large-scale genome-wide tissue phenotype screen from the International Knockout Mouse Consortium and provides an open access resource for the scientific community. PMID:24721909

Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E.; Heath, Emma; Smedley, Damian P.; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; DiTommaso, Tia; White, Jacqueline K.; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Smyth, Ian; Steel, Karen P.; Watt, Fiona M.

2014-01-01

67

Mass spectrometry screening reveals widespread diversity in trichome specialized metabolites of tomato chromosomal substitution lines.  

PubMed

Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and close relatives produce a variety of structurally diverse volatile and non-volatile specialized ('secondary') metabolites, including terpenes, flavonoids and acyl sugars. A genetic screen is described here to profile leaf trichome and surface metabolite extracts of nearly isogenic chromosomal substitution lines covering the tomato genome. These lines contain specific regions of the Solanum pennellii LA0716 genome in an otherwise 'wild-type' M82 tomato genetic background. Regions that have an impact on the total amount of extractable mono- and sesquiterpenes (IL2-2) or only sesquiterpenes (IL10-3) or specifically influence accumulation of the monoterpene alpha-thujene (IL1-3 and IL1-4) were identified using GC-MS. A rapid LC-TOF-MS method was developed and used to identify changes in non-volatile metabolites through non-targeted analysis. Metabolite profiles generated using this approach led to the discovery of introgression lines producing different acyl chain substitutions on acyl sugar metabolites (IL1-3/1-4 and IL8-1/8-1-1), as well as two regions that influence the quantity of acyl sugars (IL5-3 and IL11-3). Chromosomal region 1-1/1-1-3 was found to influence the types of glycoalkaloids that are detected in leaf surface extracts. These results show that direct chemical screening is a powerful way to characterize genetic diversity in trichome specialized metabolism. PMID:20113441

Schilmiller, Anthony; Shi, Feng; Kim, Jeongwoon; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Holmes, Daniel; Daniel Jones, A; Last, Robert L

2010-05-01

68

A Forward Genetic Screen Reveals that Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase 3 Regulates Egress in Toxoplasma  

PubMed Central

Egress from the host cell is a crucial and highly regulated step in the biology of the obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Active egress depends on calcium fluxes and appears to be a crucial step in escaping the attack from the immune system and, potentially, in enabling the parasites to shuttle into appropriate cells for entry into the brain of the host. Previous genetic screens have yielded mutants defective in both ionophore-induced egress and ionophore-induced death. Using whole genome sequencing of one mutant and subsequent analysis of all mutants from these screens, we find that, remarkably, four independent mutants harbor a mis-sense mutation in the same gene, TgCDPK3, encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase. All four mutations are predicted to alter key regions of TgCDPK3 and this is confirmed by biochemical studies of recombinant forms of each. By complementation we confirm a crucial role for TgCDPK3 in the rapid induction of parasite egress and we establish that TgCDPK3 is critical for formation of latent stages in the brains of mice. Genetic knockout of TgCDPK3 confirms a crucial role for this kinase in parasite egress and a non-essential role for it in the lytic cycle. PMID:23209419

Ehret, Emma; Butz, Heidi; Garbuz, Tamila; Oswald, Benji P.; Settles, Matt; Boothroyd, John; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

2012-01-01

69

A Cell-Based Screen Reveals that the Albendazole Metabolite, Albendazole Sulfone, Targets Wolbachia  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia endosymbionts carried by filarial nematodes give rise to the neglected diseases African river blindness and lymphatic filariasis afflicting millions worldwide. Here we identify new Wolbachia-disrupting compounds by conducting high-throughput cell-based chemical screens using a Wolbachia-infected, fluorescently labeled Drosophila cell line. This screen yielded several Wolbachia-disrupting compounds including three that resembled Albendazole, a widely used anthelmintic drug that targets nematode microtubules. Follow-up studies demonstrate that a common Albendazole metabolite, Albendazole sulfone, reduces intracellular Wolbachia titer both in Drosophila melanogaster and Brugia malayi, the nematode responsible for lymphatic filariasis. Significantly, Albendazole sulfone does not disrupt Drosophila microtubule organization, suggesting that this compound reduces titer through direct targeting of Wolbachia. Accordingly, both DNA staining and FtsZ immunofluorescence demonstrates that Albendazole sulfone treatment induces Wolbachia elongation, a phenotype indicative of binary fission defects. This suggests that the efficacy of Albendazole in treating filarial nematode-based diseases is attributable to dual targeting of nematode microtubules and their Wolbachia endosymbionts. PMID:23028321

Bray, Walter M.; White, Pamela M.; Ruybal, Jordan; Lokey, R. Scott; Debec, Alain; Sullivan, William

2012-01-01

70

siRNA screening reveals JNK2 as an evolutionary conserved regulator of triglyceride homeostasis.  

PubMed

Lipid homeostasis is essential for proper function of cells and organisms. To unravel new regulators of this system, we developed a screening procedure, combining RNA interference in HeLa cells and TLC, which enabled us to monitor modifications of lipid composition resulting from short, interfering RNA knock-downs. We applied this technique to the analysis of 600 human kinases. Despite the occurrence of off-target effects, we identified JNK2 as a new player in triglyceride (TG) homeostasis and lipid droplet metabolism and, more specifically, in the regulation of lipolysis. Similar control of the level of TGs and lipid droplets was observed for its Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog, Sty1, suggesting an evolutionary conserved function of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the regulation of lipid storage in eukaryotic cells. PMID:18612143

Grimard, Vinciane; Massier, Julia; Richter, Doris; Schwudke, Dominik; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Fava, Eugenio; Hermetter, Albin; Thiele, Christoph

2008-11-01

71

Combined zebrafish-yeast chemical-genetic screens reveal gene-copper-nutrition interactions that modulate melanocyte pigmentation.  

PubMed

Hypopigmentation is a feature of copper deficiency in humans, as caused by mutation of the copper (Cu(2+)) transporter ATP7A in Menkes disease, or an inability to absorb copper after gastric surgery. However, many causes of copper deficiency are unknown, and genetic polymorphisms might underlie sensitivity to suboptimal environmental copper conditions. Here, we combined phenotypic screens in zebrafish for compounds that affect copper metabolism with yeast chemical-genetic profiles to identify pathways that are sensitive to copper depletion. Yeast chemical-genetic interactions revealed that defects in intracellular trafficking pathways cause sensitivity to low-copper conditions; partial knockdown of the analogous Ap3s1 and Ap1s1 trafficking components in zebrafish sensitized developing melanocytes to hypopigmentation in low-copper environmental conditions. Because trafficking pathways are essential for copper loading into cuproproteins, our results suggest that hypomorphic alleles of trafficking components might underlie sensitivity to reduced-copper nutrient conditions. In addition, we used zebrafish-yeast screening to identify a novel target pathway in copper metabolism for the small-molecule MEK kinase inhibitor U0126. The zebrafish-yeast screening method combines the power of zebrafish as a disease model with facile genome-scale identification of chemical-genetic interactions in yeast to enable the discovery and dissection of complex multigenic interactions in disease-gene networks. PMID:20713646

Ishizaki, Hironori; Spitzer, Michaela; Wildenhain, Jan; Anastasaki, Corina; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Dolma, Sonam; Shaw, Michael; Madsen, Erik; Gitlin, Jonathan; Marais, Richard; Tyers, Mike; Patton, E Elizabeth

2010-01-01

72

Chemoecological Screening Reveals High Bioactivity in Diverse Culturable Portuguese Marine Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Marine cyanobacteria, notably those from tropical regions, are a rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Tropical marine cyanobacteria often grow to high densities in the environment, allowing direct isolation of many secondary metabolites from field-collected material. However, in temperate environments culturing is usually required to produce enough biomass for investigations of their chemical constituents. In this work, we cultured a selection of novel and diverse cyanobacteria isolated from the Portuguese coast, and tested their organic extracts in a series of ecologically-relevant bioassays. The majority of the extracts showed activity in at least one of the bioassays, all of which were run in very small scale. Phylogenetically related isolates exhibited different activity profiles, highlighting the value of microdiversity for bioprospection studies. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses of selected active extracts suggested the presence of previously unidentified secondary metabolites. Overall, the screening strategy employed here, in which previously untapped cyanobacterial diversity was combined with multiple bioassays, proved to be a successful strategy and allowed the selection of several strains for further investigations based on their bioactivity profiles. PMID:23609580

Leao, Pedro N.; Ramos, Vitor; Goncalves, Patricio B.; Viana, Flavia; Lage, Olga M.; Gerwick, William H.; Vasconcelos, Vitor M.

2013-01-01

73

A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals multiple regulators of caspase activation  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an evolutionally conserved cellular suicide mechanism that can be activated in response to a variety of stressful stimuli. Increasing evidence suggests that apoptotic regulation relies on specialized cell death signaling pathways and also integrates diverse signals from additional regulatory circuits, including those of cellular homeostasis. We present a genome-wide RNA interference screen to systematically identify regulators of apoptosis induced by DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster cells. We identify 47 double- stranded RNA that target a functionally diverse set of genes, including several with a known function in promoting cell death. Further characterization uncovers 10 genes that influence caspase activation upon the removal of Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1. This set includes the Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc and, surprisingly, several metabolic regulators, a candidate tumor suppressor, Charlatan, and an N-acetyltransferase, ARD1. Importantly, several of these genes show functional conservation in regulating apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our data suggest a previously unappreciated fundamental connection between various cellular processes and caspase-dependent cell death. PMID:17998402

Yi, Caroline H.; Sogah, Dodzie K.; Boyce, Michael; Degterev, Alexei; Christofferson, Dana E.; Yuan, Junying

2007-01-01

74

Synthetic transactivation screening reveals ETV4 as broad coactivator of hypoxia-inducible factor signaling.  

PubMed

The human prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins 1-3 are known as cellular oxygen sensors, acting via the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) ?-subunits. PHD2 and PHD3 genes are inducible by HIFs themselves, suggesting a negative feedback loop that involves PHD abundance. To identify novel regulators of the PHD2 gene, an expression array of 704 transcription factors was screened by a method that allows distinguishing between HIF-dependent and HIF-independent promoter regulation. Among others, the E-twenty six transcription factor ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4) was found to contribute to PHD2 gene expression particularly under hypoxic conditions. Mechanistically, complex formation between ETV4 and HIF-1/2? was observed by mammalian two-hybrid and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. HIF-1? domain mapping, CITED2 overexpression and factor inhibiting HIF depletion experiments provided evidence for cooperation between HIF-1? and p300/CBP in ETV4 binding. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed ETV4 and HIF-1? corecruitment to the PHD2 promoter. Of 608 hypoxically induced transcripts found by genome-wide expression profiling, 7.7% required ETV4 for efficient hypoxic induction, suggesting a broad role of ETV4 in hypoxic gene regulation. Endogenous ETV4 highly correlated with PHD2, HIF-1/2? and several established markers of tissue hypoxia in 282 human breast cancer tissue samples, corroborating a functional interplay between the ETV4 and HIF pathways. PMID:22075993

Wollenick, Kristin; Hu, Jun; Kristiansen, Glen; Schraml, Peter; Rehrauer, Hubert; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Utta; Fandrey, Joachim; Wenger, Roland H; Stiehl, Daniel P

2012-03-01

75

RNAi screen in Drosophila cells reveals the involvement of the Tom complex in Chlamydia infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia spp. are intracellular obligate bacterial pathogens that infect a wide range of host cells. Here, we show that C. caviae enters, replicates, and performs a complete developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified 54 factors that, when depleted, inhibit C. caviae infection. By testing the effect of each candidate's knock down on L. monocytogenes infection, we have identified 31 candidates presumably specific of C. caviae infection. We found factors expected to have an effect on Chlamydia infection, such as heparansulfate glycosaminoglycans and actin and microtubule remodeling factors. We also identified factors that were not previously described as involved in Chlamydia infection. For instance, we identified members of the Tim-Tom complex, a multiprotein complex involved in the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells. Finally, we confirmed that depletion of either Tom40 or Tom22 also reduced C. caviae infection in mammalian cells. However, C. trachomatis infection was not affected, suggesting that the mechanism involved is C. caviae specific. PMID:17967059

Derré, Isabelle; Pypaert, Marc; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Agaisse, Hervé

2007-10-26

76

Genome-wide Screening Reveals the Genetic Determinants of an Antibiotic Insecticide in Bacillus thuringiensis*  

PubMed Central

Thuringiensin is a thermostable secondary metabolite in Bacillus thuringiensis and has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects. Until now, the regulatory mechanisms and genetic determinants involved in thuringiensin production have remained unclear. Here, we successfully used heterologous expression-guided screening in an Escherichia coli–Bacillus thuringiensis shuttle bacterial artificial chromosome library, to clone the intact thuringiensin synthesis (thu) cluster. Then the thu cluster was located on a 110-kb endogenous plasmid bearing insecticide crystal protein gene cry1Ba in strain CT-43. Furthermore, the plasmid, named pBMB0558, was indirectly cloned and sequenced. The gene functions on pBMB0558 were annotated by BLAST based on the GenBankTM and KEGG databases. The genes on pBMB0558 could be classified into three functional modules: a thuringiensin synthesis cluster, a type IV secretion system-like module, and mobile genetic elements. By HPLC coupling mass spectrometer, atmospheric pressure ionization with ion trap, and TOF technologies, biosynthetic intermediates of thuringiensin were detected. The thuE gene is proved to be responsible for the phosphorylation of thuringiensin at the last step by vivo and vitro activity assays. The thuringiensin biosynthesis pathway was deduced and clarified. We propose that thuringiensin is an adenine nucleoside oligosaccharide rather than an adenine nucleotide analog, as is traditionally believed, based on the predicted functions of the key enzymes, glycosyltransferase (ThuF) and exopolysaccharide polymerization protein (Thu1). PMID:20864531

Liu, Xiao-Yan; Ruan, Li-Fang; Hu, Zhen-Fei; Peng, Dong-Hai; Cao, Shi-Yun; Yu, Zi-Niu; Liu, Yao; Zheng, Jin-Shui; Sun, Ming

2010-01-01

77

Genome-Wide Screen Reveals Replication Pathway for Quasi-Palindrome Fragility Dependent on Homologous Recombination  

PubMed Central

Inverted repeats capable of forming hairpin and cruciform structures present a threat to chromosomal integrity. They induce double strand breaks, which lead to gross chromosomal rearrangements, the hallmarks of cancers and hereditary diseases. Secondary structure formation at this motif has been proposed to be the driving force for the instability, albeit the mechanisms leading to the fragility are not well-understood. We carried out a genome-wide screen to uncover the genetic players that govern fragility of homologous and homeologous Alu quasi-palindromes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that depletion or lack of components of the DNA replication machinery, proteins involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, the replication-pausing checkpoint pathway, the telomere maintenance complex or the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 dissolvasome augment fragility at Alu-IRs. Rad51, a component of the homologous recombination pathway, was found to be required for replication arrest and breakage at the repeats specifically in replication-deficient strains. These data demonstrate that Rad51 is required for the formation of breakage-prone secondary structures in situations when replication is compromised while another mechanism operates in DSB formation in replication-proficient strains. PMID:24339793

Zhang, Yu; Saini, Natalie; Sheng, Ziwei; Lobachev, Kirill S.

2013-01-01

78

Genetic Signature of Histiocytic Sarcoma Revealed by a Sleeping Beauty Transposon Genetic Screen in Mice  

PubMed Central

Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. Histiocytic sarcoma is thought to arise from macrophage precursor cells via genetic changes that are largely undefined. To improve our understanding of the etiology of histiocytic sarcoma we conducted a forward genetic screen in mice using the Sleeping Beauty transposon as a mutagen to identify genetic drivers of histiocytic sarcoma. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis was targeted to myeloid lineage cells using the Lysozyme2 promoter. Mice with activated Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis had significantly shortened lifespan and the majority of these mice developed tumors resembling human histiocytic sarcoma. Analysis of transposon insertions identified 27 common insertion sites containing 28 candidate cancer genes. Several of these genes are known drivers of hematological neoplasms, like Raf1, Fli1, and Mitf, while others are well-known cancer genes, including Nf1, Myc, Jak2, and Pten. Importantly, several new potential drivers of histiocytic sarcoma were identified and could serve as targets for therapy for histiocytic sarcoma patients. PMID:24827933

Been, Raha A.; Linden, Michael A.; Hager, Courtney J.; DeCoursin, Krista J.; Abrahante, Juan E.; Landman, Sean R.; Steinbach, Michael; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Starr, Timothy K.

2014-01-01

79

Thiolactone modulators of quorum sensing revealed through library design and screening.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which bacteria use small molecules or peptidic signals to assess their local population densities. At sufficiently high density, bacteria can alter gene expression levels to regulate group behaviors involved in a range of important and diverse phenotypes, including virulence factor production, biofilm formation, root nodulation, and bioluminescence. Gram-negative bacteria most commonly use N-acylated l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as their QS signals. The AHL lactone ring is hydrolyzed relatively rapidly at biological pH, and the ring-opened product is QS inactive. We seek to identify AHL analogues with heightened hydrolytic stability, and thereby potentially heightened activity, for use as non-native modulators of bacterial QS. As part of this effort, we probed the utility of thiolactone analogues in the current study as QS agonists and antagonists in Gram-negative bacteria. A focused library of thiolactone analogs was designed and rapidly synthesized in solution. We examined the activity of the library as agonists and antagonists of LuxR-type QS receptors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (LasR), Vibrio fischeri (LuxR), and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (TraR) using bacterial reporter strains. The thiolactone library contained several highly active compounds, including some of the most active LuxR inhibitors and the most active synthetic TraR agonist reported to date. Analysis of a representative thiolactone analog revealed that its hydrolysis half-life was almost double that of its parent AHL in bacterial growth medium. PMID:21798746

McInnis, Christine E; Blackwell, Helen E

2011-08-15

80

Systematic screen for mutants resistant to TORC1 inhibition in fission yeast reveals genes involved in cellular ageing and growth.  

PubMed

Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1), which controls growth in response to nutrients, promotes ageing in multiple organisms. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe emerges as a valuable genetic model system to study TORC1 function and cellular ageing. Here we exploited the combinatorial action of rapamycin and caffeine, which inhibit fission yeast growth in a TORC1-dependent manner. We screened a deletion library, comprising ?84% of all non-essential fission yeast genes, for drug-resistant mutants. This screen identified 33 genes encoding functions such as transcription, kinases, mitochondrial respiration, biosynthesis, intra-cellular trafficking, and stress response. Among the corresponding mutants, 5 showed shortened and 21 showed increased maximal chronological lifespans; 15 of the latter mutants showed no further lifespan increase with rapamycin and might thus represent key targets downstream of TORC1. We pursued the long-lived sck2 mutant with additional functional analyses, revealing that the Sck2p kinase functions within the TORC1 network and is required for normal cell growth, global protein translation, and ribosomal S6 protein phosphorylation in a nutrient-dependent manner. Notably, slow cell growth was associated with all long-lived mutants while oxidative-stress resistance was not. PMID:24463365

Rallis, Charalampos; López-Maury, Luis; Georgescu, Teodora; Pancaldi, Vera; Bähler, Jürg

2014-01-01

81

Genome-Wide Screening with Hydroxyurea Reveals a Link between Nonessential Ribosomal Proteins and Reactive Oxygen Species Production  

PubMed Central

We performed a screening of hydroxyurea (HU)-sensitive mutants using a single-gene-deletion mutant collection in Escherichia coli. HU inhibits ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which leads to arrest of the replication fork. Surprisingly, the wild-type was less resistant to HU than the average for the Keio Collection. Respiration-defective mutants were significantly more resistant to HU, suggesting that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to cell death. High-throughput screening revealed that 15 mutants were completely sensitive on plates containing 7.5 mM HU. Unexpectedly, translation-related mutants based on COG categorization were the most enriched, and three of them were deletion mutants of nonessential ribosomal proteins (L1, L32, and L36). We found that, in these mutants, an increased membrane stress response was provoked, resulting in increased ROS generation. The addition of OH radical scavenger thiourea rescued the HU sensitivity of these mutants, suggesting that ROS generation is the direct cause of cell death. Conversely, both the deletion of rpsF and the deletion of rimK, which encode S6 and S6 modification enzymes, respectively, showed an HU-resistant phenotype. These mutants increased the copy number of the p15A-based plasmid and exhibited reduced basal levels of SOS response. The data suggest that nonessential proteins indirectly affect the DNA-damaging process. PMID:23292777

Mori, Hirotada

2013-01-01

82

A Functional Screen for Regulators of CKDN2A Reveals MEOX2 as a Transcriptional Activator of INK4a  

PubMed Central

The CDKN2A locus encodes two important tumor suppressors, INK4a and ARF, which respond to oncogenic stresses by inducing cellular senescence. We conducted a genome-scale cDNA overexpression screen using a reporter containing INK4a regulatory sequences to identify novel transcriptional activators of this locus. This screen revealed 285 cDNAs that putatively regulate the transcriptional activation of INK4a. Of these, 56 are annotated as transcription factors, including two previously reported activators of the locus, ETS2 and JUNB. Fourteen genes were further validated for activity and specificity, including several homeodomain proteins. We found that the transcription of one of these, the homeodomain protein MEOX2 (GAX) is enhanced in primary cells during the induction of senescence, and forced expression of this protein results in the induction of premature senescence. We further demonstrate that MEOX2-induced senescence is dependent upon INK4a activity, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies indicate that MEOX2 directly binds the INK4a promoter. These results support a role for this homeodomain protein as a direct regulator of INK4a transcription and senescence in human cells. PMID:19340300

Irelan, Jeffrey T.; Gutierrez del Arroyo, Ana; Gutierrez, Abel; Peters, Gordon; Quon, Kim C.; Miraglia, Loren; Chanda, Sumit K.

2009-01-01

83

Virtual screening on an ?-helix to ?-strand switchable region of the FGFR2 extracellular domain revealed positive and negative modulators.  

PubMed

The secondary structure of some protein segments may vary between ?-helix and ?-strand. To predict these switchable segments, we have developed an algorithm, Switch-P, based solely on the protein sequence. This algorithm was used on the extracellular parts of FGF receptors. For FGFR2, it predicted that ?4 and ?5 strands of the third Ig-like domain were highly switchable. These two strands possess a high number of somatic mutations associated with cancer. Analysis of PDB structures of FGF receptors confirmed the switchability prediction for ?5. We thus evaluated if compound-driven ?-helix/?-strand switching of ?5 could modulate FGFR2 signaling. We performed the virtual screening of a library containing 1.4 million of chemical compounds with two models of the third Ig-like domain of FGFR2 showing different secondary structures for ?5, and we selected 32 compounds. Experimental testing using proliferation assays with FGF7-stimulated SNU-16 cells and a FGFR2-dependent Erk1/2 phosphorylation assay with FGFR2-transfected L6 cells, revealed activators and inhibitors of FGFR2. Our method for the identification of switchable proteinic regions, associated with our virtual screening approach, provides an opportunity to discover new generation of drugs with under-explored mechanism of action. Proteins 2014; 82:2982-2997. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25082719

Diaz, Constantino; Corentin, Herbert; Thierry, Vermat; Chantal, Alcouffe; Tanguy, Bozec; David, Sibrac; Jean-Marc, Herbert; Pascual, Ferrara; Françoise, Bono; Edgardo, Ferran

2014-11-01

84

New aspects of the phosphatase VHZ revealed by a high-resolution structure with vanadate and substrate screening  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered 150-residue human VHZ (VH1 related protein, Z member) is one of the smallest protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) known, and contains only the minimal structural elements common to all PTPs. We report a substrate screening analysis and a crystal structure of the VHZ complex with vanadate at 1.1 Å resolution, with a detailed structural comparison with other members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, including classical tyrosine-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and dual specific phosphatases (DSPs). A screen with 360 phosphorylated peptides shows VHZ efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospho-tyrosine(pY)-containing peptides, but exhibits no activity toward phospho-serine (pS) or phospho-threonine (pT) peptides. The new structure reveals a deep and narrow active site more typical of the classical tyrosine specific PTPs. Despite the high structural and sequence similarities between VHZ and classical PTPs, its general acid IPD-loop is most likely conformationally rigid, in contrast to the flexible WPD counterpart of classical PTPs. VHZ also lacks substrate recognition domains and other domains typically found on classical PTPs. It is therefore proposed that VHZ is more properly classified as an atypical PTP rather than an atypical DSP, as has been suggested. PMID:23145819

Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I.; Hengge, Alvan C.; Johnson, Sean J.

2013-01-01

85

Functional Screening of a Metagenomic Library Reveals Operons Responsible for Enhanced Intestinal Colonization by Gut Commensal Microbes  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that gut microbes colonize the mammalian intestine through propagation as an adhesive microbial community. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of murine bowel microbiota DNA in the surrogate host Escherichia coli DH10B was screened for enhanced adherence capability. Two out of 5,472 DH10B clones, 10G6 and 25G1, exhibited enhanced capabilities to adhere to inanimate surfaces in functional screens. DNA segments inserted into the 10G6 and 25G1 clones were 52 and 41 kb and included 47 and 41 protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. DNA sequence alignments, tetranucleotide frequency, and codon usage analysis strongly suggest that these two DNA fragments are derived from species belonging to the genus Bacteroides. Consistent with this finding, a large portion of the predicted gene products were highly homologous to those of Bacteroides spp. Transposon mutagenesis and subsequent experiments that involved heterologous expression identified two operons associated with enhanced adherence. E. coli strains transformed with the 10a or 25b operon adhered to the surface of intestinal epithelium and colonized the mouse intestine more vigorously than did the control strain. This study has revealed the genetic determinants of unknown commensals (probably resembling Bacteroides species) that enhance the ability of the bacteria to colonize the murine bowel. PMID:23584783

Yoon, Mi Young; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Yujin; Go, Junhyeok; Park, Yongjin; Cho, Yong-Joon; Tannock, Gerald W.

2013-01-01

86

Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source. PMID:24187129

Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

2013-12-13

87

A Functional Screen Reveals an Extensive Layer of Transcriptional and Splicing Control Underlying RAS/MAPK Signaling in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The small GTPase RAS is among the most prevalent oncogenes. The evolutionarily conserved RAF-MEK-MAPK module that lies downstream of RAS is one of the main conduits through which RAS transmits proliferative signals in normal and cancer cells. Genetic and biochemical studies conducted over the last two decades uncovered a small set of factors regulating RAS/MAPK signaling. Interestingly, most of these were found to control RAF activation, thus suggesting a central regulatory role for this event. Whether additional factors are required at this level or further downstream remains an open question. To obtain a comprehensive view of the elements functionally linked to the RAS/MAPK cascade, we used a quantitative assay in Drosophila S2 cells to conduct a genome-wide RNAi screen for factors impacting RAS-mediated MAPK activation. The screen led to the identification of 101 validated hits, including most of the previously known factors associated to this pathway. Epistasis experiments were then carried out on individual candidates to determine their position relative to core pathway components. While this revealed several new factors acting at different steps along the pathway—including a new protein complex modulating RAF activation—we found that most hits unexpectedly work downstream of MEK and specifically influence MAPK expression. These hits mainly consist of constitutive splicing factors and thereby suggest that splicing plays a specific role in establishing MAPK levels. We further characterized two representative members of this group and surprisingly found that they act by regulating mapk alternative splicing. This study provides an unprecedented assessment of the factors modulating RAS/MAPK signaling in Drosophila. In addition, it suggests that pathway output does not solely rely on classical signaling events, such as those controlling RAF activation, but also on the regulation of MAPK levels. Finally, it indicates that core splicing components can also specifically impact alternative splicing. PMID:24643257

Ashton-Beaucage, Dariel; Udell, Christian M.; Gendron, Patrick; Sahmi, Malha; Lefrancois, Martin; Baril, Caroline; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Lamarre, Daniel; Lemieux, Sebastien; Therrien, Marc

2014-01-01

88

New Regulators of a High Affinity Ca2+ Influx System Revealed through a Genome-wide Screen in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes a high affinity Ca2+ influx system (HACS) to survive assaults by mating pheromones, tunicamycin, and azole-class antifungal agents. HACS consists of two known subunits, Cch1 and Mid1, that are homologous and analogous to the catalytic ?-subunits and regulatory ?2?-subunits of mammalian voltage-gated calcium channels, respectively. To search for additional subunits and regulators of HACS, a collection of gene knock-out mutants was screened for abnormal uptake of Ca2+ after exposure to mating pheromone or to tunicamycin. The screen revealed that Ecm7 is required for HACS function in most conditions. Cycloheximide chase experiments showed that Ecm7 was stabilized by Mid1, and Mid1 was stabilized by Cch1 in non-signaling conditions, suggesting they all interact. Ecm7 is a member of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20/Claudin superfamily of transmembrane proteins that includes ?-subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels. Eleven additional members of this superfamily were identified in yeast, but none was required for HACS activity in response to the stimuli. Remarkably, many dozens of genes involved in vesicle-mediated trafficking and protein secretion were required to prevent spontaneous activation of HACS. Taken together, the findings suggest that HACS and calcineurin monitor performance of the membrane trafficking system in yeasts and coordinate compensatory processes. Conservation of this quality control system in Candida glabrata suggests that many pathogenic species of fungi may utilize HACS and calcineurin to resist azoles and other compounds that target membrane biosynthesis. PMID:21252230

Martin, D. Christian; Kim, Hyemin; Mackin, Nancy A.; Maldonado-Baez, Lymarie; Evangelista, Carlos C.; Beaudry, Veronica G.; Dudgeon, Drew D.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Erdman, Scott E.; Cunningham, Kyle W.

2011-01-01

89

Whole genomewide linkage screen for neural tube defects reveals regions of interest on chromosomes 7 and 10  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common birth defects (1 in 1000 live births) in the world. Periconceptional maternal folate supplementation reduces NTD risk by 50–70%; however, studies of folate related and other developmental genes in humans have failed to definitively identify a major causal gene for NTD. The aetiology of NTDs remains unknown and both genetic and environmental factors are implicated. We present findings from a microsatellite based screen of 44 multiplex pedigrees ascertained through the NTD Collaborative Group. For the linkage analysis, we defined our phenotype narrowly by considering individuals with a lumbosacral level myelomeningocele as affected, then we expanded the phenotype to include all types of NTDs. Two point parametric analyses were performed using VITESSE and HOMOG. Multipoint parametric and nonparametric analyses were performed using ALLEGRO. Initial results identified chromosomes 7 and 10, both with maximum parametric multipoint lod scores (Mlod) >2.0. Chromosome 7 produced the highest score in the 24 cM interval between D7S3056 and D7S3051 (parametric Mlod 2.45; nonparametric Mlod 1.89). Further investigation demonstrated that results on chromosome 7 were being primarily driven by a single large pedigree (parametric Mlod 2.40). When this family was removed from analysis, chromosome 10 was the most interesting region, with a peak Mlod of 2.25 at D10S1731. Based on mouse human synteny, two candidate genes (Meox2, Twist1) were identified on chromosome 7. A review of public databases revealed three biologically plausible candidates (FGFR2, GFRA1, Pax2) on chromosome 10. The results from this screen provide valuable positional data for prioritisation of candidate gene assessment in future studies of NTDs. PMID:15831595

Rampersaud, E; Bassuk, A; Enterline, D; George, T; Siegel, D; Melvin, E; Aben, J; Allen, J; Aylsworth, A; Brei, T; Bodurtha, J; Buran, C; Floyd, L; Hammock, P; Iskandar, B; Ito, J; Kessler, J; Lasarsky, N; Mack, P; Mackey, J; McLone, D; Meeropol, E; Mehltretter, L; Mitchell, L; Oakes, W; Nye, J; Powell, C; Sawin, K; Stevenson, R; Walker, M; West, S; Worley, G; Gilbert, J; Speer, M

2005-01-01

90

A Genome-wide siRNA Screen Reveals Diverse Cellular Processes and Pathways that Mediate Genome Stability  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Signaling pathways that respond to DNA damage are essential for the maintenance of genome stability and are linked to many diseases, including cancer. Here, a genome-wide siRNA screen was employed to identify novel genes involved in genome stabilization by monitoring phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX, an early mark of DNA damage. We identified hundreds of genes whose down-regulation led to elevated levels of H2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX) and revealed new links to cellular complexes and to genes with unclassified functions. We demonstrate a widespread role for mRNA processing factors in preventing DNA damage, which in some cases is caused by aberrant RNA-DNA structures. Furthermore, we connect increased ?H2AX levels to the neurological disorder, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome, and we find a role for several CMT proteins in the DNA damage response. These data indicate that preservation of genome stability is mediated by a larger network of biological processes than previously appreciated. PMID:19647519

Paulsen, Renee D.; Soni, Deena V.; Wollman, Roy; Hahn, Angela T.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Guan, Anna; Hesley, Jayne A.; Miller, Steven C.; Cromwell, Evan F.; Solow-Cordero, David E.; Meyer, Tobias; Cimprich, Karlene A.

2009-01-01

91

A Suppressor/Enhancer Screen in Drosophila Reveals a Role for Wnt-Mediated Lipid Metabolism in Primordial Germ Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Wnt proteins comprise a large family of secreted ligands implicated in a wide variety of biological roles. WntD has previously been shown to inhibit the nuclear accumulation of Dorsal/NF-?B protein during embryonic dorsal/ventral patterning and the adult innate immune response, independent of the well-studied Armadillo/?-catenin pathway. In this paper, we present a novel phenotype for WntD mutant embryos, suggesting that this gene is involved in migration of primordial germ cells (PGC) to the embryonic gonad. Additionally, we describe a genetic suppressor/enhancer screen aimed at identifying genes required for WntD signal transduction, based on the previous observation that maternal overexpression of WntD results in lethally dorsalized embryos. Using an algorithm to narrow down our hits from the screen, we found two novel WntD signaling components: Fz4, a member of the Frizzled family, and the Drosophila Ceramide Kinase homolog, Dcerk. We show here that Dcerk and Dmulk (Drosophila Multi-substrate lipid kinase) redundantly mediate PGC migration. Our data are consistent with a model in which the activity of lipid phosphate phosphatases shapes a concentration gradient of ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), the product of Dcerk, allowing proper PGC migration. PMID:22069480

McElwain, Mark A.; Ko, Dennis C.; Gordon, Michael D.; Fyrst, Henrik; Saba, Julie D.; Nusse, Roel

2011-01-01

92

Small Interfering RNA Screens Reveal Enhanced Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Tumor Cells Having both BRCA Network and TP53 Disruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference technology allows the systematic genetic analysis of the molecular alterations in cancer cells and how these alterations affect response to therapies. Here we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to identify genes that enhance the cytotoxicity (enhancers) of established anticancer chemotherapeu- tics. Hits identified in drug enhancer screens of cisplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel were largely unique to the

Steven R. Bartz; Zhan Zhang; Julja Burchard; Maki Imakura; Melissa Martin; Anthony Palmieri; Rachel Needham; Jie Guo; Marcia Gordon; Namjin Chung; Paul Warrener; Aimee L. Jackson; Michael Carleton; Melissa Oatley; Louis Locco; Francesca Santini; Todd Smith; Priya Kunapuli; Marc Ferrer; Berta Strulovici; Stephen H. Friend; Peter S. Linsley

2006-01-01

93

Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals role for multi-pass membrane protein in endosome-to-Golgi retrieval  

E-print Network

: endosome-to-Golgi retrieval, siRNA screen, retromer, SFT2D2, ZDHHC5, GRINA. Running Title: genome-wide screen for endosome-to-Golgi genes 2 Summary Endosome-to-Golgi retrieval is an essential membrane trafficking pathway required for many... are a number of multi-pass membrane spanning proteins, a class of proteins often overlooked with respect to a role in membrane trafficking. We further demonstrate a novel role for three multi-pass membrane proteins, SFT2D2, ZDHHC5 and GRINA, in endosome...

Breusegem, Sophia Y.; Seaman, Matthew N. J.

2014-01-01

94

A genome-wide RNA interference screen reveals an essential CREB3L2-ATF5-MCL1 survival pathway in malignant glioma with therapeutic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) is highly expressed in malignant glioma and has a key role in promoting cell survival. Here we perform a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify transcriptional regulators of ATF5. Our results reveal an essential survival pathway in malignant glioma, whereby activation of a RAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling cascade leads to induction of the transcription factor

Zhi Sheng; Li Li; Lihua J Zhu; Thomas W Smith; Andrea Demers; Alonzo H Ross; Richard P Moser; Michael R Green

2010-01-01

95

Identification of Genes Important for Cutaneous Function Revealed by a Large Scale Reverse Genetic Screen in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

The skin is a highly regenerative organ which plays critical roles in protecting the body and sensing its environment. Consequently, morbidity and mortality associated with skin defects represent a significant health issue. To identify genes important in skin development and homeostasis, we have applied a high throughput, multi-parameter phenotype screen to the conditional targeted mutant mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Mouse Genetics Project (Sanger-MGP). A total of 562 different mouse lines were subjected to a variety of tests assessing cutaneous expression, macroscopic clinical disease, histological change, hair follicle cycling, and aberrant marker expression. Cutaneous lesions were associated with mutations in 23 different genes. Many of these were not previously associated with skin disease in the organ (Mysm1, Vangl1, Trpc4ap, Nom1, Sparc, Farp2, and Prkab1), while others were ascribed new cutaneous functions on the basis of the screening approach (Krt76, Lrig1, Myo5a, Nsun2, and Nf1). The integration of these skin specific screening protocols into the Sanger-MGP primary phenotyping pipelines marks the largest reported reverse genetic screen undertaken in any organ and defines approaches to maximise the productivity of future projects of this nature, while flagging genes for further characterisation. PMID:25340873

DiTommaso, Tia; Jones, Lynelle K.; Cottle, Denny L.; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Vancollie, Valerie E.; Watt, Fiona M.; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bradley, Allan; Steel, Karen P.; Sundberg, John P.; White, Jacqueline K.; Smyth, Ian M.

2014-01-01

96

Small Interfering RNA Screens Reveal Enhanced Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Tumor Cells Having both BRCA Network and TP53 Disruptions? ‡  

PubMed Central

RNA interference technology allows the systematic genetic analysis of the molecular alterations in cancer cells and how these alterations affect response to therapies. Here we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to identify genes that enhance the cytotoxicity (enhancers) of established anticancer chemotherapeutics. Hits identified in drug enhancer screens of cisplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel were largely unique to the drug being tested and could be linked to the drug's mechanism of action. Hits identified by screening of a genome-scale siRNA library for cisplatin enhancers in TP53-deficient HeLa cells were significantly enriched for genes with annotated functions in DNA damage repair as well as poorly characterized genes likely having novel functions in this process. We followed up on a subset of the hits from the cisplatin enhancer screen and validated a number of enhancers whose products interact with BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. TP53+/? matched-pair cell lines were used to determine if knockdown of BRCA1, BRCA2, or validated hits that associate with BRCA1 and BRCA2 selectively enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in TP53-deficient cells. Silencing of BRCA1, BRCA2, or BRCA1/2-associated genes enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity ?4- to 7-fold more in TP53-deficient cells than in matched TP53 wild-type cells. Thus, tumor cells having disruptions in BRCA1/2 network genes and TP53 together are more sensitive to cisplatin than cells with either disruption alone. PMID:17000754

Bartz, Steven R.; Zhang, Zhan; Burchard, Julja; Imakura, Maki; Martin, Melissa; Palmieri, Anthony; Needham, Rachel; Guo, Jie; Gordon, Marcia; Chung, Namjin; Warrener, Paul; Jackson, Aimee L.; Carleton, Michael; Oatley, Melissa; Locco, Louis; Santini, Francesca; Smith, Todd; Kunapuli, Priya; Ferrer, Marc; Strulovici, Berta; Friend, Stephen H.; Linsley, Peter S.

2006-01-01

97

A modifier screen in the Drosophila eye reveals that aPKC interacts with Glued during central synapse formation  

PubMed Central

Background The Glued gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the homologue of the vertebrate p150Glued subunit of dynactin. The Glued1 mutation compromises the dynein-dynactin retrograde motor complex and causes disruptions to the adult eye and the CNS, including sensory neurons and the formation of the giant fiber system neural circuit. Results We performed a 2-stage genetic screen to identify mutations that modified phenotypes caused by over-expression of a dominant-negative Glued protein. We screened over 34,000 flies and isolated 41 mutations that enhanced or suppressed an eye phenotype. Of these, 12 were assayed for interactions in the giant fiber system by which they altered a giant fiber morphological phenotype and/or altered synaptic function between the giant fiber and the tergotrochanteral muscle motorneuron. Six showed interactions including a new allele of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). We show that this cell polarity regulator interacts with Glued during central synapse formation. We have mapped the five other interacting mutations to discrete chromosomal regions. Conclusion Our results show that an efficient way to screen for genes involved in central synapse formation is to use a two-step strategy in which a screen for altered eye morphology precedes the analysis of central synaptogenesis. This has highlighted a role for aPKC in the formation of an identified central synapse. PMID:19948010

2009-01-01

98

High-Throughput Screening Reveals Alsterpaullone, 2-Cyanoethyl as a Potent p27Kip1 Transcriptional Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

p27Kip1 is a cell cycle inhibitor that prevents cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)/cyclin complexes from phosphorylating their targets. p27Kip1 is a known tumor suppressor, as the germline loss of p27Kip1 results in sporadic pituitary formation in aged rodents, and its presence in human cancers is indicative of a poor prognosis. In addition to its role in cancer, loss of p27Kip1 results in regenerative phenotypes in some tissues and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency, suggesting that p27Kip1 inhibitors could be beneficial for tissue regeneration. Because p27Kip1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, identifying direct inhibitors of the p27Kip1 protein is difficult. Therefore, we pursued a high-throughput screening strategy to identify novel p27Kip1 transcriptional inhibitors. We utilized a luciferase reporter plasmid driven by the p27Kip1 promoter to transiently transfect HeLa cells and used cyclohexamide as a positive control for non-specific inhibition. We screened a “bioactive” library consisting of 8,904 (4,359 unique) compounds, of which 830 are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. From this screen, we successfully identified 111 primary hits with inhibitory effect against the promoter of p27Kip1. These hits were further refined using a battery of secondary screens. Here we report four novel p27Kip1 transcriptional inhibitors, and further demonstrate that our most potent hit compound (IC50?=?200 nM) Alsterpaullone 2-cyanoethyl, inhibits p27Kip1 transcription by preventing FoxO3a from binding to the p27Kip1 promoter. This screen represents one of the first attempts to identify inhibitors of p27Kip1 and may prove useful for future tissue regeneration studies. PMID:24646893

Walters, Brandon J.; Lin, Wenwei; Diao, Shiyong; Brimble, Mark; Iconaru, Luigi I.; Dearman, Jennifer; Goktug, Asli; Chen, Taosheng; Zuo, Jian

2014-01-01

99

Small interfering RNA screens reveal enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in tumor cells having both BRCA network and TP53 disruptions.  

PubMed

RNA interference technology allows the systematic genetic analysis of the molecular alterations in cancer cells and how these alterations affect response to therapies. Here we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to identify genes that enhance the cytotoxicity (enhancers) of established anticancer chemotherapeutics. Hits identified in drug enhancer screens of cisplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel were largely unique to the drug being tested and could be linked to the drug's mechanism of action. Hits identified by screening of a genome-scale siRNA library for cisplatin enhancers in TP53-deficient HeLa cells were significantly enriched for genes with annotated functions in DNA damage repair as well as poorly characterized genes likely having novel functions in this process. We followed up on a subset of the hits from the cisplatin enhancer screen and validated a number of enhancers whose products interact with BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. TP53(+/-) matched-pair cell lines were used to determine if knockdown of BRCA1, BRCA2, or validated hits that associate with BRCA1 and BRCA2 selectively enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in TP53-deficient cells. Silencing of BRCA1, BRCA2, or BRCA1/2-associated genes enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity approximately 4- to 7-fold more in TP53-deficient cells than in matched TP53 wild-type cells. Thus, tumor cells having disruptions in BRCA1/2 network genes and TP53 together are more sensitive to cisplatin than cells with either disruption alone. PMID:17000754

Bartz, Steven R; Zhang, Zhan; Burchard, Julja; Imakura, Maki; Martin, Melissa; Palmieri, Anthony; Needham, Rachel; Guo, Jie; Gordon, Marcia; Chung, Namjin; Warrener, Paul; Jackson, Aimee L; Carleton, Michael; Oatley, Melissa; Locco, Louis; Santini, Francesca; Smith, Todd; Kunapuli, Priya; Ferrer, Marc; Strulovici, Berta; Friend, Stephen H; Linsley, Peter S

2006-12-01

100

A systematic RNAi synthetic interaction screen reveals a link between p53 and snoRNP assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

TP53(tumour protein 53) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer and its role during cellular transformation has been studied extensively. However, the homeostatic functions of p53 are less well understood. Here, we explore the molecular dependency network of TP53 through an RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screen employing two HCT116 isogenic cell lines and a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short

Dragomir B. Krastev; Mikolaj Slabicki; Maciej Paszkowski-Rogacz; Nina C. Hubner; Magno Junqueira; Andrej Shevchenko; Matthias Mann; Karla M. Neugebauer; Frank Buchholz

2011-01-01

101

Genome-wide shRNA screen reveals increased mitochondrial dependence upon mTORC2 addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release from growth factor dependence and acquisition of signalling pathway addiction are critical steps in oncogenesis. To identify genes required on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) addiction, we performed a genome-wide short hairpin RNA screen on a v-H-ras-transformed Pten-deficient cell line that displayed two alternative growth modes, interleukin (IL)-3-independent\\/mTOR-addicted proliferation (transformed growth mode) and IL-3-dependent\\/mTOR-non-addicted proliferation (normal growth mode). We

M Colombi; K D Molle; D Benjamin; K Rattenbacher-Kiser; C Schaefer; C Betz; A Thiemeyer; U Regenass; M N Hall; C Moroni

2011-01-01

102

Comparative RNAi Screens in C. elegans and C. briggsae Reveal the Impact of Developmental System Drift on Gene Function  

PubMed Central

Although two related species may have extremely similar phenotypes, the genetic networks underpinning this conserved biology may have diverged substantially since they last shared a common ancestor. This is termed Developmental System Drift (DSD) and reflects the plasticity of genetic networks. One consequence of DSD is that some orthologous genes will have evolved different in vivo functions in two such phenotypically similar, related species and will therefore have different loss of function phenotypes. Here we report an RNAi screen in C. elegans and C. briggsae to identify such cases. We screened 1333 genes in both species and identified 91 orthologues that have different RNAi phenotypes. Intriguingly, we find that recently evolved genes of unknown function have the fastest evolving in vivo functions and, in several cases, we identify the molecular events driving these changes. We thus find that DSD has a major impact on the evolution of gene function and we anticipate that the C. briggsae RNAi library reported here will drive future studies on comparative functional genomics screens in these nematodes. PMID:24516395

Verster, Adrian J.; Ramani, Arun K.; McKay, Sheldon J.; Fraser, Andrew G.

2014-01-01

103

A cell protection screen reveals potent inhibitors of multiple stages of the hepatitis C virus life cycle  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle involves multiple steps, but most current drug candidates target only viral replication. The inability to systematically discover inhibitors targeting multiple steps of the HCV life cycle has hampered antiviral development. We present a simple screen for HCV antivirals based on the alleviation of HCV-mediated cytopathic effect in an engineered cell line—n4mBid. This approach obviates the need for a secondary screen to avoid cytotoxic false-positive hits. Application of our screen to 1280 compounds, many in clinical trials or approved for therapeutic use, yielded >200 hits. Of the 55 leading hits, 47 inhibited one or more aspects of the HCV life cycle by >40%. Six compounds blocked HCV entry to levels similar to an antibody (JS-81) targeting the HCV entry receptor CD81. Seven hits inhibited HCV replication and/or infectious virus production by >100-fold, with one (quinidine) inhibiting infectious virus production by 450-fold relative to HCV replication levels. This approach is simple and inexpensive and should enable the rapid discovery of new classes of HCV life cycle inhibitors. PMID:20142494

Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Simeon, Rudo L.; Rice, Charles M.; Chen, Zhilei

2010-01-01

104

The Effect of 3D Hydrogel Scaffold Modulus on Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization Revealed by Combinatorial Screening  

PubMed Central

Cells are known to sense and respond to the physical properties of their environment and those of tissue scaffolds. Optimizing these cell-material interactions is critical in tissue engineering. In this work, a simple and inexpensive combinatorial platform was developed to rapidly screen three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds and was applied to screen the effect of scaffold properties for tissue engineering of bone. Differentiation of osteoblasts was examined in poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel gradients spanning a 30-fold range in compressive modulus (? 10 kPa to ? 300 kPa). Results demonstrate that material properties (gel stiffness) of scaffolds can be leveraged to induce cell differentiation in 3D culture as an alternative to biochemical cues such as soluble supplements, immobilized biomolecules and vectors, which are often expensive, labile and potentially carcinogenic. Gel moduli of ? 225 kPa and higher enhanced osteogenesis. Furthermore, it is proposed that material-induced cell differentiation can be modulated to engineer seamless tissue interfaces between mineralized bone tissue and softer tissues such as ligaments and tendons. This work presents a combinatorial method to screen biological response to 3D hydrogel scaffolds that more closely mimics the 3D environment experienced by cells in vivo. PMID:20378163

Chatterjee, Kaushik; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Wallace, William E.; Parekh, Sapun H.; Lee, Young J.; Cicerone, Marcus T.; Young, Marian F.; Simon, Carl G.

2011-01-01

105

Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson).  

PubMed

Pectoral fin tissue of white sturgeon was investigated as a potential non-lethal sample source for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) infection. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using fin tissue were compared with the standard lethal histopathology sampling method that utilizes head tissue. Tissues for each of the three sampling methods were collected weekly for 8 weeks from individual sturgeon undergoing an experimental cohabitation challenge with fish infected with the Abernathy isolate of WSIV. Non-lethal fin histopathological evaluation did not reveal infection during the first 3 weeks of sampling, while non-lethal PCR and the lethal method were variable. However, all three sampling methods were equally capable of identifying infection from 4 to 8 weeks post-exposure. Of the survivors tested, all were negative by PCR and the lethal method, and only one fish was identified as being positive by non-lethal fin histopathology. In another experiment, all three sampling methods were applied to asymptomatic WSIV carriers in a case study conducted at the Kootenai Tribal Sturgeon Conservation Hatchery. Results showed that both lethal and non-lethal fin histopathology were equally effective in detecting infection, but PCR was unable to identify this strain of WSIV. Depending on the virus isolate, these results suggest that non-lethal sampling of fin tissue (histopathology or PCR) is comparable with the lethal sampling method at identifying WSIV infection once infection is established, and under certain circumstances may provide an alternative to lethal sampling. PMID:17498180

Drennan, J D; Lapatra, S E; Samson, C A; Ireland, S; Eversman, K F; Cain, K D

2007-06-01

106

Heterogeneity of Lethals in a "Simple" Lethal Complementation Group  

PubMed Central

Of 24 ethyl methanesulphonate-induced, recessive-lethal mutations in the region 9E1-9F13 of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster , eight fall into a typically homogeneous lethal complementation group associated with the raspberry (ras) locus. Mutations in this group have previously been shown to be pleiotropic, affecting not only ras but also two other genetic entities, gua1 and pur1, which yield auxotrophic mutations.—The eight new mutations have been characterized phenotypically in double heterozygotes with gua1, pur1 and ras mutations. Despite their homogeneity in lethal complementation tests, the mutations prove quite diverse. For example, two mutations have little or no effect on eye color in double heterozygotes with ras2 . The differences between the lethals are allele-specific and cannot be explained as a trivial outcome of a hypomorphic series.—Taken alone, the lethal complementation studies mask the complexity of the locus and the diversity of its recessive lethal alleles. By extension, we argue that the general use of lethal saturation studies provides an unduly simplified image of genetic organization. We suggest that the reason why recessive lethal mutations rarely present complex complementation patterns is that complex loci tend to produce mutations that affect several subfunctions. PMID:3080355

Janca, Frank C.; Woloshyn, Effie P.; Nash, David

1986-01-01

107

Lethality test system  

SciTech Connect

The Lethality Test System (LTS), presently under construction at Los Alamos, is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/s. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun extending 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage gas gun capable of 7 km/s. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92% of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

Parsons, W.M.; Sims, J.R.; Parker, J.V.

1986-01-01

108

High-throughput screening of FDA-approved drugs using oxygen biosensor plates reveals secondary mitofunctional effects.  

PubMed

Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs with effects on mitochondrial function might shorten the critical path to mitochondrial disease drug development. We improved a biosensor-based assay of mitochondrial O2 consumption, and identified mitofunctional defects in cell models of LHON and FXTAS. Using this platform, we screened a 1600-compound library of clinically used drugs. The assay identified drugs known to affect mitochondrial function, such as metformin and decoquinate. We also identified several drugs not previously known to affect mitochondrial respiration including acarbose, metaraminol, gallamine triethiodide, and acamprosate. These previously unknown 'mitoactives' represent novel links to targets for mitochondrial regulation and potentially therapy, for mitochondrial disease. PMID:25034306

Sahdeo, Sunil; Tomilov, Alexey; Komachi, Kelly; Iwahashi, Christine; Datta, Sandipan; Hughes, Owen; Hagerman, Paul; Cortopassi, Gino

2014-07-01

109

Escherichia coli genes that reduce the lethal effects of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence of antimicrobial resistance requires the development of new compounds and\\/or enhancers of existing compounds. Genes that protect against the lethal effects of antibiotic stress are potential targets of enhancers. To distinguish such genes from those involved in drug uptake and efflux, a new susceptibility screen is required. RESULTS: Transposon (Tn5)-mediated mutagenesis was used to create a

Xiulin Han; Angella Dorsey-Oresto; Muhammad Malik; Jian-Ying Wang; Karl Drlica; Xilin Zhao; Tao Lu

2010-01-01

110

Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells from aminoglycosides and cisplatin  

PubMed Central

Loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear accounts for many hearing loss and balance disorders. Several beneficial pharmaceutical drugs cause hair cell death as a side effect. These include aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin, and several cancer chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Discovering new compounds that protect mammalian hair cells from toxic insults is experimentally difficult because of the inaccessibility of the inner ear. We used the zebrafish lateral line sensory system as an in vivo screening platform to survey a library of FDA-approved pharmaceuticals for compounds that protect hair cells from neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin and cisplatin. Ten compounds were identified that provide protection from at least two of the four toxins. The resulting compounds fall into several drug classes, including serotonin and dopamine-modulating drugs, adrenergic receptor ligands, and estrogen receptor modulators. The protective compounds show different effects against the different toxins, supporting the idea that each toxin causes hair cell death by distinct, but partially overlapping, mechanisms. Furthermore, some compounds from the same drug classes had different protective properties, suggesting that they might not prevent hair cell death by their known target mechanisms. Some protective compounds blocked gentamicin uptake into hair cells, suggesting that they may block mechanotransduction or other routes of entry. The protective compounds identified in our screen will provide a starting point for studies in mammals as well as further research discovering the cellular signaling pathways that trigger hair cell death. PMID:22967486

Vlasits, Anna L.; Simon, Julian A.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W; Owens, Kelly N.

2012-01-01

111

Screening for Active Small Molecules in Mitochondrial Complex I Deficient Patient's Fibroblasts, Reveals AICAR as the Most Beneficial Compound  

PubMed Central

Congenital deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (CI) is a common defect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite major advances in the biochemical and molecular diagnostics and the deciphering of CI structure, function assembly and pathomechanism, there is currently no satisfactory cure for patients with mitochondrial complex I defects. Small molecules provide one feasible therapeutic option, however their use has not been systematically evaluated using a standardized experimental system. In order to evaluate potentially therapeutic compounds, we set up a relatively simple system measuring different parameters using only a small amount of patient's fibroblasts, in glucose free medium, where growth is highly OXPOS dependent. Ten different compounds were screened using fibroblasts derived from seven CI patients, harboring different mutations. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) was found to be the most beneficial compound improving growth and ATP content while decreasing ROS production. AICAR also increased mitochondrial biogenesis without altering mitochondrial membrane potential (??). Fluorescence microscopy data supported increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Other compounds such as; bezafibrate and oltipraz were rated as favorable while polyphenolic phytochemicals (resverastrol, grape seed extract, genistein and epigallocatechin gallate) were found not significant or detrimental. Although the results have to be verified by more thorough investigation of additional OXPHOS parameters, preliminary rapid screening of potential therapeutic compounds in individual patient's fibroblasts could direct and advance personalized medical treatment. PMID:22046392

Weissman, Sarah; Link, Gabriela; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Saada, Ann

2011-01-01

112

Current issues involving lethal injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1976 by the Supreme Court in Gregg v. Georgia, over 83% of those executed have been put to death by means of lethal injection, which is intended to be more humane than other methods of capital punishment. The prevailing lethal injection procedure has been challenged by the contention that the first drug

Andrew Fulkerson; Michael Suttmoeller

2008-01-01

113

Less lethal technology: medical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Less lethal weapons have become a critical tool for law enforcement when confronting dangerous, combative individuals in the field. The purpose of this paper is to review the medical aspects and implications of three different types of less lethal weapons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper conducted a comprehensive medical literature review on blunt projectiles, irritant sprays including oleoresin capsicum

Gary M. Vilke; Theodore C. Chan

2007-01-01

114

High-Throughput 3D Screening Reveals Differences in Drug Sensitivities between Culture Models of JIMT1 Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The traditional method for studying cancer in vitro is to grow immortalized cancer cells in two-dimensional monolayers on plastic. However, many cellular features are impaired in these artificial conditions, and large changes in gene expression compared to tumors have been reported. Three-dimensional cell culture models have become increasingly popular and are suggested to be better models than two-dimensional monolayers due to improved cell-to-cell contact and structures that resemble in vivo architecture. The aim of this study was to develop a simple high-throughput three-dimensional drug screening method and to compare drug responses in JIMT1 breast cancer cells when grown in two dimensions, in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) induced anchorage-independent three-dimensional models, and in Matrigel three-dimensional cell culture models. We screened 102 compounds with multiple concentrations and biological replicates for their effects on cell proliferation. The cells were either treated immediately upon plating, or they were allowed to grow in three-dimensional cultures for 4 days before the drug treatment. Large variations in drug responses were observed between the models indicating that comparisons of culture model-influenced drug sensitivities cannot be made based on the effects of a single drug. However, we show with the 63 most prominent drugs that, in general, JIMT1 cells grown on Matrigel were significantly more sensitive to drugs than cells grown in two-dimensional cultures, while the responses of cells grown in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) resembled those of the two-dimensional cultures. Furthermore, comparing the gene expression profiles of the cell culture models to xenograft tumors indicated that cells cultured in Matrigel and as xenografts most closely resembled each other. In this study, we also suggest that three-dimensional cultures can provide a platform for systematic experimentation of larger compound collections in a high-throughput mode and be used as alternatives to traditional two-dimensional screens for better comparability to the in vivo state. PMID:24194875

Fey, Vidal; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Kleivi Sahlberg, Kristine; Kallioniemi, Olli; Perala, Merja

2013-01-01

115

High-throughput 3D screening reveals differences in drug sensitivities between culture models of JIMT1 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The traditional method for studying cancer in vitro is to grow immortalized cancer cells in two-dimensional monolayers on plastic. However, many cellular features are impaired in these artificial conditions, and large changes in gene expression compared to tumors have been reported. Three-dimensional cell culture models have become increasingly popular and are suggested to be better models than two-dimensional monolayers due to improved cell-to-cell contact and structures that resemble in vivo architecture. The aim of this study was to develop a simple high-throughput three-dimensional drug screening method and to compare drug responses in JIMT1 breast cancer cells when grown in two dimensions, in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) induced anchorage-independent three-dimensional models, and in Matrigel three-dimensional cell culture models. We screened 102 compounds with multiple concentrations and biological replicates for their effects on cell proliferation. The cells were either treated immediately upon plating, or they were allowed to grow in three-dimensional cultures for 4 days before the drug treatment. Large variations in drug responses were observed between the models indicating that comparisons of culture model-influenced drug sensitivities cannot be made based on the effects of a single drug. However, we show with the 63 most prominent drugs that, in general, JIMT1 cells grown on Matrigel were significantly more sensitive to drugs than cells grown in two-dimensional cultures, while the responses of cells grown in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) resembled those of the two-dimensional cultures. Furthermore, comparing the gene expression profiles of the cell culture models to xenograft tumors indicated that cells cultured in Matrigel and as xenografts most closely resembled each other. In this study, we also suggest that three-dimensional cultures can provide a platform for systematic experimentation of larger compound collections in a high-throughput mode and be used as alternatives to traditional two-dimensional screens for better comparability to the in vivo state. PMID:24194875

Hongisto, Vesa; Jernström, Sandra; Fey, Vidal; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Kleivi Sahlberg, Kristine; Kallioniemi, Olli; Perälä, Merja

2013-01-01

116

NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive chemical analyses of spider venoms from many species have revealed complex mixtures of biologically active compounds, of which several have provided important leads for drug development. We have recently shown that NMR spectroscopy can be used advantageously for a direct structural characterization of the small-molecule content of such complex mixtures. Here, we report the application of this strategy to

Frank C. Schroeder; Andrew E. Taggi; Matthew Gronquist; Rabia U. Malik; Jacqualine B. Grant; Thomas Eisner; Jerrold Meinwald

2008-01-01

117

Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.  

PubMed

Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

2014-11-01

118

Lethal outcome in xanthogranulomatous endometritis.  

PubMed

Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is rare, mainly involving the kidneys, while primary xanthogranulomatous endometritis (XE) is a very unusual finding, histologically characterized by partial or complete replacement of the mucosa by granulation tissue with an abundance of foamy histiocytes, siderophages and multinucleated giant cells. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman with a short history of abdominal pain and a palpable mass in the pouch of Douglas. Dilatation of the cervix drained a pyometra. Histological examination of the curettage rendered the diagnosis of XE. Microbiological studies revealed enterococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus magnus. Despite antibiotic treatment the patient died of heart failure due to systemic inflammation. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of XE with transmural extension into the peritoneal cavity. Such a lethal course of XE is extraordinary. Proposed causes of XE include obstruction, infection and hemorrhage. Demonstration of enterococcus spp. and P. magnus supports the probable significance of bacteria in the development of XE. Because this condition may mimic malignant disease macroscopically and histologically, knowledge of XE is of major importance for both pathologists and gynecologists. PMID:16725016

Noack, Frank; Briese, Juliane; Stellmacher, Florian; Hornung, Daniela; Horny, Hans-Peter

2006-05-01

119

Large-scale screening of transcription factor-promoter interactions in spruce reveals a transcriptional network involved in vascular development  

PubMed Central

This research aimed to investigate the role of diverse transcription factors (TFs) and to delineate gene regulatory networks directly in conifers at a relatively high-throughput level. The approach integrated sequence analyses, transcript profiling, and development of a conifer-specific activation assay. Transcript accumulation profiles of 102 TFs and potential target genes were clustered to identify groups of coordinately expressed genes. Several different patterns of transcript accumulation were observed by profiling in nine different organs and tissues: 27 genes were preferential to secondary xylem both in stems and roots, and other genes were preferential to phelloderm and periderm or were more ubiquitous. A robust system has been established as a screening approach to define which TFs have the ability to regulate a given promoter in planta. Trans-activation or repression effects were observed in 30% of TF–candidate gene promoter combinations. As a proof of concept, phylogenetic analysis and expression and trans-activation data were used to demonstrate that two spruce NAC-domain proteins most likely play key roles in secondary vascular growth as observed in other plant species. This study tested many TFs from diverse families in a conifer tree species, which broadens the knowledge of promoter–TF interactions in wood development and enables comparisons of gene regulatory networks found in angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:24713992

Lachance, Denis; Giguere, Isabelle; Seguin, Armand

2014-01-01

120

Screening of lactic acid bacteria from Indonesia reveals glucansucrase and fructansucrase genes in two different Weissella confusa strains from soya.  

PubMed

Homopolysaccharide (glucan and fructan) synthesis from sucrose by sucrase enzymes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been well studied in the genera Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. This study aimed to identify and characterize genes encoding glucansucrase/glucosyltransferase (GTF) and fructansucrases/fructosyltransferase (FTF) enzymes from genomic DNA of 'rare' Indonesian exopolysaccharide-producing LAB. From a total of 63 exopolysaccharide-producing LAB isolates obtained from foods, beverages and environmental samples, 18 isolates showing the most slimy and mucoid colony morphologies on sucrose were chosen for further study. By comparing bacterial growth on De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS)-sucrose with that on MRS-raffinose, and using the results of a previous PCR screening study with degenerate primer pairs targeting the conserved catalytic domain of GTFs, various strains were identified as producers of fructan (13), of glucan only (five) or as potential producers of both glucan and fructan (nine). Here, we report the characteristics of three gtf genes and one ftf gene obtained from Weissella confusa strains MBF8-1 and MBF8-2. Strain MBF8-1 harbored two putative gtf genes with high sequence similarity to GTFB of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 and GTF180 of L. reuteri 180, respectively. Strain MBF8-2 possessed single gtf and ftf genes with high sequence similarity to GTFKg3 of Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and DSRWC of Weissella cibaria, and FTF levansucrase of L. reuteri 121, respectively. PMID:19758326

Malik, Amarila; Radji, Maksum; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2009-11-01

121

A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a Trio-regulated Rho GTPase circuitry transducing GPCR-initiated mitogenic signals  

PubMed Central

Activating mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, encoding members of the G?q family of G protein ? subunits, are the driver uveal melanoma oncogenes, while mutations in Gq-linked G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified recently in numerous human malignancies. How G?q and its coupled receptors transduce mitogenic signals is still unclear, due to the complexity of signaling events perturbed upon Gq activation. Using of a synthetic biology approach and a genome-wide RNAi screen, we found that a highly conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Trio, is essential to activate Rho- and Rac-regulated signaling pathways acting on JNK and p38, thereby transducing proliferative signals from G?q to the nucleus independently of PLC-?. Indeed, while many biological responses elicited by Gq depend on the transient activation of second messenger system, Gq utilizes a hardwired protein-protein interaction-based signaling circuitry to achieve the sustained stimulation of proliferative pathways, thereby controlling normal and aberrant cell growth. PMID:23177739

Vaque, Jose P.; Dorsam, Robert T.; Feng, Xiaodong; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Forsthoefel, David J.; Chen, Qianming; Debant, Anne; Seeger, Mark A.; Ksander, Bruce R.; Teramoto, Hidemi; Gutkind, J. Silvio

2012-01-01

122

A Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Reveals MAP Kinase Phosphatases as Key ERK Pathway Regulators during Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells represent potentially important therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Complex interlinked transcriptional and signaling networks control the fate of these cells towards maintenance of pluripotency or differentiation. In this study we have focused on how mouse embryonic stem cells begin to differentiate and lose pluripotency and, in particular, the role that the ERK MAP kinase and GSK3 signaling pathways play in this process. Through a genome-wide siRNA screen we have identified more than 400 genes involved in loss of pluripotency and promoting the onset of differentiation. These genes were functionally associated with the ERK and/or GSK3 pathways, providing an important resource for studying the roles of these pathways in controlling escape from the pluripotent ground state. More detailed analysis identified MAP kinase phosphatases as a focal point of regulation and demonstrated an important role for these enzymes in controlling ERK activation kinetics and subsequently determining early embryonic stem cell fate decisions. PMID:23271975

Yang, Shen-Hsi; Kalkan, Tuzer; Morrisroe, Claire; Smith, Austin; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

123

Multistage screening reveals chameleon ligands of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase: implications to drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (hFPPS) is the gate-keeper of mammalian isoprenoids and the key target of bisphosphonate drugs. Bisphosphonates suffer from poor "drug-like" properties and are mainly effective in treating skeletal diseases. Recent investigations have implicated hFPPS in various nonskeletal diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the hFPPS gene and mRNA levels in autopsy-confirmed AD subjects was undertaken, and a genetic link between hFPPS and phosphorylated tau (P-Tau) levels in the human brain was identified. Elevated P-Tau levels are strongly implicated in AD progression. The development of nonbisphosphonate inhibitors can provide molecular tools for validating hFPPS as a therapeutic target for tauopathy-associated neurodegeneration. A multistage screening protocol led to the identification of a new monophosphonate chemotype that bind in an allosteric pocket of hFPPS. Optimization of these compounds could lead to human therapeutics that block tau metabolism and arrest the progression of neurodegeneration. PMID:24911527

De Schutter, Joris W; Park, Jaeok; Leung, Chun Yuen; Gormley, Patrick; Lin, Yih-Shyan; Hu, Zheping; Berghuis, Albert M; Poirier, Judes; Tsantrizos, Youla S

2014-07-10

124

A genetic screen based on in vivo RNA imaging reveals centrosome-independent mechanisms for localizing gurken transcripts in Drosophila.  

PubMed

We have screened chromosome arm 3L for ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations that disrupt localization of fluorescently labeled gurken (grk) messenger (m)RNA, whose transport along microtubules establishes both major body axes of the developing Drosophila oocyte. Rapid identification of causative mutations by single-nucleotide polymorphism recombinational mapping and whole-genomic sequencing allowed us to define nine complementation groups affecting grk mRNA localization and other aspects of oogenesis, including alleles of elg1, scaf6, quemao, nudE, Tsc2/gigas, rasp, and Chd5/Wrb, and several null alleles of the armitage Piwi-pathway gene. Analysis of a newly induced kinesin light chain allele shows that kinesin motor activity is required for both efficient grk mRNA localization and oocyte centrosome integrity. We also show that initiation of the dorsoanterior localization of grk mRNA precedes centrosome localization, suggesting that microtubule self-organization contributes to breaking axial symmetry to generate a unique dorsoventral axis. PMID:24531791

Hayashi, Rippei; Wainwright, S Mark; Liddell, Sophie J; Pinchin, Sheena M; Horswell, Stuart; Ish-Horowicz, David

2014-04-01

125

Mutational screening of the USH2A gene in Spanish USH patients reveals 23 novel pathogenic mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Usher Syndrome type II (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by moderate to severe hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Among the three genes implicated, mutations in the USH2A gene account for 74-90% of the USH2 cases. Methods To identify the genetic cause of the disease and determine the frequency of USH2A mutations in a cohort of 88 unrelated USH Spanish patients, we carried out a mutation screening of the 72 coding exons of this gene by direct sequencing. Moreover, we performed functional minigene studies for those changes that were predicted to affect splicing. Results As a result, a total of 144 DNA sequence variants were identified. Based upon previous studies, allele frequencies, segregation analysis, bioinformatics' predictions and in vitro experiments, 37 variants (23 of them novel) were classified as pathogenic mutations. Conclusions This report provide a wide spectrum of USH2A mutations and clinical features, including atypical Usher syndrome phenotypes resembling Usher syndrome type I. Considering only the patients clearly diagnosed with Usher syndrome type II, and results obtained in this and previous studies, we can state that mutations in USH2A are responsible for 76.1% of USH2 disease in patients of Spanish origin. PMID:22004887

2011-01-01

126

Large-scale screening of transcription factor-promoter interactions in spruce reveals a transcriptional network involved in vascular development.  

PubMed

This research aimed to investigate the role of diverse transcription factors (TFs) and to delineate gene regulatory networks directly in conifers at a relatively high-throughput level. The approach integrated sequence analyses, transcript profiling, and development of a conifer-specific activation assay. Transcript accumulation profiles of 102 TFs and potential target genes were clustered to identify groups of coordinately expressed genes. Several different patterns of transcript accumulation were observed by profiling in nine different organs and tissues: 27 genes were preferential to secondary xylem both in stems and roots, and other genes were preferential to phelloderm and periderm or were more ubiquitous. A robust system has been established as a screening approach to define which TFs have the ability to regulate a given promoter in planta. Trans-activation or repression effects were observed in 30% of TF-candidate gene promoter combinations. As a proof of concept, phylogenetic analysis and expression and trans-activation data were used to demonstrate that two spruce NAC-domain proteins most likely play key roles in secondary vascular growth as observed in other plant species. This study tested many TFs from diverse families in a conifer tree species, which broadens the knowledge of promoter-TF interactions in wood development and enables comparisons of gene regulatory networks found in angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:24713992

Duval, Isabelle; Lachance, Denis; Giguère, Isabelle; Bomal, Claude; Morency, Marie-Josée; Pelletier, Gervais; Boyle, Brian; MacKay, John J; Séguin, Armand

2014-06-01

127

A BLOC-1 mutation screen reveals a novel BLOC1S3 mutation in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type 8.  

PubMed

Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of lysosome-related organelle biogenesis and is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a bleeding diathesis. Over the past decade, we screened 250 patients with HPS-like symptoms for mutations in the genes responsible for HPS subtypes 1-6. We identified 38 individuals with no functional mutations, and therefore, we analyzed all eight genes encoding the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) proteins in these individuals. Here, we describe the identification of a novel nonsense mutation in BLOC1S3 (HPS-8) in a 6-yr-old Iranian boy. This mutation caused nonsense-mediated decay of BLOC1S3 mRNA and destabilized the BLOC-1 complex. Our patient's melanocytes showed aberrant localization of TYRP1, with increased plasma membrane trafficking. These findings confirm a common cellular defect for HPS patients with defects in BLOC-1 subunits. We identified only two patients with BLOC-1 defects in our cohort, suggesting that other HPS genes remain to be identified. PMID:22709368

Cullinane, Andrew R; Curry, James A; Golas, Gretchen; Pan, James; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Hess, Richard A; White, James G; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A

2012-09-01

128

Lethal familial protracted diarrhoea  

PubMed Central

24 children with severe protracted diarrhoea from 10 families, in which at least one sibling was affected, are reported. In two families the siblings were from 1st-cousin marriages, in one family both parents had unaffected children from previous marriages, and in another family the mother had a normal daughter from an earlier marriage. The onset of the diarrhoea was on the first day of life in 12 infants, some time during the first 17 days in 10, and at 13 weeks and 1 year 6 days in the remaining two. In each case the diarrhoea was `cholera-like'. Investigations failed to show any of the established causes of protracted diarrhoea and 21 (87·5%) infants died after an illness that had lasted between 12 days and 6 years 38 weeks, despite periods of prolonged intravenous feeding and the administration of a wide variety of pharmacological agents. The 2 patients who recovered appeared to do so spontaneously. 14 (58%) had associated extra-gastrointestinal or gastrointestinal-related anomalies. Steady-state perfusion studies were performed in the proximal jejunum of 2 patients, and in the colon of one. In both cases the jejunum was in a net secretory state with respect to water, glucose absorption was markedly reduced, and the transmural potential difference was also depressed; in one of these patients fructose absorption was also reduced, and in the other colonic function appeared to be normal. These studies suggest that the diarrhoea resulted from small intestinal secretion overwhelming the reabsorptive capacity of a normally-functioning colon. Although this series of lethal protracted diarrhoea does not represent a single disease entity, the familial pattern suggests an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for at least one of the conditions. ImagesFigure PMID:7469448

Candy, D C A; Larcher, V F; Cameron, D J S; Norman, A P; Tripp, J H; Milla, P J; Pincott, J R; Harries, J T

1981-01-01

129

Drug Screening Using a Library of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Reveals Disease Specific Patterns of Cardiotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiotoxicity is a leading cause for drug attrition during pharmaceutical development and has resulted in numerous preventable patient deaths. Incidents of adverse cardiac drug reactions are more common in patients with pre-existing heart disease than the general population. Here we generated a library of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from patients with various hereditary cardiac disorders to model differences in cardiac drug toxicity susceptibility for patients of different genetic backgrounds. Methods and Results Action potential duration (APD) and drug-induced arrhythmia were measured at the single cell level in hiPSC-CMs derived from healthy subjects and patients with hereditary long QT syndrome (LQT), familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Disease phenotypes were verified in LQT, HCM, and DCM iPSC-CMs by immunostaining and single cell patch clamp. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were used as controls. Single cell PCR confirmed expression of all cardiac ion channels in patient-specific hiPSC-CMs as well as hESC-CMs, but not in HEK293 cells. Disease-specific hiPSC-CMs demonstrated increased susceptibility to known cardiotoxic drugs as measured by APD and quantification of drug-induced arrhythmias such as early after depolarizations (EADs) and delayed after depolarizations (DADs). Conclusions We have recapitulated drug-induced cardiotoxicity profiles for healthy subjects, LQT, HCM, and DCM patients at the single cell level for the first time. Our data indicate that healthy and diseased individuals exhibit different susceptibilities to cardiotoxic drugs and that use of disease-specific hiPSC-CMs may predict adverse drug responses more accurately than standard hERG test or healthy control hiPSC-CM/hESC-CM screening assays. PMID:23519760

Liang, Ping; Lan, Feng; Lee, Andrew S.; Gong, Tingyu; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Wang, Yongming; Diecke, Sebastian; Sallam, Karim; Knowles, Joshua W.; Wang, Paul J.; Nguyen, Patricia K.; Bers, Donald M.; Robbins, Robert C.; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

130

Screening the 3{prime} region of the polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) gene reveals six novel mutations  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the gene for the most common form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1), has been fully characterized and shown to encode an integral membrane protein, polycystin, involved in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions. Study of the PKD1 gene has been complicated because most of the gene lies in a genomic region reiterated several times elsewhere on the same chromosome, and consequently only seven mutations have been described so far. Here we report a systematic screen covering {approximately}80% of the {approximately}-2.75 kb of translated transcript that is encoded by single-copy DNA. We have identified and characterized six novel mutations that, together with the previously described changes, amount to a detection rate of 10%-15% in the population studied. The newly described mutations are two deletions, an insertion of a T-nucleotide causing a frameshift, two single-base-pair substitutions resulting in premature stop codons, and a G{yields}C transversion that may be a missense mutation. These results have important implications for genetic diagnosis of PKD1 because they indicate that the majority of mutations lie within the duplicated area, which is difficult to study. The regions of polycystin removed in each mutation so far described are assessed for their functional significance; an area disrupted by two new small in-frame changes is highlighted. PKD1 mutations are contrasted with those in the PKD1/TSC2 contiguous-gene syndrome, and the likely mutational mechanism in PKD1 is considered. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Peral, B.; San Millan, J.L.; Ong, A.C.M. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

1996-01-01

131

An RNAi screen for Aire cofactors reveals a role for Hnrnpl in polymerase release and Aire-activated ectopic transcription.  

PubMed

Aire induces the expression of a large set of autoantigen genes in the thymus, driving immunological tolerance in maturing T cells. To determine the full spectrum of molecular mechanisms underlying the Aire transactivation function, we screened an AIRE-dependent gene-expression system with a genome-scale lentiviral shRNA library, targeting factors associated with chromatin architecture/function, transcription, and mRNA processing. Fifty-one functional allies were identified, with a preponderance of factors that impact transcriptional elongation compared with initiation, in particular members of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) involved in the release of "paused" RNA polymerases (CCNT2 and HEXIM1); mRNA processing and polyadenylation factors were also highlighted (HNRNPL/F, SFRS1, SFRS3, and CLP1). Aire's functional allies were validated on transfected and endogenous target genes, including the generation of lentigenic knockdown (KD) mice. We uncovered the effect of the splicing factor Hnrnpl on Aire-induced transcription. Transcripts sensitive to the P-TEFb inhibitor flavopiridol were reduced by Hnrnpl knockdown in thymic epithelial cells, independently of their dependence on Aire, therefore indicating a general effect of Hnrnpl on RNA elongation. This conclusion was substantiated by demonstration of HNRNPL interactions with P-TEFb components (CDK9, CCNT2, HEXIM1, and the small 7SK RNA). Aire-containing complexes include 7SK RNA, the latter interaction disrupted by HNRNPL knockdown, suggesting that HNRNPL may partake in delivering inactive P-TEFb to Aire. Thus, these results indicate that mRNA processing factors cooperate with Aire to release stalled polymerases and to activate ectopic expression of autoantigen genes in the thymus. PMID:24434558

Giraud, Matthieu; Jmari, Nada; Du, Lina; Carallis, Floriane; Nieland, Thomas J F; Perez-Campo, Flor M; Bensaude, Olivier; Root, David E; Hacohen, Nir; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

2014-01-28

132

An RNAi screen for Aire cofactors reveals a role for Hnrnpl in polymerase release and Aire-activated ectopic transcription  

PubMed Central

Aire induces the expression of a large set of autoantigen genes in the thymus, driving immunological tolerance in maturing T cells. To determine the full spectrum of molecular mechanisms underlying the Aire transactivation function, we screened an AIRE-dependent gene-expression system with a genome-scale lentiviral shRNA library, targeting factors associated with chromatin architecture/function, transcription, and mRNA processing. Fifty-one functional allies were identified, with a preponderance of factors that impact transcriptional elongation compared with initiation, in particular members of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) involved in the release of “paused” RNA polymerases (CCNT2 and HEXIM1); mRNA processing and polyadenylation factors were also highlighted (HNRNPL/F, SFRS1, SFRS3, and CLP1). Aire’s functional allies were validated on transfected and endogenous target genes, including the generation of lentigenic knockdown (KD) mice. We uncovered the effect of the splicing factor Hnrnpl on Aire-induced transcription. Transcripts sensitive to the P-TEFb inhibitor flavopiridol were reduced by Hnrnpl knockdown in thymic epithelial cells, independently of their dependence on Aire, therefore indicating a general effect of Hnrnpl on RNA elongation. This conclusion was substantiated by demonstration of HNRNPL interactions with P-TEFb components (CDK9, CCNT2, HEXIM1, and the small 7SK RNA). Aire-containing complexes include 7SK RNA, the latter interaction disrupted by HNRNPL knockdown, suggesting that HNRNPL may partake in delivering inactive P-TEFb to Aire. Thus, these results indicate that mRNA processing factors cooperate with Aire to release stalled polymerases and to activate ectopic expression of autoantigen genes in the thymus. PMID:24434558

Giraud, Matthieu; Jmari, Nada; Du, Lina; Carallis, Floriane; Nieland, Thomas J. F.; Perez-Campo, Flor M.; Bensaude, Olivier; Root, David E.; Hacohen, Nir; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

2014-01-01

133

Screening of Metagenomic and Genomic Libraries Reveals Three Classes of Bacterial Enzymes That Overcome the Toxicity of Acrylate  

PubMed Central

Acrylate is produced in significant quantities through the microbial cleavage of the highly abundant marine osmoprotectant dimethylsulfoniopropionate, an important process in the marine sulfur cycle. Acrylate can inhibit bacterial growth, likely through its conversion to the highly toxic molecule acrylyl-CoA. Previous work identified an acrylyl-CoA reductase, encoded by the gene acuI, as being important for conferring on bacteria the ability to grow in the presence of acrylate. However, some bacteria lack acuI, and, conversely, many bacteria that may not encounter acrylate in their regular environments do contain this gene. We therefore sought to identify new genes that might confer tolerance to acrylate. To do this, we used functional screening of metagenomic and genomic libraries to identify novel genes that corrected an E. coli mutant that was defective in acuI, and was therefore hyper-sensitive to acrylate. The metagenomic libraries yielded two types of genes that overcame this toxicity. The majority encoded enzymes resembling AcuI, but with significant sequence divergence among each other and previously ratified AcuI enzymes. One other metagenomic gene, arkA, had very close relatives in Bacillus and related bacteria, and is predicted to encode an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, in the same family as FabK, which catalyses the final step in fatty-acid biosynthesis in some pathogenic Firmicute bacteria. A genomic library of Novosphingobium, a metabolically versatile alphaproteobacterium that lacks both acuI and arkA, yielded vutD and vutE, two genes that, together, conferred acrylate resistance. These encode sequential steps in the oxidative catabolism of valine in a pathway in which, significantly, methacrylyl-CoA is a toxic intermediate. These findings expand the range of bacteria for which the acuI gene encodes a functional acrylyl-CoA reductase, and also identify novel enzymes that can similarly function in conferring acrylate resistance, likely, again, through the removal of the toxic product acrylyl-CoA. PMID:24848004

Curson, Andrew R. J.; Burns, Oliver J.; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Todd, Jonathan D.; McInnis, Kathryn; Wexler, Margaret; Johnston, Andrew W. B.

2014-01-01

134

An EST screen from the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii reveals patterns of gene loss and gain in animals  

PubMed Central

Background Since the drastic reorganisation of the phylogeny of the animal kingdom into three major clades of bilaterians; Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia, it became glaringly obvious that the selection of model systems with extensive molecular resources was heavily biased towards only two of these three clades, namely the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. Increasing efforts have been put towards redressing this imbalance in recent years, and one of the principal phyla in the vanguard of this endeavour is the Annelida. Results In the context of this effort we here report our characterisation of an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) screen in the serpulid annelid, Pomatoceros lamarckii. We have sequenced over 5,000 ESTs which consolidate into over 2,000 sequences (clusters and singletons). These sequences are used to build phylogenetic trees to estimate relative branch lengths amongst different taxa and, by comparison to genomic data from other animals, patterns of gene retention and loss are deduced. Conclusion The molecular phylogenetic trees including the P. lamarckii sequences extend early observations that polychaetes tend to have relatively short branches in such trees, and hence are useful taxa with which to reconstruct gene family evolution. Also, with the availability of lophotrochozoan data such as that of P. lamarckii, it is now possible to make much more accurate reconstructions of the gene complement of the ancestor of the bilaterians than was previously possible from comparisons of ecdysozoan and deuterostome genomes to non-bilaterian outgroups. It is clear that the traditional molecular model systems for protostomes (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans), which are restricted to the Ecdysozoa, have undergone extensive gene loss during evolution. These ecdysozoan systems, in terms of gene content, are thus more derived from the bilaterian ancestral condition than lophotrochozoan systems like the polychaetes, and thus cannot be used as good, general representatives of protostome genomes. Currently sequenced insect and nematode genomes are less suitable models for deducing bilaterian ancestral states than lophotrochozoan genomes, despite the array of powerful genetic and mechanistic manipulation techniques in these ecdysozoans. A distinct category of genes that includes those present in non-bilaterians and lophotrochozoans, but which are absent from ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, highlights the need for further lophotrochozoan data to gain a more complete understanding of the gene complement of the bilaterian ancestor. PMID:19781084

2009-01-01

135

NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species  

PubMed Central

Extensive chemical analyses of spider venoms from many species have revealed complex mixtures of biologically active compounds, of which several have provided important leads for drug development. We have recently shown that NMR spectroscopy can be used advantageously for a direct structural characterization of the small-molecule content of such complex mixtures. Here, we report the application of this strategy to a larger-scale analysis of a collection of spider venoms representing >70 species, which, in combination with mass spectrometric analyses, allowed the identification of a wide range of known, and several previously undescribed, small molecules. These include polyamines, common neurotransmitters, and amino acid derivatives as well as two additional members of a recently discovered family of natural products, the sulfated nucleosides. In the case of the well studied brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, sulfated guanosine derivatives were found to comprise the major small-molecule components of the venom. PMID:18794518

Schroeder, Frank C.; Taggi, Andrew E.; Gronquist, Matthew; Malik, Rabia U.; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Eisner, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold

2008-01-01

136

NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species.  

PubMed

Extensive chemical analyses of spider venoms from many species have revealed complex mixtures of biologically active compounds, of which several have provided important leads for drug development. We have recently shown that NMR spectroscopy can be used advantageously for a direct structural characterization of the small-molecule content of such complex mixtures. Here, we report the application of this strategy to a larger-scale analysis of a collection of spider venoms representing >70 species, which, in combination with mass spectrometric analyses, allowed the identification of a wide range of known, and several previously undescribed, small molecules. These include polyamines, common neurotransmitters, and amino acid derivatives as well as two additional members of a recently discovered family of natural products, the sulfated nucleosides. In the case of the well studied brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, sulfated guanosine derivatives were found to comprise the major small-molecule components of the venom. PMID:18794518

Schroeder, Frank C; Taggi, Andrew E; Gronquist, Matthew; Malik, Rabia U; Grant, Jacqualine B; Eisner, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold

2008-09-23

137

Genome-wide screen for aberrantly expressed miRNAs reveals miRNA profile signature in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Dysregulation in the expression of miRNAs contributes to the occurrence and development of many human cancers. We herein attempted to obtain the potential association between miRNA expression profile and breast cancer by applying high-throughput sequencing technology. Small RNAs from seven paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were sequenced. To determine the miRNA expression profiles in tissues and sera, another five equally pooled serum samples from 20 patients and 30 normal women were sequenced. Despite a similar number in abundantly expressed miRNAs across samples, we detected varying miRNA expression profiles. Some miRNAs showed inconsistent or opposite dysregulation trends across different tumor tissues, including some abundantly expressed miRNA gene clusters and gene families. Wilcoxon sign-rank test for paired samples analysis revealed that abnormal miRNAs showed a higher level of variation across the seven tumor samples. We also completely surveyed abnormal miRNAs expressed in tumor and serum tissues in the mixed datasets based on the relative expression levels. Most of these miRNAs were significantly down-regulated in tumor samples, but nine abnormal miRNAs (miR-18a, 19a, 20a, 30a, 103b, 126, 126*, 192, 1287) were consistently expressed in tumor tissues and serum samples. Based on experimentally validated target mRNAs, functional enrichment analysis indicated that these abnormal miRNAs and miRNA groups (miRNA gene clusters and gene families) have important roles in multiple biological processes. Dynamic miRNA expression profiles, various abnormal miRNA profiles and complexity of the miRNA regulatory network reveal that the miRNA expression profile is a potential biomarker for classifying or detecting human disease. PMID:23196705

Guo, Li; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Cai, Min; Wu, Qian; Chen, Feng

2013-03-01

138

In silico screening reveals structurally diverse, nanomolar inhibitors of NQO2 that are functionally active in cells and can modulate NF?B signalling  

PubMed Central

The NCI chemical database has been screened using in silico docking to identify novel nanomolar inhibitors of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2). The inhibitors identified from the screen exhibit a diverse range of scaffolds and the structure of one of the inhibitors, NSC13000 co-crystalized with NQO2, has been solved. This has been used to aid the generation of a structure/activity relationship between the computationally derived binding affinity and experimentally measured enzyme inhibitory potency. Many of the compounds are functionally active as inhibitors of NQO2 in cells at non toxic concentrations. To demonstrate this, advantage was taken of the NQO2-mediated toxicity of the chemotherapeutic drug CB1954. The toxicity of this drug is substantially reduced when the function of NQO2 is inhibited and many of the compounds achieve this in cells at nanomolar concentrations. The NQO2 inhibitors also attenuated TNF?-mediated, NF?B-driven transcriptional activity. The link between NQO2 and the regulation of NF?B was confirmed by using siRNA to NQO2 and by the observation that NRH, the cofactor for NQO2 enzyme activity, could regulate NF?B activity in an NQO2 dependent manner. NF?B is a potential therapeutic target and this study reveals an underlying mechanism that may exploitable for developing new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:22090421

Nolan, Karen A.; Dunstan, Mark S.; Caraher, Mary C.; Scott, Katherine A.; Leys, David; Stratford, Ian J.

2011-01-01

139

An unconventional IAP-binding motif revealed by target-assisted iterative screening (TAIS) of the BIR3-cIAP1 domain.  

PubMed

Target-assisted iterative screening (TAIS) has been applied to a random phage-displayed peptide library in a search for novel ligands of the third baculovirus IAP ('inhibitors of apoptosis') repeat (BIR) domain of cIAP1. The peptides selected in the screen fall into two distinct specificity groups, one that conforms to a known IAP-binding motif (IBM) and another one that reveals a novel BIR domain interacting motif, NH(2)-SR(V/P)W. The biochemical profiling of selected sequences with synthetic peptides, which included alanine scanning and N- and C-terminal truncations as well as competition with the Smac peptide, suggests a major energetic contribution of tryptophan at the +4 position of peptide ligands to binding and identifies the latter together with the respective pocket on the BIR domain surface as a 'hot spot' of the interaction. A peptide featuring the novel motif selectively binds the full-length cIAP1 protein in cell lysates. A 'two-pocket' model of BIR domain recognition mechanism is proposed as the basis of differential BIR domain interactions with different IBMs. PMID:17094177

Kurakin, Alexei; Bredesen, Dale E

2007-01-01

140

A high-throughput chemical screen with FDA approved drugs reveals that the antihypertensive drug Spironolactone impairs cancer cell survival by inhibiting homology directed repair.  

PubMed

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most severe type of DNA damage. DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end-joining or homology directed repair (HDR). Identifying novel small molecules that affect HDR is of great importance both for research use and therapy. Molecules that elevate HDR may improve gene targeting whereas inhibiting molecules can be used for chemotherapy, since some of the cancers are more sensitive to repair impairment. Here, we performed a high-throughput chemical screen for FDA approved drugs, which affect HDR in cancer cells. We found that HDR frequencies are increased by retinoic acid and Idoxuridine and reduced by the antihypertensive drug Spironolactone. We further revealed that Spironolactone impairs Rad51 foci formation, sensitizes cancer cells to DNA damaging agents, to Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and cross-linking agents and inhibits tumor growth in xenografts, in mice. This study suggests Spironolactone as a new candidate for chemotherapy. PMID:24682826

Shahar, Or David; Kalousi, Alkmini; Eini, Lital; Fisher, Benoit; Weiss, Amelie; Darr, Jonatan; Mazina, Olga; Bramson, Shay; Kupiec, Martin; Eden, Amir; Meshorer, Eran; Mazin, Alexander V; Brino, Laurent; Goldberg, Michal; Soutoglou, Evi

2014-01-01

141

Dipoid-Specific Genome Stability Genes of S. cerevisiae: Genomic Screen Reveals Haploidization as an Escape from Persisting DNA Rearrangement Stress  

PubMed Central

Maintaining a stable genome is one of the most important tasks of every living cell and the mechanisms ensuring it are similar in all of them. The events leading to changes in DNA sequence (mutations) in diploid cells occur one to two orders of magnitude more frequently than in haploid cells. The majority of those events lead to loss of heterozygosity at the mutagenesis marker, thus diploid-specific genome stability mechanisms can be anticipated. In a new global screen for spontaneous loss of function at heterozygous forward mutagenesis marker locus, employing three different mutagenesis markers, we selected genes whose deletion causes genetic instability in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. We have found numerous genes connected with DNA replication and repair, remodeling of chromatin, cell cycle control, stress response, and in particular the structural maintenance of chromosome complexes. We have also identified 59 uncharacterized or dubious ORFs, which show the genome instability phenotype when deleted. For one of the strongest mutators revealed in our screen, ctf18?/ctf18? the genome instability manifests as a tendency to lose the whole set of chromosomes. We postulate that this phenomenon might diminish the devastating effects of DNA rearrangements, thereby increasing the cell's chances of surviving stressful conditions. We believe that numerous new genes implicated in genome maintenance, together with newly discovered phenomenon of ploidy reduction, will help revealing novel molecular processes involved in the genome stability of diploid cells. They also provide the clues in the quest for new therapeutic targets to cure human genome instability-related diseases. PMID:21695049

Alabrudzinska, Malgorzata; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna

2011-01-01

142

Lethal Traffic Jam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This perspective discusses new discoveries on the effects of the antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracycline were discovered in the late 1940s shortly after the introduction of penicillin. Elucidation of the structure of the ribosome revealed how they bind to this target structure and inhibit protein synthesis. In a recent report, van Stelten et al. demonstrate another mode of action for these antibiotics, involving the destruction of a complex that allows proteins to be translocated across (or into) the bacterial membrane.

Eefjan Breukink (Utrecht University;Department of Chemical Biology and Organic Chemistry)

2009-08-07

143

The Rorschach Suicide Constellation: assessing various degrees of lethality.  

PubMed

In this article we examine the relation between the Rorschach Comprehensive System's Suicide Constellation (S-CON; Exner, 1993; Exner & Wiley, 1977) and lethality of suicide attempts during the course of patients' hospitalization at the Austen Riggs Center (Stockbridge, MA). Patient records were rated as nonsuicidal (n = 37), parasuicidal (n = 37), or near-lethal (n = 30) based on the presence and lethality of self-destructive acts. Diagnostic efficiency statistics utilizing a cutoff score of 7 or more positive indicators successfully predicted which patients would engage in near-lethal suicidal activity relative to parasuicidal patients (overall correct classification rate [OCC] = .79), nonsuicidal inpatients (OCC = .79), and college students (OCC = .89). Although these predictions were influenced by relatively high base rates in the hospital population (14.5%), base rate estimates were calculated for other hypothetical populations revealing different prediction estimates that should be considered when judging the relative efficacy of the S-CON. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an S-CON score of 7 or more was the sole predictor of near-lethal suicide attempts among 9 psychiatric and demographic variables. PMID:11393464

Fowler, J C; Piers, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Holdwick, D J; Padawer, J R

2001-04-01

144

A Buoyancy-Based Screen of Drosophila Larvae for Fat-Storage Mutants Reveals a Role for Sir2 in Coupling Fat Storage to Nutrient Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has a strong genetic component, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity are known. Genetic screens in invertebrates have the potential to identify genes and pathways that regulate the levels of stored fat, many of which are likely to be conserved in humans. To facilitate such screens, we have developed a simple buoyancy-based screening method for identifying

Tânia Reis; Marc R. Van Gilst; Iswar K. Hariharan

2010-01-01

145

Antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality effect of marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. CAS72 against human pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the marine actinobacterium. Methods Forty six marine actinobacterial strains were isolated from sediment samples of Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, India. Preliminary screening was done by cross-streak method and the potential strain was identified by morphological, chemotaxonomical and molecular methods. Fermentation was done and the metabolite was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and purified by silica gel (100-200 mesh) column chromatography. The purified metabolite was tested for antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Among the forty six strains, CAS72 was found effective against human pathogenic bacteria. The strain CAS72 was identified as Streptomyces sp. The purified metabolite exhibited a significant in vitro antibacterial activity. The MIC value was also determined against human pathogenic bacteria and a strong cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay was observed and the LC50 value was 23.5 µg/mL. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that the marine actinobacteria are well obtainable in Uppanar estuary environment and it can provide a definite source for novel bioactive metabolites.

Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Vijayanand, Packiyaraj; Sivakumar, Kannan; Sugesh, Shanmugam; Poongodi, Subramaniam; Maharani, Viswanathan; Vijayalakshmi, Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

2013-01-01

146

Synthetic antibodies with a human framework that protect mice from lethal Sudan ebolavirus challenge.  

PubMed

The ebolaviruses cause severe and rapidly progressing hemorrhagic fever. There are five ebolavirus species; although much is known about Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and its neutralization by antibodies, little is known about Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), which is emerging with increasing frequency. Here we describe monoclonal antibodies containing a human framework that potently inhibit infection by SUDV and protect mice from lethal challenge. The murine antibody 16F6, which binds the SUDV envelope glycoprotein (GP), served as the starting point for design. Sequence and structural alignment revealed similarities between 16F6 and YADS1, a synthetic antibody with a humanized scaffold. A focused phage library was constructed and screened to impart 16F6-like recognition properties onto the YADS1 scaffold. A panel of 17 antibodies were characterized and found to have a range of neutralization potentials against a pseudotype virus infection model. Neutralization correlated with GP binding as determined by ELISA. Two of these clones, E10 and F4, potently inhibited authentic SUDV and conferred protection and memory immunity in mice from lethal SUDV challenge. E10 and F4 were further shown to bind to the same epitope on GP as 16F6 with comparable affinities. These antibodies represent strong immunotherapeutic candidates for treatment of SUDV infection. PMID:25140871

Chen, Gang; Koellhoffer, Jayne F; Zak, Samantha E; Frei, Julia C; Liu, Nina; Long, Hua; Ye, Wei; Nagar, Kaajal; Pan, Guohua; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Lai, Jonathan R

2014-10-17

147

Synthetic Antibodies with a Human Framework That Protect Mice from Lethal Sudan Ebolavirus Challenge  

PubMed Central

The ebolaviruses cause severe and rapidly progressing hemorrhagic fever. There are five ebolavirus species; although much is known about Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and its neutralization by antibodies, little is known about Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), which is emerging with increasing frequency. Here we describe monoclonal antibodies containing a human framework that potently inhibit infection by SUDV and protect mice from lethal challenge. The murine antibody 16F6, which binds the SUDV envelope glycoprotein (GP), served as the starting point for design. Sequence and structural alignment revealed similarities between 16F6 and YADS1, a synthetic antibody with a humanized scaffold. A focused phage library was constructed and screened to impart 16F6-like recognition properties onto the YADS1 scaffold. A panel of 17 antibodies were characterized and found to have a range of neutralization potentials against a pseudotype virus infection model. Neutralization correlated with GP binding as determined by ELISA. Two of these clones, E10 and F4, potently inhibited authentic SUDV and conferred protection and memory immunity in mice from lethal SUDV challenge. E10 and F4 were further shown to bind to the same epitope on GP as 16F6 with comparable affinities. These antibodies represent strong immunotherapeutic candidates for treatment of SUDV infection. PMID:25140871

2014-01-01

148

Functional screening and in vitro analysis reveal thioesterases with enhanced substrate specificity profiles that improve short-chain fatty acid production in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) biosynthesis is pertinent to production of biofuels, industrial compounds, and pharmaceuticals from renewable resources. To expand on Escherichia coli SCFA products, we previously implemented a coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathway that condenses acetyl-CoA to a diverse group of short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. To increase product titers and reduce premature pathway termination products, we conducted in vivo and in vitro analyses to understand and improve the specificity of the acyl-CoA thioesterase enzyme, which releases fatty acids from CoA. A total of 62 putative bacterial thioesterases, including 23 from the cow rumen microbiome, were inserted into a pathway that condenses acetyl-CoA to an acyl-CoA molecule derived from exogenously provided propionic or isobutyric acid. Functional screening revealed thioesterases that increase production of saturated (valerate), unsaturated (trans-2-pentenoate), and branched (4-methylvalerate) SCFAs compared to overexpression of E. coli thioesterase tesB or native expression of endogenous thioesterases. To determine if altered thioesterase acyl-CoA substrate specificity caused the increase in product titers, six of the most promising enzymes were analyzed in vitro. Biochemical assays revealed that the most productive thioesterases rely on promiscuous activity but have greater specificity for product-associated acyl-CoAs than for precursor acyl-CoAs. In this study, we introduce novel thioesterases with improved specificity for saturated, branched, and unsaturated short-chain acyl-CoAs, thereby expanding the diversity of potential fatty acid products while increasing titers of current products. The growing uncertainty associated with protein database annotations denotes this study as a model for isolating functional biochemical pathway enzymes in situations where experimental evidence of enzyme function is absent. PMID:24271180

McMahon, Matthew D; Prather, Kristala L J

2014-02-01

149

Functional Screening and In Vitro Analysis Reveal Thioesterases with Enhanced Substrate Specificity Profiles That Improve Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) biosynthesis is pertinent to production of biofuels, industrial compounds, and pharmaceuticals from renewable resources. To expand on Escherichia coli SCFA products, we previously implemented a coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathway that condenses acetyl-CoA to a diverse group of short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. To increase product titers and reduce premature pathway termination products, we conducted in vivo and in vitro analyses to understand and improve the specificity of the acyl-CoA thioesterase enzyme, which releases fatty acids from CoA. A total of 62 putative bacterial thioesterases, including 23 from the cow rumen microbiome, were inserted into a pathway that condenses acetyl-CoA to an acyl-CoA molecule derived from exogenously provided propionic or isobutyric acid. Functional screening revealed thioesterases that increase production of saturated (valerate), unsaturated (trans-2-pentenoate), and branched (4-methylvalerate) SCFAs compared to overexpression of E. coli thioesterase tesB or native expression of endogenous thioesterases. To determine if altered thioesterase acyl-CoA substrate specificity caused the increase in product titers, six of the most promising enzymes were analyzed in vitro. Biochemical assays revealed that the most productive thioesterases rely on promiscuous activity but have greater specificity for product-associated acyl-CoAs than for precursor acyl-CoAs. In this study, we introduce novel thioesterases with improved specificity for saturated, branched, and unsaturated short-chain acyl-CoAs, thereby expanding the diversity of potential fatty acid products while increasing titers of current products. The growing uncertainty associated with protein database annotations denotes this study as a model for isolating functional biochemical pathway enzymes in situations where experimental evidence of enzyme function is absent. PMID:24271180

McMahon, Matthew D.

2014-01-01

150

Toxicology screen  

MedlinePLUS

... Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test ... poisoning) Complicated alcohol abstinence (delirium tremens) Delirium ... Fetal alcohol syndrome Intentional overdose Seizures Stroke ...

151

A novel EST-derived RNAi screen reveals a critical role for farnesyl diphosphate synthase in ?2-adrenergic receptor internalization and down-regulation.  

PubMed

The ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) plays important physiological roles in the heart and lung and is the primary target of ?-agonists, the mainstay asthma drugs. Activation of ?2AR by ?-agonists is attenuated by receptor down-regulation, which ensures transient stimulation of the receptor but reduces the efficacy of ?-agonists. Here we report the identification, through a functional genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen, of new genes critically involved in ?2AR down-regulation. We developed a lentivirus-based RNAi library consisting of 26-nt short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). The library was generated enzymatically from a large collection of expressed sequence tag (EST) DNAs corresponding to ?20,000 human genes and contains on average ?6 highly potent shRNAs (>75% knockdown efficiency) for each gene. Using this novel shRNA library, together with a robust cell model for ?2AR expression, we performed fluorescence-activated cell sorting and isolated cells that, as a consequence of shRNA-mediated gene inactivation, exhibited defective agonist-induced down-regulation. The screen discovered several previously unrecognized ?2AR regulators, including farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS). We showed that inactivation of FDPS by shRNA, small interfering RNA, or the highly specific pharmaceutical inhibitor alendronate inhibited ?2AR down-regulation. Notably, in human airway smooth muscle cells, the physiological target of ?-agonists, alendronate treatment functionally reversed agonist-induced endogenous ?2AR loss as indicated by an increase in cAMP production. FDPS inactivation interfered with ?2AR internalization into endosomes through disrupting the membrane localization of the Rab5 small GTPase. Furthermore, Rab5 overexpression reversed the deficient receptor down-regulation induced by alendronate, suggesting that FDPS regulates receptor down-regulation in a Rab5-dependent manner. Together, our findings reveal a FDPS-dependent mechanism in the internalization and down-regulation of ?2AR, identify FDPS as a potential target for improving the therapeutic efficacy of ?-agonists, and demonstrate the utility of the unique EST-derived shRNA library for functional genetics studies. PMID:22278941

Jiang, Xiaofeng; Pan, Hui; Nabhan, Joseph F; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Panettieri, Reynold A; Lu, Quan

2012-05-01

152

A novel mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA{sup Asn} gene associated with a lethal disease  

SciTech Connect

We describe a lethal mitochondrial disease in a 10-month-old child who presented with encephalomyopathy. Histochemical and electron microscopy examinations of skeletal muscle biopsy revealed abnormal mitochondria associated with a combined deficiency of complexes I and IV. After excluding mitochondrial DNA deletions and depletion, direct sequencing was used to screen for mutation in all transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. A T-to-C substitution at position 5693 in the tRNA{sup Asn} gene was found in blood and muscle. Microdissection of muscle biopsy and its analysis revealed the highest level of this mutation in cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibres. We suggest that this novel mutation would affect the anticodon loop structure of the tRNA{sup Asn} and cause a fatal mitochondrial disease.

Coulbault, Laurent [Laboratoire de Biochimie A, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex (France); Herlicoviez, Danielle [Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex (France); Chapon, Francoise [Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex (France); Read, Marie-Helene [Departement de Genetique et Reproduction, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex (France); Penniello, Marie-Jose [Departement de Pediatrie, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex (France); Reynier, Pascal [INSERM U694, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire, 49033 Angers cedex 1 (France); Fayet, Guillemette [INSERM U582-Institut de Myologie, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Pitie-Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Lombes, Anne [INSERM U582-Institut de Myologie, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Pitie-Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Jauzac, Philippe [Laboratoire de Biochimie A, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex (France); Allouche, Stephane [Laboratoire de Biochimie A, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex (France)]. E-mail: allouche-s@chu-caen.fr

2005-04-15

153

Journal of Theoretical Biology 237 (2005) 401411 Lethality and synthetic lethality in the genome-wide  

E-print Network

Journal of Theoretical Biology 237 (2005) 401­411 Lethality and synthetic lethality in the genome deletion, we investigate synthetic lethality in reaction level, where simultaneous deletion of a pair of nonlethal reactions leads to the failure of the biomass reaction. Synthetic lethals identified via flux

Kahng, Byungnam

154

High-throughput Screening of ToxCast" Phase I Chemicals in an Embryonic Stem Cell Assay Reveals Potential Disruption of a Critical Developmental Signaling Pathway  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about the developmental toxicity of the expansive chemical landscape in existence today. Significant efforts are being made to apply novel methods to predict developmental activity of chemicals utilizing high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (...

155

Large Scale Screening of Digeneans for Neorickettsia Endosymbionts Using Real-Time PCR Reveals New Neorickettsia Genotypes, Host Associations and Geographic Records  

PubMed Central

Digeneans are endoparasitic flatworms with complex life cycles including one or two intermediate hosts (first of which is always a mollusk) and a vertebrate definitive host. Digeneans may harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Neorickettsia (order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae). Some Neorickettsia are able to invade cells of the digenean's vertebrate host and are known to cause diseases of wildlife and humans. In this study we report the results of screening 771 digenean samples for Neorickettsia collected from various vertebrates in terrestrial, freshwater, brackish, and marine habitats in the United States, China and Australia. Neorickettsia were detected using a newly designed real-time PCR protocol targeting a 152 bp fragment of the heat shock protein coding gene, GroEL, and verified with nested PCR and sequencing of a 1371 bp long region of 16S rRNA. Eight isolates of Neorickettsia have been obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 7 of these isolates, provisionally named Neorickettsia sp. 1–7 (obtained from allocreadiid Crepidostomum affine, haploporids Saccocoelioides beauforti and Saccocoelioides lizae, faustulid Bacciger sprenti, deropegid Deropegus aspina, a lecithodendriid, and a pleurogenid) represent new genotypes and one (obtained from Metagonimoides oregonensis) was identical to a published sequence of Neorickettsia known as SF agent. All digenean species reported in this study represent new host records. Three of the 6 digenean families (Haploporidae, Pleurogenidae, and Faustulidae) are also reported for the first time as hosts of Neorickettsia. We have detected Neorickettsia in digeneans from China and Australia for the first time based on PCR and sequencing evidence. Our findings suggest that further surveys from broader geographic regions and wider selection of digenean taxa are likely to reveal new Neorickettsia lineages as well as new digenean host associations. PMID:24911315

Greiman, Stephen E.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Pulis, Eric; Fayton, Thomas J.; Curran, Stephen S.

2014-01-01

156

Genome-scale gene/reaction essentiality and synthetic lethality analysis  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethals are to pairs of non-essential genes whose simultaneous deletion prohibits growth. One can extend the concept of synthetic lethality by considering gene groups of increasing size where only the simultaneous elimination of all genes is lethal, whereas individual gene deletions are not. We developed optimization-based procedures for the exhaustive and targeted enumeration of multi-gene (and by extension multi-reaction) lethals for genome-scale metabolic models. Specifically, these approaches are applied to iAF1260, the latest model of Escherichia coli, leading to the complete identification of all double and triple gene and reaction synthetic lethals as well as the targeted identification of quadruples and some higher-order ones. Graph representations of these synthetic lethals reveal a variety of motifs ranging from hub-like to highly connected subgraphs providing a birds-eye view of the avenues available for redirecting metabolism and uncovering complex patterns of gene utilization and interdependence. The procedure also enables the use of falsely predicted synthetic lethals for metabolic model curation. By analyzing the functional classifications of the genes involved in synthetic lethals, we reveal surprising connections within and across clusters of orthologous group functional classifications. PMID:19690570

Suthers, Patrick F; Zomorrodi, Alireza; Maranas, Costas D

2009-01-01

157

Early events of lethal action by tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 {mu}g/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of {sup 3}H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, {beta}-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment.

Raulston, J.E.

1988-01-01

158

Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.  

PubMed

Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. PMID:25036619

Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

2014-10-01

159

The repair of sub-lethal damage and the stimulated repair of potentially lethal damage in Saintpaulia.  

PubMed

The repair of sublethal and potentially lethal damage in stationary resting epidermal cells of Saintpaulia has been investigated. Fractionation experiments reveal an efficient repair of sublethal damage with a half-life of 1.9 hours. No repair of potentially lethal damage was noted when cultivation of the leaves was delayed for 24 hours after irradiation. At delay times of 2, 3 and 4 days some repair of potentially lethal damage has been found. A small pre-dose given 24 hours before a challenging dose improved the cells' chance to regenerate and the improvement has been shown to be compatible with an improved repair of potentially lethal damage induced by X-rays and fast neutrons. It hs been shown that the stimulated repair process takes 12 to 24 hours to develop, is dependent on the size of the pre-dose, has single-hit dose kinetics, and an r.b.e. of 1 for neutrons. With delayed cultivation of 2 days the stimulated repair process leads to an alteration in the shape of the regeneration (survival)-dose relationship which increases the low dose r.b.e. for neutrons from 10 to 35. PMID:6975252

Leenhouts, H P; Sijsma, M J; Litwiniszyn, M; Chadwick, K H

1981-10-01

160

High-throughput Screening of ToxCast? Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell (mESC) Assay Reveals Disruption of Potential Toxicity Pathways  

EPA Science Inventory

Little information is available regarding the potential for many commercial chemicals to induce developmental toxicity. The mESC Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytoxicity (ACDC) assay is a high-throughput screen used to close this data gap. Thus, ToxCast? Phase I chemicals wer...

161

Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

2002-01-01

162

Less lethal weapons: a technologist's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide a comprehensive picture of the wide range of technical, operational, and management issues that must be considered when developing, acquiring or using less lethal weapons for law enforcement agencies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The source of the insights provided in this paper come from a careful reading and critique of the less lethal technology literature and the organization

Raymond L. Downs

2007-01-01

163

Two-Color Cell Array Screen Reveals Interdependent Roles for Histone Chaperones and a Chromatin Boundary Regulator in Histone Gene Repression  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We describe a fluorescent reporter system that exploits the functional genomic tools available in budding yeast to systematically assess conse- quences of genetic perturbations on gene expres- sion. We used our Reporter-Synthetic Genetic Array (R-SGA) method to screen for regulators of core histone gene expression. We discovered that the histone chaperone Rtt106 functions in a pathway with two other

Jeffrey Fillingham; Pinay Kainth; Jean-Philippe Lambert; Harm van Bakel; Kyle Tsui; Lourdes Peña-Castillo; Corey Nislow; Daniel Figeys; Timothy R. Hughes; Jack Greenblatt; Brenda J. Andrews

2009-01-01

164

Studying synthetic lethal interactions in the zebrafish system: insight into disease genes and mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The post-genomic era is marked by a pressing need to functionally characterize genes through understanding gene-gene interactions, as well as interactions between biological pathways. Exploiting a phenomenon known as synthetic lethality, in which simultaneous loss of two interacting genes leads to loss of viability, aids in the investigation of these interactions. Although synthetic lethal screening is a powerful technique that has been used with great success in many model organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, this approach has not yet been applied in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Recently, the zebrafish has emerged as a valuable system to model many human disease conditions; thus, the ability to conduct synthetic lethal screening using zebrafish should help to uncover many unknown disease-gene interactions. In this article, we discuss the concept of synthetic lethality and provide examples of its use in other model systems. We further discuss experimental approaches by which the concept of synthetic lethality can be applied to the zebrafish to understand the functions of specific genes. PMID:22107871

Hajeri, Vinita A.; Amatruda, James F.

2012-01-01

165

Genetics Home Reference: Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type  

MedlinePLUS

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed July 2008 What is platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type? Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type ...

166

3-Dimensional Culture Systems for Anti-Cancer Compound Profiling and High-Throughput Screening Reveal Increases in EGFR Inhibitor-Mediated Cytotoxicity Compared to Monolayer Culture Systems  

PubMed Central

3-dimensional (3D) culture models have the potential to bridge the gap between monolayer cell culture and in vivo studies. To benefit anti-cancer drug discovery from 3D models, new techniques are needed that enable their use in high-throughput (HT) screening amenable formats. We have established miniaturized 3D culture methods robust enough for automated HT screens. We have applied these methods to evaluate the sensitivity of normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cell lines against a panel of oncology drugs when cultured as monolayers (2D) and spheroids (3D). We have identified two classes of compounds that exhibit preferential cytotoxicity against cancer cells over normal cells when cultured as 3D spheroids: microtubule-targeting agents and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Further improving upon our 3D model, superior differentiation of EC50 values in the proof-of-concept screens was obtained by co-culturing the breast cancer cells with normal human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Further, the selective sensitivity of the cancer cells towards chemotherapeutics was observed in 3D co-culture conditions, rather than as 2D co-culture monolayers, highlighting the importance of 3D cultures. Finally, we examined the putative mechanisms that drive the differing potency displayed by EGFR inhibitors. In summary, our studies establish robust 3D culture models of human cells for HT assessment of tumor cell-selective agents. This methodology is anticipated to provide a useful tool for the study of biological differences within 2D and 3D culture conditions in HT format, and an important platform for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:25247711

Howes, Amy L.; Richardson, Robyn D.; Finlay, Darren; Vuori, Kristiina

2014-01-01

167

A High-Content Phenotypic Screen Reveals the Disruptive Potency of Quinacrine and 3?,4?-Dichlorobenzamil on the Digestive Vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum is the etiological agent of malignant malaria and has been shown to exhibit features resembling programmed cell death. This is triggered upon treatment with low micromolar doses of chloroquine or other lysosomotrophic compounds and is associated with leakage of the digestive vacuole contents. In order to exploit this cell death pathway, we developed a high-content screening method to select compounds that can disrupt the parasite vacuole, as measured by the leakage of intravacuolar Ca2+. This assay uses the ImageStream 100, an imaging-capable flow cytometer, to assess the distribution of the fluorescent calcium probe Fluo-4. We obtained two hits from a small library of 25 test compounds, quinacrine and 3?,4?-dichlorobenzamil. The ability of these compounds to permeabilize the digestive vacuole in laboratory strains and clinical isolates was validated by confocal microscopy. The hits could induce programmed cell death features in both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant laboratory strains. Quinacrine was effective at inhibiting field isolates in a 48-h reinvasion assay regardless of artemisinin clearance status. We therefore present as proof of concept a phenotypic screening method with the potential to provide mechanistic insights to the activity of antimalarial drugs. PMID:24217693

Lee, Yan Quan; Goh, Amanda S. P.; Ch'ng, Jun Hong; Nosten, François H.; Preiser, Peter Rainer; Pervaiz, Shazib; Yadav, Sanjiv Kumar

2014-01-01

168

High-throughput screen using a single-cell tyrosine phosphatase assay reveals biologically active inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatase CD45.  

PubMed

Many cellular signaling events are regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation and mediated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are emerging as drug targets, but poor cell permeability of inhibitors has limited the development of drugs targeting these enzymes [Tautz L, et al. (2006) Expert Opin Ther Targets 10:157-177]. Here we developed a method to monitor tyrosine phosphatase activity at the single-cell level and applied it to the identification of cell-permeable inhibitors. The method takes advantage of the fluorogenic properties of phosphorylated coumaryl amino propionic acid (pCAP), an analog of phosphotyrosine, which can be incorporated into peptides. Once delivered into cells, pCAP peptides were dephosphorylated by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and the resulting cell fluorescence could be monitored by flow cytometry and high-content imaging. The robustness and sensitivity of the assay was validated using peptides preferentially dephosphorylated by CD45 and T-cell tyrosine phosphatase and available inhibitors of these two enzymes. The assay was applied to high-throughput screening for inhibitors of CD45, an important target for autoimmunity and infectious diseases [Hermiston ML, et al. (2003) Annu Rev Immunol 21:107-137]. We identified four CD45 inhibitors that showed activity in T cells and macrophages. These results indicate that our assay can be applied to primary screening for inhibitors of CD45 and of other protein tyrosine phosphatases to increase the yield of biologically active inhibitors. PMID:22891353

Stanford, Stephanie M; Panchal, Rekha G; Walker, Logan M; Wu, Dennis J; Falk, Matthew D; Mitra, Sayantan; Damle, Sagar S; Ruble, David; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Bavari, Sina; Barrios, Amy M; Bottini, Nunzio

2012-08-28

169

A Genome-Wide Screen for Regulators of TORC1 in Response to Amino Acid Starvation Reveals a Conserved Npr2/3 Complex  

PubMed Central

TORC1 is a central regulator of cell growth in response to amino acid availability, yet little is known about how it is regulated. Here, we performed a reverse genetic screen in yeast for genes necessary to inactivate TORC1. The screen consisted of monitoring the expression of a TORC1 sensitive GFP-based transcriptional reporter in all yeast deletion strains using flow cytometry. We find that in response to amino acid starvation, but not to carbon starvation or rapamycin treatment, cells lacking NPR2 and NPR3 fail to fully (1) activate transcription factors Gln3/Gat1, (2) dephosphorylate TORC1 effector Npr1, and (3) repress ribosomal protein gene expression. Both mutants show proliferation defects only in media containing a low quality nitrogen source, such as proline or ammonia, whereas no defects are evident when cells are grown in the presence of glutamine or peptone mixture. Proliferation defects in npr2? and npr3? cells can be completely rescued by artificially inhibiting TORC1 by rapamycin, demonstrating that overactive TORC1 in both strains prevents their ability to adapt to an environment containing a low quality nitrogen source. A biochemical purification of each demonstrates that Npr2 and Npr3 form a heterodimer, and this interaction is evolutionarily conserved since the human homologs of NPR2 and NPR3 (NPRL2 and NPRL3, respectively) also co-immunoprecipitate. We conclude that, in yeast, the Npr2/3 complex mediates an amino acid starvation signal to TORC1. PMID:19521502

Neklesa, Taavi K.; Davis, Ronald W.

2009-01-01

170

High-Throughput Screening Reveals a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of the Renal Outer Medullary Potassium Channel and Kir7.1  

PubMed Central

The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) is expressed in the kidney tubule and critically regulates sodium and potassium balance. The physiological functions of other inward rectifying K+ (Kir) channels expressed in the nephron, such as Kir7.1, are less well understood in part due to the lack of selective pharmacological probes targeting inward rectifiers. In an effort to identify Kir channel probes, we performed a fluorescence-based, high-throughput screen (HTS) of 126,009 small molecules for modulators of ROMK function. Several antagonists were identified in the screen. One compound, termed VU590, inhibits ROMK with submicromolar affinity, but has no effect on Kir2.1 or Kir4.1. Low micromolar concentrations inhibit Kir7.1, making VU590 the first small-molecule inhibitor of Kir7.1. Structure-activity relationships of VU590 were defined using small-scale parallel synthesis. Electrophysiological analysis indicates that VU590 is an intracellular pore blocker. VU590 and other compounds identified by HTS will be instrumental in defining Kir channel structure, physiology, and therapeutic potential. PMID:19706730

Lewis, L. Michelle; Bhave, Gautam; Chauder, Brian A.; Banerjee, Sreedatta; Lornsen, Katharina A.; Redha, Rey; Fallen, Katherine; Lindsley, Craig W.; Weaver, C. David

2009-01-01

171

High Content Image-Based Screening of a Protease Inhibitor Library Reveals Compounds Broadly Active against Rift Valley Fever Virus and Other Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

High content image-based screening was developed as an approach to test a protease inhibitor small molecule library for antiviral activity against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and to determine their mechanism of action. RVFV is the causative agent of severe disease of humans and animals throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Of the 849 compounds screened, 34 compounds exhibited ?50% inhibition against RVFV. All of the hit compounds could be classified into 4 distinct groups based on their unique chemical backbone. Some of the compounds also showed broad antiviral activity against several highly pathogenic RNA viruses including Ebola, Marburg, Venezuela equine encephalitis, and Lassa viruses. Four hit compounds (C795-0925, D011-2120, F694-1532 and G202-0362), which were most active against RVFV and showed broad-spectrum antiviral activity, were selected for further evaluation for their cytotoxicity, dose response profile, and mode of action using classical virological methods and high-content imaging analysis. Time-of-addition assays in RVFV infections suggested that D011-2120 and G202-0362 targeted virus egress, while C795-0925 and F694-1532 inhibited virus replication. We showed that D011-2120 exhibited its antiviral effects by blocking microtubule polymerization, thereby disrupting the Golgi complex and inhibiting viral trafficking to the plasma membrane during virus egress. While G202-0362 also affected virus egress, it appears to do so by a different mechanism, namely by blocking virus budding from the trans Golgi. F694-1532 inhibited viral replication, but also appeared to inhibit overall cellular gene expression. However, G202-0362 and C795-0925 did not alter any of the morphological features that we examined and thus may prove to be good candidates for antiviral drug development. Overall this work demonstrates that high-content image analysis can be used to screen chemical libraries for new antivirals and to determine their mechanism of action and any possible deleterious effects on host cellular biology. PMID:25144302

Mudhasani, Rajini; Kota, Krishna P.; Retterer, Cary; Tran, Julie P.; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Bavari, Sina

2014-01-01

172

Directed Energy Non-lethal Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This basic research initiative has been an ongoing interdisciplinary effort to lay the foundation for developing, novel effective and safe non- lethal technologies that alter skeletal muscle contraction and/or neural functioning (i.e., neurosecretion) via...

G. L. Craviso, I. Chatterjee

2010-01-01

173

Lethal effects of Helianthemum lippii (L.) on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts in vitro.  

PubMed

Acanthamoeba spp. commonly cause Acanthamoeba keratitis which is typically associated with the wear of contact lenses. Therefore, finding an economic, efficient, and safe therapy of natural origin is of outmost importance. This study examined the in vitro lethal potential of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Helianthemum lippii (L.) (sun roses) against Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts isolated from patients with amoebic keratitis. Both extracts proved to be potent as regard to their lethal effects on A. castellanii cysts with comparable results to chlorhexidine. The ethyl acetate was more promising with cumulative lethality. It showed a highly significant lethal percentage along the duration of treatment. The analysis of the more potent ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of 2.96 mg/100 g of total phenolics, 0.289 mg/100 ml of total flavonoids and 37 mg/100 mg of total tannins which highlighted their phytomedicinal role. PMID:25031463

Badria, F A; Hetta, M H; Sarhan, Rania M; Ezz El-Din, M H

2014-06-01

174

A High-Throughput Fatty Acid Profiling Screen Reveals Novel Variations in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Related Algae.  

PubMed

Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by gas chromatography (GC) is a common technique for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of acyl lipids. Methods for FAME preparation are typically time-consuming and labor-intensive and require multiple transfers of reagents and products between reaction tubes and autosampler vials. In order to increase throughput and lower the time and materials costs required for FAME preparation prior to GC analysis, we have developed a method in which 10-to-20-mg samples of microbial biomass are transferred to standard GC autosampler vials, transesterified using an emulsion of methanolic trimethylsulfonium hydroxide and hexane, and analyzed directly by GC without further sample handling. This method gives results that are essentially identical to those obtained by the more labor- and material-intensive FAME preparation methods, such as transmethylation with methanolic HCl. We applied this method to the screening of laboratory and environmental isolates of the green alga Chlamydomonas for variations in fatty acid composition. This screening method facilitated two novel discoveries. First, we identified a common laboratory strain of C. reinhardtii, CC-620, completely lacking all ?-3 fatty acids normally found in this organism and showed that this strain contains an inactivating mutation in the CrFAD7 gene, encoding the sole ?-3 desaturase activity in this organism. Second, we showed that some species of Chlamydomonas make ?6-unsaturated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) rather than the ?5 species normally made by the previously characterized laboratory strains of Chlamydomonas, suggesting that there is species-specific variation in the regiospecificity and substrate selectivity of front-end desaturases in this algal genus. PMID:25239975

Pflaster, Erin L; Schwabe, Michael J; Becker, Joyanne; Wilkinson, Melissa S; Parmer, Ashley; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B; Riekhof, Wayne R

2014-11-01

175

Drug repurposing screen reveals FDA-approved inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase and isoprenoid synthesis that block Cryptosporidium parvum growth.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis in humans, can result in fulminant diarrhea and death in AIDS patients and chronic infection and stunting in children. Nitazoxanide, the current standard of care, has limited efficacy in children and is no more effective than placebo in patients with advanced AIDS. Unfortunately, the lack of financial incentives and the technical difficulties associated with working with Cryptosporidium parasites have crippled efforts to develop effective treatments. In order to address these obstacles, we developed and validated (Z' score = 0.21 to 0.47) a cell-based high-throughput assay and screened a library of drug repurposing candidates (the NIH Clinical Collections), with the hopes of identifying safe, FDA-approved drugs to treat cryptosporidiosis. Our screen yielded 21 compounds with confirmed activity against C. parvum growth at concentrations of <10 ?M, many of which had well-defined mechanisms of action, making them useful tools to study basic biology in addition to being potential therapeutics. Additional work, including structure-activity relationship studies, identified the human 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor itavastatin as a potent inhibitor of C. parvum growth (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 0.62 ?M). Bioinformatic analysis of the Cryptosporidium genomes indicated that the parasites lack all known enzymes required for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. Additionally, itavastatin-induced growth inhibition of C. parvum was partially reversed by the addition of exogenous isopentenyl pyrophosphate, suggesting that itavastatin reduces Cryptosporidium growth via on-target inhibition of host HMG-CoA reductase and that the parasite is dependent on the host cell for synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. PMID:23380723

Bessoff, Kovi; Sateriale, Adam; Lee, K Kyungae; Huston, Christopher D

2013-04-01

176

Crystallographic studies of the Anthrax lethal toxin. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The lethal form of Anthrax results from the inhalation of anthrax spores. Death is primarily due to the effects of the lethal toxin (Protective Antigen (PA) + Lethal Factor) from the causative agent, Bacillus anthracis. All the Anthrax vaccines currently in use or under development contain or produce PA, the major antigenic component of anthrax toxin, and there is a clear need for an improved vaccine for human use. In the previous report we described the first atomic resolution structure of PA, revealing that the molecule is composed largely of beta-sheets organized into four domains. This information can be used in the design. of recombinant PA vaccines. In this report we describe additional features of the full-length PA molecule derived from further crystallographic refinement and careful examination of the structure. We compare two crystal forms of PA grown at different pH values and discuss the functional implications. A complete definition of the function of each domain must await the crystal structure of the PA63 heptamer. We have grown crystals of the heptamer under both detergent and detergent-free conditions, and made substantial progress towards the crystal structure. The mechanism of anthrax intoxication in the light of our results is reviewed.

Frederick, C.A.

1996-07-01

177

5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality  

PubMed Central

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs) and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO?/?) mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6?g/kg) or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3?g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO?/? mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1?, TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-10), superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) assay were prevented in 5-LO?/? mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage. PMID:24288682

Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Cardoso, Renato D. R.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Crespigio, Jefferson; Cunha, Thiago M.; Alves-Filho, Jose C.; da Silva, Rosiane V.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

2013-01-01

178

Screening of selected underutilized wild fruit species in a lowland rainforest ecosystem, southwest Nigeria.  

PubMed

Eight indigenous edible fruit species distributed among seven families were harvested from a tropical rainforest ecosystem and screened for their nutritional and anti-nutritional factors. The phenological studies of the fruits revealed that they flower and fruit at different periods and seasons of the year. The results of the phytochemical analysis show that they all contained adequate level of food nutrients required for normal body functioning. The levels of the anti-nutrients obtained are well below the lethal dose. The fruits are potential cheap sources of protein and other essential nutrients that can improve the diets of those facing food crises today. PMID:22794128

Adekunle, Victor A J; Oyerinde, Olubukola V

2012-01-01

179

A Genome-wide Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Screen Reveals Nuclear Factor-?B (NF-?B)-independent Regulators of NOD2-induced Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Secretion.  

PubMed

NOD2 encodes an intracellular multidomain pattern recognition receptor that is the strongest known genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease (CD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. NOD2 functions as a sensor for bacterial cell wall components and activates proinflammatory and antimicrobial signaling pathways. Here, using a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen, we identify numerous genes that regulate secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in response to NOD2 activation. Moreover, many of the identified IL-8 regulators are linked by protein-protein interactions, revealing subnetworks of highly connected IL-8 regulators implicated in processes such as vesicle formation, mRNA stability, and protein ubiquitination and trafficking. A TNF? counterscreen to induce IL-8 secretion in an NOD2-independent manner reveals that the majority of the identified regulators affect IL-8 secretion irrespective of the initiating stimuli. Using immortalized macrophages, we validate the ubiquitin protease, USP8, and the endosomal sorting protein, VPS28, as negative regulators of NOD2-induced cytokine secretion. Interestingly, several genes that affect NOD2-induced IL-8 secretion are present in loci associated with CD risk by genome-wide association studies, supporting a role for the NOD2/IL-8 pathway, and not just NOD2, in the pathogenesis of CD. Overall, this screen provides a valuable resource in the advancement of our understanding of the genes that regulate the secretion of IL-8. PMID:25170077

Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Pliakas, Maria; McDonald, Christine; Núñez, Gabriel

2014-10-10

180

RNAi screening with shRNAs against histone methylation-related genes reveals determinants of sorafenib sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Sorafenib is the first drug currently approved to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, very low response rate and acquired drug resistance makes rare patients benefit from sorafenib therapy, therefore it is urgent to find biomarkers for sorafenib sensitivity. Histone modifications, including histone methylation, have been demonstrated to influence the initiation and progression of HCC. It is of great interest to elicit the possibility whether histone methylation plays a role in regulation of sorafenib sensitivity. In present work, a high throughput RNAi screening with 176 shRNA pools against 88 histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethyltransferases genes was applied to HepG2 cells. Silencing of 3 genes (ASH1L, C17ORF49 and SETD4) was validated to specifically promote HepG2 cells sensitivity to sorafenib. Western blotting results showed that those 3 HMT genes knockdown alone or sorafenib treatments alone both induce AKT/ERK activation. However, combination treatment with sorafenib and silencing of C17ORF49 or SETD4 downregulated AKT phosphorylation and hence induced HCC cells death. Our work may provide potential biomarkers for sorafenib sensitivity and therapeutic combination for sorafenib treatment in HCC patients. PMID:24696725

Li, Guang-Ming; Wang, Yu-Gang; Pan, Qin; Wang, Jun; Fan, Jian-Gao; Sun, Chao

2014-01-01

181

Function of a Plant Stress-Induced Gene, HVA22. Synthetic Enhancement Screen with Its Yeast Homolog Reveals Its Role in Vesicular Traffic1  

PubMed Central

Expression of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) HVA22 gene is induced by environmental stresses, such as dehydration, salinity, and extreme temperatures, and by a plant stress hormone, abscisic acid. Genes sharing high level of sequence similarities with HVA22 exist in diverse eukaryotic organisms, including animals, plants, and fungi, but not in any prokaryotic organisms. The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) HVA22 homolog, Yop1p, has been shown to interact with the GTPase-interacting protein, Yip1p. Deletion of YOP1 led to only a modest reduction of the stationary phase titer at 37C. A synthetic enhancement mutant screen was performed in the yop1 deletion background to identify genes interacting with YOP1. The open reading frame YOR165W (renamed SEY1 for synthetic enhancement of YOP1) was identified as a YOP1-dependent complementation gene. The yeast SEY1 is a homolog of the Arabidopsis RHD3 gene whose mutations cause the accumulation of transport vesicles near the tips of defective root hairs. The yeast double mutant of yop1 and sey1 is defective in vesicular traffic as evidenced by the accumulation of transport vesicles and the decrease in invertase secretion. Based on these observations, we suggest that Yop1p/HVA22 regulates vesicular traffic in stressed cells either to facilitate membrane turnover, or to decrease unnecessary secretion. PMID:12427979

Brands, Alex; Ho, Tuan-hua David

2002-01-01

182

A BLOC-1 Mutation Screen Reveals a Novel BLOC1S3 Mutation in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 8 (HPS-8)  

PubMed Central

Summary Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of lysosome-related organelle biogenesis and is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a bleeding diathesis. Over the past decade, we screened 250 patients with HPS-like symptoms for mutations in the genes responsible for HPS subtypes 1–6. We identified 38 individuals with no functional mutations, and therefore, we analyzed all 8 genes encoding the Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1) proteins in these individuals. Here we describe the identification of a novel nonsense mutation in BLOC1S3 (HPS-8) in a 6 year-old Iranian boy. This mutation caused nonsense mediated decay of BLOC1S3 mRNA and destabilized the BLOC-1 complex. Our patient’s melanocytes showed aberrant localization of TYRP1, with increased plasma-membrane trafficking. These findings confirm a common cellular defect for HPS patients with defects in BLOC-1 subunits. We identified only 2 patients with BLOC-1 defects in our cohort, suggesting that other HPS genes remain to be identified. PMID:22709368

Cullinane, Andrew R; Curry, James A; Golas, Gretchen; Pan, James; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Hess, Richard A; White, James G; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A

2012-01-01

183

A screen for modifiers of cyclin E function in Drosophila melanogaster identifies Cdk2 mutations, revealing the insignificance of putative phosphorylation sites in Cdk2.  

PubMed Central

In higher eukaryotes, cyclin E is thought to control the progression from G1 into S phase of the cell cycle by associating as a regulatory subunit with cdk2. To identify genes interacting with cyclin E, we have screened in Drosophila melanogaster for mutations that act as dominant modifiers of an eye phenotype caused by a Sevenless-CycE transgene that directs ectopic Cyclin E expression in postmitotic cells of eye imaginal disc and causes a rough eye phenotype in adult flies. The majority of the EMS-induced mutations that we have identified fall into four complementation groups corresponding to the genes split ends, dacapo, dE2F1, and Cdk2(Cdc2c). The Cdk2 mutations in combination with mutant Cdk2 transgenes have allowed us to address the regulatory significance of potential phosphorylation sites in Cdk2 (Thr 18 and Tyr 19). The corresponding sites in the closely related Cdk1 (Thr 14 and Tyr 15) are of crucial importance for regulation of the G2/M transition by myt1 and wee1 kinases and cdc25 phosphatases. In contrast, our results demonstrate that the equivalent sites in Cdk2 play no essential role. PMID:10790398

Lane, M E; Elend, M; Heidmann, D; Herr, A; Marzodko, S; Herzig, A; Lehner, C F

2000-01-01

184

Screening in a cell-based assay for inhibitors of microglial nitric oxide production reveals calmodulin-regulated protein kinases as potential drug discovery targets.  

PubMed

A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) production by activated microglia was developed and used to compare the relative activities of various anti-inflammatory compounds and cell-permeable protein kinase inhibitors. BV-2 cells, an immortalized line that retains phenotypic features of microglia and produces NO in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were used in the activation paradigm for the HTS assay. A characteristic feature of the compounds that were the most potent dose-dependent inhibitors of NO production is their ability to modulate serine/threonine protein kinases. The anti-inflammatory compound K252a, an inhibitor of calmodulin (CaM)-regulated protein kinases, had one of the highest potencies in the assay. Other classes of kinase inhibitors, including the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89, the mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors PD98059 and SB203580, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, were less potent and efficacious than K252a or the general serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase inhibitor staurosporine. K252a suppresses production of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). The inhibitory effect of K252a is not due to cell toxicity and does not correlate with inhibition of NFkappaB nuclear translocation. The mechanism of action appears to involve inhibition of phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, a protein whose activity is modulated by phosphorylation by CaM-dependent protein kinases. These data suggest that signal transduction pathways mediated by CaM-dependent protein kinases warrant future study as potential drug discovery targets. PMID:10536268

Mirzoeva, S; Koppal, T; Petrova, T V; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Van Eldik, L J

1999-10-01

185

A Kinase Inhibitor Screen Reveals Protein Kinase C-dependent Endocytic Recycling of ErbB2 in Breast Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

ErbB2 overexpression drives oncogenesis in 20-30% cases of breast cancer. Oncogenic potential of ErbB2 is linked to inefficient endocytic traffic into lysosomes and preferential recycling. However, regulation of ErbB2 recycling is incompletely understood. We used a high-content immunofluorescence imaging-based kinase inhibitor screen on SKBR-3 breast cancer cells to identify kinases whose inhibition alters the clearance of cell surface ErbB2 induced by Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Less ErbB2 clearance was observed with broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220. A similar effect was observed with Go 6976, a selective inhibitor of classical Ca(2+)-dependent PKCs (?, ?1, ?II, and ?). PKC activation by PMA promoted surface ErbB2 clearance but without degradation, and ErbB2 was observed to move into a juxtanuclear compartment where it colocalized with PKC-? and PKC-? together with the endocytic recycling regulator Arf6. PKC-? knockdown impaired the juxtanuclear localization of ErbB2. ErbB2 transit to the recycling compartment was also impaired upon PKC-? knockdown. PMA-induced Erk phosphorylation was reduced by ErbB2 inhibitor lapatinib, as well as by knockdown of PKC-? but not that of PKC-?. Our results suggest that activation of PKC-? and -? mediates a novel positive feedback loop by promoting ErbB2 entry into the endocytic recycling compartment, consistent with reported positive roles for these PKCs in ErbB2-mediated tumorigenesis. As the endocytic recycling compartment/pericentrion has emerged as a PKC-dependent signaling hub for G-protein-coupled receptors, our findings raise the possibility that oncogenesis by ErbB2 involves previously unexplored PKC-dependent endosomal signaling. PMID:25225290

Bailey, Tameka A; Luan, Haitao; Tom, Eric; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Ahmad, Gulzar; George, Manju; Kelly, David L; Natarajan, Amarnath; Raja, Srikumar M; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

2014-10-31

186

Isotope-Assisted Screening for Iron-Containing Metabolites Reveals a High Degree of Diversity among Known and Unknown Siderophores Produced by Trichoderma spp.  

PubMed Central

Due to low iron availability under environmental conditions, many microorganisms excrete iron-chelating agents (siderophores) to cover their iron demands. A novel screening approach for the detection of siderophores using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was developed to study the production of extracellular siderophores of 10 wild-type Trichoderma strains. For annotation of siderophores, an in-house library comprising 422 known microbial siderophores was established. After 96 h of cultivation, 18 different iron chelators were detected. Four of those (dimerum acid, fusigen, coprogen, and ferricrocin) were identified by measuring authentic standards. cis-Fusarinine, fusarinine A and B, and des-diserylglycylferrirhodin were annotated based on high-accuracy mass spectral analysis. In total, at least 10 novel iron-containing metabolites of the hydroxamate type were found. On average Trichoderma spp. produced 12 to 14 siderophores, with 6 common to all species tested. The highest number (15) of siderophores was detected for the most common environmental opportunistic and strongly fungicidic species, Trichoderma harzianum, which, however, did not have any unique compounds. The tropical species T. reesei had the most distinctive pattern, producing one unique siderophore (cis-fusarinine) and three others that were present only in T. harzianum and not in other species. The diversity of siderophores did not directly correlate with the antifungal potential of the species tested. Our data suggest that the high diversity of siderophores produced by Trichoderma spp. might be the result of further modifications of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) products and not due to diverse NRPS-encoding genes. PMID:23064341

Lehner, Sylvia M.; Atanasova, Lea; Neumann, Nora K. N.; Krska, Rudolf; Lemmens, Marc; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2013-01-01

187

A compact, in vivo screen of all 6-mers reveals drivers of tissue-specific expression and guides synthetic regulatory element design  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale annotation efforts have improved our ability to coarsely predict regulatory elements throughout vertebrate genomes. However, it is unclear how complex spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression driven by these elements emerge from the activity of short, transcription factor binding sequences. Results We describe a comprehensive promoter extension assay in which the regulatory potential of all 6 base-pair (bp) sequences was tested in the context of a minimal promoter. To enable this large-scale screen, we developed algorithms that use a reverse-complement aware decomposition of the de Bruijn graph to design a library of DNA oligomers incorporating every 6-bp sequence exactly once. Our library multiplexes all 4,096 unique 6-mers into 184 double-stranded 15-bp oligomers, which is sufficiently compact for in vivo testing. We injected each multiplexed construct into zebrafish embryos and scored GFP expression in 15 tissues at two developmental time points. Twenty-seven constructs produced consistent expression patterns, with the majority doing so in only one tissue. Functional sequences are enriched near biologically relevant genes, match motifs for developmental transcription factors, and are required for enhancer activity. By concatenating tissue-specific functional sequences, we generated completely synthetic enhancers for the notochord, epidermis, spinal cord, forebrain and otic lateral line, and show that short regulatory sequences do not always function modularly. Conclusions This work introduces a unique in vivo catalog of short, functional regulatory sequences and demonstrates several important principles of regulatory element organization. Furthermore, we provide resources for designing compact, reverse-complement aware k-mer libraries. PMID:23867016

2013-01-01

188

Essential Plasticity and Redundancy of Metabolism Unveiled by Synthetic Lethality Analysis  

PubMed Central

We unravel how functional plasticity and redundancy are essential mechanisms underlying the ability to survive of metabolic networks. We perform an exhaustive computational screening of synthetic lethal reaction pairs in Escherichia coli in a minimal medium and we find that synthetic lethal pairs divide in two different groups depending on whether the synthetic lethal interaction works as a backup or as a parallel use mechanism, the first corresponding to essential plasticity and the second to essential redundancy. In E. coli, the analysis of pathways entanglement through essential redundancy supports the view that synthetic lethality affects preferentially a single function or pathway. In contrast, essential plasticity, the dominant class, tends to be inter-pathway but strongly localized and unveils Cell Envelope Biosynthesis as an essential backup for Membrane Lipid Metabolism. When comparing E. coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we find that the metabolic networks of the two organisms exhibit a large difference in the relative importance of plasticity and redundancy which is consistent with the conjecture that plasticity is a sophisticated mechanism that requires a complex organization. Finally, coessential reaction pairs are explored in different environmental conditions to uncover the interplay between the two mechanisms. We find that synthetic lethal interactions and their classification in plasticity and redundancy are basically insensitive to medium composition, and are highly conserved even when the environment is enriched with nonessential compounds or overconstrained to decrease maximum biomass formation. PMID:24854166

2014-01-01

189

Identification of a De Novo Heterozygous Missense FLNB Mutation in Lethal Atelosteogenesis Type I by Exome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Atelosteogenesis type I (AO-I) is a rare lethal skeletal dysplastic disorder characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism and dislocated hips, knees, and elbows. AO-I is caused by mutations in the filamin B (FLNB) gene; however, several other genes can cause AO-like lethal skeletal dysplasias. Methods In order to screen all possible genes associated with AO-like lethal skeletal dysplasias simultaneously, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a female newborn having clinical features of AO-I. Results Exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.517G>A; p.Ala173Thr) in exon 2 of the FLNB gene in the patient. Sanger sequencing validated this variant, and genetic analysis of the patient's parents suggested a de novo occurrence of the variant. Conclusions This study shows that exome sequencing can be a useful tool for the identification of causative mutations in lethal skeletal dysplasia patients. PMID:24624349

Jeon, Ga Won; Lee, Mi-Na; Jung, Ji Mi; Hong, Seong Yeon; Kim, Young Nam; Sin, Jong Beom

2014-01-01

190

Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Siemann, Stefan, E-mail: ssiemann@laurentian.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)

2011-12-09

191

Development of ELISA based detection system for lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Clostridium sordellii and its toxins are associated with diseases in animals as well as human. C. sordellii produces two protein toxins (lethal toxin and haemorrhagic toxin). Lethal toxin has gained more importance due its high toxicity. The present study was carried out to develop a sandwich ELISA for detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii. Methods: The catalytic domain (1.6kb) of lethal toxin of C. sordellii was PCR amplified, cloned into pQE30 UA vector and transformed into Escherichia coli SG 13009. Expression conditions were optimized and the recombinant protein was purified under native condition using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Antibody was generated against the purified recombinant protein using Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants (FCA and FIA) in BALB/c mice and rabbit. A sandwich ELISA was optimized for the detection of lethal toxin. Results: The maximum recombinant protein expression was achieved at 0.5 mM IPTG (isopropylthiogalactoside) induction 4.0 h of post-induction. The polyclonal antibody raised in mice and rabbit showed a titre up to 1:512000. The produced antibody was highly sensitive with the detection limit of 0.3 ng/ml of lethal toxin at 1:4000 dilutions of mice (capturing) and rabbit (revealing) antibody. Interpretation & conclusions: An ELISA based detection system was developed for the detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii. The developed detection system was found to be specific as there was no cross-reactivity with any other clostridial toxins. It will be useful for the detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii in clinical and environmental samples. PMID:23852299

Arya, Preetika; Ponmariappan, S.; Singh, Lokendra; Kumar, Om

2013-01-01

192

Live deaths online: internet suicide and lethality.  

PubMed

The Internet provides an infinite platform for the portrayal of lethal events. Beyond mere display, however, it dispenses information, allows for participation and sharing of content, and constitutes a virtual interactive forum. The Internet may ultimately shape society's approach to perceiving and dealing with death. Thus, psychiatrists may wish to be aware of these matters so that they may be considered in assessments and clinical care. In this article, the author attempts to identify key online locations where lethality is portrayed and how it may affect the individual patient and practitioner and the population at large. PMID:23233475

Klein, Carolina A

2012-01-01

193

Candidate Gene Screen in the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Reveals Six3 as Ancient Regulator of Anterior Median Head and Central Complex Development  

PubMed Central

Several highly conserved genes play a role in anterior neural plate patterning of vertebrates and in head and brain patterning of insects. However, head involution in Drosophila has impeded a systematic identification of genes required for insect head formation. Therefore, we use the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum in order to comprehensively test the function of orthologs of vertebrate neural plate patterning genes for a function in insect head development. RNAi analysis reveals that most of these genes are indeed required for insect head capsule patterning, and we also identified several genes that had not been implicated in this process before. Furthermore, we show that Tc-six3/optix acts upstream of Tc-wingless, Tc-orthodenticle1, and Tc-eyeless to control anterior median development. Finally, we demonstrate that Tc-six3/optix is the first gene known to be required for the embryonic formation of the central complex, a midline-spanning brain part connected to the neuroendocrine pars intercerebralis. These functions are very likely conserved among bilaterians since vertebrate six3 is required for neuroendocrine and median brain development with certain mutations leading to holoprosencephaly. PMID:22216011

Hein, Hendrikje Jeannette; Bucher, Gregor

2011-01-01

194

Small molecule screening reveals a transcription-independent pro-survival function of androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

In prostate cancer (PCa) patients, initial responsiveness to androgen deprivation therapy is frequently followed by relapse due to development of treatment-resistant androgen-independent PCa. This is typically associated with acquisition of mutations in AR that allow activity as a transcription factor in the absence of ligand, indicating that androgen-independent PCa remains dependent on AR function. Our strategy to effectively target AR in androgen-independent PCa involved using a cell-based readout to isolate small molecules that inhibit AR transactivation function through mechanisms other than modulation of ligand binding. A number of the identified inhibitors were toxic to AR-expressing PCa cells regardless of their androgen dependence. Among these, some only suppressed PCa cell growth (ARTIS), while others induced cell death (ARTIK). ARTIK, but not ARTIS, compounds caused disappearance of AR protein from treated cells. siRNA against AR behaved like ARTIK compounds, while a dominant negative AR mutant that prevents AR-mediated transactivation but does not eliminate the protein showed only a growth suppressive effect. These observations reveal a transcription-independent function of AR that is essential for PCa cell viability and, therefore, is an ideal target for anti-PCa treatment. Indeed, several of the identified AR inhibitors demonstrated in vivo efficacy in mouse models of PCa and are candidates for pharmacologic optimization. PMID:19946220

Narizhneva, Natalia V.; Tararova, Natalia D.; Ryabokon, Petro; Shyshynova, Inna; Prokvolit, Anatoly; Komarov, Pavel G.; Purmal, Andrei A.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Gurova, Katerina V.

2010-01-01

195

A Chemical Genomic Screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals a Role for Diphthamidation of Translation Elongation Factor 2 in Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Sordarin? †  

PubMed Central

Sordarin and its derivatives are antifungal compounds of potential clinical interest. Despite the highly conserved nature of the fungal and mammalian protein synthesis machineries, sordarin is a selective inhibitor of protein synthesis in fungal organisms. In cells sensitive to sordarin, its mode of action is through preventing the release of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) during the translocation step, thus blocking protein synthesis. To further investigate the cellular components required for the effects of sordarin in fungal cells, we have used the haploid deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to systematically identify genes whose deletion confers sensitivity or resistance to the compound. Our results indicate that genes in a number of cellular pathways previously unknown to play a role in sordarin response are involved in its growth effects on fungal cells and reveal a specific requirement for the diphthamidation pathway of cells in causing eEF2 to be sensitive to the effects of sordarin on protein synthesis. Our results underscore the importance of the powerful genomic tools developed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to more comprehensively understanding the cellular mechanisms involved in the response to therapeutic agents. PMID:18285480

Botet, Javier; Rodriguez-Mateos, Maria; Ballesta, Juan P. G.; Revuelta, Jose Luis; Remacha, Miguel

2008-01-01

196

Loss of Desmoplakin Tail Causes Lethal Acantholytic Epidermolysis Bullosa*  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), which is located in desmosomes, plays a major role in epithelial and muscle cell adhesion by linking the transmembrane cadherins to the cytoplasmic intermediate filament network. Mutations of DP may cause striate palmoplantar keratoderma, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, skin fragility/woolly hair syndrome, Naxos-like disease, and Carvajal syndrome. DP must be indispensable, because DP-/- mice are early abortive. Here, we report a patient with severe fragility of skin and mucous membranes caused by genetic truncation of the DP tail. The new phenotype is lethal in the neonatal period because of immense transcutaneous fluid loss. The phenotype also comprised universal alopecia, neonatal teeth, and nail loss. Histology showed suprabasal clefting and acantholysis throughout the spinous layer, mimicking pemphigus. Electron microscopy revealed disconnection of keratin intermediate filaments from desmosomes. Immunofluorescence staining of DP showed a distinct punctate intercellular pattern in the patient’s skin. Protein analysis revealed expression of truncated DP polypeptides. Mutational analysis of the patient demonstrated compound heterozygosity for two DP mutations, 6079C?T (R1934X) and 6370delTT, respectively. Aberrant mRNA transcripts that predict premature termination of translation with loss of the three intermediate filament-binding subdomains in the DP tail were detected by RT-PCR. The new dramatic phenotype, which we named “lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa,” underscores the paramount role of DP in epidermal integrity. PMID:16175511

Jonkman, Marcel F.; Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; ter Horst, Henk J.; Timmer, Albertus; Pas, Hendri H.

2005-01-01

197

Genome-wide P-element screen for Drosophila synaptogenesis mutants.  

PubMed

A molecular understanding of synaptogenesis is a critical step toward the goal of understanding how brains "wire themselves up," and then "rewire" during development and experience. Recent genomic and molecular advances have made it possible to study synaptogenesis on a genomic scale. Here, we describe the results of a screen for genes involved in formation and development of the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We screened 2185 P-element transposon mutants representing insertions in approximately 16% of the entire Drosophila genome. We first identified recessive lethal mutants, based on the hypothesis that mutations causing severe disruptions in synaptogenesis are likely to be lethal. Two hundred twenty (10%) of all insertions were homozygous lethal. Two hundred five (93%) of these lethal mutants developed at least through late embryogenesis and formed neuromusculature. We examined embryonic/larval NMJs in 202 of these homozygous mutants using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. We identified and classified 88 mutants with altered NMJ morphology. Insertion loci in these mutants encode several different types of proteins, including ATP- and GTPases, cytoskeletal regulators, cell adhesion molecules, kinases, phosphatases, RNA regulators, regulators of protein formation, transcription factors, and transporters. Thirteen percent of insertions are in genes that encode proteins of novel or unknown function. Complementation tests and RT-PCR assays suggest that approximately 51% of the insertion lines carry background mutations. Our results reveal that synaptogenesis requires the coordinated action of many different types of proteins--perhaps as much as 44% of the entire genome--and that transposon mutageneses carry important caveats that must be respected when interpreting results generated using this method. PMID:16408305

Liebl, Faith L W; Werner, Kristen M; Sheng, Qi; Karr, Julie E; McCabe, Brian D; Featherstone, David E

2006-03-01

198

Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

199

Lethal Malaria: Marchiafava and Bignami Were Right  

PubMed Central

One hundred and twenty years ago, the Italian malariologists Marchiafava and Bignami proposed that the fundamental pathological process underlying lethal falciparum malaria was microvascular obstruction. Since then, several alternative hypotheses have been proposed. These formed the basis for adjunctive interventions, which have either been ineffective or harmful. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Marchiafava and Bignami were right. PMID:23585685

White, Nicholas J.; Turner, Gareth D. H.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

2013-01-01

200

Sarcocystis Species Lethal for Domestic Pigeons  

PubMed Central

A large number of Sarcocystis spp. infect birds as intermediate hosts, but pigeons are rarely affected. We identified a novel Sarcocystis sp. that causes lethal neurologic disease in domestic pigeons in Germany. Experimental infections indicated transmission by northern goshawks, and sequence analyses indicated transnational distribution. Worldwide spread is possible. PMID:20202429

Gruber, Achim D.; Kohls, Andrea; Hafez, Hafez M.; Heydorn, Alfred Otto; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Lierz, Michael

2010-01-01

201

Non-lethal technologies—an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

hilst the focus for this issue of Disarmament Forum is on chemical and biological weapons, sight should not be lost of the spectrum of non-lethal technologies that are being deployed or under development. These technologies will have an increasing impact on war fighting, peace support operations, civil policing and prison control. It is our purpose here to briefly review the

Nick LEWER; Neil DAVISON

202

New Syndrome A Novel Form of Lethal Microcephaly With Simplified Gyral Pattern and Brain Stem Hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on four patients from the same family affected by a lethal form of autosomal recessive microcephaly of prenatal onset. Symptoms include low birth-weight and length with disproportionately small head, fetal distress, apnea, seizures and facial features reminiscent of Amish microcephaly and Bowen-Conradi syndrome. Brain imaging revealed a simplified gyral pattern with normal to slightly thinned cortical gray matter,

Anna Rajab; M. Chiara Manzini; Ganeshwaran H. Mochida; Christopher A. Walsh; M. Elizabeth Ross

2007-01-01

203

Recognition of suicide lethality factors by physicians, mental health professionals, ministers, and college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 180 persons for recognition of suicide lethality factors. Physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, ministers, and college students (30 Ss per group) were studied. Each person completed a 4-choice, multiple-choice test consisting of 13 questions based on factors from the Suicide Potential Rating Scale. Results reveal that physicians and psychiatrists were equal in recognizing the suicide signs and significantly better

Cooper B. Holmes; Michael E. Howard

1980-01-01

204

The Spatial Concentration of Southern Whites and Argument-Based Lethal Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis examines how the spatial concentration of Southern whites is associated with white argument-based lethal violence. Using a well-known measure of spatial segregation (V, the adjusted P* index) among Southern-born whites in U.S. counties in 2000, the results reveal that the spatial concentration of Southern-born whites is only…

Lee, Matthew R.; Shihadeh, Edward S.

2009-01-01

205

Isolation of temperature sensitive mutations blocking clone development in Drosophila melanogaster , and the effects of a temperature sensitive cell lethal mutation on pattern formation in imaginal discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of isolating temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations blocking clone development, based on the analysis of twin spots produced by X-ray induced somatic recombination is reported. From this screen 10 ts mutations were recovered which caused an absence of the lethal-bearing clone at the restrictive temperature. Eight of these mutations were analyzed. Seven proved to be autonomous ts cell lethals and

Pat Simpson; Howard A. Schneiderman

1975-01-01

206

CSNK1E/CTNNB1 Are Synthetic Lethal To TP53 in Colorectal Cancer and Are Markers for Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL) if their simultaneous mutations lead to cell death, but each individual mutation does not. Targeting SL partners of mutated cancer genes can kill cancer cells specifically, but leave normal cells intact. We present an integrated approach to uncovering SL pairs in colorectal cancer (CRC). Screening verified SL pairs using microarray gene expression data of cancerous and normal tissues, we first identified potential functionally relevant (simultaneously differentially expressed) gene pairs. From the top-ranked pairs, ~ 20 genes were chosen for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in 171 CRC patients. To find novel SL pairs, all 169 combined pairs from the individual IHC were synergistically correlated to five clinicopathological features, e.g. overall survival. Of the 11 predicted SL pairs, MSH2-POLB and CSNK1E-MYC were consistent with literature, and we validated the top two pairs, CSNK1E-TP53 and CTNNB1-TP53 using RNAi knockdown and small molecule inhibitors of CSNK1E in isogenic HCT-116 and RKO cells. Furthermore, synthetic lethality of CSNK1E and TP53 was verified in mouse model. Importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that CSNK1E-P53, CTNNB1-P53, MSH2-RB1, and BRCA1-WNT5A were independent prognosis markers from stage, with CSNK1E-P53 applicable to early-stage and the remaining three throughout all stages. Our findings suggest that CSNK1E is a promising target for TP53-mutant CRC patients which constitute ~ 40% to 50% of patients, while to date safety regarding inhibition of TP53 is controversial. Thus the integrated approach is useful in finding novel SL pairs for cancer therapeutics, and it is readily accessible and applicable to other cancers. PMID:24947187

Tiong, Khong-Loon; Chang, Kuo-Ching; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Hong; Hsieh, Ping-Heng; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lai, Wei-Yun; Hsu, Yu-Chin; Chen, Jeou-Yuan; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Shieh, Grace S.

2014-01-01

207

Upregulation of the host SLC11A1 gene by Clostridium difficile toxin B facilitates glucosylation of Rho GTPases and enhances toxin lethality.  

PubMed

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis associated with Clostridium difficile infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients being treated with antibiotics. Two closely related large protein toxins produced by C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, which act identically but at different efficiencies to glucosylate low-molecular-weight Rho GTPases, underlie the microbe's pathogenicity. Using antisense RNA encoded by a library of human expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we randomly inactivated host chromosomal genes in HeLa cells and isolated clones that survived exposure to ordinarily lethal doses of TcdB. This phenotypic screening and subsequent analysis identified solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1; formerly NRAMP1), a divalent cation transporter crucial to host defense against certain microbes, as an enhancer of TcdB lethality. Whereas SLC11A1 normally is poorly expressed in human cells of nonmyeloid lineage, TcdB increased SLC11A1 mRNA abundance in such cells through the actions of the RNA-binding protein HuR. We show that short hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed against SLC11A1 reduced TcdB glucosylation of small Rho GTPases and, consequently, toxin lethality. Consistent with the previously known role of SLC11A1 in cation transport, these effects were enhanced by elevation of Mn(2+) in media; conversely, they were decreased by treatment with a chelator of divalent cations. Our findings reveal an unsuspected role for SLC11A1 in determining C. difficile pathogenicity, demonstrate the novel ability of a bacterial toxin to increase its cytotoxicity, establish a mechanistic basis for these effects, and suggest a therapeutic approach to mitigate cell killing by C. difficile toxins A and B. PMID:23690404

Feng, Yanan; Cohen, Stanley N

2013-08-01

208

Promoting screening mammography: insight or uptake?  

PubMed

The US Preventive Services Task Force has emphasized individualized decision-making regarding participation in screening mammography for women ages 40 to 49. Positive public opinion regarding screening mammography is understandable given that screening advocates have heavily promoted the slogan "early detection saves lives" while ignoring screening harms. The goal of mammography screening advocates is to increase screening participation or uptake. The purpose of this paper is to promote physician and patient insight by presenting the age-related benefit and harms of screening. At age 50, routine screening saves approximately 1 woman per 1000 over 10 years. The life-saving proportion of screen-detected cancers is 5%, which means mammograms must detect 21 cancers to save one life. Almost half of screen-detected cancers represent pseudo-disease and would never become symptomatic yet alone lethal during a woman's lifetime. Consequently, 40- and 50-year-old women are 10 times more likely to experience overdiagnosis and overtreatment than to have their lives saved. Analysis of events and outcomes per single screening round for women ages 40 to 49 show that approximately 9600 screening mammograms, 960 diagnostic exams, and 90 to 140 biopsies are required to save one life. Given the substantial harms of screening, advocates should refocus their priority from promoting uptake to promoting insight. PMID:21057074

Keen, John D

2010-01-01

209

Chemical mutagenesis testing in Drosophila. I. Comparison of positive and negative control data for sex-linked recessive lethal mutations and reciprocal translocations in three laboratories  

SciTech Connect

As part of the validation phase of the Drosophila melanogaster segment of the National Toxicology Program, a comparison has been made of positive and negative controls for sex-linked recessive lethal mutations and reciprocal translocations from three laboratories. This comparison involves approximately 700,000 spontaneous recessive lethal mutation tests, 70,000 spontaneous translocation tests, and screens for genetic damage induced by N-nitrosodimethylamine and ..beta..-propiolactone. Spontaneous frequencies for lethal mutations and translocations were homogeneous in the laboratories regardless of solvent or broods sampled. Inhomogeneity was observed in induced frequencies among laboratories, but the variation was no greater than that found within a laboratory.

Woodruff, R.C.; Mason, J.M.; Valencia, R.; Zimmering, S.

1984-01-01

210

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5450 Rodent dominant lethal assay. (a) Purpose. Dominant lethal (DL) effects cause...

2011-07-01

211

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5450 Rodent dominant lethal assay. (a) Purpose. Dominant lethal (DL) effects cause...

2010-07-01

212

Lethal Time of Centruroides Sculpturatus Venom in Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of sex, weight, and dosage on the lethal time of scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus venom was studied. Sex and weight of the rats did not significantly alter lethal time whereas increased dosages of venom did.

H. L. Stahnke

1967-01-01

213

Concomitant Lethal Mutagenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

RNA virus population dynamics is complex, and sophisticated approaches are needed in many cases for therapeutic intervention. One such approach, termed lethal mutagenesis, is directed at targeting the virus population structure for extinction or error catastrophe. Previous studies have demonstrated the concept of this approach with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by use of chemical mutagens (i.e., 5-azacytidine) as well as by host factors with mutagenic properties (i.e., APOBEC3G). In this study, these two unrelated mutagenic agents were used concomitantly to investigate the interplay of these distinct mutagenic mechanisms. Specifically, an HIV-1 was produced from APOBEC3G (A3G)-expressing cells and used to infect permissive target cells treated with 5-azacytidine (5-AZC). Reduced viral infectivity and increased viral mutagenesis was observed with both the viral mutagen (i.e., G-to-C mutations) and the host restriction factor (i.e., G-to-A mutations); however, when combined, had complex interactions. Intriguingly, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that concomitant HIV-1 exposure to both 5-AZC and A3G resulted in an increase of G-to-A viral mutagenesis at the expense of G-to-C mutagenesis. A3G catalytic activity was required for the diminution in G-to-C mutagenesis. Taken together, our findings provide the first demonstration for potentiation of the mutagenic effect of a cytosine analog by A3G expression, resulting in concomitant HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis. PMID:22426127

Dapp, Michael J.; Holtz, Colleen M.; Mansky, Louis M.

2012-01-01

214

Endocrine Perturbation Increases Susceptibility of Mice to Anthrax Lethal Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) causes vascular collapse and high lethality in BALB\\/cJ mice, intermediate lethality in C57BL\\/6J mice, and no lethality in DBA\\/2J mice. We found that adrenalectomized (ADX) mice of all three strains had increased susceptibility to LT. The increased susceptibility of ADX-DBA\\/2J mice was not accompanied by changes in their macrophage sensitivity or cytokine response to LT.

Mahtab Moayeri; Jeanette I. Webster; Jason F. Wiggins; Stephen H. Leppla; Esther M. Sternberg

2005-01-01

215

Whole-Transcriptome Shotgun Sequencing (RNA-seq) Screen Reveals Upregulation of Cellobiose and Motility Operons of Lactobacillus ruminis L5 during Growth on Tetrasaccharides Derived from Barley ?-Glucan  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus ruminis is an inhabitant of human bowels and bovine rumens. None of 10 isolates (three from bovine rumen, seven from human feces) of L. ruminis that were tested could utilize barley ?-glucan for growth. Seven of the strains of L. ruminis were, however, able to utilize tetrasaccharides (3-O-?-cellotriosyl-d-glucose [LDP4] or 4-O-?-laminaribiosyl-d-cellobiose [CDP4]) present in ?-glucan hydrolysates for growth. The tetrasaccharides were generated by the use of lichenase or cellulase, respectively. To learn more about the utilization of tetrasaccharides by L. ruminis, whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) was tested as a transcriptional screen to detect altered gene expression when an autochthonous human strain (L5) was grown in medium containing CDP4. RNA-seq results were confirmed and extended by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assays of selected genes in two upregulated operons when cells were grown as batch cultures in medium containing either CDP4 or LDP4. The cellobiose utilization operon had increased transcription, particularly in early growth phase, whereas the chemotaxis/motility operon was upregulated in late growth phase. Phenotypic changes were seen in relation to upregulation of chemotaxis/flagellar operons: flagella were rarely seen by electron microscopy on glucose-grown cells but cells cultured in tetrasaccharide medium were commonly flagellated. Chemotactic movement toward tetrasaccharides was demonstrated in capillary cultures. L. ruminis utilized 3-O-?-cellotriosyl-d-glucose released by ?-glucan hydrolysis due to bowel commensal Coprococcus sp., indicating that cross feeding of tetrasaccharide between bacteria could occur. Therefore, the RNA-seq screen and subsequent experiments had utility in revealing foraging attributes of gut commensal Lactobacillus ruminis. PMID:23851085

Lawley, Blair; Sims, Ian M.

2013-01-01

216

Summary report on the performance of the dominant lethal test in rodents  

SciTech Connect

The dominant lethal test procedure in mice and rats screens mainly for induced changes in parental germ cells that lead to chromosomal elimination and death among some of the first-generation progeny of animals treated with mutagenic agent. The classes of chromosomal aberrations that result in dominant lethality are either of chromatid- or chromosome-type deletions and exchanges. Embryonic death resulting from dominant lethal mutations usually are expressed between the two-cell stage and shortly after implantation. Mutagenicity of the test compound is decided by a combination of the increase in the frequency of dead implantation,increase in the number of females with one or more dead implants, reduction in the average number of living embryos, reduction in the average number of implantations, and reduction in the frequency of fertile matings. Generally, the first three criteria, and, in some cases (when the induction rate is high), the fourth criterion are expressed together. The fifth criterion is expressed only when dominant-lethal induction approaches 100% and embryonic death occurs prior to implantation.

Generoso, W.M.

1985-01-01

217

Lethal recurrent hemorrhages of a brainstem cavernoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemorrhages of brainstem cavernomas may cause severe neurological deficits. Surgical strategies are frequently described,\\u000a and advanced neuromonitoring with intraoperative imaging can help neurosurgeons to achieve good results. However, patients\\u000a are often confronted with significant therapeutic risks by the primary doctor before talking to an experienced brainstem neurosurgeon.\\u000a On the other hand, lethal progression with repeated hemorrhages is rarely described, although

Alexandru Vlad Ciurea; Cristian Nastase; Alexandru Tascu; Felix Mircea Brehar

2007-01-01

218

Lethality of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The lethality of the endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I), particularly\\u000a the pancreatic islet cell tumors, has been controversial. We evaluated the cause and age of death in MEN-I kindreds. Our database\\u000a contains 34 distinct kindreds with 1838 members. Reliable death data are available for 103 people (excluding accidents and\\u000a age < 18 years). We

Gerard M. Doherty; John A. Olson; Margaret M. Frisella; Terry C. Lairmore; Jeffrey A. Norton

1998-01-01

219

Bullying and Lethal Acts of School Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Chap. 3, we address a topic that has received considerable research attention over the past decade and has been implicated as a causal\\u000a factor in LSV. It has been reported that many lethal school shootings were in part in retaliation for being bullied. Within\\u000a this chapter, we address prevalence of bullying in the USA and then discuss different forms

Jeffrey A. Daniels; Mary C. Bradley

220

Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality) and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in feeding reduction. However, there were some isolates where either feeding decline was not associated with high virulence, or virulence did not automatically prompt large declines in feeding. These results are discussed in the context of choosing optimum fungal isolates for biopesticide development. PMID:23126549

2012-01-01

221

Health Screening  

MedlinePLUS

Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... pressure High cholesterol Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

222

A cancer screen in zebrafish identifies many ribosomal proteins as haploinsufficient tumor suppressors  

E-print Network

A collection of over 500 lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio), each heterozygous for a recessive embryonic lethal mutation caused by a retroviral insertion, was screened for lines that displayed early mortality and externally ...

Lai, Kevin

2006-01-01

223

Humanized nonobese diabetic-scid IL2r?null mice are susceptible to lethal Salmonella Typhi infection  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever, is host-adapted to humans and unable to cause disease in mice. Here, we show that S. Typhi can replicate in vivo in nonobese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2r?null mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (hu-SRC-SCID mice) to cause a lethal infection with pathological and inflammatory cytokine responses resembling human typhoid. In contrast, S. Typhi does not exhibit net replication or cause illness in nonengrafted or immunocompetent control animals. Screening of transposon pools in hu-SRC-SCID mice revealed both known and previously unknown Salmonella virulence determinants, including Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Our observations indicate that the presence of human immune cells allows the in vivo replication of S. Typhi in mice. The hu-SRC-SCID mouse provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain insights into S. Typhi pathogenesis and devise strategies for the prevention of typhoid fever. PMID:20713716

Libby, Stephen J.; Brehm, Michael A.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; McClelland, Michael; Smith, Kelly D.; Cookson, Brad T.; Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Kinkel, Traci L.; Porwollik, Steffen; Canals, Rocio; Cummings, Lisa A.; Fang, Ferric C.

2010-01-01

224

Lethal mobilization of DDT by cowbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study is an experimental demonstration of lethal mobilization of DDT by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and the effects of food deprivation on the distribution and loss of DDT, DDD, and DDE. The principal experimental group consisted of 20 birds fed a dietary dosage of 100 ppm of DDT for 13 days. After 2 days of full rations of untreated food, they were subjected to food restriction. Food was reduced to 43 percent of normal. Seven of the 20 birds died within 4 days. No birds died in the three control groups, treated as follows: ( 1 ) 20 birds fed 100 ppm DDT for 13 days and full rations of untreated food thereafter, (2) 20 birds fed only untreated food but subjected to food restriction, and (3) 20 birds fed full rations of untreated food throughout. In a pilot study, birds were fed 100, 200, or 300 ppm of DDT and subjected to two periods of food restriction, the first of these immediately after dosage ceased and the second 4 months later. DDT-dosed birds from all dosage levels died in each period of food restriction. Before the weight loss that accompanied food restriction, the brains of DDT-dosed birds had concentrations of DDT and DDD that were far below the lethal range. Concentrations increased rapidly to lethal levels. In these birds, DDT in carcasses decreased while DDD increased. DDT-dosed birds that died during food restriction lost 16 percent of their total body burden of DDT + DDD + DDE, 21 percent of their weight, and 81 percent of their fat. The DDT-dosed birds that were subjected to food restriction but survived lost a significantly greater proportion of their body burden of residues than similarly dosed birds not subjected to weight loss. Brain levels of DDT and DDD in birds that died during food restriction soon after dosage did not differ significantly from brain levels of birds that died in a period of food restriction 4 months after dosage. Concentrations of DDE were significantly higher in the latter group, although they were lower than concentrations considered to be lethal. In contrast, carcass levels of DDT and DDD were significantly lower, and DDE was only slightly higher, in the birds that died in the second period of food restriction. It is concluded that stored DDT residues present a hazard to birds, which utilize stored fat during periods of stress due to reproduction, cold weather, disease, injury, limited food supply, or migration.

Van Velzen, A.C.; Stiles, W.B.; Stickel, L.F.

1972-01-01

225

A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive cell-division mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed Central

A novel screen to isolate conditional cell-division mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed. The screen is based on the phenotypes associated with existing cell-division mutations: some disrupt postembryonic divisions and affect formation of the gonad and ventral nerve cord-resulting in sterile, uncoordinated animals-while others affect embryonic divisions and result in lethality. We obtained 19 conditional mutants that displayed these phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature at the appropriate developmental stage. Eighteen of these mutations have been mapped; 17 proved to be single alleles of newly identified genes, while 1 proved to be an allele of a previously identified gene. Genetic tests on the embryonic lethal phenotypes indicated that for 13 genes, embryogenesis required maternal expression, while for 6, zygotic expression could suffice. In all cases, maternal expression of wild-type activity was found to be largely sufficient for embryogenesis. Cytological analysis revealed that 10 mutants possessed embryonic cell-division defects, including failure to properly segregate DNA, failure to assemble a mitotic spindle, late cytokinesis defects, prolonged cell cycles, and improperly oriented mitotic spindles. We conclude that this approach can be used to identify mutations that affect various aspects of the cell-division cycle. PMID:9649522

O'Connell, K F; Leys, C M; White, J G

1998-01-01

226

Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.  

PubMed

Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures. PMID:19025423

Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

2008-12-01

227

Genetic Screening  

PubMed Central

Current approaches to genetic screening include newborn screening to identify infants who would benefit from early treatment, reproductive genetic screening to assist reproductive decision making, and family history assessment to identify individuals who would benefit from additional prevention measures. Although the traditional goal of screening is to identify early disease or risk in order to implement preventive therapy, genetic screening has always included an atypical element—information relevant to reproductive decisions. New technologies offer increasingly comprehensive identification of genetic conditions and susceptibilities. Tests based on these technologies are generating a different approach to screening that seeks to inform individuals about all of their genetic traits and susceptibilities for purposes that incorporate rapid diagnosis, family planning, and expediting of research, as well as the traditional screening goal of improving prevention. Use of these tests in population screening will increase the challenges already encountered in genetic screening programs, including false-positive and ambiguous test results, overdiagnosis, and incidental findings. Whether this approach is desirable requires further empiric research, but it also requires careful deliberation on the part of all concerned, including genomic researchers, clinicians, public health officials, health care payers, and especially those who will be the recipients of this novel screening approach. PMID:21709145

Burke, Wylie; Tarini, Beth; Press, Nancy A.; Evans, James P.

2011-01-01

228

Gonadosomatic mosaicism for lethal mutations in Drosophila lethal mutations disturbing larval development  

SciTech Connect

Phenogenetic analysis of autonomous lethal mutations obtained by the method of gonadosomatic mosaicism which manifested during larval stages, established that the nuclei of hypodermal cells, salivary glands suprapharyngeal ganglion, pharynx, esophagus, gizzard, and hindgut are the derivatives of the same nucleus (from the first two nuclei of cleavage) as the nuclei of the cells of the imaginal-somatic tissues.

Ivanov, A.I.; Sakharova, N.Yu.

1988-11-01

229

Mutation Induced Extinction in Finite Populations: Lethal Mutagenesis and Lethal Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction is inherently risky, in part because genomic replication can introduce new mutations that are usually deleterious toward fitness. This risk is especially severe for organisms whose genomes replicate “semi-conservatively,” e.g. viruses and bacteria, where no master copy of the genome is preserved. Lethal mutagenesis refers to extinction of populations due to an unbearably high mutation rate (U), and is

C. Scott Wylie; Eugene I. Shakhnovich

2012-01-01

230

Genome-wide siRNA screen reveals a new cellular partner of NK cell receptor KIR2DL4: heparan sulfate directly modulates KIR2DL4-mediated responses  

PubMed Central

KIR2DL4 (CD158d) is a distinct member of the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family in human NK cells that can induce cytokine production and cytolytic activity in resting NK cells. Soluble HLA-G, normally expressed only by fetal-derived trophoblast cells, was reported to be a ligand for KIR2DL4; however, KIR2DL4 expression is not restricted to the placenta and can be found in CD56high subset of peripheral blood NK cells. We demonstrated that KIR2DL4 can interact with alternative ligand(s), expressed by cells of epithelial or fibroblast origin. A genome-wide high-throughput siRNA screen revealed that KIR2DL4 recognition of cells surface ligand(s) is directly regulated by heparan sulfate (HS) glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1 (HS3ST3B1). KIR2DL4 was found to directly interact with HS/heparin, and the D0-domain of KIR2DL4 was essential for this interaction. Accordingly, exogenous HS/heparin can regulate cytokine production by KIR2DL4-expressing NK cells and HEK293T cells (HEK293T-2DL4) and induces differential localization of KIR2DL4 to rab5+ and rab7+ endosomes, thus leading to down-regulation of cytokine production and degradation of the receptor. Furthermore, we showed that intimate interaction of syndecan-4 (SDC4) HS Proteo-Glycan (HSPG) and KIR2DL4 directly affects receptor endocytosis and membrane trafficking. PMID:24127555

Brusilovsky, Michael; Cordoba, Moti; Rosental, Benyamin; Hershkovitz, Oren; Andrake, Mark D.; Pecherskaya, Anna; Einarson, Margret B.; Zhou, Yan; Braiman, Alex

2013-01-01

231

A multifactorial analysis of factors related to lethality after treatment of perforated gastroduodenal ulcer. 1935-1985.  

PubMed Central

One thousand one hundred and twenty-eight patients treated for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer during the years 1935-1985 were studied at the Haukeland University Hospital. The majority of patients (97.7%) were treated surgically. The data was analyzed by contingency tables and chi square testing, and a stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed in order to reveal interactions between variables and to elucidate time trends in lethality rates. The total postperforation lethality was 7.4%, the postsurgical death rate was 6.6%, and the death rate among conservatively treated patients was 42.3%. Lethality was significantly influenced by year of hospital admission and increased markedly with the age of the patients. For all age groups, the lethality decreased markedly with time. Treatment delay was associated with a moderate but significant increase in lethality. In patients with gastric ulcer the lethality was 3.6 times higher than in those with duodenal ulcer. The death rate was similar in the duodenal and pyloric ulcer groups. Death rate decreased with time in both stomach ulcer, duodenal, and pyloric ulcer patients. There was no sex difference and no difference between patients treated with simple suture or gastric resection. PMID:2930287

Svanes, C; Salvesen, H; Espehaug, B; S?reide, O; Svanes, K

1989-01-01

232

Cocaethylene-induced lethality in mice is potentiated by alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice of the heterogeneously bred HS line were concurrently administered intraperitoneal injections of either 95, 75, 60, or 48 mg\\/kg Ccaehylene or 48, 38, or 30 mg\\/kg cocaethylene in conjunction with the non-lethal dose of 6.0 g\\/kg (20% w\\/v) alcohol. Results indicate that alcohol administration significantly potentiated cocaethylene-induced lethality. This observation suggests that alcohol is capable of enhancing the lethal

Susanne M. Meehan; Martin D. Schechter

1995-01-01

233

Riot Control Agents, Tasers, and Other Less Lethal Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less lethal weapons have become increasingly popular for law enforcement use when confronting dangerous, combative individuals\\u000a in the field. On the use-of-force continuum, these technologies occupy an intermediate level between verbal and physical control\\u000a methods and lethal force such as actual firearms. Less lethal weapons include riot control agents, electric stun devices such\\u000a as tasers, and other blunt projectile weapons.

Christian Sloane; Gary M. Vilke

234

ALC/50/ values for some polymeric materials. [Apparent Lethal Concentration fire toxicity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparent lethal concentrations for 50 per cent of the test animals within a 30-min exposure period (ALC/50/) were determined for seventeen samples of polymeric materials, using the screening test method. The materials evaluated included resin-glass composites, film composites, and miscellaneous resins. ALC(50) values, based on weight of original sample charged, ranged from 24 to 110 mg/l. Modified phenolic resins seemed to exhibit less toxicity than the baseline epoxy resins. Among the film composites evaluated, only flame modified polyvinyl fluoride appeared to exhibit less toxicity than the baseline polyvinyl fluoride film.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

1978-01-01

235

Lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii is associated with fatal equine atypical myopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii (TcsL) evokes severe, mostly fatal disease patterns like toxic shock syndrome in humans and animals. Since this large clostridial toxin-induced severe muscle damaging when injected intramuscularly into mice, we hypothesized that TcsL is also associated with equine atypical myopathy (EAM), a fatal myodystrophy of hitherto unknown etiology. Transmission electron microscopy revealed skeletal and heart

Lucia Unger-Torroledo; Reto Straub; Andrea D. Lehmann; Franziska Graber; Christina Stahl; Joachim Frey; Vinzenz Gerber; Hans Hoppeler; Oliver Baum

2010-01-01

236

Genetic Screening  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many genetic disorders can be detected with tests of blood and chromosomes. Genetic screening is the large-scale use of these tests as part of the public health program. Different members of society, worldwide, have advocated genetic screening to achieve different goals. This chapter provides a critical analysis of this controversial issue.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

237

Screen Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game asks you a series of questions about how much time you spend in front of a screen, not being active. It begins by pointing out that since we spend a lot of time in front of computer screens at work or school, additional time at home can really affect how healthy we are. It asks how much time you spend watching TV, playing computer games, and using the computer each day. It then adds up the total amount of screen time you spend every day, and calculates how many hours you spend a year in front of a screen. It also tells you if that's a healthy amount, and suggests ways to stay active while in front of screens.

Omsi

2007-01-01

238

Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

Wilson, Michael

1997-12-01

239

Ants defend aphids against lethal disease.  

PubMed

Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hajek, Ann E

2010-04-23

240

Colon cancer screening  

MedlinePLUS

Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening ... Colon cancer screening can detect polyps and early cancers in the intestines. This type of screening can find ...

241

Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts  

PubMed Central

Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l?1 TSS (25 mg cm?2 day?1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l?1 TSS (83 mg cm?2 day?1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

242

Communication A novel poxvirus lethal to red squirrels  

E-print Network

Short Communication A novel poxvirus lethal to red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) Kathryn Thomas,1 has been implicated in the decline of the red squirrel in the United Kingdom. Virus was isolated from an outbreak of lethal disease in red squirrels in the north-east of England. Experimental infection of captive

243

Non-Lethal Weapons: The Potential and the Pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of non-lethal weapons by the police could significantly reduce the number of episodes involving deadly force. This paper discusses reasons why more effective nonlethal weapons have not been produced, noting in particular the priorities of military research. It also examines logistic barriers to more widespread adoption of non-lethal weapons, including the awkwardness of having the correct weapon on hand

Gilbert Geis; Arnold Binder

1990-01-01

244

Sepsis screening.  

PubMed

NHS Education for Scotland has, in collaboration with the Scottish Patient Safety Programme, made the national early warning score (NEWS) and sepsis screening tool available as a smartphone app. The app provides: a NEWS calculator to alert clinicians to deteriorating patients and acute illness; a sepsis screening tool for the prompt recognition and initiation of treatment of patients with sepsis; an outline of the Sepsis 6 care bundle; and an algorithm to help identify organ dysfunction, severe sepsis, septic shock and when to escalate care. Go to tinyurl.com/sepsis-screening to download the app. PMID:25355121

2014-10-30

245

Hypertension screening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

Foulke, J. M.

1975-01-01

246

TORCH screen  

MedlinePLUS

... a newborn. TORCH stands for toxoplasmosis , rubella , cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and HIV, but it can also include other ... screen infants for infections such as toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, syphilis and others. These infections may lead to ...

247

Vision Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... regular well care office visits. In addition, many day care programs, churches, schools and health departments offer vision ... addition to vision screening that is offered at day care, school or church. In some states a documented ...

248

Increasing use of radical prostatectomy for non-lethal prostate cancer in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Purpose The number of patients in Sweden treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer has increased exponentially. The extent to which this increase reflects treatment of non-lethal disease detected through PSA screening is unknown. Experimental design We undertook a nationwide study of all 18,837 prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy in Sweden from 1988 to 2008 with complete follow-up through 2009. We compared cumulative incidence curves, fit Cox regression and cure models and performed a simulation study to determine changes in treatment of non-lethal cancer, in cancer-specific survival over time, and effect of lead-time due to PSA screening. Results The annual number of radical prostatectomies increased 25-fold during the study period. The five-year cancer-specific mortality decreased from 3.9% (95% CI 2.5 to 5.3) among patients diagnosed between 1988 and 1992 to 0.7% (95% CI 0.4–1.1) among those diagnosed between 1998 and 2002 (p for trend < 0.001). According to the cure model, the risk of not being cured declined by 13% (95% CI 12–14%) with each calendar year. The simulation study indicated that only about half of the improvement in disease-specific survival could be accounted for by lead-time. Conclusion Patients overdiagnosed with non-lethal prostate cancer appear to account for a substantial and growing part of the dramatic increase in radical prostatectomies in Sweden but increasing survival rates are likely also due to true reductions in the risk of disease-specific death over time. Because the magnitude of harm and costs due to overtreatment can be considerable, identification of men who likely benefit from radical prostatectomy is urgently needed. PMID:22927485

Etzioni, Ruth; Mucci, Lorelei; Chen, Shu; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Fall, Katja; Adami, Hans-Olov

2013-01-01

249

Auranofin protects against anthrax lethal toxin-induced activation of the Nlrp1b inflammasome.  

PubMed

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis. The lethal factor (LF) component of this bipartite toxin is a protease which, when transported into the cellular cytoplasm, cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) family proteins and induces rapid toxicity in mouse macrophages through activation of the Nlrp1b inflammasome. A high-throughput screen was performed to identify synergistic LT-inhibitory drug combinations from within a library of approved drugs and molecular probes. From this screen we discovered that auranofin, an organogold compound with anti-inflammatory activity, strongly inhibited LT-mediated toxicity in mouse macrophages. Auranofin did not inhibit toxin transport into cells or MEK cleavage but inhibited both LT-mediated caspase-1 activation and caspase-1 catalytic activity. Thus, auranofin inhibited LT-mediated toxicity by preventing activation of the Nlrp1b inflammasome and the downstream actions that occur in response to the toxin. Idebenone, an analog of coenzyme Q, synergized with auranofin to increase its protective effect. We found that idebenone functions as an inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium channels and thus likely mediates synergy through inhibition of the potassium fluxes which have been shown to be required for Nlrp1b inflammasome activation. PMID:21149629

Newman, Zachary L; Sirianni, Nicole; Mawhinney, Christina; Lee, Margaret S; Leppla, Stephen H; Moayeri, Mahtab; Johansen, Lisa M

2011-03-01

250

Synthetic lethal interaction between oncogenic KRAS dependency and STK33 suppression in human cancer cells.  

PubMed

An alternative to therapeutic targeting of oncogenes is to perform "synthetic lethality" screens for genes that are essential only in the context of specific cancer-causing mutations. We used high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) to identify synthetic lethal interactions in cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS, the most commonly mutated human oncogene. We find that cells that are dependent on mutant KRAS exhibit sensitivity to suppression of the serine/threonine kinase STK33 irrespective of tissue origin, whereas STK33 is not required by KRAS-independent cells. STK33 promotes cancer cell viability in a kinase activity-dependent manner by regulating the suppression of mitochondrial apoptosis mediated through S6K1-induced inactivation of the death agonist BAD selectively in mutant KRAS-dependent cells. These observations identify STK33 as a target for treatment of mutant KRAS-driven cancers and demonstrate the potential of RNAi screens for discovering functional dependencies created by oncogenic mutations that may enable therapeutic intervention for cancers with "undruggable" genetic alterations. PMID:19490892

Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan; Dunn, Ian F; Schinzel, Anna C; Barbie, David A; Kim, So Young; Silver, Serena J; Tamayo, Pablo; Wadlow, Raymond C; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Döhner, Konstanze; Bullinger, Lars; Sandy, Peter; Boehm, Jesse S; Root, David E; Jacks, Tyler; Hahn, William C; Gilliland, D Gary

2009-05-29

251

Ripcorder Screen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ripcorder Screen application allows users to create movies from their Macs' on-screen activities. The application will capture whatever is played on the display and transform it into a QuickTime movie. This can be most useful for users who would like to share information with colleagues or friends seeking to learn more about a particular computer operation or process. This version is compatible with all operating systems running Mac OS X 10.7 and newer.

2012-11-06

252

Lethal and sublethal toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride in early life stages of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to describe the acute lethality and latent toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) on early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish responses to 0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 microg/L concentrations of DDAC were determined using a 96-h standard static renewal method for acute toxicity testing, with three replicates per concentration. Twenty fish per replicate were tested for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae, and 7 fish per replicate were tested for 78-d-old juveniles. Following exposure, survival and growth were evaluated in exposed fish raised in clean water for 2 weeks. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for DDAC were 10.0 to 50.0, 58.5, and 99.7 microg/L for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae and 100 to 250 microg/L for 78-d-old juveniles. Significant decreases in larval growth and survival were noted at all tested concentrations and in all sturgeon age groups. Results of this study reveal age- and concentration-dependent responses to DDAC. Among the age groups tested, the 3-d-old larvae were the most sensitive group. Results also revealed that 96-h lethality testing alone is not adequate for determining the toxicity of DDAC to white sturgeon. PMID:12959544

Teh, Swee Joo; Wong, Cecilia; Furtula, Vesna; Teh, Foo-Ching

2003-09-01

253

Lethal body burdens of polar narcotics: Chlorophenols  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the present study was to measure in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) the lethal body burden (LBB) of three chlorophenols that are known as polar narcotic chemicals. The LBBs of the chlorophenols were compared to LBBs of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to consider if the two classes of narcotic chemicals differ on a body burden level. The LBB of the most acidic chlorophenol was measured at two different levels of pH exposure to determine the influence of the degree of ionization on the magnitude of the LBB. Both n-octanol/water partition coefficients and n-hexane/water partition coefficients of the chlorophenols were determined at different pH levels to consider the influence of ionization on the partition coefficient and to determine the importance of a polar group in the organic phase on the partitioning behavior. Partitioning to n-octanol and n-hexane was used as input in a model to simulate the equilibrium partitioning between hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic and target and nontarget compartments in the fish.

Wezel, A.P. van; Punte, S.S. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Chemistry Group; Opperhuizen, A. [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague (Netherlands). National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management

1995-09-01

254

Internet suicide: communities of affirmation and the lethality of communication.  

PubMed

As a tool of instant information dissemination and social networking, the Internet has made possible the formation and affirmation of public identities based on personality traits that are usually characterized by clinicians as pathological. The wide variety of online communities of affirmation reveals new conditions for permissiveness and inclusiveness in expressions of these socially marginal and clinically pathologized identities. Much the same kind of discourse common to these online communities is evident in some suicide forums. Web sites with suicide as their central raison d'être, taken together, encompass a wide range of ideas and commitments, including many that provide collective affirmation outside of (and often with hostility toward) professional intervention. The paradox of a potentially life-affirming effect of such forums runs counter to a stark dualism between online therapy versus "prochoice" forums and, by extension, to simple models of the influence of ideas on the lethality of suicide. Different forums either intensify or mitigate self-destructive tendencies in ways that are significant for understanding the place of communication in the occurrence of suicide and for therapeutic practice. PMID:23315147

Niezen, Ronald

2013-04-01

255

The nonspecific lethal complex is a transcriptional regulator in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Here, we report the biochemical characterization of the nonspecific lethal (NSL) complex (NSL1, NSL2, NSL3, MCRS2, MBD-R2, and WDS) that associates with the histone acetyltransferase MOF in both Drosophila and mammals. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq analysis revealed association of NSL1 and MCRS2 with the promoter regions of more than 4000 target genes, 70% of these being actively transcribed. This binding is functional, as depletion of MCRS2, MBD-R2, and NSL3 severely affects gene expression genome wide. The NSL complex members bind to their target promoters independently of MOF. However, depletion of MCRS2 affects MOF recruitment to promoters. NSL complex stability is interdependent and relies mainly on the presence of NSL1 and MCRS2. Tethering of NSL3 to a heterologous promoter leads to robust transcription activation and is sensitive to the levels of NSL1, MCRS2, and MOF. Taken together, we conclude that the NSL complex acts as a major transcriptional regulator in Drosophila. PMID:20620954

Raja, Sunil Jayaramaiah; Charapitsa, Iryna; Conrad, Thomas; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Gebhardt, Philipp; Holz, Herbert; Kadlec, Jan; Fraterman, Sven; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Akhtar, Asifa

2010-06-25

256

[Lethal alveolar echinococcosis in a dog: clinical symptoms and pathology].  

PubMed

Epidemiological data indicate a progressing spread of the fox tapeworm in Germany. Here we report on a case of lethal alveolar echinococcosis in a dog from Brandenburg. The patient was clinically presented with abdominal distension. Ultrasonic examination revealed severe structural alterations of the liver and in a fine needle aspiration cytology larval tape worm fragments were suspected. Explorative laparotomy suggested inoperable lesions and the animal was euthanized with unfavorable prognosis. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic echinococcosis. PCR analysis of the liver identified Echinococcus multilocularis, the so called "small fox tapeworm". The infection, reportable in Germany, is an important zoonotic disease that is transmitted by accidentally ingested tapeworm eggs shed by foxes or dogs. The prevalence between 7.6% and 16.7% in the fox population of Brandenburg is significantly lower than in the endemic regions of South and Southwest Germany, however, it is suspected to increase. This underlines the importance of a regional monitoring in domestic animals living in close contact to humans. In this regard, especially dogs should be taken into consideration as a potential definitive host and source of infection for people. PMID:24199383

Meyer, Anja; Conraths, Franz J; Schneemann, Christiane; Wienrich, Volker; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D

2013-01-01

257

Characterization and amino acid sequences of two lethal peptides isolated from venom of Wagler's pit viper, Trimeresurus wagleri.  

PubMed

Two lethal toxins were isolated from Trimeresurus wagleri venom by fast protein liquid chromatography (molecular sieve) and high performance liquid chromatography (reverse phase). The toxins (termed peptide I and II) had mol. wt of 2504 and 2530, respectively, pIs of 9.6-9.9 and lacked phospholipase A, proteolytic, and hemolytic activity. Lethal peptide I had a murine i.p. LD50 of 0.369 mg/kg, while lethal II had a murine i.p. LD50 of 0.583 mg/kg. Peptide I retained full toxicity after autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 40 min. The lethal activity was found to represent less than 1% of the total venom protein, which was only 62-65% of crude venom. The amino acid sequence of peptide I revealed a proline-rich (over 30% of total sequence) sequence unique among snake venom toxins. Lethal peptide II showed the same sequence except for a second tyrosine in the position of histidine (residue No. 10) in peptide I. The toxin lacked antigenic identity with a number of representative neurotoxins and myotoxins. The crude venom shared at least one antigen with Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus venom. This antigen was not Mojave toxin. The toxin appears symptomatologically suggestive of a vasoactive peptide or neurotoxin. PMID:2048140

Weinstein, S A; Schmidt, J J; Bernheimer, A W; Smith, L A

1991-01-01

258

Electron Screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the electron screening effect in the laboratory is critical for a correct interpretation of low-energy nuclear reactions in stars. The theory of electron screening in a stellar plasma is still based on the physics model introduced in 1954 by Salpeter, although the mathematical treatments have been improved significatly in the meantime. Extensive studies of the electron screening effect in different nuclear reactions have shown always the same discrepancy, i.e. the experimental U_egg adiabatic U_e. In the recent years extensive studies of the elctron screening effect in deuterated metals (54 metals and 4 insulators) and other environments have been carried out in Bochum. Experimental results of anomalous enhancements have been interpreted in terms of the Debye plasma model, applied to quasi-free metallic electrons. Within this model, the deduced number of valence electrons per metallic atom also agrees with the corresponding number from the Hall coefficient. The expected temperature dependence of the screening potential has been verified together with the expected Zt scaling (with the metallic host) of the Debye radius.

Raiola, F.

259

Synthetic lethal interactions for the development of cancer therapeutics: biological and methodological advancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic lethal interaction is defined as a combination of two mutations that is lethal when present in the same cell; each\\u000a individual mutation is non-lethal. Synthetic lethal interactions attract attention in cancer research fields since the discovery\\u000a of synthetic lethal genes with either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) provides novel cancer therapeutic targets.\\u000a Due to the selective lethal effect

Shinji Mizuarai; Hidehito Kotani

2010-01-01

260

Screening for cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

Miller, A.B.

1985-01-01

261

Ebola virus-like particles prevent lethal Ebola virus infection  

E-print Network

... successfully immunized mice against Ebola virus using virus-like particles ... exposed to lethal doses of Ebola . The work could serve as ... basis for developing countermeasures to Ebola , which causes hemorrhagic fever with ...

262

Diel Variations in Sensitivity of Fishes to Potentially Lethal Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) exhibited differences in sensitivity to potentially lethal levels of chlorine, formalin, or heat, depending on the time of day of treatment.

Richard E. Spieler; Teresa A. Noeske; Gregory L. Seegert

1977-01-01

263

Exploiting synthetic lethal interactions for targeted cancer therapy  

E-print Network

Emerging data suggests that synthetic lethal interactions between mutated oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes and molecules involved in DNA damage signaling and repair can be therapeutically exploited to preferentially kill ...

Jiang, Hai

264

Lethal Mutagenesis of Poliovirus Mediated by a Mutagenic Pyrimidine Analogue  

E-print Network

Lethal mutagenesis is the mechanism of action of ribavirin against poliovirus (PV) and numerous other RNA viruses. However, there is still considerable debate regarding the mechanism of action of ribavirin against a variety ...

Graci, Jason D.; Harki, Daniel A.; Korneeva, Victoria S.; Edathil, Jocelyn P.; Too, Kathleen; Franco, David; Smidansky, Eric D.; Paul, Aniko V.; Peterson, Blake R.; Brown, Daniel M.; Loakes, David; Cameron, Craig E.

2007-10-01

265

Hearing Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

2012-01-01

266

SCREENING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Field screening methods are used to determine whether a characteristic of interest is present or absent, above and below a predetermined threshold at a given site, or in a concentration within a predetermined range of interest. or the U.S. EPA and the regulated community much emp...

267

Brine shrimp lethality of the compounds from Phryma leptostachya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine shrimp assay-guided fractionation and isolation of the EtOAc soluble fraction ofPhryma leptostachya L. (Phrymacaceae) gave two active compounds, phrymarolin II (1) and ursolic acid (2), which were identified by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 exhibited potent lethality with LD50 value of 0.0013 ?g\\/ml, whereas2 showed moderate lethality with LD50 value of 27.0 ?g\\/ml against brine shrimp. The cytotoxic

SangMyung Lee; ByungSun Min; YungHee Kho

2002-01-01

268

Lethal and sublethal effects of cypermethrin to Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the effects of the insecticide cypermethrin (CY) technical grade and its Sherpa® commercial formulation on Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles assessing lethality, behavior, growth, and abnormalities under standardized laboratory conditions is reported. Observed\\u000a behaviors were identified and categorized by means of a ranking system according to the loss of mobility. Results of acute\\u000a lethal effects indicate higher potency for

M. Gabriela Agostini; Guillermo S. Natale; Alicia E. Ronco

2010-01-01

269

Mechanism by Which Caffeine Potentiates Lethality of Nitrogen Mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is synergistic with many DNA-damaging agents in increasing lethality to mammalian cells. The mechanism is not well understood. Our results show that caffeine potentiates the lethality of the nitrogen mustard 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-methylethanamine (HN2) by inducing damaged cells to undergo mitosis before properly repairing lesions in their DNA. Treatment with low doses of HN2 (0.5 mu M for 1 hr) caused

Ching C. Lau; Arthur B. Pardee

1982-01-01

270

Green tea extract-induced lethal toxicity in fasted but not in nonfasted dogs.  

PubMed

Recent chronic toxicity studies performed on green tea extracts in fasted dogs have revealed some unique dose-limiting lethal liver, gastrointestinal, and renal toxicities. Key findings included necrosis of hepatic cells, gastrointestinal epithelia and renal tubules, atrophy of reproductive organs, atrophy and necrosis of hematopoietic tissues, and associated hematological changes. The polyphenol cachetins (a mixture of primarily epigallocatechin gallate [?55%]; plus up to 10% each of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate) appeared to be the causative agents for the observed toxicities because they are the active ingredients of green tea extract studied. Conduct of the study in nonfasted dogs under the same testing conditions and dose levels showed unremarkable results. Assuming both studies were valid, at the identified no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of each study, systemic exposures (based on area under the curve [AUC]) were actually lower in fasted than nonfasted dogs, suggesting that fasting may have rendered the target organ systems potentially more vulnerable to the effects of green tea extract. The toxicity mechanisms that produced lethality are not known, but the results are scientifically intriguing. Because tea drinking has become more popular in the United States and abroad, the mode of action and site of action of green tea extract-induced lethal toxicities during fasting and the role of other phytochemical components of Folia Camellia sinensis (including nonpolyphenol fractions, which are often consumed when whole-leaf products are presented) warrant further investigation. PMID:21098339

Wu, Kuei-Meng; Yao, Jiaqin; Boring, Daniel

2011-02-01

271

Lethal Injection as a Component of a Therapeutics Toxicology Module  

PubMed Central

Objective. To create and implement a required module that addresses both the clinical and ethical issues surrounding the use of lethal injection as a means of capital punishment. Design. As a component of a pharmacotherapeutics module in toxicology, pharmacy students were introduced to ethical and clinical considerations and controversies with the use of drugs as a means of capital punishment. Basic information was provided on the history of capital punishment and the origins of lethal injection. Pharmacotherapeutic limitations and challenges were presented in the context of clinical and ethical dilemmas. Assessment. Instructed material was assessed using block course examinations that had both objective and subjective components. Students were asked to synthesize information by both purposing a lethal injection reversal protocol and by acting as consults in the fictional design of more effective lethal injection protocols. Students provided formative and summative evaluations of the instruction through regular student liaison meetings and summative course evaluations. Conclusion. Lethal injection as a means of capital punishment in the United States is a controversial and ethically challenging topic on which pharmacists may be consulted and therefore should be knowledgeable about. Students positively evaluated this lethal injection module, which covered multiple clinical and ethical issues. PMID:21931455

2011-01-01

272

Vision Screening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

1993-01-01

273

Revertant Mutation Releases Confined Lethal Mutation, Opening Pandora's Box: A Novel Genetic Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

When two mutations, one dominant pathogenic and the other “confining” nonsense, coexist in the same allele, theoretically, reversion of the latter may elicit a disease, like the opening of Pandora's box. However, cases of this hypothetical pathogenic mechanism have never been reported. We describe a lethal form of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome caused by the reversion of the GJB2 nonsense mutation p.Tyr136X that would otherwise have confined the effect of another dominant lethal mutation, p.Gly45Glu, in the same allele. The patient's mother had the identical misssense mutation which was confined by the nonsense mutation. The biological relationship between the parents and the child was confirmed by genotyping of 15 short tandem repeat loci. Haplotype analysis using 40 SNPs spanning the >39 kbp region surrounding the GJB2 gene and an extended SNP microarray analysis spanning 83,483 SNPs throughout chromosome 13 in the family showed that an allelic recombination event involving the maternal allele carrying the mutations generated the pathogenic allele unique to the patient, although the possibility of coincidental accumulation of spontaneous point mutations cannot be completely excluded. Previous reports and our mutation screening support that p.Gly45Glu is in complete linkage disequilibrium with p.Tyr136X in the Japanese population. Estimated from statisitics in the literature, there may be approximately 11,000 p.Gly45Glu carriers in the Japanese population who have this second-site confining mutation, which acts as natural genetic protection from the lethal disease. The reversion-triggered onset of the disesase shown in this study is a previously unreported genetic pathogenesis based on Mendelian inheritance. PMID:24785414

Ogawa, Yasushi; Takeichi, Takuya; Kono, Michihiro; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Akiyama, Masashi

2014-01-01

274

Newborn Screening for Fabry Disease in Taiwan Reveals a High Incidence of the Later-Onset Mutation c.936+919G>A (IVS4+919G>A)  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease (?-galactosidase A (?-Gal A, GLA) deficiency) is a panethnic inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism. Since optimal therapeutic outcomes depend on early intervention, a pilot program was designed to assess newborn screening for this disease in 171,977 consecutive Taiwanese newborns by measuring their dry blood spot (DBS) ?-Gal A activities and ?-galactosidase/?-Gal A ratios. Of the 90,288 male screenees, 638 (0.7%) had DBS ?-Gal A activity <30% of normal mean and/or activity ratios >10. A second DBS assay reduced these to 91 (0.1%). Of these, 11 (including twins) had <5% (Group-A), 64 had 5–30% (Group-B), and 11 had >30% (Group-C) of mean normal leukocyte ?-Gal A activity. All 11 Group-A, 61 Group-B, and 1 Group-C males had GLA gene mutations. Surprisingly, 86% had the later-onset cryptic splice mutation c.936+919G>A (also called IVS4+919G>A). In contrast, screening 81,689 females detected two heterozygotes. The novel mutations were expressed in vitro, predicting their classical or later-onset phenotypes. Newborn screening identified a surprisingly high frequency of Taiwanese males with Fabry disease (~1 in 1,250), 86% having the IVS4+919G>A mutation previously found in later-onset cardiac phenotype patients. Further studies of the IVS4 later-onset phenotype will determine its natural history and optimal timing for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19621417

Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Lee, Ni-Chung; Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Dobrovolny, Robert; Huang, Ai-Chu; Yeh, Hey-Yin; Chao, May-Chin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Kitagawa, Teruo; Desnick, Robert J.; Hsu, Li-Wen

2009-01-01

275

Newborn screening for Fabry disease in Taiwan reveals a high incidence of the later-onset GLA mutation c.936+919G>A (IVS4+919G>A).  

PubMed

Fabry disease (alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A, GLA) deficiency) is a panethnic inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism. Because optimal therapeutic outcomes depend on early intervention, a pilot program was designed to assess newborn screening for this disease in 171,977 consecutive Taiwanese newborns by measuring their dry blood spot (DBS) alpha-Gal A activities and beta-galactosidase/alpha-Gal A ratios. Of the 90,288 male screenees, 638 (0.7%) had DBS alpha-Gal A activity <30% of normal mean and/or activity ratios >10. A second DBS assay reduced these to 91 (0.1%). Of these, 11 (including twins) had <5% (Group-A), 64 had 5-30% (Group-B), and 11 had >30% (Group-C) of mean normal leukocyte alpha-Gal A activity. All 11 Group-A, 61 Group-B, and 1 Group-C males had GLA gene mutations. Surprisingly, 86% had the later-onset cryptic splice mutation c.936+919G>A (also called IVS4+919G>A). In contrast, screening 81,689 females detected two heterozygotes. The novel mutations were expressed in vitro, predicting their classical or later-onset phenotypes. Newborn screening identified a surprisingly high frequency of Taiwanese males with Fabry disease (approximately 1 in 1,250), 86% having the IVS4+919G>A mutation previously found in later-onset cardiac phenotype patients. Further studies of the IVS4 later-onset phenotype will determine its natural history and optimal timing for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19621417

Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Lee, Ni-Chung; Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Dobrovolny, Robert; Huang, Ai-Chu; Yeh, Hui-Ying; Chao, May-Chin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Kitagawa, Teruo; Desnick, Robert J; Hsu, Li-Wen

2009-10-01

276

Lethal ricin intoxication in two adult dogs: toxicologic and histopathologic findings.  

PubMed

Two adult dogs with the same owner were intoxicated by ingestion of fertilizer composed of residual plant material of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L.). Both dogs died within 2 and 3 days, respectively, after the first signs of vomiting and abundant hemorrhagic diarrhea. Toxicologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on different organs. Histopathologic examination of the kidneys revealed tubular degeneration and necrosis and membranous glomerulonephritis. Additionally, myocardial degeneration with localized inflammation, lymphoid necrosis, and depletion in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes and hemorrhagic ulcerative gastroenteritis were found. The 2 cases could be used to elucidate the lethal dose of ricin and the histopathologic lesions in dogs. PMID:20453230

Roels, Stefan; Coopman, Vera; Vanhaelen, Pascal; Cordonnier, Jan

2010-05-01

277

Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test  

PubMed Central

Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT]) to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v) for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO), 6.4% (methanol), 3.4% (ethanol) and 2.5% (Tween 20). The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT. PMID:24350047

Geethaa, Sahgal; Thavamany, Priscilla Jayanthi; Chiew, Siah Poh; Thong, Ong Ming

2013-01-01

278

Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test.  

PubMed

Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT]) to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v) for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO), 6.4% (methanol), 3.4% (ethanol) and 2.5% (Tween 20). The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT. PMID:24350047

Geethaa, Sahgal; Thavamany, Priscilla Jayanthi; Chiew, Siah Poh; Thong, Ong Ming

2013-10-01

279

Selection and Separation of Viable Cells Based on a Cell-Lethal Assay  

PubMed Central

A method to select and separate viable cells based on the results of a cell-lethal assay was developed. Cells were plated on an array of culture sites with each site composed of closely spaced, releasable micropallets. Clonal colonies spanning multiple micropallets on individual culture sites were established within 72 h of plating. Adjacent sites were widely spaced with 100% of the colonies remaining sequestered on a single culture site during expansion. A laser-based method mechanically released a micropallet underlying a colony to segment the colony into two genetically identical colonies. One portion of the segmented colony was collected with 90% efficiency while viability of both fractions was 100%. The segmented colonies released from the array were fixed and subjected to immunofluorescence staining of intracellular phospho-ERK kinase to identify colonies that were highly resistant or sensitive to phorbol ester-induced activation of ERK. These resistant and sensitive cells were then matched to the corresponding viable colonies on the array. Sensitive and resistant colonies on the array were released and cultured. When these cultured cells were reanalyzed for phorbol ester-induced ERK activity, the cells retained the sensitive or resistant phenotype of the originally screened subcolony. Thus cells were separated and collected based using the result of a cell-lethal assay as selection criteria. These microarrays enabling clonal colony segmentation permitted sampling and manipulation of the colonies at very early times and at small cell numbers to reduce reagent, time and manpower requirements. PMID:21142138

Xu, Wei; Herman, Annadele; Phillips, Colleen; Pai, Jeng-Hao; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

2010-01-01

280

Large Scale RNAi Screen Reveals That the Inhibitor of DNA Binding 2 (ID2) Protein Is Repressed by p53 Family Member p63 and Functions in Human Keratinocyte Differentiation*  

PubMed Central

The inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, ID2, acts as an oncogene and elevated levels of ID2 have been reported in several malignancies. Whereas some inducers of the ID2 gene have been characterized, little is known regarding the proteins capable to repress its expression. We developed siRNA microarrays to perform a large scale loss-of-function screen in human adult keratinocytes engineered to express GFP under the control of the upstream region of ID2 gene. We screened the effect of siRNA-dependent inhibition of 220 cancer-associated genes on the expression of the ID2::GFP reporter construct. Three genes NBN, RAD21, and p63 lead to a repression of ID2 promoter activity. Strikingly NBN and RAD21 are playing on major role in cell cycle progression and mitosis arrest. These results underline the pregnant need to silence ID2 expression at transcript level to promote cell cycle exit. Central to this inhibitory mechanism we find p63, a key transcription factor in epithelial development and differentiation, which binds specific cis-acting sequence within the ID2 gene promoter both in vitro and in vivo. P63 would not suppress ID2 expression, but would rather prevent excessive expression of that protein to enable the onset of keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:21478550

Wu, Ning; Castel, David; Debily, Marie-Anne; Vigano, Maria Alessandra; Alibert, Olivier; Mantovani, Roberto; Iljin, Kristina; Romeo, Paul-Henri; Gidrol, Xavier

2011-01-01

281

Quadruple screen test  

MedlinePLUS

... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

282

Are High-Lethality Suicide Attempters With Bipolar Disorder a Distinct Phenotype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because Bipolar Disorder (BD) individuals making highly lethal suicide attempts have greater injury burden and risk for suicide, early identification is critical. BD patients were classified as high- or low-lethality attempters. High-lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. Mixed effects logistic regression models and permutation analyses examined correlations between lethality, number, and order of attempts. High-lethality attempters reported greater suicidal intent

Maria A. Oquendo; Juan Jose Carballo; Namita Rajouria; Dianne Currier; Adrienne Tin; Jessica Merville; Hanga C. Galfalvy; Leo Sher; Michael F. Grunebaum; Ainsley K. Burke; J. John Mann

2009-01-01

283

Pitfalls of the synthetic lethality screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : an improved design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colony color assay in yeast enables the visual identification of plasmid-loss events. In combination with a plasmid-dependence assay, it is commonly used to identify synthetic interactions between functionally related genes. Frequently, the plasmid carries the ADE3 gene and mutants are recognized as red colonies that fail to produce sectors. In these assays, a high percentage of false-positives is obtained,

Amnon Koren; Shay Ben-Aroya; Rivka Steinlauf; Martin Kupiec

2003-01-01

284

Synthetic lethal RNAi screening identifies sensitizing targets for gemcitabine therapy in pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer retains a poor prognosis among the gastrointestinal cancers. It affects 230,000 individuals worldwide, has a very high mortality rate, and remains one of the most challenging malignancies to treat successfully. Treatment with gemcitabine, the most widely used chemotherapeutic against pancreatic cancer, is not curative and resistance may occur. Combinations of gemcitabine with other chemotherapeutic drugs or biological

David O Azorsa; Irma M Gonzales; Gargi D Basu; Ashish Choudhary; Shilpi Arora; Kristen M Bisanz; Jeffrey A Kiefer; Meredith C Henderson; Jeffrey M Trent; Daniel D Von Hoff; Spyro Mousses

2009-01-01

285

Screening for skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to

Mark Helfand; Susan M Mahon; Karen B Eden; Paul S Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

2001-01-01

286

Georgia Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OneWorld Journeys.com and Washingtonpost.com present Georgia Revealed: Searching for the Soul of the Caucasus. The site showcases a Georgia expedition that occurred April 16-29, the first of three explorations OneWorldJourneys.com have planned this year. Wilderness and nature photographers, journalists, and technicians collaborate here to bring users on their journey through the Caucasus Mountains Region of the Country of Georgia. Georgia Revealed not only features daily journal entries (text, streaming video and audio, and photographs) of the expedition, but also has sections providing background on history, travel, culture, and more. Altogether, this is a very well organized, educational site. We look forward to the next expedition to the Sonoran Desert.

287

Lung cancer screening: rationale and background  

PubMed Central

Abstract The poor outcome in symptomatic lung cancer patients and the much better prognosis when lung cancer is diagnosed and treated at early asymptomatic stages call for screening. As lung cancer predominantly affects smokers and individuals exposed to other carcinogens, screening programs need not include the whole population but only these risk groups. Every screening program will tend to better identify the more indolent tumours that grow slowly enough to be detected by screening before symptoms develop, whereas aggressive fast-growing tumours may present as interval cancers despite screening (length-time bias). Some malignant tumours detected with screening may never cause the person’s death due to competing causes for death, particularly in heavy smokers, such as cardiovascular disease or other cancers (overdiagnosis bias). If a cancer is still lethal despite detection through screening, the affected individual may live longer with the diagnosis of cancer but not longer altogether (lead-time bias). It is likely that this will have a negative effect on that individual’s quality of life. Participation in screening programs may have beneficial as well as adverse effects on smoking habits; in the worst case it may encourage people to continue smoking. Trials assessing chest radiography or sputum microscopy have not demonstrated a reduction in lung cancer mortality through screening, probably because the tests were not sensitive enough. computed tomography promises better sensitivity. Other modern tests such as fibre optic bronchoscopy, analysis of molecular markers or genetic testing in serum, sputum or exhaled air are not yet ready for clinical practice. PMID:22185788

2011-01-01

288

[Bart syndrome associated to lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa (Herlitz form)].  

PubMed

We present the case of a newborn with congenital absence of skin in the anterior part of the left leg that shortly after developed bulla and erosions in hands, feet, ears, buttocks and mouth. The cutaneous biopsy and ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies showed a subepidermal bulla in the lamina lucida, absence of hemidesmosomes and marked decrease of laminin 5, thus establishing the diagnosis of Bart syndrome associated to the Herlitz form of lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Bart syndrome consists of congenital and localized absence of skin, nail abnormalities and mucoc-cutaneous bullae. It is usually associated to dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The Herlitz form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa is a rare variant, usually lethal that is produced by mutations in the genes coding for the anchor protein laminin 5. To our knowledge this is the second case that reports an association between Bart syndrome and lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa and the first in which the results of immunofluorescence mapping are published. PMID:17173830

Casanova, J M; Martí, R M; Baradad, M; Egido, R; Mascaró, J M

2006-12-01

289

Cell Death Processes during Expression of Hybrid Lethality in Interspecific F1 Hybrid between Nicotiana gossei Domin and Nicotiana tabacum  

PubMed Central

Hybrid lethality, a type of reproductive isolation, is a genetically controlled event appearing at the seedling stage in interspecific hybrids. We characterized the lethality of F1 hybrid seedlings from Nicotiana gossei Domin and Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright-Yellow 4 using a number of traits including growth rate, microscopic features of tissues and cells, ion leakage, DNA degradation, reactive oxygen intermediates including superoxide radical (O2?) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and expression of stress response marker genes. Lethal symptoms appeared at 4 d after germination in the basal hypocotyl and extended toward both the hypocotyl and root of the plants grown at 26°C. Microscopic analysis revealed a prompt lysis of cell components during cell death. Membrane disruption and DNA degradation were found in the advanced stage of the lethality. The death of mesophyll cells in the cotyledon was initiated by the vascular bundle, suggesting that a putative factor inducing cell death diffused into surrounding cells from the vascular tissue. In contrast, these symptoms were not observed in the plants grown at 37°C. Seedlings grown at 26°C generated larger amounts of reactive oxygen intermediate in the hypocotyl than those grown at 37°C. A number of stress response marker genes were expressed at 26°C but not at 37°C. We proposed that a putative death factor moving systemically through the vascular system induced a prompt and successive lysis of the cytoplasm of cells and that massive cell death eventually led to the loss of the hybrid plant. PMID:12481061

Mino, Masanobu; Maekawa, Kenji; Ogawa, Ken'ichi; Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi

2002-01-01

290

Characterization of mutations that are synthetic lethal with pol3-13 , a mutated allele of DNA polymerase delta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pol3-13 mutation is located in the C-terminal end of POL3, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase d, and confers thermosensitivity onto the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain. To get insight about DNA replication control, we performed a genetic screen to identify genes that are synthetic lethal with pol3-13. Mutations in genes encoding the two other subunits of DNA

Roland Chanet; Martine Heude

2003-01-01

291

Lethal toxicity of cadmium to Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia aurea  

SciTech Connect

There have been several studies of the lethal toxicity of cadmium to freshwater fishes, but further information is required on a number of points. For example, the shallow slope which is characteristic of the cadmium toxicity curve makes interspecific comparisons difficult. There also is a paucity of information on cadmium toxicity to non-Salmonid European species. As part of a study of the water quality requirements of cultured fish species in the Mediterranean, the authors report on the lethal toxicity of cadmium to two such species, the common carp Cyprinus carpio, and Tilapia aurea, for which little information has previously been reported.

Not Available

1986-09-01

292

On quantifying nonthermal effects on the lethality of pressure-assisted heat preservation processes.  

PubMed

Direct experimental identification and quantification of the pressure contribution to a pressure-assisted sterilization process efficacy is difficult. However, dynamic kinetic models of thermal inactivation can be used to assess the lethality of a purely thermal process having the same temperature profile. Thus, a pressure-assisted process' temperature record can be used to generate a corresponding purely thermal survival curve with parameters determined in conventional heating experiments. Comparison of the actual final survival ratio with that calculated for the purely thermal process would reveal whether the hydrostatic pressure had synergistic or antagonistic effect on bacterial spores survival. The effect would be manifested in the number of log cycles subtracted or added to the survival ratio, and in the length of time at the holding temperature needed to produce the final survival ratio of the combined process. A set of combined treatments would reveal how the temperature and pressure profiles affect the pressure's influence on the process' lethality to either vegetative cells or spores. The need to withdraw samples during the thermal and combined processes would be avoided if the thermal survival parameters could be calculated by the "three endpoints method," which does not require the entire survival curve determination. Currently however, this method is limited to thermal inactivation patterns characterized by up to 3 survival parameters, the Weibull-Log logistic (WeLL) model, for example. PMID:22260125

Peleg, Micha; Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D

2012-01-01

293

Functional Genomics Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Iron Responsive Transcription Factor Aft1 Reveals Iron-Independent Functions  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Aft1 is activated in iron-deficient cells to induce the expression of iron regulon genes, which coordinate the increase of iron uptake and remodel cellular metabolism to survive low-iron conditions. In addition, Aft1 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including cell-cycle progression and chromosome stability; however, it is unclear if all cellular effects of Aft1 are mediated through iron homeostasis. To further investigate the cellular processes affected by Aft1, we identified >70 deletion mutants that are sensitive to perturbations in AFT1 levels using genome-wide synthetic lethal and synthetic dosage lethal screens. Our genetic network reveals that Aft1 affects a diverse range of cellular processes, including the RIM101 pH pathway, cell-wall stability, DNA damage, protein transport, chromosome stability, and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, only a subset of mutants identified are sensitive to extracellular iron fluctuations or display genetic interactions with mutants of iron regulon genes AFT2 or FET3. We demonstrate that Aft1 works in parallel with the RIM101 pH pathway and the role of Aft1 in DNA damage repair is mediated by iron. In contrast, through both directed studies and microarray transcriptional profiling, we show that the role of Aft1 in chromosome maintenance and benomyl resistance is independent of its iron regulatory role, potentially through a nontranscriptional mechanism. PMID:20439772

Berthelet, Sharon; Usher, Jane; Shulist, Kristian; Hamza, Akil; Maltez, Nancy; Johnston, Anne; Fong, Ying; Harris, Linda J.; Baetz, Kristin

2010-01-01

294

Alcohol Screening, Evaluation, and Referral for Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six Veterans' Administration primary care clinics were studied for practice patterns of guidelines for alcohol problem screening and referral for further evaluation and treatment. Analysis of 31 primary care provider interviews and 650 patient electronic records revealed 75 patients (14%) scored positive on the AUDIT–C, but only 4 (5%) were referred. Electronic record prompt with practice guidelines ensured screening, but

Nancy Claiborne; Lynn Videka; Paul Postiglione; Allan Finkelstein; Patricia McDonnell; Robin D. Krause

2010-01-01

295

Switching devices used in the Lethality Test System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lethality Test System (LTS) is an experiment which will utilize a light gas gun-railgun combination to accelerate projectiles for impact studies. The power supply for the railgun consists of an 80 MJ (kinetic) generator-flywheel array used to charge the primary windings of three cryogenic pulse transformers. The secondary windings of these transformers will supply up to 50 MJ of

W. M. Parsons; R. D. Ford; P. Wildi; P. Chowdhuri

1987-01-01

296

Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of six Indian medicinal plants, piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z were tested for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test. Piper longum showed most potent cytotoxic activity. Piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z showed potent activity with LC50 2.4, 8.9 and 4.9, respectively.

R Padmaja; P. C Arun; D Prashanth; M Deepak; A Amit; M Anjana

2002-01-01

297

Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality tests of Magonia glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract of the fruit bark from Magonia glabrata yielded shikimic acid, scopoletin, sitosterol glycoside and 2-O-methyl-l-inositol. Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality activities were observed in this extract. The major constituent, 2-O-methyl-l-inositol, was found to be inactive in two assays but showed moderate activity as a radical scavenger.

Telma L. G. Lemos; Luciana L. Machado; João S. N. Souza; Aluisio M. Fonseca; Juliana L. Maia; Otilia D. L. Pessoa

2006-01-01

298

Evaluation of Brine Shrimp Lethality of Cinnamomum Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum species have long been used as spices. The preliminary bioactive constituent’s identification and brine shrimp lethality activities of ethanolic extracts of seven Cinnamomum species, viz., C. travancoricum, C. walaiwarense, C. wightii, C. verum, C. sulphuratum, C. riparium, and C. perrottetii were evaluated in this study. The results of cytotoxic activity of the bark extracts of seven Cinnamomum species were

Muthiah Maridass

2008-01-01

299

Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

Generoso, W.M.

1983-01-01

300

Subcutaneous wounding postirradiation reduces radiation lethality in mice.  

PubMed

The detonation of an improvised nuclear device during a radiological terrorist attack could result in the exposure of thousands of civilians and first responders to lethal or potentially lethal doses of ionizing radiation (IR). There is a major effort in the United States to develop phamacological mitigators of radiation lethality that would be effective particularly if administered after irradiation. We show here that giving female C57BL/6 mice a subcutaneous surgical incision after whole body exposure to an LD50/30 X-ray dose protects against radiation lethality and increases survival from 50% to over 90% (P = 0.0001). The increase in survival, at least in part, appears to be due to enhanced recovery of hematopoiesis, notably red blood cells, neutrophils and platelets. While a definitive mechanism has yet to be elucidated, we propose that this approach may be used to identify potentially novel mechanisms and pathways that could aid in the development of novel pharmacological radiation countermeasures. PMID:24811864

Garrett, Joy; Orschell, Christie M; Mendonca, Marc S; Bigsby, Robert M; Dynlacht, Joseph R

2014-06-01

301

Physicians' Attitudes About Involvement in Lethal Injection for Capital Punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physicians could play various roles in car- rying out capital punishment via lethal injection. Medi- cal societies like the American Medical Association (AMA) and American College of Physicians have established which roles are acceptable and which are disallowed. No one has explored physicians' attitudes toward their po- tential roles in this process. Methods: We surveyed physicians about how accept-

Neil Farber; Elizabeth B. Davis; Joan Weiner; Janine Jordan; E. Gil Boyer; Peter A. Ubel

2000-01-01

302

Pathophysiological Manifestations in Mice Exposed to Anthrax Lethal Toxin  

PubMed Central

Pathophysiological changes associated with anthrax lethal toxin included loss of plasma proteins, decreased platelet count, slower clotting times, fibrin deposits in tissue sections, and gross and histopathological evidence of hemorrhage. These findings suggest that blood vessel leakage and hemorrhage lead to disseminating intravascular coagulation and/or circulatory shock as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:16177381

Culley, Nathan C.; Pinson, David M.; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Mayo, Matthew S.; LeVine, Steven M.

2005-01-01

303

Help-Seeking Behavior Prior to Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between help-seeking and nearly lethal suicide attempts was evaluated using data from a population-based, case-control study. Measures of help-seeking included type of consultant contacted, and whether suicide was discussed. Findings suggest efforts to better understand the role of help-seeking in suicide prevention deserves…

Barnes, Lauren Seymour; Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo

2002-01-01

304

Non-Lethality of the Mid Factor in Lythrum Salicaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1927 East1 proposed a theory of the inheritance of style-length in tristylic Lythrum Salicaria which involved three factors. One of these, S, was epistatic to the others, and determined Short style as opposed to Mid and Long. The other two, each of which was supposed to give Mid style as opposed to Long, were lethal when homozygous and were

B. A. Fisher; K. Mather

1940-01-01

305

Analysis of Ebola Glycoprotein Sequences from Strains of Varying Lethality  

E-print Network

Analysis of Ebola Glycoprotein Sequences from Strains of Varying Lethality Biochem 218 Spring 2002 Tammy Doukas tdoukas@stanford.edu I. Background and Significance Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease in humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys, caused by infection with Ebola virus, and associated with high

306

Gene family encoding the major toxins of lethal Amanita mushrooms  

E-print Network

, 2007 (received for review August 6, 2007) Amatoxins, the lethal constituents of poisonous mushrooms -amanitin, an amatoxin, and the related bicyclic heptapeptide phallacidin, a phallotoxin, indicating phalloidin phallotoxin amatoxin Mushrooms in the genus Amanita section Phalloideae ac- count for 90% of all

Bruns, Tom

307

The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

308

High-Lethality Status in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent suicidal behaviors in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are often considered communicative gestures; however, 10% complete suicide. This study seeks to identify risk factors for sui- cide within a BPD sample by comparing patients with High- and Low- Lethality attempts. BPD attempters (n = 113) were assessed on dem- ographic, diagnostic, and personality variables: clinical symptoms, suicidal behaviors;

Paul H. Soloff; Anthony Fabio; Thomas M. Kelly; Kevin M. Malone; J. John Mann

2005-01-01

309

Rescue of Progeria in Trichothiodystrophy by Homozygous Lethal Xpd Alleles  

E-print Network

Rescue of Progeria in Trichothiodystrophy by Homozygous Lethal Xpd Alleles Jaan-Olle Andressoo1¤a sensitivity and cancer predisposition to accelerated segmental progeria. We report a variety of biallelic, Jans J, de Wit J, Coin F, Hoogstraten D, et al. (2006) Rescue of progeria in trichothiodystrophy

Boyer, Edmond

310

Regulation of apoptosis by lethal cytokines in human mesothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of apoptosis by lethal cytokines in human mesothelial cells.BackgroundDysregulation of peritoneal cell death may contribute to the complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Chronic peritoneal dialysis and acute peritonitis are both associated with loss of mesothelial cells. In addition, acute peritonitis is characterized by sudden changes in the number of peritoneal leukocytes. However, the factors regulating peritoneal cell survival are

Marina Penélope Catalan; Dolores Subirá; Ana Reyero; Rafael Selgas; Arturo Ortiz-Gonzalez; Jesús Egido; Alberto Ortiz

2003-01-01

311

The Discrete Character of High-Lethality Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to derive lessons about high-lethality adolescent violence from study of the extraordinary increase, and then decrease, in youth homicide arrests over the period 1985-2001 in the United States. This effort continues a long tradition of exploring the possible causes of shifts in homicide rates by examining patterns of violence to see whether there are

Franklin E. Zimring

2005-01-01

312

The Discrete Character of High-Lethality Youth Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to derive lessons about high-lethality adolescent violence from study of the extraordinary increase, and then decrease, in youth homicide arrests over the period 1985-2001 in the United States. This effort continues a long tradition of exploring the possible causes of shifts in homicide rates by examining patterns of violence to see whether there are

Franklin E. Zimring

2004-01-01

313

Standards for lethal response to problem urban wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers face limited options when dealing with problems created by urban wildlife. Destroying an animal that is perceived to be a nuisance is sometimes acceptable; at other times destroying the animal may be controversial. This paper uses the structural norm approach to develop standards for an agency's use of lethal response to problem urban wildlife. The paper describes three structural

Karin Wittmann; Jerry J. Vaske; Michael J. Manfredo; Harry C. Zinn

1998-01-01

314

Contributed Paper Lethal Effects of Water Quality on Threatened  

E-print Network

Contributed Paper Lethal Effects of Water Quality on Threatened California Salamanders but Not on Co-Occurring Hybrid Salamanders MAUREEN E. RYAN, JARRETT R. JOHNSON, BENJAMIN M. FITZPATRICK, LINDA, and Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, U

Shaffer, H. Bradley

315

RESEARCH ARTICLE Lethal Intergroup Aggression by Chimpanzees in Kibale  

E-print Network

relations throughout most or all of their geographic range. Hostilities include aggressive encountersRESEARCH ARTICLE Lethal Intergroup Aggression by Chimpanzees in Kibale National Park, Uganda DAVID intergroup coalitionary aggression is highest for adult males and infants, and lowest for sexually swollen

316

The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

Elks, Martin A.

1993-01-01

317

Galactosamine-Induced Sensitization to the Lethal Effects of Endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of rabbits, rats, and mice with D-galactosamine increased their sensitivity to the lethal effects of lipopolysaccharide several thousand fold. The susceptibility of the animals was highest when the lipopolysacharide was injected together with galactosamine and decreased successively when injection was carried out 1, 2, and 3 hr later. Sensitization was absent when the lipopolysaccharide was administered 1 hr before

Chris Galanos; Marina A. Freudenberg; Werner Reutter

1979-01-01

318

A Multivariate Model of Stakeholder Preference for Lethal Cat Management  

PubMed Central

Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n?=?1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI?=?0.94, RMSEA?=?0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management. PMID:24736744

Wald, Dara M.; Jacobson, Susan K.

2014-01-01

319

Genetic studies: dominant lethal study, sex linked recessive lethal, ames mutagenicity, and heritable translocation test of thermal processed, frozen, electron irradiated, and gamma irradiated chicken. Final report Jun 76-Aug 83  

SciTech Connect

Four samples of chicken meat identified as the frozen control, thermally processed, gamma sterilized (5.9 Mrad), and electron sterilized (5.9 MeV), along with negative and positive controls, were evaluated for genetic activity. The samples were evaluated for ability to induce dominant lethal mutations in spermatid and spermatozoan stages of spermatogenesis in mice fed 35 percent chicken meat. The test meat samples were not observed to have an effect on the incidence of the dominant lethal mutations. However, the positive control failed to give a positive response. The meat samples were investigated for mutagenic activity employing Drosophila melanogaster in the sex linked recessive lethal test. The samples were determined to be nonmutagenic in this test and the positive control gave a significant response. Reduced production of offspring in cultures of Drosophila reared on gamma irradiated chicken which could not be overcome by the addition of vitamins was observed. Pre-incubation tests with and without added mutagens revealed that in no case was a positive result observed in the Ames test from chicken meat without an added mutagen. The manner in which chicken meat was processed had no effect upon the response to the Ames test. A heritable translocation test in mice failed to reveal any cytological evidence of translocation heterozygosity in any of the chicken-containing diets.

Sullivan, D.; Lusskin, R.M.; Thomson, G.M.; Kuzdas, C.D.; Ronning, D.C.

1983-01-01

320

Revealing Rembrandt  

PubMed Central

The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

Parker, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

321

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

322

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.  

PubMed

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

323

Revealing Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size-frequency distribution suggest that smooth plains on Mercury's surface range in age from the end of the period of heavy impact bombardment to as young as perhaps 1 billion years; these ongoing measurements are helping to elucidate the volcanic history of the planet. Mercury's global tectonic history is also revealed by the MESSENGER image and laser altimeter data. Significant evidence for global contraction was seen in Mariner 10 images in the form of widespread lobate scarps. The MESSENGER images show that contractional features are the dominant tectonic landform globally, and the inferred average contractional strain is at least one third greater than previously inferred from Mariner 10 observations. Only three exceptions to the dominance of contractional deformation have been found to date: extensional troughs that include prominent basin-radial systems documented in two basins, the Pantheon Fossae within the 1500-km-diameter Caloris basin and a similar set of features within a newly-imaged 700-km-diameter basin, and a circumferential trough system within the smaller, younger Raditladi basin. That these extensional tectonic features are rare on Mercury, and that they are not seen within basins elsewhere in the Solar System, pose important constraints on the thermal and mechanical evolution of Mercury's interior.

Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

2009-04-01

324

Revealing Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Revealing Things is the Smithsonian Institution's first specifically web based exhibit; both the content and design of the site are fascinating. This work in progress is a prototype of a future, more fully-developed exhibit. It concentrates on "common, everyday objects to tell stories about people, their cultures, and the meanings they associate with their possessions." Items discussed include a 1937 chemistry set, a Vietnam memorial offering, a duckpin bowling ball, an early TV, and a celery vase, among many others. Organized according to theme, era, and object, the exhibit is presented in a new pop-up browser window. Within that window, navigation takes place via "maplets," a connected series of moving colored labels representing the three ways that the exhibit is organized. Users can move slider bars to effect the placement of the labels, and search on terms to create their own thematic or object-based exhibit. When the cursor is placed over an object label, scrolling text introduces it. Alternatively, the site can be navigated via a series of icons that run down the middle of the exhibition page. When an icon is clicked, the series of icons may rearrange. Each exhibit contains a photo of the object, along with written commentary on it. In addition, sound is sometimes available to play period music, or render out loud the exhibition text. The most fully-developed object at this time is "Patched Bellbottoms." Users are advised to read the help files on both the main page and the exhibit page for navigation tips. The exhibit is a fascinating precursor of what could be a new way to interactively view museum exhibits, allowing the user to cast off the restraints of a linear orientation. Note that the exhibit is extremely browser and bandwidth intensive.

1998-01-01

325

Screening Tests for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... information in Spanish ( en español ) Screening tests for women Print a chart of this information Screening tests ... to top More information on Screening tests for women Read more from womenshealth.gov Chlamydia Fact Sheet - ...

326

Toxicological screening  

PubMed Central

Toxicity testing of new compounds is essential for drug development process. The preclinical toxicity testing on various biological systems reveals the species-, organ- and dose- specific toxic effects of an investigational product. The toxicity of substances can be observed by (a) studying the accidental exposures to a substance (b) in vitro studies using cells/ cell lines (c) in vivo exposure on experimental animals. This review mainly focuses on the various experimental animal models and methods used for toxicity testing of substances. The pre-clinical toxicity testing helps to calculate “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” which is needed to initiate the clinical evaluation of investigational products. PMID:21772764

Parasuraman, S.

2011-01-01

327

Identification of a novel RNA virus lethal to tilapia.  

PubMed

Tilapines are important for the sustainability of ecological systems and serve as the second most important group of farmed fish worldwide. Significant mortality of wild and cultured tilapia has been observed recently in Israel. The etiological agent of this disease, a novel RNA virus, is described here, and procedures allowing its isolation and detection are revealed. The virus, denominated tilapia lake virus (TiLV), was propagated in primary tilapia brain cells or in an E-11 cell line, and it induced a cytopathic effect at 5 to 10 days postinfection. Electron microscopy revealed enveloped icosahedral particles of 55 to 75 nm. Low-passage TiLV, injected intraperitoneally in tilapia, induced a disease resembling the natural disease, which typically presents with lethargy, ocular alterations, and skin erosions, with >80% mortality. Histological changes included congestion of the internal organs (kidneys and brain) with foci of gliosis and perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes in the brain cortex; ocular inflammation included endophthalmitis and cataractous changes of the lens. The cohabitation of healthy and diseased fish demonstrated that the disease is contagious and that mortalities (80 to 100%) occur within a few days. Fish surviving the initial mortality were immune to further TiLV infections, suggesting the mounting of a protective immune response. Screening cDNA libraries identified a TiLV-specific sequence, allowing the design of a PCR-based diagnostic test. This test enables the specific identification of TiLV in tilapines and should help control the spread of this virus worldwide. PMID:25232154

Eyngor, Marina; Zamostiano, Rachel; Kembou Tsofack, Japhette Esther; Berkowitz, Asaf; Bercovier, Hillel; Tinman, Simon; Lev, Menachem; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Galeotti, Marco; Bacharach, Eran; Eldar, Avi

2014-12-01

328

Purification and biophysical characterization of the core protease domain of anthrax lethal factor  

SciTech Connect

Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) stands for the major virulence factor of the anthrax disease. It comprises a 90 kDa highly specific metalloprotease, the anthrax lethal factor (LF). LF possesses a catalytic Zn{sup 2+} binding site and is highly specific against MAPK kinases, thus representing the most potent native biomolecule to alter and inactivate MKK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinases] signalling pathways. Given the importance of the interaction between LF and substrate for the development of anti-anthrax agents as well as the potential treatment of nascent tumours, the analysis of the structure and dynamic properties of the LF catalytic site are essential to elucidate its enzymatic properties. Here we report the recombinant expression and purification of a C-terminal part of LF (LF{sub 672-776}) that harbours the enzyme's core protease domain. The biophysical characterization and backbone assignments ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) of the polypeptide revealed a stable, well folded structure even in the absence of Zn{sup 2+}, suitable for high resolution structural analysis by NMR.

Gkazonis, Petros V.; Dalkas, Georgios A.; Chasapis, Christos T. [Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)] [Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios [Department of Biochemistry, Foundation for Biomedical Research (BRFAA), Academy of Athens, GR-11527 Athens (Greece)] [Department of Biochemistry, Foundation for Biomedical Research (BRFAA), Academy of Athens, GR-11527 Athens (Greece); Bentrop, Detlef [Institute of Physiology II, University of Freiburg, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany)] [Institute of Physiology II, University of Freiburg, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Spyroulias, Georgios A., E-mail: G.A.Spyroulias@upatras.gr [Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

2010-06-04

329

Disruption of the Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase Gene in Mice Causes Embryonic Lethality and Mitochondrial Defects*  

PubMed Central

Most of the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in mammalian cells is synthesized by two pathways, the CDP-ethanolamine pathway and the phosphatidylserine (PS) decarboxylation pathway, the final steps of which operate at spatially distinct sites, the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, respectively. We investigated the importance of the mitochondrial pathway for PE synthesis in mice by generating mice lacking PS decarboxylase activity. Disruption of Pisd in mice resulted in lethality between days 8 and 10 of embryonic development. Electron microscopy of Pisd?/? embryos revealed large numbers of aberrantly shaped mitochondria. In addition, fluorescence confocal microscopy of Pisd?/? embryonic fibroblasts showed fragmented mitochondria. PS decarboxylase activity and mRNA levels in Pisd+/? tissues were approximately one-half of those in wild-type mice. However, heterozygous mice appeared normal, exhibited normal vitality, and the phospholipid composition of livers, testes, brains, and of mitochondria isolated from livers, was the same as in wild-type littermates. The amount and activity of a key enzyme of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for PE synthesis, CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase, were increased by 35–40 and 100%, respectively, in tissues of Pisd+/? mice, as judged by immunoblotting; PE synthesis from [3H]ethanolamine was correspondingly increased in hepatocytes. We conclude that the CDP-ethanolamine pathway in mice cannot substitute for a lack of PS decarboxylase during development. Moreover, elimination of PE production in mitochondria causes fragmented, misshapen mitochondria, an abnormality that likely contributes to the embryonic lethality. PMID:16192276

Steenbergen, Rineke; Nanowski, Terry S.; Beigneux, Anne; Kulinski, Agnes; Young, Stephen G.; Vance, Jean E.

2010-01-01

330

Erythropoiesis suppression is associated with anthrax lethal toxin-mediated pathogenic progression.  

PubMed

Anthrax is a disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which results in high mortality in animals and humans. Although some of the mechanisms are already known such as asphyxia, extensive knowledge of molecular pathogenesis of this disease is deficient and remains to be further investigated. Lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of B. anthracis and a specific inhibitor/protease of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs). Anthrax LT causes lethality and induces certain anthrax-like symptoms, such as anemia and hypoxia, in experimental mice. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the downstream pathways of MAPKKs, and are important for erythropoiesis. This prompted us to hypothesize that anemia and hypoxia may in part be exacerbated by erythropoietic dysfunction. As revealed by colony-forming cell assays in this study, LT challenges significantly reduced mouse erythroid progenitor cells. In addition, in a proteolytic activity-dependent manner, LT suppressed cell survival and differentiation of cord blood CD34(+)-derived erythroblasts in vitro. Suppression of cell numbers and the percentage of erythroblasts in the bone marrow were detected in LT-challenged C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, erythropoiesis was provoked through treatments of erythropoietin, significantly ameliorating the anemia and reducing the mortality of LT-treated mice. These data suggested that suppressed erythropoiesis is part of the pathophysiology of LT-mediated intoxication. Because specific treatments to overcome LT-mediated pathogenesis are still lacking, these efforts may help the development of effective treatments against anthrax. PMID:23977125

Chang, Hsin-Hou; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Chen, Po-Kong; Lin, Yo-Yin; Liao, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Ting-Kai; Chiang, Ya-Wen; Lin, Wen-Bin; Chiang, Chih-Yu; Kau, Jyh-Hwa; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chi-Yuan; Sun, Der-Shan

2013-01-01

331

Malignant gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum with distant metastases and a lethal course  

PubMed Central

Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is rare and has been regarded as benign in general with a good prognosis. We present a patient with duodenal GP showing a malignant and lethal clinical course. A 47-year-old male patient was found to have a duodenal tumor and enlarged regional lymph nodes. The patient initially underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy to resect the tumor and involved lymph nodes completely. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed findings typical of GP. However, the distant metastatic lesions in the liver and pelvic cavity were rapidly observed after surgery. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as a second surgery to partly remove the metastatic mass in the pelvic cavity. The histological examination revealed no significant difference in histological features between the primary duodenal tumor and the metastatic pelvic mass. However, the patient finally died of the tumor due to the recurrence of the residual pelvic lesion and increased liver mass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lethal GP with multifocal metastases. Our case confirms that GP should be regarded as a malignant potential tumor with behavior code of “1”, rather than a benign tumor of “0”. PMID:25386095

Li, Bin; Li, Yang; Tian, Xiao-Ying; Luo, Bo-Ning; Li, Zhi

2014-01-01

332

Role of Natural Killer Cells in Innate Protection against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection  

E-print Network

Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1–3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injection enhanced the numbers of natural killer (NK) cells in lymphoid tissues. In contrast to live Ebola virus, VLP treatment of NK cells enhanced cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive targets. Unlike wild-type mice, treatment of NK-deficient or-depleted mice with VLPs had no protective effect against Ebola virus infection and NK cells treated with VLPs protected against Ebola virus infection when adoptively transferred to naive mice. The mechanism of NK cell–mediated protection clearly depended on perforin, but not interferon-? secretion. Particles containing only VP40 were sufficient to induce NK cell responses and provide protection from infection in the absence of the viral GP. These findings revealed a decisive role for NK cells during lethal Ebola virus infection. This work should open new doors for better understanding

Kelly L. Warfield; Jeremy G. Perkins; Dana L. Swenson; Emily M. Deal; Catharine M. Bosio; M. Javad Aman; Wayne M. Yokoyama; Howard A. Young; Sina Bavari

333

Anthrax Lethal Toxin Promotes Dephosphorylation of TTP and Formation of Processing bodies  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is composed of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) – PA is the receptor-binding moiety and LF is a protease that cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs). LeTx subverts the immune response to B. anthracis in several ways, such as downregulating interleukin-8 (IL-8) by increasing the rate of IL-8 mRNA degradation. Many transcripts are regulated through cis-acting elements that bind proteins that either impede or promote degradation. Some of these RNA binding proteins are regulated by MAPKs and previous work has demonstrated that interfering with MAPK signaling decreases the half-life of IL-8 mRNA. Here, we have localized a segment within the IL-8 3? untranslated region responsible for LeTx-induced transcript destabilization and show that this is caused by inhibition of the p38, ERK, and JNK pathways. TTP, an RNA binding protein involved in IL-8 mRNA decay, became hypophosphorylated in LeTx-treated cells and knock-down of TTP prevented LeTx from destabilizing the IL-8 transcript. Cells that were treated with LeTx exhibited increased localization of TTP to Processing-bodies, which are structures that accumulate transcripts targeted for degradation. We furthermore observed that LeTx promoted the formation of Processing-bodies, revealing a link between the toxin and a major mRNA decay pathway. PMID:19995385

Chow, Edith M.C.; Batty, Sarah; Mogridge, Jeremy

2010-01-01

334

Using photopigment biomarkers to quantify sub-lethal effects of petroleum pollution on natural phytoplankton assemblages  

SciTech Connect

Although much work has been undertaken to determine the toxicity of petroleum pollutants to phytoplankton, most studies have used pure cultures to monitor growth of selected phytoplankton species. Fewer have considered the net effect on entire microalgal communities. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize diagnostic microalgal pigments, the authors were able to simultaneously assess sub-lethal pollutant effects on entire communities as well as on individual phytoplankton functional groups. Incubations of natural water samples with diesel fuel, an important contributor to coastal petroleum pollution, revealed significant changes in photopigments and relative abundance of taxonomic groups at sub-lethal concentrations. Differential rates of change of indicator pigment concentrations suggest a range of sensitivity among phytoplankton groups. In preliminary experiments, cyanobacteria exhibited the greatest overall tolerance to the diesel fuel concentrations tested, while cryptomonads displayed the most sensitivity. The authors are currently evaluating the responses of seasonal phytoplankton populations from 3 sites exposed to varied levels of petroleum pollution. HPLC will be used to characterize phytoplankton populations and to determine if the most abundant groups are also the most tolerant of diesel fuel. Preliminary experiments indicate that diesel fuel pollution may modify the structure and function of phytoplankton communities and subsequently alter the trophodynamics of impacted systems.

Swistak, J.; Pinckney, J.; Piehler, M.; Paerl, H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Morehead City, NC (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences

1995-12-31

335

Suppression of a Lethal Trisomic Phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster by Increased Dosage of an Unlinked Locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most extreme examples of gene dosage sensitivity is the Triplo-lethal locus (Tpl) on the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, which is lethal when present in either one or three copies. Increased dosage of an unlinked locus, Zsis, suppresses the triplo-lethal phenotype of Tpl, but not the haplo-lethal phenotype. We have mapped Zsis to the X chromosome region

Douglas R. Dorer; Marilyn A. Cadden; Beth Gordesky-Gold; Garth Harries; Alan C. Christensen

1993-01-01

336

9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.  

... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products...hazard that an establishment producing post-lethality exposed RTE products...

2014-01-01

337

9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products...hazard that an establishment producing post-lethality exposed RTE products...

2010-01-01

338

9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products...hazard that an establishment producing post-lethality exposed RTE products...

2011-01-01

339

Rat survival to anthrax lethal toxin is likely controlled by a single gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether survival of different rat strains administered anthrax lethal toxin is genetically determined. A reproducible test population of first filial generation hybrid rats was bred based on the susceptibility of progenitors to anthrax lethal toxin and to maximize genetic diversity across the strains. These rats were then tested with varying doses of anthrax lethal toxin. We found that

S H Nye; A L Wittenburg; D L Evans; J A O'Connor; R J Roman; H J Jacob

2008-01-01

340

Assessment of Cocaethylene Lethality in Long–Evans Female and Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaethylene, the metabolite of cocaine produced only in the presence of alcohol, produces a number of pharmacological, physiological, and behavioral effects. It also has a range of toxicological consequences, the most severe being lethality. Given that the assessments of cocaethylene lethality have been limited to mice, the present study assessed the lethality of cocaethylene in rats. Further, because of within-species

B.-F. X. Sobel; A. C. Hutchinson; H. F. Diamond; S. A. Etkind; S. D. Ziervogel; C. M. Ferrari; A. L. Riley

1998-01-01

341

The Concept of Synthetic Lethality in the Context of Anticancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes are synthetic lethal if mutation of either alone is compatible with viability but mutation of both leads to death. So, targeting a gene that is synthetic lethal to a cancer-relevant mutation should kill only cancer cells and spare normal cells. Synthetic lethality therefore provides a conceptual framework for the development of cancer-specific cytotoxic agents. This paradigm has not

William G. Kaelin Jr

2005-01-01

342

Expanded substrate screenings of human and Drosophila type 10 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) reveal multiple specificities in bile acid and steroid hormone metabolism: characterization of multifunctional 3alpha/7alpha/7beta/17beta/20beta/21-HSD.  

PubMed Central

17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyse the conversion of 17beta-OH (-hydroxy)/17-oxo groups of steroids, and are essential in mammalian hormone physiology. At present, eleven 17beta-HSD isoforms have been defined in mammals, with different tissue-expression and substrate-conversion patterns. We analysed 17beta-HSD type 10 (17beta-HSD10) from humans and Drosophila, the latter known to be essential in development. In addition to the known hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3alpha-OH and 17beta-OH activities with sex steroids, we here demonstrate novel activities of 17beta-HSD10. Both species variants oxidize the 20beta-OH and 21-OH groups in C21 steroids, and act as 7beta-OH dehydrogenases of ursodeoxycholic or isoursodeoxycholic acid (also known as 7beta-hydroxylithocholic acid or 7beta-hydroxyisolithocholic acid respectively). Additionally, the human orthologue oxidizes the 7alpha-OH of chenodeoxycholic acid (5beta-cholanic acid, 3alpha,7alpha-diol) and cholic acid (5beta-cholanic acid). These novel substrate specificities are explained by homology models based on the orthologous rat crystal structure, showing a wide hydrophobic cleft, capable of accommodating steroids in different orientations. These properties suggest that the human enzyme is involved in glucocorticoid and gestagen catabolism, and participates in bile acid isomerization. Confocal microscopy and electron microscopy studies reveal that the human form is localized to mitochondria, whereas Drosophila 17beta-HSD10 shows a cytosolic localization pattern, possibly due to an N-terminal sequence difference that in human 17beta-HSD10 constitutes a mitochondrial targeting signal, extending into the Rossmann-fold motif. PMID:12917011

Shafqat, Naeem; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Filling, Charlotta; Nordling, Erik; Wu, Xiao-Qiu; Bjork, Lars; Thyberg, Johan; Martensson, Eva; Salim, Samina; Jornvall, Hans; Oppermann, Udo

2003-01-01

343

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-Wide Mutant Screen for Altered Sensitivity to K1 Killer Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants individually deleted for 5718 yeast genes, we screened for altered sensitivity to the antifungal protein, K1 killer toxin, that binds to a cell wall -glucan receptor and subsequently forms lethal pores in the plasma membrane. Mutations in 268 genes, including 42 in genes of unknown function, had a phenotype, often mild, with 186

Nicolas Page ´; Manon Gerard-Vincent; Patrice Menard; Maude Beaulieu; Masayuki Azuma; Gerrit J. P. Dijkgraaf; Thuy Nguyen; Tim Dowse; Anne-Marie Sdicu; Howard Bussey

344

Pros and cons of screening for occult Cushing syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic screening studies performed mainly in patients with diabetes mellitus have revealed an unexpectedly high prevalence of occult Cushing syndrome. Such studies may provide a rationale for systematically screening obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, a screening strategy is only justified if it is supported by enough evidence of its efficacy and if the benefits will outweigh drawbacks.

Paul Perez; Antoine Tabarin

2011-01-01

345

Characterizing User Performance with Assisted Direct Off-Screen Pointing  

E-print Network

performance with direct off- screen pointing when assisted by target cues. We predict time and accuracy results (R2 0.9) and reveal that direct off-screen pointing takes up to four times longer than pointingCharacterizing User Performance with Assisted Direct Off-Screen Pointing Barrett Ens University

346

Effect of Anaerobic Growth on Quinolone Lethality with Escherichia coli?  

PubMed Central

Quinolone activity against Escherichia coli was examined during aerobic growth, aerobic treatment with chloramphenicol, and anaerobic growth. Nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and PD161144 were lethal for cultures growing aerobically, and the bacteriostatic activity of each quinolone was unaffected by anaerobic growth. However, lethal activity was distinct for each quinolone with cells treated aerobically with chloramphenicol or grown anaerobically. Nalidixic acid failed to kill cells under both conditions; norfloxacin killed cells when they were grown anaerobically but not when they were treated with chloramphenicol; ciprofloxacin killed cells under both conditions but required higher concentrations than those required with cells grown aerobically; and PD161144, a C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolone, was equally lethal under all conditions. Following pretreatment with nalidixic acid, a shift to anaerobic conditions or the addition of chloramphenicol rapidly blocked further cell death. Formation of quinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes, observed as a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-dependent drop in cell lysate viscosity, occurred during aerobic and anaerobic growth and in the presence and in the absence of chloramphenicol. However, lethal chromosome fragmentation, detected as a drop in viscosity in the absence of SDS, occurred with nalidixic acid treatment only under aerobic conditions in the absence of chloramphenicol. With PD161144, chromosome fragmentation was detected when the cells were grown aerobically and anaerobically and in the presence and in the absence of chloramphenicol. Thus, all quinolones tested appear to form reversible bacteriostatic complexes containing broken DNA during aerobic growth, during anaerobic growth, and when protein synthesis is blocked; however, the ability to fragment chromosomes and to rapidly kill cells under these conditions depends on quinolone structure. PMID:17043118

Malik, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed; Drlica, Karl

2007-01-01

347

Acute Lethality of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc to Northern Squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ?g\\/liter for copper, 1,104 ?g\\/liter for cadmium, and 3,693 ?g\\/liter for zinc in 12 C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern

James D. Andros; Ronald R. Garton

1980-01-01

348

Acute lethality of copper, cadmium, and zinc to northern squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ..mu..g\\/liter for copper, 1104 ..mu..g\\/liter for cadmium, and 3693 ..mu..g\\/liter for zinc in 12°C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern squawfish

JAMES D. ANDROS; RONALD R. GARTON

1980-01-01

349

Inducer-Dependent Conditional-Lethal Mutant Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory elements of the Escherichia coli lac operon were used to construct an inducer-dependent conditional-lethal mutant animal virus. The gene encoding the repressor protein of the lac operon was integrated into the vaccinia virus genome so that it was expressed constitutively, and the lac operator was inserted next to the promoter of a gene that encodes an 11-kDa virion-associated protein

Yifan Zhang; Bernard Moss

1991-01-01

350

Intact alternation performance in high lethality suicide attempters.  

PubMed

Suicide attempters often perform poorly on tasks linked to ventral prefrontal cortical (VPFC) function. Object Alternation (OA) - a VPFC probe - has not been used in these studies. In this study, currently depressed medication-free past suicide attempters whose most severe attempt was of high (n=31) vs. low (n=64) lethality, 114 medication-free depressed non-attempters, and 86 non-patients completed a computerized OA task. Participants also completed comparison tasks assessing the discriminant validity of OA (Wisconsin Card Sort), its concurrent validity relative to tasks associated with past attempt status (computerized Stroop task, Buschke Selective Reminding Test), and its construct validity as a VPFC measure (Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling Task). Against expectations, high lethality suicide attempters - the majority of whom used non-violent methods in their attempts with some planning - outperformed other depressed groups on OA, with no group differences observed on Wisconsin Card Sort. Despite intact performance on OA, past attempters exhibited deficits on the Stroop and Buschke. OA performance was associated with performance on Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling, confirming that OA measures a similar construct. VPFC dysfunction may not be a characteristic of all suicide attempters, especially those who make more carefully planned, non-violent - though potentially lethal - attempts. PMID:24878299

Keilp, John G; Wyatt, Gwinne; Gorlyn, Marianne; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley K; John Mann, J

2014-09-30

351

Lethality of the morphinan isomers levorphanol and dextrorphan  

PubMed Central

Significantly different (P<0·05) LD50 values were found in Swiss-Webster mice for levorphanol (73 mg/kg, i.p.) and dextrorphan (120 mg/kg, i.p.). A subcutaneous injection of naloxone 15 min before challenge prevented the lethal effect of an LD98 of levorphanol, with ED50 value of 1·36 mg/kg. Naloxone, in doses from 2 to 100 mg/kg, did not prevent death caused by 150 mg/kg of either dextrorphan or levorphanol. Levorphanol was lethal for mice pretreated with 10 mg/kg of naloxone, a dose sufficient to block opiate-specific lethal effects, but the LD50 value was 109 mg/kg, in contrast to 73 mg/kg in the absence of naloxone. By the criteria of stereospecificity and naloxone blockade, levorphanol-induced mortality in mice is a typical opiate effect in the lower of the two dose ranges studied. At higher doses of levorphanol a non-specific effect supervenes, with an LD50 value virtually the same as that of dextrorphan. PMID:4788214

Dingledine, R.; Goldstein, A.

1973-01-01

352

Assessing lethal and sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon on different trophic levels.  

PubMed

Trichlorfon (TCF) is one of the most used veterinary pharmaceuticals not only to fight infestations but also as a preventive measure worldwide. The high concentrations used generate concerns about environmental and human health. In this work we assessed the acute toxicity of this compound to non-target organisms belonging to different trophic levels: Danio rerio (early life stages and adults), Daphnia magna and algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), and studied the potential of the biomarkers cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) to assess sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon in zebrafish and daphnids. The fish embryo test followed the OECD draft guideline FET and was based on the exposure of newly fertilized eggs to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/L of TCF for 5 days; the fish acute test followed the OECD guideline 203 and was based on the exposure of adult fish to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L of TCF for 4 days; Daphnia sp. immobilization assay followed the OECD guideline 202 and was based on the exposure of juvenile daphnids to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 and 2 ?g/L of TCF for 2 days and the algae growth inhibition assay followed the OECD guideline 201 and was based on the exposure of the two species to 0, 1, 3.2, 10, 32, 100 and 300 mg/L of TCF for 4 days. Biomarker levels were measured after 96 h exposure to TCF in zebrafish early life stages and adults and after 48 h exposure in D. magna. Tested organisms seem to have dissimilar sensitivities towards TCF exposure. D. magna (48 h-LC(50)=0.29 ?g/L) was the most sensitive organism, followed by early life stages and adults of zebrafish (96 h-LC(50)=25.4 and 28.8 mg/L, respectively) and finally by the algae P. subcapitata (96 h-LC(50)=274.5 mg/L) and C. vulgaris (no effect observed). As daphnids are a source of food for organisms of higher trophic levels, the impairment on its population is prone to have consequences in the entire ecosystem. The biomarker activities measured in daphnids and fish seemed to be useful tools in the assessment of trichlorfon effects, especially ChE activity which was the most sensitive biomarker tested for all organisms. Trichlorfon was teratogenic for zebrafish embryos leading to anomalies in the absorption of the yolk sac, spine bending and pericardial oedemas. The present research suggests that further work is urgently needed in order to monitor environmental concentrations of trichlorfon and to test the long term effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of this compound. PMID:21473847

Coelho, Sónia; Oliveira, Rhaul; Pereira, Susana; Musso, Carolina; Domingues, Inês; Bhujel, Ram C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

2011-06-01

353

Studies on the Sex-Specific Lethals of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. V. Sex Transformation Caused by Interactions between a Female-Specific Lethal, Sxlf#1, and the Male-Specific Lethals mle(3)132, msl-227, and mle  

PubMed Central

Interactions between a female-specific lethal mutant, Sxlf#1, and each of three male-specific lethal mutants, mle(3)132, msl-227 and mle, of Drosophila melanogaster were observed to produce morphological changes in various sexually dimorphic external characters. Chromosomal females heterozygous for Sxlf#1 and homozygous for any one of the male-specific lethals (and to a lesser degree heterozygous for male-specific lethals) sometimes had sex combs, male-type tergites, male-type sternites, male-type anal plates or male-type external genitalia. Penetrance was not high and expression was often incomplete; single individuals never had all the sexually dimorphic structures transformed. When mothers were homozygous for male-specific lethals, higher proportions of female progeny were affected than when mothers were heterozygous, suggesting a maternal effect. PMID:6818105

Uenoyama, T.; Fukunaga, A.; Ioshi, K.

1982-01-01

354

Decrease of Foxp3+ Treg cell number and acquisition of effector cell phenotype during lethal infection  

PubMed Central

Using a model of lethal oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii, we examined the fate of both induced and natural regulatory T (Treg) cells in the face of strong inflammatory responses occurring in a tolerogenic-prone environment. We found that during highly T helper 1 (Th1) cell-polarized mucosal immune responses, Treg cell numbers collapsed via multiple pathways including blockade of Treg cell induction and disruption of endogenous Treg cell homeostasis. In particular, shutdown of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the highly Th1 cell-polarized environment triggered by infection directly contributed to Treg cell incapacity to suppress effector responses and eventually leads to immunopathogenesis. Furthermore, we found that environmental cues provided by both local dendritic cells and effector T cells can induce the expression of T-bet transcription factor and IFN-? by Treg cells. These data reveal a mechanism for Th1 cell pathogenicity that extends beyond their proinflammatory program to limit Treg cell survival. PMID:19896394

Oldenhove, Guillaume; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Wohlfert, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Jason; Chou, David; Dos santos, Liliane; O'Brien, Shaun; Blank, Rebecca; Lamb, Erika; Natarajan, Sundar; Kastenmayer, Robin; Hunter, Christopher; Grigg, Michael E.; Belkaid, Yasmine

2009-01-01

355

Plasma Screen Floating Mount  

DOEpatents

A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

Eakle, Robert F. (New Ellenton, SC); Pak, Donald J. (Martine, GA)

2004-10-26

356

Left ventricular function during lethal and sublethal endotoxemia in swine  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies suggested that after a median lethal dose (LD50) of endotoxin, cardiac contractility was depressed in nonsurviving dogs. The canine cardiovascular system is unlike humans in that dogs have a hepatic vein sphincter that is susceptible to adrenergic stimulation capable of raising hepatic and splanchnic venous pressures. The authors retested the hypothesis that lethality after endotoxin administration is associated with cardiac contractile depression in pigs, because of the hepatic circulation in this species is similar to that of humans. They compared cardiac mechanical function of pigs administered a high dose (250 g/kg) or a low dose (100 g/kg) endotoxin by use of the slope of the end-systolic pressure-diameter relationship (ESPDR) as well as other measurements of cardiac performance. In all the pigs administered a high dose, ESPDR demonstrated a marked, time-dependent depression whereas we observed no significant ESPDR changes after low endotoxin doses. The other cardiodynamic variables were uninterpretable, due to the significant changes in heart rate, end-diastolic diameter (preload), and aortic diastolic pressure (afterload). Plasma myocardia depressant factor activity accumulated in all endotoxin-administered animals, tending to be greater in the high-dose group. In this group, both subendocardial blood flow and global function were depressed, whereas pigs administered the low dose endotoxin demonstrated slight, but nonsignificant, increases in flow and function. These observations indicate that myocardial contractile depression is associated with a lethal outcome to high doses of endotoxin. Myocardial perfusion was measured using radiolabeled microspheres infused into the left atria.

Goldfarb, R.D.; Nightingale, L.M.; Kish, P.; Weber, P.B.; Loegering, D.J.

1986-08-01

357

EXCALIBIR - A space experiment in orbital debris lethality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study proposes a space experiment using extended Space Shuttle external tanks to test the impact of orbital debris. The External Tank Calibrated Impact Response test, EXCALIBIR, is a low-cost low-risk, high-payoff approach to investigating the threat to resident space objects posed by untrackable orbital debris, to provide lethality data to the kinetic energy weapons community, and to aid in the testing of space and missile interceptor technology. This experiment is a feasible use of existing assets - the external tank, observation and data collection facilities, launch facilities, and interceptor technology and tests planned for other programs.

Culp, Robert D.; Dickey, Michael R.

358

Acute lethality of copper, cadmium, and zinc to northern squawfish  

SciTech Connect

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ..mu..g/liter for copper, 1104 ..mu..g/liter for cadmium, and 3693 ..mu..g/liter for zinc in 12/sup 0/C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern squawfish are more tolerant than the two salmonids to zinc and cadmium but equally sensitive to copper.

Andros, J.D.; Garton, R.R.

1980-03-01

359

Synthetic lethality between CCNE1 amplification and loss of BRCA1  

PubMed Central

High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) are characterized by a high frequency of TP53 mutations, BRCA1/2 inactivation, homologous recombination dysfunction, and widespread copy number changes. Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) gene amplification has been reported to occur independently of BRCA1/2 mutation, and it is associated with primary treatment failure and reduced patient survival. Insensitivity of CCNE1-amplified tumors to platinum cross-linking agents may be partly because of an intact BRCA1/2 pathway. Both BRCA1/2 dysfunction and CCNE1 amplification are known to promote genomic instability and tumor progression. These events may be mutually exclusive, because either change provides a path to tumor development, with no selective advantage to having both mutations. Using data from a genome-wide shRNA synthetic lethal screen, we show that BRCA1 and members of the ubiquitin pathway are selectively required in cancers that harbor CCNE1 amplification. Furthermore, we show specific sensitivity of CCNE1-amplified tumor cells to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. These findings provide an explanation for the observed mutual exclusivity of CCNE1 amplification and BRCA1/2 loss in HGSC and suggest a unique therapeutic approach for treatment-resistant CCNE1-amplified tumors. PMID:24218601

Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Weir, Barbara A.; Au-Yeung, George; Alsop, Kathryn; Mitchell, Gillian; George, Joshy; Davis, Sally; D'Andrea, Alan D.; Simpson, Kaylene; Hahn, William C.; Bowtell, David D. L.

2013-01-01

360

Targeting GLUT1 and the Warburg Effect in Renal Cell Carcinoma by Chemical Synthetic Lethality  

PubMed Central

Identifying new targeted therapies that kill tumor cells while sparing normal tissue is a major challenge of cancer research. Using a high-throughput chemical synthetic lethal screen, we sought to identify compounds that exploit the loss of the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene, which occurs in about 80% of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). RCCs, like many other cancers, are dependent on aerobic glycolysis for ATP production, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. The dependence of RCCs on glycolysis is in part a result of induction of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Here, we report the identification of a class of compounds, the 3-series, exemplified by STF-31, which selectively kills RCCs by specifically targeting glucose uptake through GLUT1 and exploiting the unique dependence of these cells on GLUT1 for survival. Treatment with these agents inhibits the growth of RCCs by binding GLUT1 directly and impeding glucose uptake in vivo without toxicity to normal tissue. Activity of STF-31 in these experimental renal tumors can be monitored by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by micro–positron emission tomography imaging, and therefore, these agents may be readily tested clinically in human tumors. Our results show that the Warburg effect confers distinct characteristics on tumor cells that can be selectively targeted for therapy. PMID:21813754

Chan, Denise A.; Sutphin, Patrick D.; Nguyen, Phuong; Turcotte, Sandra; Lai, Edwin W.; Banh, Alice; Reynolds, Gloria E.; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Wu, Jason; Solow-Cordero, David E.; Bonnet, Muriel; Flanagan, Jack U.; Bouley, Donna M.; Graves, Edward E.; Denny, William A.; Hay, Michael P.; Giaccia, Amato J.

2013-01-01

361

Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. PMID:23570009

Ullah, M. Obayed; Haque, Mahmuda; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Anita, Elichea Synthi; Begum, Momtaj; Hamid, Kaiser

2013-01-01

362

A Limited Number of Caenorhabditis Elegans Genes Are Readily Mutable to Dominant, Temperature-Sensitive Maternal-Effect Embryonic Lethality  

PubMed Central

Dominant gain-of-function mutations can give unique insights into the study of gene function. In addition, gain-of-function mutations, unlike loss-of-function alleles, are not biased against the identification of genetically redundant loci. To identify novel genetic functions active during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, we have collected a set of dominant temperature-sensitive maternal-effect embryonic lethal mutations. In a previous screen, we isolated eight such mutations, distributed among six genes. In the present study, we describe eight new dominant mutations that identify only three additional genes, yielding a total of 16 dominant mutations found in nine genes. Therefore, it appears that a limited number of C. elegans genes mutate to this phenotype at appreciable frequencies. Five of the genes that we identified by dominant mutations have loss-of-function alleles. Two of these genes may lack loss-of-function phenotypes, indicating that they are nonessential and so may represent redundant loci. Loss-of-function mutations of three other genes are associated with recessive lethality, indicating nonredundancy. PMID:9409829

Mitenko, N. L.; Eisner, J. R.; Swiston, J. R.; Mains, P. E.

1997-01-01

363

Synthetic lethal targeting of PTEN-deficient cancer cells using selective disruption of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase  

PubMed Central

A recent screen of 6961 siRNAs to discover possible synthetic lethal partners of the DNA repair protein polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) led to the identification of the potent tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Here we have confirmed the PNKP/PTEN synthetic lethal partnership in a variety of different cell lines including the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, which is naturally deficient in PTEN. We provide evidence that co-depletion of PTEN and PNKP induces apoptosis. In HCT116 colon cancer cells the loss of PTEN is accompanied by an increased background level of DNA double strand breaks, which accumulate in the presence of an inhibitor of PNKP DNA 3?-phosphatase activity. Complementation of PC3 cells with several well-characterized mutated PTEN cDNAs indicated that the critical function of PTEN required to prevent toxicity induced by an inhibitor of PNKP is most likely associated with its cytoplasmic lipid phosphatase activity. Finally, we show that modest inhibition of PNKP in a PTEN knockout background enhances cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting that such a “synthetic sickness” approach involving the combination of PNKP inhibition with radiotherapy may be applicable to PTEN-deficient tumors. PMID:23883586

Mereniuk, Todd R.; El Gendy, Mohamed A.M.; Mendes-Pereira, Ana M.; Lord, Christopher J.; Ghosh, Sunita; Foley, Edan; Ashworth, Alan; Weinfeld, Michael

2013-01-01

364

Investigation of Phenolic Profiles, Cytotoxic Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Drynaria quercifolia J. Smith (Leaves)  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present study is aimed to evaluate phenolic profiles, cytotoxic activity and phytochemical screening of different extracts of Drynaria quercifolia leaves. Methods: The dried and powder leaves were extracted with methanol at room temperature and the concentrated methanolic extract was fractionated by the modified Kupchan partitioning method to provide pet-ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions. Phenolic profiles were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, which results were expressed in gallic acid equivalent (mg of GAE/g of sample). Phytochemical properties of different extractives of plant materials were tested by the method of Trease and Evans. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic potential of D. quercifolia. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the potent source of different phytochemical constituents on different extractives including alkaloid, glycosides, tannin, saponins, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, triterpenes, phenols, phytosterols and carbohydrate. In the determination of phenolic profiles, different extractives showed a significant content of phenolic compounds ranging from 103.43 -132.23 mg of GAE/g of extractive. Compared to vincristine sulfate different extractives of plant materials demonstrated moderate cytotoxic potential (having LC50 of 12.45 ?g/ml, 13.02 ?g/ml 15.83 ?g/ml, 14.95 ?g/ml and 7.612 ?g/ml, respectively). Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that D. quercifolia is an excellent source of phenolic content and phytoconstitutes as well as possesses moderate cytotoxic activity. PMID:24312880

Runa, Jannatul Ferdous; Hossain, Marjan; Hasanuzzaman, Md.; Ali, Md. Ramjan

2013-01-01

365

Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota, USA, are an economic problem for many livestock producers, and depredating wolves are lethally controlled. We sought to determine the effectiveness of lethal control through the analysis of data from 923 government-verified wolf depredations from 1979 to 1998. We analyzed the data by 1) assessing the correlations between the number of wolves killed in response to depredations with number of depredations the following year at state and local levels, and 2) the time to the next depredation. No analysis indicated that trapping wolves substantially reduced the following year's depredations at state or local levels. However, more specific analyses indicated that in certain situations, killing wolves was more effective than no action (i.e., not trapping). For example, trapping and killing adult males decreased the re-depredation risk. At sheep farms, killing wolves was generally effective. Attempting to trap, regardless of the results, seemed more effective at reducing depredations than not trapping, suggesting that mere human activity near depredation sites might deter future depredations.

Harper, E. K.; Paul, W. J.; Mech, L. D.; Weisberg, S.

2008-01-01

366

An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.  

PubMed

An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species. PMID:23643878

Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

2013-08-30

367

Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts  

PubMed Central

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics.

Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

2014-01-01

368

Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.  

PubMed

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

2014-01-01

369

Suppressive Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Megakaryopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. LT challenge suppresses platelet counts and platelet function in mice, however, the mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia remains unclear. LT inhibits cellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are vital pathways responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and maturation. One of the MAPKs, the MEK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, is particularly important in megakaryopoiesis. This study evaluates the hypothesis that LT may suppress the progenitor cells of platelets, thereby inducing thrombocytopenic responses. Using cord blood-derived CD34+ cells and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells to perform in vitro differentiation, this work shows that LT suppresses megakaryopoiesis by reducing the survival of megakaryocytes. Thrombopoietin treatments can reduce thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic suppression, and the quick onset of lethality in LT-challenged mice. These results suggest that megakaryocytic suppression is one of the mechanisms by which LT induces thrombocytopenia. These findings may provide new insights for developing feasible approaches against anthrax. PMID:23555687

Lin, Guan-Ling; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lai, Yi-Ling; Lin, Ting-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Kau, Jyh-Hwa; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chi-Yuan; Sun, Der-Shan

2013-01-01

370

Suppressive effects of anthrax lethal toxin on megakaryopoiesis.  

PubMed

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. LT challenge suppresses platelet counts and platelet function in mice, however, the mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia remains unclear. LT inhibits cellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are vital pathways responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and maturation. One of the MAPKs, the MEK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, is particularly important in megakaryopoiesis. This study evaluates the hypothesis that LT may suppress the progenitor cells of platelets, thereby inducing thrombocytopenic responses. Using cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells to perform in vitro differentiation, this work shows that LT suppresses megakaryopoiesis by reducing the survival of megakaryocytes. Thrombopoietin treatments can reduce thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic suppression, and the quick onset of lethality in LT-challenged mice. These results suggest that megakaryocytic suppression is one of the mechanisms by which LT induces thrombocytopenia. These findings may provide new insights for developing feasible approaches against anthrax. PMID:23555687

Chen, Po-Kong; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Lin, Guan-Ling; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lai, Yi-Ling; Lin, Ting-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Kau, Jyh-Hwa; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chi-Yuan; Sun, Der-Shan

2013-01-01

371

Lethal Nipah Virus Infection Induces Rapid Overexpression of CXCL10  

PubMed Central

Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged zoonotic Paramyxovirus that causes regular outbreaks in East Asia with mortality rate exceeding 75%. Major cellular targets of NiV infection are endothelial cells and neurons. To better understand virus-host interaction, we analyzed the transcriptome profile of NiV infection in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We further assessed some of the obtained results by in vitro and in vivo methods in a hamster model and in brain samples from NiV-infected patients. We found that NiV infection strongly induces genes involved in interferon response in endothelial cells. Among the top ten upregulated genes, we identified the chemokine CXCL10 (interferon-induced protein 10, IP-10), an important chemoattractant involved in the generation of inflammatory immune response and neurotoxicity. In NiV-infected hamsters, which develop pathology similar to what is seen in humans, expression of CXCL10 mRNA was induced in different organs with kinetics that followed NiV replication. Finally, we showed intense staining for CXCL10 in the brain of patients who succumbed to lethal NiV infection during the outbreak in Malaysia, confirming induction of this chemokine in fatal human infections. This study sheds new light on NiV pathogenesis, indicating the role of CXCL10 during the course of infection and suggests that this chemokine may serve as a potential new marker for lethal NiV encephalitis. PMID:22393386

Mathieu, Cyrille; Guillaume, Vanessa; Sabine, Amelie; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine; Horvat, Branka

2012-01-01

372

HLA-A2-Restricted Protection against Lethal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis? †  

PubMed Central

The consequences of human lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection can be severe, including aseptic meningitis in immunocompetent individuals, hydrocephalus or chorioretinitis in fetal infection, or a highly lethal outcome in immunosuppressed individuals. In murine models of LCMV infection, CD8+ T cells play a primary role in providing protective immunity, and there is evidence that cellular immunity may also be important in related arenavirus infections in humans. For this reason, we sought to identify HLA-A2 supertype-restricted epitopes from the LCMV proteome and evaluate them as vaccine determinants in HLA transgenic mice. We identified four HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides—nucleoprotein NP69-77, glycoprotein precursor GPC10-18, GPC447-455, and zinc-binding protein Z49-58—that displayed high-affinity binding (?275 nM) to HLA-A*0201, induced CD8+ T-cell responses of high functional avidity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, and were naturally processed from native LCMV antigens in HLA-restricted human antigen presenting cells. One of the epitopes (GPC447-455), after peptide immunization of HLA-A*0201 mice, induced CD8+ T cells capable of killing peptide-pulsed HLA-A*0201-restricted target cells in vivo and protected mice against lethal intracranial challenge with LCMV. PMID:17166907

Botten, Jason; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Barrowman, Polly; Sidney, John; Whitmire, Jason K.; Alexander, Jeff; Ting, Joey P. C.; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Sette, Alessandro; Buchmeier, Michael J.

2007-01-01

373

Screening for Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

374

Video Screen Capture Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

Dunbar, Laura

2014-01-01

375

International Cancer Screening Network  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

376

Stretching Screens and Imaginations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary students utilize a simplified technique to make silk screen prints, which can be printed onto T-shirts. The only materials needed from art suppliers are a few squeegees and a few yards of polyester screen mesh. (RM)

Douthwaite, Shelaugh

1983-01-01

377

Periodic Screening Evaluation  

Cancer.gov

Statistical Software Periodic Screening Evaluation (Written by Stuart G. Baker) New Approach (Simplified Approximation): See Baker SG. Evaluating periodic cancer screening without a randomized control group: a simplified design and analysis. In: Duffy

378

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

379

Breast Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Cancer Treatment Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from ...

380

Colorectal cancer screening.  

PubMed

Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described. PMID:24335688

Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

2013-12-01

381

Screening for Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.

2013-01-01

382

Antibiotics induce redox-related physiological alterations as part of their lethality.  

PubMed

Deeper understanding of antibiotic-induced physiological responses is critical to identifying means for enhancing our current antibiotic arsenal. Bactericidal antibiotics with diverse targets have been hypothesized to kill bacteria, in part by inducing production of damaging reactive species. This notion has been supported by many groups but has been challenged recently. Here we robustly test the hypothesis using biochemical, enzymatic, and biophysical assays along with genetic and phenotypic experiments. We first used a novel intracellular H2O2 sensor, together with a chemically diverse panel of fluorescent dyes sensitive to an array of reactive species to demonstrate that antibiotics broadly induce redox stress. Subsequent gene-expression analyses reveal that complex antibiotic-induced oxidative stress responses are distinct from canonical responses generated by supraphysiological levels of H2O2. We next developed a method to quantify cellular respiration dynamically and found that bactericidal antibiotics elevate oxygen consumption, indicating significant alterations to bacterial redox physiology. We further show that overexpression of catalase or DNA mismatch repair enzyme, MutS, and antioxidant pretreatment limit antibiotic lethality, indicating that reactive oxygen species causatively contribute to antibiotic killing. Critically, the killing efficacy of antibiotics was diminished under strict anaerobic conditions but could be enhanced by exposure to molecular oxygen or by the addition of alternative electron acceptors, indicating that environmental factors play a role in killing cells physiologically primed for death. This work provides direct evidence that, downstream of their target-specific interactions, bactericidal antibiotics induce complex redox alterations that contribute to cellular damage and death, thus supporting an evolving, expanded model of antibiotic lethality. PMID:24803433

Dwyer, Daniel J; Belenky, Peter A; Yang, Jason H; MacDonald, I Cody; Martell, Jeffrey D; Takahashi, Noriko; Chan, Clement T Y; Lobritz, Michael A; Braff, Dana; Schwarz, Eric G; Ye, Jonathan D; Pati, Mekhala; Vercruysse, Maarten; Ralifo, Paul S; Allison, Kyle R; Khalil, Ahmad S; Ting, Alice Y; Walker, Graham C; Collins, James J

2014-05-20

383

Host Responses to Sepsis Vary in Different Low-Lethality Murine Models  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal models for the study of sepsis are being increasingly scrutinized, despite their essential role for early translational research. In particular, recent studies have suggested that at the level of the leukocyte transcriptome, murine models of burns, trauma and endotoxemia markedly differ from their human equivalents, and are only weakly similar amongst themselves. We compared the plasma cytokine and leukocyte transcriptome responses between two different low-lethality murine models of polymicrobial intra-abdominal sepsis. Methods Six to ten week male C57BL/6j mice underwent either the ‘gold standard’ cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of intra-abdominal sepsis or administration of a cecal slurry (CS), where cecal contents are injected intraperitoneally. Surviving mice were euthanized at two hours, one or three days after sepsis. Results The murine leukocyte transcriptomic response to the CLP and CS models of sepsis was surprisingly dissimilar at two hours, one, and three days after sepsis. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the maximum change in expression for the entire leukocyte transcriptome that changed significantly over time (n?=?19,071) was R?=?0.54 (R2?=?0.297). The CS model resulted in greater magnitude of early inflammatory gene expression changes in response to sepsis with associated increased production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Two hours after sepsis, CLP had more significant expression of genes associated with IL-10 signaling pathways, whereas CS had greater expression of genes related to CD28, apoptosis, IL-1 and T-cell receptor signaling. By three days, the changes in gene expression in both sepsis models were returning to baseline in surviving animals. Conclusion These analyses reveal that the murine blood leukocyte response to sepsis is highly dependent on which model of intra-abdominal sepsis is employed, despite their similar lethality. It may be difficult to extrapolate findings from one murine model to another, let alone to human sepsis. PMID:24788351

Gentile, Lori F.; Nacionales, Dina C.; Lopez, M. Cecilia; Vanzant, Erin; Cuenca, Angela; Szpila, Benjamin E.; Cuenca, Alex G.; Joseph, Anna; Moore, Frederick A.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Efron, Philip A.

2014-01-01

384

How many loci on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster can mutate to recessive lethals  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the sex-linked recessive lethal test is due to the fact that a very large number of loci are included in the mutation study. From extensive studies on the spontaneous sex-linked recessive lethal frequency and spontaneous specific locus mutation rates, it is possible to derive an estimate of the number of loci included in the recessive lethal test. The average number derived from three estimates on male and female germ cells in 563 loci. A second independent approach derives from published data which analyzed short regions of the genome and the proportion of loci within these regions which mutate to lethality. This analysis suggests that 830 loci are potentially lethal mutables. We describe the reasons for concluding that 600 to 800 loci of the approximately 1000 loci on the X-chromosome are involved in the X-linked recessive lethal test.

Abrahamson, S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Wuergler, F.E.; DeJongh, C.; Meyer, H.U.

1980-01-01

385

RNA interference screening demystified  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic screens, where the effects of modifying gene function on cell behaviour are assessed in a systematic fashion, have for some time provided useful information to those interested in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Genetic screens exploiting the phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) are now becoming commonplace. This article explains the different RNAi screen formats and describes some of the applications

C J Lord; S A Martin; A Ashworth

2009-01-01

386

First Trimester Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for aneuploidy has traditionally been reserved for women of advanced maternal age. More recent advances in serum screening and ultrasound technology have allowed women of all ages to be offered screening in the second and even first trimester. These methods and their effectiveness are discussed.

Sarah C. Ellestad; Steven R. Wells; Jeffrey A. Kuller

2005-01-01

387

Breast cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiographic imaging of the breast began in the early years of the twentieth century. Continuous advances in film quality, energy sources, targets, grids, and filters have all contributed to superior image resolution. Federal quality standards now regulate screening mammography, and mass screening for breast cancer has become widely accepted in the United States. Wider application of screening has resulted in

Kathleen M. Harris; Victor G. Vogel

1997-01-01

388

The Effect of Non-Lethal Weapons on Police Officer Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2000, there was an increase in the use of non-lethal weapons and a decline in the number and severity of attacks on police officers. Using longitudinal data on several hundred U.S. police agencies, I investigate the relationship between police officer safety and the adoption of non-lethal weapons. I find that the adoption of non-lethal chemical weapons had

Alex Yuskavage

389

Proteomic analysis of differentiating neuroblastoma cells treated with sub-lethal neurite inhibitory concentrations of diazinon: Identification of novel biomarkers of effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work we showed that sub-lethal levels of diazinon inhibited neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. Western blotting analysis targeted at proteins involved in axon growth and stress responses, revealed that such exposure led to a reduction in the levels of neurofilament heavy chain, microtubule associated protein 1 B (MAP 1B) and HSP-70. The aim of this study

W. Harris; M. Sachana; J. Flaskos; A. J. Hargreaves

2009-01-01

390

Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

2014-06-30

391

Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.  

PubMed

The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries. PMID:22981215

Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

2012-11-30

392

Screening and preventable illness.  

PubMed

If an agent does not discount the future at a constant rate, as in some forms of myopia, her optimal strategy is unattainable without some commitment device. We apply this familiar idea to a model of screening and disease prevention, and explore how financial incentives can correct suboptimal health choices. In general, myopia need not imply under-screening. While the optimal intervention for prevention effort is a state-invariant subsidy, the optimal intervention for screening may involve a tax or a subsidy. When screening and prevention are coincident, a simple and practical subsidy equal to one minus the discount factor to both screening and intervention is indicated. PMID:11758049

Byrne, M M; Thompson, P

2001-11-01

393

Biological Screening of Medicinal Plants Collected from Eastern Ghats of India Using Artemia salina (Brine Shrimp Test)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants constitute important components of flora and are widely distributed in different regions of India. Based on ethnomedical significance, we have collected several me- dicinal plants used in traditional medicine from Eastern Ghats of India and evaluated for their biological activity. In the present study, a method utilizing brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality was used to screen medicinal

Alluri V. Krishnaraju; Tayi V. N. Rao; Dodda Sundararaju; Mulabagal Vanisree; Hsin-Sheng Tsay; Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju

394

[Loss and grieving: the experiences of women who terminate a pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformations].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to investigate the grieving experiences of women who terminated pregnancies under judicial authorization, due to life-incompatible fetal malformation. Ten women attended in the Fetal Medicine Department of Botucatu Clinical Hospital participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews forty days after termination. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full, with the data analyzed from the thematic content analysis perspective. The results revealed that the mothers sought explanations and meanings for the loss, with religious responses and self-blame being very frequent. The reports were marked by feelings of sadness, longing and sensations of emptiness due to the loss of the child, revealing the need of the mothers to dwell on the issue. The mothers were and continued to be linked to their children; the termination of the pregnancy, although being a choice to minimize the pain of an inevitable loss, did not spare the women from experiences of great suffering.>The study includes input for the discussion and planning of health approaches and care for women who terminate their pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformation, by means of judicial authorization. PMID:23989573

Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Petean, Eucia Beatriz Lopes

2013-09-01

395

Dominant lethal test in rats treated with some plant extracts.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extracts of Aegle marmelos (AM), Stevia rebaudiana (SR), Pouteria cambodiana (PC) and Clausena excavata (CE) on rats by dominant lethal test. The data of 8-week treatment suggested that none of the extracts adversely affected male body and testicular weights as well as cauda epididymal sperm counts. No notable changes in sperm morphology and motility were observed. On the other hand, sperm count in the CE group was significantly higher as compared to both control and other treatment groups. There were no abnormal changes in the number of implantation sites, number of viable fetuses and number of dead fetuses in females mated with plant extract-treated males relative to controls. Based on these results, it could be concluded that all the investigated plant extracts have no toxic effect on male rat reproduction and progeny outcome. PMID:11414451

Aritajat, S; Kaweewat, K; Manosroi, J; Manosroi, A

2000-01-01

396

Aroclor 1254 residues in birds: Lethal levels and loss rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lethal residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined experimentally in four species of wild birds (male common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula ), immature female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ), adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater ) and immature female starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)) given dietary dosage of 1,500 ppm of Aroclor 1254) until one-half had died, sacrificing the survivors, chemically analyzing the tissues, and comparing results in dead birds and survivors. For all species, residues of 310 ppm or higher in the brain showed increasing likelihood of death from PCB poisoning. Residues in dead birds did not differ among species except for starlings (Sturnus vulgaris ), which averaged slightly lower than the others. However, the species differed in the length of time to 50% mortality and in the levels of PCBs in brains at sacrifice.

Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

1984-01-01

397

Non-lethal laser dazzling as a personnel countermeasure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical distraction is likely one of the original and simpler optical countermeasure concepts with a technology history dating back to the 1800's. The objective is to distract or suppress either equipment or personnel with optical radiation from a safe distance. This paper is intended to review and expand on the concepts presented at the 2012 SPIE Security and Defense meeting; "Non-Lethal Optical Interruption (Dazzling): Technology, Devices, and Scenarios". The information that follows will focus primarily on the technology and techniques associated with the safe laser dazzling of personnel. Key product design guidelines will be highlighted and reviewed. Recent advances in laser technology and their associated impact on hand-held devices will also be discussed. Finally, the author will offer his opinion on the growth rate of military and non-military markets for laser dazzlers.

Shannon, David C.

2013-10-01

398

Clinical Effects and Lethal and Forensic Aspects of Propofol*  

PubMed Central

Propofol is a potent intravenous anesthetic agent that rapidly induces sedation and unconsciousness. The potential for propofol dependency, recreational use and abuse has only recently been recognized and several cases of accidental overdose and suicide have emerged. In addition, the first documented case of murder using propofol was reported a few months ago and a high profile case of suspected homicide with propofol is currently under investigation. A number of analytical methods have been employed to detect and quantify propofol concentrations in biological specimens. The reported propofol related deaths and post-mortem blood and tissue levels are reviewed. Importantly, limitations of propofol detection are discussed and future considerations are presented. Because propofol has the potential for diversion with lethal consequences, the forensic scientist must have a basic understanding of its clinical indications and uses, pharmacologic properties, and detection methods. In addition, medical institutions should develop systems to prevent and detect diversion of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:20950316

Levy, Richard J.

2010-01-01

399

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona).  

PubMed

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is commonly termed the 'amphibian chytrid fungus' but thus far has been documented to be a pathogen of only batrachian amphibians (anurans and caudatans). It is not proven to infect the limbless, generally poorly known, and mostly soil-dwelling caecilians (Gymnophiona). We conducted the largest qPCR survey of Bd in caecilians to date, for more than 200 field-swabbed specimens from five countries in Africa and South America, representing nearly 20 species, 12 genera, and 8 families. Positive results were recovered for 58 specimens from Tanzania and Cameroon (4 families, 6 genera, 6+ species). Quantities of Bd were not exceptionally high, with genomic equivalent (GE) values of 0.052-17.339. In addition, we report the first evidence of lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilians. Mortality in captive (wild-caught, commercial pet trade) Geotrypetes seraphini was associated with GE scores similar to those we detected for field-swabbed, wild animals. PMID:23677560

Gower, David J; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Loader, Simon P; Wilkinson, Mark; Kouete, Marcel T; Tapley, Benjamin; Orton, Frances; Daniel, Olivia Z; Wynne, Felicity; Flach, Edmund; Müller, Hendrik; Menegon, Michele; Stephen, Ian; Browne, Robert K; Fisher, Mathew C; Cunningham, Andrew A; Garner, Trenton W J

2013-06-01

400

Case of Desbuquois dysplasia type 1: potentially lethal skeletal dysplasia.  

PubMed

We report a boy with Desbuquois dysplasia type 1. He had the typical skeletal changes: a "Swedish key" appearance of the proximal femora; advanced carpal ossification and other distinctive features of the hand, including an extra-ossification center at the base of the proximal phalanx of the index and middle fingers; dislocation of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the index finger; and bifid distal phalanx of the thumb. In addition, he presented with very severe prenatal growth failure, respiratory distress as a neonate, subsequent failure to thrive and susceptibility to airway infection, and sudden death in early childhood. Molecular analysis identified homozygous 1 bp deletion in the Calcium-Activated Nucleotidase 1 gene (CANT1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Desbuquois dysplasia type 1 in Japan. Our experience suggests potential lethality in the disorder. PMID:25252066

Inoue, Shinkai; Ishii, Atsushi; Shirotani, Goro; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ohta, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Mori, Toshiko; Inoue, Takahito; Nishimura, Gen; Ogawa, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

2014-08-01

401

Lysosome and Phagosome Stability in Lethal Cell Injury  

PubMed Central

In two types of cell injury in a tissue culture system, the possibility was tested that lysosome rupture may be a lethal cellular reaction to injury, and thus an important general cause of irreversibility of damage in injured tissue. Prior labeling of secondary lysosomes with the fluorochrome acridine orange, or with ferritin, was used to trace changes in lysosomes after applying an injury. The metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate and cyanide were used together to block the cell's energy supply, or attachment of antiserum and subsequent complement attack were used to damage the surface membrane, producing rapid loss of cell volume control. Living cells were studied by time-lapse phase-contrast cinemicrography and fluorescence microscopy, and samples were fixed at intervals for electron microscopy. The cytolytic action of complement was lethal to sensitized cells within 2 hours, but results showed that lysosomes did not rupture for approximately 4 hours and in fact did not release the fluorescent dye until after reaching the postmortem necrotic phase of injury. Cells treated with metabolic inhibitors also showed irreversible alterations, while lysosomes remained intact and retained the ferritin marker. The fluorochrome marker, acridine orange, escaped from lysosomes early after metabolic injury, but the significance of this observation is not clear. The results are interpreted as evidence against the concept that lysosome rupture threatens the survival of injured cells. The original suicide bag mechanism of cell damage thus is apparently not operative in the systems studied. Lysosomes appear to be relatively stable organelles which, following injury of the types studied, burst only after cell death, acting then as scavengers which help to clear cellular debris. ImagesFigs 5-7Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Figs 21-23Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Figs 24-27Fig 12Figs 13 and 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17 PMID:4340333

Hawkins, Hal K.; Ericsson, Jan L. E.; Biberfeld, Peter; Trump, Benjamin F.

1972-01-01

402

Recombinant Thrombomodulin Protects Mice against Histone-Induced Lethal Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM). rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. Methods Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. Results Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. Conclusions Extracellular histones cause massive thromboembolism associated with consumptive coagulopathy, which is diagnostically indistinguishable from DIC. rTM binds to histones and neutralizes the prothrombotic action of histones. This may contribute to the effectiveness of rTM against DIC. PMID:24098750

Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Yamamoto, Mika; Nagasato, Tomoka; Shrestha, Binita; Yamada, Shingo; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Higuchi, Koji; Takenaka, Toshihiro; Yasuda, Tomotsugu; Matsunaga, Akira; Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Kanmura, Yuichi; Maruyama, Ikuro

2013-01-01