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Sample records for leu-phe knockdown resistance

  1. Evidence of increasing Leu-Phe knockdown resistance mutation in Anopheles gambiae from Niger following a nationwide long-lasting insecticide-treated nets implementation

    PubMed Central

    Czeher, Cyrille; Labbo, Rabiou; Arzika, Ibrahim; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background At the end of 2005, a nationwide long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) distribution targeting the most vulnerable populations was implemented throughout Niger. A large number of studies in Africa have reported the existence of anopheline populations resistant to various insecticides, partly due to knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, but few operational wide-scale control programmes were coupled with the monitoring of such mutations. The distribution of the kdr-west (kdr-w) Leu-Phe mutation was studied in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Niger and temporal variations were monitored following the nationwide LLIN implementation. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from 14 localities during the wet seasons of 2005, 2006 and 2007 with additional sampling in the capital city, Niamey. After morphological identification of Anopheles gambiae s.l. specimens, DNA extracts were used for the determination of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex and for the detection of the kdr-w mutation. Results Around 1,500 specimens collected in the three consecutive years were analysed. All Anopheles arabiensis specimens analysed were homozygous susceptible, whereas the few Anopheles gambiae S forms exhibited a high overall kdr-w frequency. The M form samples exhibited a low overall kdr-w frequency before the LLIN distribution, that increased significantly in the two wet season collections following the LLIN distribution. Higher kdr frequencies were repeatedly noticed within host-seeking females compared to resting ones in indoor collections. In addition, preliminary results in M form urban populations from Niamey showed far higher kdr frequencies than in all of the rural sites studied. Discussion This study describes the first case of kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae populations from Niger. It is suspected that the LLIN have caused the important temporal increase of kdr-w mutation observed during this study. While the kdr mutation is still

  2. Modulation of luminol chemiluminescence of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils by affecting dephosphorylation and the metabolism of phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, J; Benard, S; Kilian, U; Reichl, S; Schiller, J; Arnold, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper is addressed to study how PKC-mediated effects and phosphatidic acid interact together in activation of NADPH-oxidase in formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) stimulated neutrophils as detected by luminol chemiluminescence. The early luminescence response in fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated cells (up to 5 min after stimulation) depends mainly on reactive oxygen species generated extracellularly, whereas all later events are caused by oxidation of luminol inside the cells. The two protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid and calyculin A, dramatically increased the late luminescence of cells. This enhancement was totally inhibited by the phospholipase D modulator butanol, while the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I was insensitive. The early luminescence response of the cells was slightly inhibited by both protein phosphatase inhibitors and depended on protein kinase C as well as on phospholipase D activities. Propranolol, an inhibitor of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, enhanced all parts of luminescence response of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils at concentrations up to 2.5 x 10(-5) mol/L. While the late luminescence response of propranolol-treated cells was not inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I, the first response depended on protein kinase C. The inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase R59949 enhanced the luminescence signal only during the first 4 min in fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated cells. Only diacylglycerols derived from phospholipase C, such as 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, were able to initiate an oxidative burst in cells. Saturated diacylglycerols (e.g. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol) did not yield any luminol chemiluminescence, although they were incorporated into the plasma membrane, as evidenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D is

  3. In vitro studies of human monocyte migration across endothelium in response to leukotriene B4 and f-Met-Leu-Phe.

    PubMed Central

    Migliorisi, G.; Folkes, E.; Pawlowski, N.; Cramer, E. B.

    1987-01-01

    Relatively little is known about monocyte emigration from the vasculature or about the factors that regulate this process. In this study, a human in vitro model of a blood vessel wall was used for examination of monocyte transendothelial migration. Umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown to confluency on amnion connective tissue, and human monocytes were stimulated to cross the monolayer in response to the chemoattractants leukotriene B4 or f-Met-Leu-Phe. The pattern and time course of monocyte migration were similar for the two chemotactic factors. In both cases, approximately 40-50% of the adherent monocytes extended single or multiple pseudopods into the apical endothelial surface. This indenting behavior was also observed in the absence of chemotactic factors. It was not affected by the medium (M199 or Gey's) or method of monocyte isolation. Neutrophils also displayed this behavior, but only about half as many neutrophils as monocytes indented the endothelial surface. The integrity of the endothelium remained intact as the monocytes traversed the monolayer. When the monocytes reached the basal surface of the endothelium, they frequently wedged themselves between the basal surface of the endothelium and its basal lamina. The monocytes then invaded the basal lamina and accumulated in the connective tissue. In response to both f-Met-Leu-Phe and leukotriene B4, monocyte migration across the endothelium began as early as 10 minutes. The average rate of accumulation in the connective tissue peaked at 30 minutes; and by 60 minutes, 25-35% of the monocytes had traversed the monolayer. Approximately two to three times as many monocytes traversed the endothelium under conditions of chemotaxis as under conditions of chemokinesis or random migration. These studies provide the basis for understanding the process of monocyte migration out of the bloodstream and lay the foundation for the study of their differentiation into macrophages in the connective tissue. Images

  4. Knockdown resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the kdr (knockdown resistance) resistance-associated gene mutation and determine its frequency in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Haematobia irritans) populations, a total of 1,804 horn flies of 37 different populations from all Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southe...

  5. Relationship between Knockdown Resistance, Metabolic Detoxification and Organismal Resistance to Pyrethroids in Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Chang, Xuelian; Zhou, Guofa; He, Zhengbo; Fu, Fengyang; Yan, Zhentian; Zhu, Guoding; Xu, Tielong; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Wang, Mei-Hui; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is the most important vector of malaria in Southeast Asia, including China. Currently, the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission relies on vector control through the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. Extensive use of insecticides poses strong selection pressure on mosquito populations for resistance. Resistance to insecticides can arise due to mutations in the insecticide target site (target site resistance), which in the case of pyrethroids is the para-type sodium channel gene, and/or the catabolism of the insecticide by detoxification enzymes before it reaches its target (metabolic detoxification resistance). In this study, we examined deltamethrin resistance in An. sinensis from China and investigated the relative importance of target site versus metabolic detoxification mechanisms in resistance. A high frequency (>85%) of nonsynonymous mutations in the para gene was found in populations from central China, but not in populations from southern China. Metabolic detoxification as measured by the activity of monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) was detected in populations from both central and southern China. Monooxygenase activity levels were significantly higher in the resistant than the susceptible mosquitoes, independently of their geographic origin. Stepwise multiple regression analyses in mosquito populations from central China found that both knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations and monooxygenase activity were significantly associated with deltamethrin resistance, with monooxygenase activity playing a stronger role. These results demonstrate the importance of metabolic detoxification in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis, and suggest that different mechanisms of resistance could evolve in geographically different populations. PMID:23405157

  6. Molecular survey of knockdown resistance to pyrethroids in human scabies mites.

    PubMed

    Andriantsoanirina, V; Izri, A; Botterel, F; Foulet, F; Chosidow, O; Durand, R

    2014-02-01

    There are growing concerns about the emergence of resistance of Sarcoptes scabiei to permethrin and other pyrethroid derivatives. Sarcoptes scabiei mites collected from 40 patients visiting two hospitals near Paris, France, were genotypically characterized considering two parts of their voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene. No nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a codon change at codon 733 or other positions associated with knockdown resistance in other arthropods has been identified. These data may establish a reference line for future surveys of the susceptibility of S. scabiei in the area. PMID:23991892

  7. Response of Two Heat Shock Genes to Selection for Knockdown Heat Resistance in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    McColl, G.; Hoffmann, A. A.; McKechnie, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    To identify genes involved in stress resistance and heat hardening, replicate lines of Drosophila melanogaster were selected for increased resistance to knockdown by a 39° heat stress. Two selective regimes were used, one with and one without prior hardening. Mean knockdown times were increased from ~5 min to >20 min after 18 generations. Initial realized heritabilities were as high as 10% for lines selected without hardening, and crosses between lines indicated simple additive gene effects for the selected phenotypes. To survey allelic variation and correlated selection responses in two candidate stress genes, hsr-omega and hsp68, we applied denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to amplified DNA sequences from small regions of these genes. After eight generations of selection, allele frequencies at both loci showed correlated responses for selection following hardening, but not without hardening. The hardening process itself was associated with a hsp68 frequency change in the opposite direction to that associated with selection that followed hardening. These stress loci are closely linked on chromosome III, and the hardening selection established a disequilibrium, suggesting an epistatic effect on resistance. The data indicate that molecular variation in both hsr-omega and hsp68 contribute to natural heritable variation for hardened heat resistance. PMID:8844150

  8. Molecular Ecology of Pyrethroid Knockdown Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donghui; Shi, Linna; Zhou, Guofa; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; He, Ji; Hong, Shanchao; Zhou, Dan; Xiong, Chunrong; Chen, Chen; Zou, Ping; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2010-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been extensively used in China and worldwide for public health pest control. Accurate resistance monitoring is essential to guide the rational use of insecticides and resistance management. Here we examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel gene, which confers knockdown resistance (kdr) in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes in China. The sequence analysis of the para-sodium channel gene identified L1014F and L1014S mutations. We developed and validated allele-specific PCR and the real-time TaqMan methods for resistance diagnosis. The real-time TaqMan method is more superior to the allele-specific PCR method as evidenced by higher amplification rate and better sensitivity and specificity. Significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014S mutations in the kdr gene can be used as a molecular marker for deltamethrin resistance monitoring in natural Cx. pipiens pallens populations in the East China region. The laboratory selection experiment found that L1014F mutation frequency, but not L1014S mutation, responded to deltamethrin selection, suggesting that the L1014F mutation is the key mutation conferring resistance to deltamethrin. High L1014F mutation frequency detected in six populations of Cx. pipens pallens suggests high prevalence of pyrethroid resistance in Eastern China, calling for further surveys to map the resistance in China and for investigating alternative mosquito control strategies. PMID:20657783

  9. Molecular ecology of pyrethroid knockdown resistance in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhang, Donghui; Shi, Linna; Zhou, Guofa; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; He, Ji; Hong, Shanchao; Zhou, Dan; Xiong, Chunrong; Chen, Chen; Zou, Ping; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2010-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been extensively used in China and worldwide for public health pest control. Accurate resistance monitoring is essential to guide the rational use of insecticides and resistance management. Here we examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel gene, which confers knockdown resistance (kdr) in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes in China. The sequence analysis of the para-sodium channel gene identified L1014F and L1014S mutations. We developed and validated allele-specific PCR and the real-time TaqMan methods for resistance diagnosis. The real-time TaqMan method is more superior to the allele-specific PCR method as evidenced by higher amplification rate and better sensitivity and specificity. Significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014S mutations in the kdr gene can be used as a molecular marker for deltamethrin resistance monitoring in natural Cx. pipiens pallens populations in the East China region. The laboratory selection experiment found that L1014F mutation frequency, but not L1014S mutation, responded to deltamethrin selection, suggesting that the L1014F mutation is the key mutation conferring resistance to deltamethrin. High L1014F mutation frequency detected in six populations of Cx. pipens pallens suggests high prevalence of pyrethroid resistance in Eastern China, calling for further surveys to map the resistance in China and for investigating alternative mosquito control strategies. PMID:20657783

  10. Determination, mechanism and monitoring of knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Marshall

    2009-03-01

    Permethrin resistance has been reported worldwide and clinical failures to commercial pediculicides containing permethrin have likewise occurred. Permethrin resistance in head lice populations from the U.S. is widespread but is not yet uniform and the level of resistance is relatively low (~4-8 fold). Permethrin-resistant lice are cross-resistant to pyrethrins, PBO-synergized pyrethrins and to DDT. Nix((R)), when applied to human hair tufts following manufacture's instructions, did not provide 100% control when assessed by the hair tuft bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system. Resistance to permethrin is due to knockdown resistance (kdr), which is the result of three point mutations within the alpha-subunit gene of the voltage-gated sodium channel that causes amino acid substitutions, leading to nerve insensitivity.A three-tiered resistance monitoring system has been established based on molecular resistance detection techniques. Quantitative sequencing (QS) has been developed to predict the kdr allele frequency in head lice at a population level. The speed, simplicity and accuracy of QS made it an ideal candidate for a routine primary resistance monitoring tool to screen a large number of louse populations as an alternative to conventional bioassay. As a secondary monitoring method, real-time PASA (rtPASA) has been devised for a more precise determination of low resistance allele frequencies. To obtain more detailed information on resistance allele zygosity, as well as allele frequency, serial invasive signal amplification reaction (SISAR) has been developed as an individual genotyping method. Our approach of using three tiers of molecular resistance detection should facilitate large-scale routine resistance monitoring of permethrin resistance in head lice using field-collected samples. PMID:20161186

  11. Molecular detection of knockdown resistance (kdr) in Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae) from northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, S; Nouroozi, B; Ladonni, H

    2014-09-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are highly insecticidal compounds that are widely used against the German cockroach, a significant household insect pest. In several insect species, there is a point mutation in the para-type sodium channel gene associated with knockdown resistance (kdr). In the current study, genomic DNA was analyzed in the region where the kdr and super-kdr (an enhanced form of pyrethroid resistance) mutations reside in Blatella germanica (L., 1767) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) collected from Iran. Studies on the extracted DNA from hand-captured German cockroach specimens were conducted by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing to detect related mutations. The kdr mutation, substitution of G for C (L1014F), which results in amino acid replacement (leucine with phenylalanine), was detected in all 18 sequenced specimens from three different locations. However, the super-kdr mutation (M918T), which is detected in super-kdr house flies, was not found in the sequences of the current study. The high ratio of the kdr mutation in a field population of B. germanica in Urmia confirms that the individuals are homozygous. These data should be helpful in designing and implementing a control program and resistance management. PMID:25276926

  12. Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Mutations in Indian Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Cherry L; Das, Manoj K; Eapen, Alex; Batra, Chandra P; Ghosh, Susanta K; Vijayan, V A; Mishra, Shobhna; Singh, Om P

    2016-03-01

    Knockdown resistance (kdr) in insects resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and the pyrethroid group of insecticides. Earlier, we reported the presence of two classic kdr mutations, i.e., L1014F and L1014S in Anopheles stephensi Liston, a major Indian malaria vector affecting mainly urban areas. This report presents the distribution of these alleles in different An. stephensi populations. Seven populations of An. stephensi from six states of India were screened for the presence of two alternative kdr mutations L1014F and L1014S using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. We recorded the presence of both kdr mutations in northern Indian populations (Alwar and Gurgaon), with the preponderance of L1014S, whereas only L1014F was present in Raipur (central India) and Chennai (southern India). None of the kdr mutations were found in Ranchi in eastern India and in Mangaluru and Mysuru in southern India. This study provides evidence for a focal pattern of distribution of kdr alleles in India. PMID:26747858

  13. Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies in North American Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Poole, Bryan C.; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E. Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  14. Knockdown resistance allele frequencies in North American head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J; Hodgdon, Hilliary E; Poole, Bryan C; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall

    2014-03-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  15. Novel point mutations in the German cockroach para sodium channel gene are associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Valles, S M; Dong, K

    2000-10-01

    Knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to point mutations in the para sodium channel gene in more than a half dozen insect pest species. In this study, we identified two novel para mutations in five highly resistant kdr-type German cockroach strains. The two mutations, from glutamic acid (E434) to lysine (K434) and from cysteine (C764) to arginine (R764), respectively, are located in the first intracellular linker connecting domains I and II. E434K is located near the beginning of the linker (closest to domain I), whereas C764R is found toward the end of the linker (closest to domain II). Two additional mutations from aspartic acid (D58) to glycine (G58), and from proline (P1880) to leucine (L1888), respectively, were found in one of the resistant strains. The four mutations coexist with the previously identified leucine to phenylalanine (L993F) kdr mutation in IIS6, and are present only in the highly resistant individuals of a given strain. These findings suggest that these mutations might be responsible for high levels of knockdown resistance toward pyrethroid insecticides in the German cockroach. PMID:10899465

  16. Determination of knockdown resistance allele frequencies in global human head louse populations using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Aboelghar, Gamal E.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediculosis is the most prevalent parasitic infestation of humans. Resistance to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides is due to knockdown (kdr)-type point mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel α-subunit gene. Early detection of resistance is crucial for the selection of effective management strategies. RESULTS Kdr allele frequencies of lice from 14 countries were determined using serial invasive signal amplification reaction. Lice collected from Uruguay, UK and Australia had kdr allele frequencies of 100% while lice from Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, South Korea and Thailand had kdr allele frequencies of 0%. The remaining 7 countries investigated, including seven US populations, two Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, Czech Republic, Egypt and Israel, displayed variable kdr allele frequencies, ranging from 11% to 97%. CONCLUSION The newly developed and validated SISAR method is suitable for accurate monitoring of kdr allele frequencies in head lice. Proactive management is needed where kdr-type resistance is not yet saturated. Based on sodium channel insensitivity and its occurrence in louse populations resistant to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides, the T917I mutation appears a key marker for resistance. Results from the Egyptian population, however, indicate that phenotypic resistance of lice with single or double mutations (M815I and/or L920F) should also be determined. PMID:20564731

  17. Expansion of the Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map for Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in the United States Using Quantitative Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gellatly, Kyle J.; Krim, Sarah; Palenchar, Daniel J.; Shepherd, Katie; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Marshall Clark, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pediculosis is a prevalent parasitic infestation of humans, which is increasing due, in part, to the selection of lice resistant to either the pyrethrins or pyrethroid insecticides by the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. To determine the extent and magnitude of the kdr-type mutations responsible for this resistance, lice were collected from 138 collection sites in 48 U.S. states from 22 July 2013 to 11 May 2015 and analyzed by quantitative sequencing. Previously published data were used for comparisons of the changes in the frequency of the kdr-type mutations over time. Mean percent resistance allele frequency (mean % RAF) values across the three mutation loci were determined from each collection site. The overall mean % RAF (±SD) for all analyzed lice was 98.3 ± 10%. 132/138 sites (95.6%) had a mean % RAF of 100%, five sites (3.7%) had intermediate values, and only a single site had no mutations (0.0%). Forty-two states (88%) had a mean % RAF of 100%. The frequencies of kdr-type mutations did not differ regardless of the human population size that the lice were collected from, indicating a uniformly high level of resistant alleles. The loss of efficacy of the Nix formulation (Prestige Brand, Tarrytown, NY) from 1998 to 2013 was correlated to the increase in kdr-type mutations. These data provide a plausible reason for the decrease in the effectiveness of permethrin in the Nix formulation, which is the parallel increase of kdr-type mutations in lice over time. PMID:27032417

  18. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  19. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  20. NAMPT knockdown attenuates atherosclerosis and promotes reverse cholesterol transport in ApoE KO mice with high-fat-induced insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengbing; Wang, Cong; Li, Ke; Li, Ling; Tian, Mingyuan; Xie, Jing; Yang, Mengliu; Jia, Yanjun; He, Junying; Gao, Lin; Boden, Guenther; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    NAMPT has been suggested association with atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. However, the impact of NAMPT on atherosclerosis remained unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use a NAMPT loss-of-function approach to investigate the effect of NAMPT on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. We demonstrated that a specific NAMPT knockdown increased plasma HDL-C levels, reduced the plaque area of the total aorta en face and the cross-sectional aortic sinus, decreased macrophage number and apoptosis, and promoted RCT in HFD-fed ApoE KO mice. These changes were accompanied by increased PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 expressions in the liver. NAMPT knockdown also facilitated cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 cells. We further investigated the effect of NAMPT knockdown on the PPARα-LXRα pathway of cholesterol metabolism with MK886 (a selective inhibitor of PPARα) in RAW264.7 macrophages. MK886 abolished the ability of NAMPT knockdown to decrease intracellular cholesterol levels to enhance the rate of 3H-cholesterol efflux and to increase ABCA1/G1 and LXRα expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages. Our observations demonstrate that NAMPT knockdown exerted antiatherogenic effects by promoting cholesterol efflux and macrophage RCT through the PPARα- LXRα- ABCA1/G1pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27229177

  1. NAMPT knockdown attenuates atherosclerosis and promotes reverse cholesterol transport in ApoE KO mice with high-fat-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengbing; Wang, Cong; Li, Ke; Li, Ling; Tian, Mingyuan; Xie, Jing; Yang, Mengliu; Jia, Yanjun; He, Junying; Gao, Lin; Boden, Guenther; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    NAMPT has been suggested association with atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. However, the impact of NAMPT on atherosclerosis remained unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use a NAMPT loss-of-function approach to investigate the effect of NAMPT on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. We demonstrated that a specific NAMPT knockdown increased plasma HDL-C levels, reduced the plaque area of the total aorta en face and the cross-sectional aortic sinus, decreased macrophage number and apoptosis, and promoted RCT in HFD-fed ApoE KO mice. These changes were accompanied by increased PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 expressions in the liver. NAMPT knockdown also facilitated cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 cells. We further investigated the effect of NAMPT knockdown on the PPARα-LXRα pathway of cholesterol metabolism with MK886 (a selective inhibitor of PPARα) in RAW264.7 macrophages. MK886 abolished the ability of NAMPT knockdown to decrease intracellular cholesterol levels to enhance the rate of (3)H-cholesterol efflux and to increase ABCA1/G1 and LXRα expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages. Our observations demonstrate that NAMPT knockdown exerted antiatherogenic effects by promoting cholesterol efflux and macrophage RCT through the PPARα- LXRα- ABCA1/G1pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27229177

  2. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the CLN3 gene inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    MAO, DONGWEI; CHE, JIANHUA; HAN, SHIYU; ZHAO, HONGHUI; ZHU, YUMEI; ZHU, HONG

    2015-01-01

    CLN3 is a recently identified anti-apoptotic gene, which has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in a diverse range of cancer cell lines, including ovarian cancer. In the present study, RNA interference, mediated by a lentivirus expressing CLN3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was utilized to knockdown the expression of CLN3 in the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, and its cisplatin-resistant and carboplatin-resistant sublines, A2780/DDP and A2780/CBP cells. It was revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of CLN3 were significantly reduced in the CLN3-specific shRNA-transduced cells, compared with the untransduced and control shRNA-transduced cells. In addition, specific knockdown of CLN3 in these cells inhibited cell proliferation and led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, with eventual apoptosis. CLN3 knockdown caused increases in the levels of Bax, FAX, cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8 and cleaved-RARP, but decreased the level of Bcl-2. Finally, it was observed that CLN3 depletion markedly reduced the half maximum inhibitory concentration in the A2780/DDP and A2780/CBP cells. Taken together, these data suggested that CLN3 is involved in tumorigenesis and drug resistance in ovarian cancer, and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for its treatment. PMID:26299671

  3. Detection of a knockdown resistance mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis by use of melting curve analysis genotyping.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sékéné; Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Louse-borne diseases are prevalent in the homeless, and body louse eradication has thus far been unsuccessful in this population. We aim to develop a rapid and robust genotyping method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. We assessed a melting curve analysis genotyping method based on real-time PCR using hybridization probes to detect the M815I-T917I-L920F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the paraorthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) α subunit gene, which is associated with permethrin resistance. The 908-bp DNA fragment of the VSSC gene, encoding the α subunit of the sodium channel and encompassing the three mutation sites, was PCR sequenced from 65 lice collected from a homeless population. We noted a high prevalence of the 3 indicated mutations in the body lice collected from homeless people (100% for the M815I and L920F mutations and 56.73% for the T917I mutation). These results were confirmed by melting curve analysis genotyping, which had a calculated sensitivity of 100% for the M815I and T917I mutations and of 98% for the L920F mutation. The specificity was 100% for M815I and L920F and 96% for T917I. Melting curve analysis genotyping is a fast, sensitive, and specific tool that is fully compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples in epidemiological surveys, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of 96 samples in just over an hour (75 min). Thus, it is perfectly suited for the epidemiological monitoring of permethrin resistance in human body lice in large-scale clinical studies. PMID:22573588

  4. Knockdown of HOXA10 reverses the multidrug resistance of human chronic mylogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells by downregulating P-gp and MRP-1.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ying-Jie; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, You-Jie; Wang, Hong; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of leukemia cells is a major obstacle in chemotherapeutic treatment. The high expression and constitutive activation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1) have been reported to play a vital role in enhancing cell resistance to anticancer drugs in many tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the reversal of MDR by silencing homeobox A10 (HOXA10) in adriamycin (ADR)-resistant human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562/ADM cells by modulating the expression of P-gp and MRP-1. K562/ADM cells were stably transfected with HOXA10-targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis showed that the mRNA and protein expression of HOXA10 was markedly suppressed following transfection with a shRNA-containing vector. The sensitivity of the K562/ADM cells to ADR was enhanced by the silencing of HOXA10, due to the increased intracellular accumulation of ADR. The accumulation of ADR induced by the silencing of HOXA10 may be due to the downregulation of P-gp and MRP-1. Western blot analysis revealed that downregulating HOXA10 inhibited the protein expression of P-gp and MRP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that knockdown of HOXA10 combats resistance and that HOXA10 is a potential target for resistant human CML. PMID:27035504

  5. pH-responsive polymeric siRNA carriers sensitize multidrug resistant ovarian cancer cells to doxorubicin via knockdown of polo-like kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Henry, Scott M.; Shubin, Andrew D.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapies have great potential for the treatment of debilitating diseases such as cancer, but an effective delivery strategy for siRNA is elusive. Here, pH-responsive complexes were developed for the delivery of siRNA in order to sensitize drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells (NCI/ADR-RES) to doxorubicin. The electrostatic complexes consisted of a cationic micelle used as a nucleating core, siRNA, and a pH-responsive endosomolytic polymer. Cationic micelles were formed from diblock copolymers of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA) and butyl methacrylate (pDbB). The hydrophobic butyl core mediated micelle formation while the positively-charged pDMAEMA corona enabled siRNA condensation. To enhance cytosolic delivery through endosomal release, a pH-responsive copolymer of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (pSMA) was electrostatically complexed with the positively-charged siRNA/micelle to form a ternary complex. Complexes exhibited size (30–105 nm) and charge (slightly positive) properties important for endocytosis and were found to be non-cytotoxic and mediate uptake in >70% of ovarian cancer cells after 1 hour of incubation. The pH-responsive ternary complexes were used to deliver siRNA against polo-like kinase 1 (plk1), a gene upregulated in many cancers and responsible for cell cycle progression, to ovarian cancer cell lines. Treatment resulted in ∼50% reduction of plk1 gene expression in the drug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cell model and in the drug-sensitive parental cell line, OVCAR8. This knockdown functionally sensitized NCI/ADR-RES cells to doxorubicin at levels similar to OVCAR8. Sensitization occurred through a p53 signaling pathway, as indicated by caspase 3/7 upregulation following plk1 knockdown and doxorubicin treatment, and this effect could be abrogated using a p53 inhibitor. To demonstrate the potential for dual delivery from this polymer system, micelle cores were subsequently loaded with

  6. Lentivector Knockdown of CCR5 in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Confers Functional and Persistent HIV-1 Resistance in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Myburgh, Renier; Ivic, Sandra; Pepper, Michael S.; Gers-Huber, Gustavo; Li, Duo; Audigé, Annette; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Jaquet, Vincent; Regenass, Stephan; Manz, Markus G.; Salmon, Patrick; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gene-engineered CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be used to generate an HIV-1-resistant immune system. However, a certain threshold of transduced HSPCs might be required for transplantation into mice for creating an HIV-resistant immune system. In this study, we combined CCR5 knockdown by a highly efficient microRNA (miRNA) lentivector with pretransplantation selection of transduced HSPCs to obtain a rather pure population of gene engineered CD34+ cells. Low-level transduction of HSPCs and subsequent sorting by flow cytometry yielded >70% transduced cells. Mice transplanted with these cells showed functional and persistent resistance to a CCR5-tropic HIV strain: viral load was significantly decreased over months, and human CD4+ T cells were preserved. In one mouse, viral mutations, resulting presumably in a CXCR4-tropic strain, overcame HIV resistance. Our results suggest that HSPC-based CCR5 knockdown may lead to efficient control of HIV in vivo. We overcame a major limitation of previous HIV gene therapy in humanized mice in which only a proportion of the cells in chimeric mice in vivo are anti-HIV engineered. Our strategy underlines the promising future of gene engineering HIV-resistant CD34+ cells that produce a constant supply of HIV-resistant progeny. IMPORTANCE Major issues in experimental long-term in vivo HIV gene therapy have been (i) low efficacy of cell transduction at the time of transplantation and (ii) transduction resulting in multiple copies of heterologous DNA in target cells. In this study, we demonstrated the efficacy of a transplantation approach with a selection step for transduced cells that allows transplantation of an enriched population of HSPCs expressing a single (low) copy of a CCR5 miRNA. Efficient maintenance of CD4+ T cells and a low viral titer resulted only when at least 70% of the HIV target cells were genetically modified. These findings imply that clinical protocols of HIV gene therapy require a

  7. Notch3-specific inhibition using siRNA knockdown or GSI sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Haeyoun; Jeong, Ju-Yeon; Song, Ji-Ye; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Gwangil; Huh, Jin Hyung; Kwon, Ah-Young; Jung, Sang Geun; An, Hee Jung

    2016-07-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in ovarian cancer chemoresistance, which is responsible for recurrence. Gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) is a broad-spectrum Notch inhibitor, but it has serious side effects. The efficacy of Notch3-specific inhibition in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancers was assessed in this study, which has not yet been evaluated relative to GSI. To analyze the effect of Notch3-specific inhibition on paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancers, we compared cell viability, apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, cell cycle, and spheroid formation after treatment with either Notch3 siRNA or GSI in paclitaxel-resistant SKpac cells and parental SKOV3 cells. Expression levels of survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis-related proteins were measured and compared between groups. Notch3 was significantly overexpressed in chemoresistant cancer tissues and cell lines relative to chemosensitive group. In paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells, Notch inhibition significantly reduced viability, migration, and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis, thereby boosting sensitivity to paclitaxel. Spheroid formation was also significantly reduced. Both Notch3 siRNA-treated cells and GSI-treated cells arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Proteins of cell survival, cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 were reduced, whereas p21 and p27 were elevated. Both GSI and Notch3 siRNA treatment reduced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL-W, BCL2, and BCL-XL) and increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bak, Bim, Bid, and Bax). These results indicate that Notch3-specific inhibition sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells to paclitaxel treatment, with an efficacy comparable to that of GSI. This approach would be likely to avoid the side effects of broad-spectrum GSI treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26207830

  8. Molecular evidence for historical presence of knock-down resistance in Anopheles albimanus, a key malaria vector in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles albimanus is a key malaria vector in the northern neotropics. Current vector control measures in the region are based on mass distributions of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pyrethroids. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides can be mediated by increased esterase and/or multi-function oxidase activity and/or mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. The aim of this work was to characterize the homologous kdr region of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in An. albimanus and to conduct a preliminary retrospective analysis of field samples collected in the 1990’s, coinciding with a time of intense pyrethroid application related to agricultural and public health insect control in the region. Methods Degenerate primers were designed to amplify the homologous kdr region in a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (Sanarate) of An. albimanus. Subsequently, a more specific primer pair was used to amplify and sequence the region that contains the 1014 codon associated with pyrethroid resistance in other Anopheles spp. (L1014F, L1014S or L1014C). Results Direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of the susceptible kdr allele in the Sanarate strain (L1014) and the presence of homozygous-resistant kdr alleles in field-collected individuals from Mexico (L1014F), Nicaragua (L1014C) and Costa Rica (L1014C). Conclusions For the first time, the kdr region in An. albimanus is described. Furthermore, molecular evidence suggests the presence of kdr-type resistance in field-collected An. albimanus in Mesoamerica in the 1990s. Further research is needed to conclusively determine an association between the genotypes and resistant phenotypes, and to what extent they may compromise current vector control efforts. PMID:24330978

  9. RNAi-Mediated CCR5 Knockdown Provides HIV-1 Resistance to Memory T Cells in Humanized BLT Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Saki; Ringpis, Gene-Errol; Marsden, Matthew D; Cortado, Ruth V; Wilhalme, Holly M; Elashoff, David; Zack, Jerome A; Chen, Irvin S Y; An, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) modified with a lentiviral vector bearing a potent nontoxic short hairpin RNA (sh1005) directed to the HIV coreceptor CCR5 is capable of continuously producing CCR5 downregulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we characterized HIV-1 resistance of the sh1005-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo in humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (hu BLT) mice. The sh1005-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes were positively selected in CCR5-tropic HIV-1–challenged mice. The sh1005-modified memory CD4+ T lymphocytes (the primary target of CCR5-tropic HIV-1) expressing sh1005 were maintained in lymphoid tissues in CCR5-tropic HIV-1–challenged mice. Frequencies of HIV-1 p24 expressing cells were significantly reduced in the sh1005-modified splenocytes by ex vivo cell stimulation confirming that CCR5 downregulated sh1005 modified cells are protected from viral infection. These results demonstrate that stable CCR5 downregulation through genetic modification of human HSPC by lentivirally delivered sh1005 is highly effective in providing HIV-1 resistance. Our results provide in vivo evidence in a relevant small animal model that sh1005 is a potent early-step anti-HIV reagent that has potential as a novel anti-HIV-1 HSPC gene therapeutic reagent for human applications. PMID:25689223

  10. Identification of TCT, a novel knockdown resistance allele mutation and analysis of resistance detection methods in the voltage-gated Na⁺ channel of Culex pipiens pallens from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Cheng, Peng; Huang, Xiaodan; Dai, Yu-Hua; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (C. pipiens pallens) mosquitoes and its correlation with knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations. In addition, mosquito‑resistance testing methods were analyzed. Using specific primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and allele-specific (AS)-PCR, kdr gene sequences isolated from wild C. pipiens pallens mosquitoes were sequenced. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the mutations and deltamethrin resistance. A kdr allelic gene was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the DNA sequences revealed the presence of two point mutations at the L1014 residue in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the voltage‑gated sodium channel (VGSC): L1014F, TTA→TTT, replacing a leucine (L) with a phenylalanine (F); L1014S, TTA→TCA, replacing leucine (L) with serine (S). Two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014F and L1014S, were identified to be positively correlated with the deltamethrin-resistant phenotype. In addition a novel mutation, TCT, was identified in the VGSC of C. pipiens pallens. PCR and AS-PCR yielded consistent results with respect to mosquito resistance. However, the detection rate of PCR was higher than that of AS-PCR. Further studies are required to determine the specific resistance mechanism. PCR and AS-PCR demonstrated suitability for mosquito resistance field tests, however, the former method may be superior to the latter. PMID:23151871

  11. HIV-1 Resistant CDK2-Knockdown Macrophage-Like Cells Generated from 293T Cell-Derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Kumari, Namita; Xu, Min; de Melo, Gustavo Brito Alvim; Niu, Xiaomei; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Nekhai, Sergei

    2012-07-26

    A major challenge in studies of human diseases involving macrophages is low yield and heterogeneity of the primary cells and limited ability of these cells for transfections and genetic manipulations. To address this issue, we developed a simple and efficient three steps method for somatic 293T cells reprogramming into monocytes and macrophage-like cells. First, 293T cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through a transfection-mediated expression of two factors, Oct-4 and Sox2, resulting in a high yield of iPSC. Second, the obtained iPSC were differentiated into monocytes using IL-3 and M-CSF treatment. And third, monocytes were differentiated into macrophage-like cells in the presence of M-CSF. As an example, we developed HIV-1-resistant macrophage-like cells from 293T cells with knockdown of CDK2, a factor critical for HIV-1 transcription. Our study provides a proof-of-principle approach that can be used to study the role of host cell factors in HIV-1 infection of human macrophages. PMID:22934150

  12. HIV-1 Resistant CDK2-Knockdown Macrophage-Like Cells Generated from 293T Cell-Derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Kumari, Namita; Xu, Min; de Melo, Gustavo Brito Alvim; Niu, Xiaomei; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Nekhai, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in studies of human diseases involving macrophages is low yield and heterogeneity of the primary cells and limited ability of these cells for transfections and genetic manipulations. To address this issue, we developed a simple and efficient three steps method for somatic 293T cells reprogramming into monocytes and macrophage-like cells. First, 293T cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through a transfection-mediated expression of two factors, Oct-4 and Sox2, resulting in a high yield of iPSC. Second, the obtained iPSC were differentiated into monocytes using IL-3 and M-CSF treatment. And third, monocytes were differentiated into macrophage-like cells in the presence of M-CSF. As an example, we developed HIV-1-resistant macrophage-like cells from 293T cells with knockdown of CDK2, a factor critical for HIV-1 transcription. Our study provides a proof-of-principle approach that can be used to study the role of host cell factors in HIV-1 infection of human macrophages. PMID:22934150

  13. TRAF1 knockdown alleviates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells through NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanlu; Tang, Zhuqi; Zhu, Xiaohui; Xia, Nana; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Suxin; Cui, Shiwei; Wang, Cuifang

    2015-11-20

    High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are key contributors to insulin resistance (IR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With HFD, plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) can activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in target tissues, then initiate negative crosstalk between FFAs and insulin signaling. However, the molecular link between IR and inflammation remains to be identified. We here reported that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), an adapter in signal transduction, was involved in the onset of IR in hepatocytes. TRAF1 was significantly up-regulated in insulin-resistant liver tissues and palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, we showed that depletion of TRAF1 led to inhibition of the activity of NF-κB. Given the fact that the activation of NF-κB played a facilitating role in IR, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β was also analyzed. We found that depletion of TRAF1 markedly reversed PA-induced attenuation of the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in the cells. The accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocyte and expression of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, PEPCK and G6Pase, were also determined and found to display a similar tendency with the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Glucose uptake assay indicated that knocking down TRAF1 blocked the effect of PA on the suppression of glucose uptake. These data implicated that TRAF1 knockdown might alleviate PA-induced IR in HepG2 cells through NF-κB pathway. PMID:26449452

  14. Two Novel Bioassays to Assess the Effects of Pyrethroid-Treated Netting on Knockdown-Susceptible Versus Resistant Strains of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Denham, Steven; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Meaghan; Beaty, Barry J; Black, William C; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla

    2015-03-01

    We describe 2 new mosquito bioassays for use with insecticide-treated netting or other textiles. The 1st is a cylinder bioassay in which a mosquito is forced to contact treated material regardless of where it lands within the bioassay construct. The 2nd is a repellency/irritancy and biting-inhibition bioassay (RIBB) in which human arms and breath are used as attractants. Mosquitoes have the choice to pass through holes cut in untreated or treated netting to move from a center release chamber into side chambers to reach arms and potentially bite. Trials were conducted with pyrethroid-susceptible (New Orleans), moderately resistant (Hunucmá), and highly resistant (Vergel) strains of Aedes aegypti. Tests with netting treated with different pyrethroids demonstrated the utility of the cylinder bioassay to quantify knockdown and mortality following exposure to treated netting, and of the RIBB to quantify spatial repellency/contact irritancy of the treated netting and biting inhibition after females land on and then pass through holes in the treated netting. Both tested brands of pyrethroid-treated mosquitocidal netting (DuraNet® and NetProtect®) were effective against New Orleans but ineffective against Vergel strains. Mortality in the cylinder bioassay was 100% for New Orleans for all tested brands of treated netting, but only 10-14% for Vergel. Rates of passage through treated netting to reach a human arm in the RIBB were 10-15% for New Orleans versus 24-37% for Vergel. The reduction in biting after passage through treated netting, compared with untreated netting in the same trial replicates, was 12-39% for New Orleans versus ≤9% for Vergel. PMID:25843176

  15. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P < 0.0001) and L1014F associated with An. arabiensis (χ2 = 11.21; P = 0.0008). The occurrence of the L1014S allele was significantly associated with lambdacyhalothrin resistance mosquitoes (Fisher exact P < 0.001). Conclusion The observed co-occurrence of L1014S and L1014F mutations coupled with reports of insecticide resistance in the country suggest that pyrethroid resistance is becoming a widespread phenomenon among our malaria vector populations. The presence of L1014F mutation in this East African mosquito population indicates the spreading of this gene across Africa. The potential operational implications of these findings on malaria control need further exploration. Objectif Les marqueurs moléculaires de la résistance aux insecticides peuvent fournir des indicateurs sensibles du développement de la résistance dans les populations de vecteurs Anopheles. Le test de ces

  16. Knockdown of microRNA-127 reverses adriamycin resistance via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis sensitization in adriamycin-resistant human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ren; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate signaling pathways for reversal of microRNA-127-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) in gliomas cells. Adriamycin-resistant glioma cell lines U251/adr and U87-MG/adr were established and we found that anti-microRNA-127 markedly reduced microRNA-127 expression levels in a time-dependent manner, leading to distinct inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and the content of intracellular Rh123. Silencing of microRNA-127 significantly increased the sensitivity of U251/ADR and U87-MG/adr cells to adriamycin, compared to cells transfected with negative control siRNA. Silencing of microRNA-127 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1 and MRP1, which are major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter linked to multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. And Runx2, p53, bcl-2 and survivin, which are important role in cell apoptosis, also markedly changed after microRNA-127 silencing. In addition, down-regulating microRNA-127 decreased the level of phosphorylated-Akt. Our data indicate that down-regulation of micorRNA-127 can trigger apoptosis and overcome drug resistance of gliomas cells. Therefore, this resistance of adriamycin in gliomas can be cancelled by silencing expression of microRNA-127. PMID:26261488

  17. Knockdown of microRNA-127 reverses adriamycin resistance via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis sensitization in adriamycin-resistant human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ren; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate signaling pathways for reversal of microRNA-127-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) in gliomas cells. Adriamycin-resistant glioma cell lines U251/adr and U87-MG/adr were established and we found that anti-microRNA-127 markedly reduced microRNA-127 expression levels in a time-dependent manner, leading to distinct inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and the content of intracellular Rh123. Silencing of microRNA-127 significantly increased the sensitivity of U251/ADR and U87-MG/adr cells to adriamycin, compared to cells transfected with negative control siRNA. Silencing of microRNA-127 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1 and MRP1, which are major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter linked to multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. And Runx2, p53, bcl-2 and survivin, which are important role in cell apoptosis, also markedly changed after microRNA-127 silencing. In addition, down-regulating microRNA-127 decreased the level of phosphorylated-Akt. Our data indicate that down-regulation of micorRNA-127 can trigger apoptosis and overcome drug resistance of gliomas cells. Therefore, this resistance of adriamycin in gliomas can be cancelled by silencing expression of microRNA-127. PMID:26261488

  18. Pyrethroid-Resistance and Presence of Two Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Mutations, F1534C and a Novel Mutation T1520I, in Indian Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Raja Babu S.; Dykes, Cherry L.; Kapoor, Neera; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Control of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever, is a challenging task. Pyrethroid insecticides have emerged as a preferred choice for vector control but are threatened by the emergence of resistance. The present study reports a focus of pyrethroid resistance and presence of two kdr mutations—F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in Ae. aegypti from Delhi, India. Methodology/Principal Findings Insecticide susceptibility status of adult-female Ae. aegypti against DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) was determined using WHO's standard insecticide susceptibility kit, which revealed resistance to DDT, deltamethrin and permethrin with corrected mortalities of 35%, 72% and 76% respectively. Mosquitoes were screened for the presence of kdr mutations including those reported earlier (I1011V/M, V1016G/I, F1534C, D1794Y and S989P), which revealed the presence of F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I. Highly specific PCR-RFLP assays were developed for genotyping of these two mutations. Genotyping using allele specific PCR and new PCR-RFLP assays revealed a high frequency of F1534C (0.41–0.79) and low frequency of novel mutation T1520I (0.13). The latter was observed to be tightly linked with F1534C and possibly serve as a compensatory mutation. A positive association of F1534C mutation with DDT and deltamethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti was established. However, F1534C-kdr did not show significant protection against permethrin. Conclusions/Significance The Aedes aegypti population of Delhi is resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and permethrin. Two kdr mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, were identified in this population. This is the first report of kdr mutations being present in the Indian Ae. aegypti population. Highly specific PCR-RFLP assays were developed for discrimination of alleles at both kdr loci. A positive association of F1534C mutation with DDT and deltamethrin resistance was confirmed. PMID

  19. Susceptibility of Adult Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to Insecticides and Status of Insecticide Resistance Mutations at the Rdl and Knockdown Resistance Loci.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Vetter, Richard; Denholm, Ian; Blagburn, Byron; Williamson, Martin S; Kopp, Steven; Coleman, Glen; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell; Mencke, Norbert; Rees, Robert; Foit, Sabrina; Böhm, Claudia; Tetzner, Kathrin

    2015-08-01

    The susceptibility of 12 field-collected isolates and 4 laboratory strains of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was determined by topical application of some of the insecticides used as on-animal therapies to control them. In the tested field-collected flea isolates the LD50 values for fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.09 to 0.35 ng/flea and 0.02 to 0.19 ng/flea, respectively, and were consistent with baseline figures published previously. The extent of variation in response to four pyrethroid insecticides differed between compounds with the LD50 values for deltamethrin ranging from 2.3 to 28.2 ng/flea, etofenprox ranging from 26.7 to 86.7 ng/flea, permethrin ranging from 17.5 to 85.6 ng/flea, and d-phenothrin ranging from 14.5 to 130 ng/flea. A comparison with earlier data for permethrin and deltamethrin implied a level of pyrethroid resistance in all isolates and strains. LD50 values for tetrachlorvinphos ranged from 20.0 to 420.0 ng/flea. The rdl mutation (conferring target-site resistance to cyclodiene insecticides) was present in most field-collected and laboratory strains, but had no discernible effect on responses to fipronil, which acts on the same receptor protein as cyclodienes. The kdr and skdr mutations conferring target-site resistance to pyrethroids but segregated in opposition to one another, precluding the formation of genotypes homozygous for both mutations. PMID:26152407

  20. Liver-specific knockdown of IGF-1 decreases vascular oxidative stress resistance by impairing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response: a novel model of vascular aging.

    PubMed

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Mitschelen, Matthew; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Farley, Julie; Koller, Akos; Henthorn, Jim C; Bass, Caroline; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that age-related dysfunction of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)-driven pathways impairs cellular redox homeostasis, exacerbating age-related cellular oxidative stress and increasing sensitivity of aged vessels to oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 decline during aging, which significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases in humans. To test the hypothesis that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency impairs Nrf2-driven pathways in the vasculature, we utilized a novel mouse model with a liver-specific adeno-associated viral knockdown of the Igf1 gene using Cre-lox technology (Igf1(f/f) + MUP-iCre-AAV8), which exhibits a significant decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels (~50%). In the aortas of IGF-1-deficient mice, there was a trend for decreased expression of Nrf2 and the Nrf2 target genes GCLC, NQO1 and HMOX1. In cultured aorta segments of IGF-1-deficient mice treated with oxidative stressors (high glucose, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and H(2)O(2)), induction of Nrf2-driven genes was significantly attenuated as compared with control vessels, which was associated with an exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, mimicking the aging phenotype. In conclusion, endocrine IGF-1 deficiency is associated with dysregulation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses in the vasculature, which likely promotes an adverse vascular phenotype under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress (eg, diabetes mellitus, hypertension) and results in accelerated vascular impairments in aging. PMID:22021391

  1. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  2. Knock-Down of Both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 Genes Confers Broad-Spectrum Resistance against Potyviruses in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Mazier, Marianne; Flamain, Fabrice; Nicolaï, Maryse; Sarnette, Verane; Caranta, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E plays a key role in plant-potyvirus interactions. eIF4E belongs to a small multigenic family and three genes, eIF4E1, eIF4E2 and eIF(iso)4E, have been identified in tomato. It has been demonstrated that eIF4E-mediated natural recessive resistances against potyviruses result from non-synonymous mutations in an eIF4E protein, which impair its direct interaction with the potyviral protein VPg. In tomato, the role of eIF4E proteins in potyvirus resistance is still unclear because natural or induced mutations in eIF4E1 confer only a narrow resistance spectrum against potyviruses. This contrasts with the broad spectrum resistance identified in the natural diversity of tomato. These results suggest that more than one eIF4E protein form is involved in the observed broad spectrum resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the respective contribution of each eIF4E protein in tomato-potyvirus interactions, two tomato lines silenced for both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 (RNAi-4E) and two lines silenced for eIF(iso)4E (RNAi-iso4E) were obtained and characterized. RNAi-4E lines are slightly impaired in their growth and fertility, whereas no obvious growth defects were observed in RNAi-iso4E lines. The F1 hybrid between RNAi-4E and RNAi-iso4E lines presented a pronounced semi-dwarf phenotype. Interestingly, the RNAi-4E lines silenced for both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 showed broad spectrum resistance to potyviruses while the RNAi-iso4E lines were fully susceptible to potyviruses. Yeast two-hybrid interaction assays between the three eIF4E proteins and a set of viral VPgs identified two types of VPgs: those that interacted only with eIF4E1 and those that interacted with either eIF4E1 or with eIF4E2. Conclusion/Significance These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 in broad spectrum resistance of tomato against potyviruses and suggest a role for eIF4E2 in tomato

  3. Mitochondrial proteomics with siRNA knockdown to reveal ACAT1 and MDH2 in the development of doxorubicin-resistant uterine cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Wen; Lin, Szu-Ting; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Chan, Chia-Hao; Lyu, Kevin W; Chang, Jo-Fan; May, Eugenie Wong Soon; Lin, Dai-Ying; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chan, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are key organelles in mammary cells in responsible for a number of cellular functions including cell survival and energy metabolism. Moreover, mitochondria are one of the major targets under doxorubicin treatment. In this study, low-abundant mitochondrial proteins were enriched for proteomic analysis with the state-of-the-art two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assistant laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) strategy to compare and identify the mitochondrial protein profiling changes in response to the development of doxorubicin resistance in human uterine cancer cells. The mitochondrial proteomic results demonstrate more than fifteen hundred protein features were resolved from the equal amount pooled of three purified mitochondrial proteins and 101 differentially expressed spots were identified. In which, 39 out of these 101 identified proteins belong to mitochondrial proteins. Mitochondrial proteins such as acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ACAT1) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) have not been reported with the roles on the formation of doxorubicin resistance in our knowledge. Further studies have used RNA interference and cell viability analysis to evidence the essential roles of ACAT1 and MDH2 on their potency in the formation of doxorubicin resistance through increased cell viability and decreased cell apoptosis during doxorubicin treatment. To sum up, our current mitochondrial proteomic approaches allowed us to identify numerous proteins, including ACAT1 and MDH2, involved in various drug-resistance-forming mechanisms. Our results provide potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for the treatment of doxorubicin-resistant uterine cancer. PMID:25639359

  4. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA’s. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:27310918

  5. Temporal frequency of knockdown resistance mutations, F1534C and V1016G, in Aedes aegypti in Chiang Mai city, Thailand and the impact of the mutations on the efficiency of thermal fogging spray with pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Plernsub, Suriya; Saingamsook, Jassada; Yanola, Jintana; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Walton, Catherine; Somboon, Pradya

    2016-10-01

    In Thailand, control of dengue outbreaks is currently attained by the use of space sprays, particularly thermal fogging using pyrethroids, with the aim of killing infected Aedes mosquito vectors in epidemic areas. However, the principal dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, is resistant to pyrethroids conferred mainly by mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, F1534C and V1016G, termed knockdown resistance (kdr). The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal frequencies of F1534C and V1016G in Ae. aegypti populations in relation to pyrethroid resistance in Chiang Mai city, and to evaluate the impact of the mutations on the efficacy of thermal fogging with the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Larvae and pupae were collected from several areas around Chiang Mai city during 2011-2015 and reared to adulthood for bioassays for deltamethrin susceptibility. These revealed no trend of increasing deltamethrin resistance during the study period (mortality 58.0-69.5%, average 62.8%). This corresponded to no overall change in the frequencies of the C1534 allele (0.55-0.66, average 0.62) and G1016 allele (0.34-0.45, average 0.38), determined using allele specific amplification. Only three genotypes of kdr mutations were detected: C1534 homozygous (VV/CC); G1016/C1534 double heterozygous (VG/FC); and G1016 homozygous (GG/FF) indicating that the F1534C and V1016G mutations occurred on separate haplotypic backgrounds and a lack of recombination between them to date. The F1 progeny females were used to evaluate the efficacy of thermal fogging spray with Damthrin-SP(®) (deltamethrin+S-bioallethrin+piperonyl butoxide) using a caged mosquito bioassay. The thermal fogging spray killed 100% and 61.3% of caged mosquito bioassay placed indoors and outdoors, respectively. The outdoor spray had greater killing effect on C1534 homozygous and had partially effect on double heterozygous mosquitoes, but did not kill any G1016 homozygous mutants living outdoors. As this selection

  6. PCTAIRE1-knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to TNF family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Shi, Ranxin; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Reed, John C; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells. PMID:25790448

  7. PCTAIRE1-Knockdown Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TNF Family Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Teruki; Shi, Ranxin; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Reed, John C.; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells. PMID:25790448

  8. Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations. PMID:26463408

  9. Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Rochmijati Wuliandari, Juli; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations. PMID:26463408

  10. Knockdown of cathepsin L sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HONGMEI; ZHANG, LUOSHENG; WEI, LIXIA; GAO, XINGWANG; TANG, LI; GONG, WEI; MIN, NA; ZHANG, LI; YUAN, YAWEI

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading gynecological malignancy associated with high mortality. The development of acquired drug resistance is the primary cause of chemotherapy failure in the treatment of ovarian cancer. To examine the mechanism underlying paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer and attempt to reverse it, the present study induced a TAX-resistant ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/TAX. Cathepsin L (CTSL) has been found to be overexpressed in ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of CTSL in the development of TAX resistance in ovarian cancer. CTSL expression was knocked down in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells and their phenotypic changes were analyzed. The effects of silenced CTSL on the resistant cell line were investigated by proliferation and apoptosis analysis compared with control SKOV3 cells. CTSL was more highly expressed in SKOV3/TAX cells compared with SKOV3 cells. Paclitaxel treatment downregulated the expression of CTSL in SKOV-3 but not in the paclitaxel-resistant SKOV3/TAX cells. CTSL small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown significantly potentiated apoptosis induced by paclitaxel compared with SKOV3/TAX cells transfected with control shRNA, suggesting that CTSL contributes to paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells and that CTSL silencing can enhance paclitaxel-mediated cell apoptosis. Thus, CTSL should be explored as a candidate of therapeutic target for modulating paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer. PMID:27313771

  11. Cu(II)-catalyzed reactions in ternary [Cu(AA)(AA - H)]+ complexes (AA = Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, t-Leu, Phe).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ohanessian, Gilles; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2009-01-01

    The unimolecular chemistry of [Cu(II)AA(AA - H)](+) complexes, composed of an intact and a deprotonated amino acid (AA) ligand, have been probed in the gas phase by tandem and multistage mass spectrometry in an electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The amino acids examined include Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, t-Leu and Phe. Upon collisionally-activated dissociation (CAD), the [Cu(II)AA(AA - H)](+) complexes undergo decarboxylation with simultaneous reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I); during this process, a radical site is created at the alpha-carbon of the decarboxylated ligand (H(2)N(1) - (*)C(alpha)H - C(beta)H(2) - R; R = side chain substituent). The radical site is able to move along the backbone of the decarboxylated amino acid to form two new radicals (HN(1)(*) - C(alpha)H(2) - C(beta)H(2) - R and H(2)N(1) - C(alpha)H(2) - (*)C(beta)H - R). From the complexes of Gly and t-Leu, only C(alpha) and N(1) radicals can be formed. The whole radical ligand can be lost to form [Cu(I)AA](+) from these three isomeric radicals. Alternatively, further radical induced dissociations can take place along the backbone of the decarboxylated amino acid ligand to yield [Cu(II)AA(AA - 2H - CO(2))](+), [Cu(I)AA((*)NH(2))](+), [Cu(I)AA(HN = C(alpha)H(2))](+), or [Cu(I)AA(H(2)N - C(alpha)H = C(beta)H - R'](+) (R' = partial side chain substituent). The sodiated copper complexes, [Cu(II)(AA - H + Na)(AA - H)](+), show the same fragmentation patterns as their non-sodiated counterparts; sodium ion is retained on the intact amino acid ligand and is not involved in the CAD pathways. The amino groups of both AA units, the carbonyl group of the intact amino acid, and the deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen coordinate Cu(II) in square-planar fashion. Ab initio calculations indicate that the metal ion facilitates hydrogen atom shuttling between the N(1), C(alpha) and C(beta) atoms of the decarboxylated amino acid ligand. The dissociations of the decarboxylated radical ions unveil important insight about the so far largely unknown intrinsic chemistry of alpha-amino acid and peptide radicals, which are implicated as intermediates in numerous pathogenic biological processes. PMID:19423917

  12. Protein phosphorylation in human neutrophils (PMN) induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, S.E.; McPhail, L.C.; Bass, D.A.; McCall, C.E.

    1986-03-05

    Phosphorylation may regulate PMN responses to stimulation by PMA or fMLP. They examined differences in protein phosphorylation induced by either agent using cellular subfractionation. PMN were loaded with /sup 32/P, and stimulated with 100 ..mu..g/ml PMA for 20 min, or 10/sup -6/M fMLP + 10/sup -5/M cytochalasin B for 30 sec - conditions identical to those required for optimal stimulation of the respiratory burst by each agent. PMN were sonicated, and ultracentrifuged to yield cytosolic and particulate fractions. Protein samples were analyzed by SDS-gel electrophoresis, silver staining, and autoradiography. 43 phosphoproteins were identified in cytosolic fractions, and 40 in particulate fractions. In cytosolic fractions, as many as 22 phosphoproteins were enhanced by PMA stimulation and 12 with fMLP treatment. A cluster of phosphoproteins, approx. 38-43 kd, was enhanced by PMA, but not by fMLP, stimulation. As many as 6 particulate fraction proteins were more heavily phosphorylated with PMA treatment, and 11 with fMLP stimulation. In particulate fractions, a 26 kd phosphoprotein appeared upon PMA treatment, but not with fMLP. Characterization of the phosphoproteins which differ between the two treatments should aid in understanding the differential effects of PMA and fMLP on PMN function.

  13. Knockdown of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury increases sensitivity of adenoid cystic carcinoma cells to chemotherapy and radiation in vitro: Implications for a new therapeutic principle

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, YOSUKE; SUGIURA, TSUYOSHI; IMAJYO, IKUMI; SHIMODA, MIYUKI; ISHII, KOTARO; AKIMOTO, NAONARI; YOSHIHAMA, NAOYA; MORI, YOSHIHIDE

    2014-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, we reported that the T-box transcription factor Brachyury is a potential regulator of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Specifically, growth of CSCs was found to be controlled by Brachyury knockdown in AdCC. Since CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, this finding provides a new principle for therapies targeting CSCs. In the present study, we established that Brachyury knockdown suppresses chemoresistance and radioresistance in vitro. Brachyury was knocked down by transfecting Brachyury short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into the AdCC CSC cell line ACCS-M GFP. Brachyury knockdown significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion and suppressed chemoresistance. A quantitative PCR array of drug transporter genes revealed that knockdown of Brachyury caused downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes. Furthermore, ACCS-M GFP radioresistance was significantly suppressed by Brachyury knockdown. Knockdown of Brachyury significantly sensitized ACCS-M GFP cells to chemoradiotherapy. This study demonstrates that Brachyury knockdown reduces invasiveness and chemoresistance and radioresistance of CSCs in vivo. Therefore, Brachyury knockdown may be a useful therapeutic tool for sensitizing CSCs to conventional chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24504414

  14. Knockdown of MLO genes reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Pessina, Stefano; Lenzi, Luisa; Perazzolli, Michele; Campa, Manuela; Dalla Costa, Lorenza; Urso, Simona; Valè, Giampiero; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Erysiphe necator is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine. PM is controlled by sulfur-based and synthetic fungicides, which every year are dispersed into the environment. This is why PM-resistant varieties should become a priority for sustainable grapevine and wine production. PM resistance can be achieved in other crops by knocking out susceptibility S-genes, such as those residing at genetic loci known as MLO (Mildew Locus O). All MLO S-genes of dicots belong to the phylogenetic clade V, including grapevine genes VvMLO7, 11 and 13, which are upregulated during PM infection, and VvMLO6, which is not upregulated. Before adopting a gene-editing approach to knockout candidate S-genes, the evidence that loss of function of MLO genes can reduce PM susceptibility is necessary. This paper reports the knockdown through RNA interference of VvMLO6, 7, 11 and 13. The knockdown of VvMLO6, 11 and 13 did not decrease PM severity, whereas the knockdown of VvMLO7 in combination with VvMLO6 and VvMLO11 reduced PM severity up to 77%. The knockdown of VvMLO7 and VvMLO6 seemed to be important for PM resistance, whereas a role for VvMLO11 does not seem likely. Cell wall appositions (papillae) were present in both resistant and susceptible lines in response to PM attack. Thirteen genes involved in defense were less upregulated in infected mlo plants, highlighting the early mlo-dependent disruption of PM invasion. PMID:27390621

  15. Knockdown of MLO genes reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pessina, Stefano; Lenzi, Luisa; Perazzolli, Michele; Campa, Manuela; Dalla Costa, Lorenza; Urso, Simona; Valè, Giampiero; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Erysiphe necator is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine. PM is controlled by sulfur-based and synthetic fungicides, which every year are dispersed into the environment. This is why PM-resistant varieties should become a priority for sustainable grapevine and wine production. PM resistance can be achieved in other crops by knocking out susceptibility S-genes, such as those residing at genetic loci known as MLO (Mildew Locus O). All MLO S-genes of dicots belong to the phylogenetic clade V, including grapevine genes VvMLO7, 11 and 13, which are upregulated during PM infection, and VvMLO6, which is not upregulated. Before adopting a gene-editing approach to knockout candidate S-genes, the evidence that loss of function of MLO genes can reduce PM susceptibility is necessary. This paper reports the knockdown through RNA interference of VvMLO6, 7, 11 and 13. The knockdown of VvMLO6, 11 and 13 did not decrease PM severity, whereas the knockdown of VvMLO7 in combination with VvMLO6 and VvMLO11 reduced PM severity up to 77%. The knockdown of VvMLO7 and VvMLO6 seemed to be important for PM resistance, whereas a role for VvMLO11 does not seem likely. Cell wall appositions (papillae) were present in both resistant and susceptible lines in response to PM attack. Thirteen genes involved in defense were less upregulated in infected mlo plants, highlighting the early mlo-dependent disruption of PM invasion. PMID:27390621

  16. CERKL Knockdown Causes Retinal Degeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Marina; Burguera, Demian; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gonzàlez-Duarte, Roser

    2013-01-01

    The human CERKL gene is responsible for common and severe forms of retinal dystrophies. Despite intense in vitro studies at the molecular and cellular level and in vivo analyses of the retina of murine knockout models, CERKL function remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to approach the developmental and functional features of cerkl in Danio rerio within an Evo-Devo framework. We show that gene expression increases from early developmental stages until the formation of the retina in the optic cup. Unlike the high mRNA-CERKL isoform multiplicity shown in mammals, the moderate transcriptional complexity in fish facilitates phenotypic studies derived from gene silencing. Moreover, of relevance to pathogenicity, teleost CERKL shares the two main human protein isoforms. Morpholino injection has been used to generate a cerkl knockdown zebrafish model. The morphant phenotype results in abnormal eye development with lamination defects, failure to develop photoreceptor outer segments, increased apoptosis of retinal cells and small eyes. Our data support that zebrafish Cerkl does not interfere with proliferation and neural differentiation during early developmental stages but is relevant for survival and protection of the retinal tissue. Overall, we propose that this zebrafish model is a powerful tool to unveil CERKL contribution to human retinal degeneration. PMID:23671706

  17. Fascin-1 knock-down of human glioma cells reduces their microvilli/filopodia while improving their susceptibility to lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Neil T; Ge, Lisheng; Erickson, Kate L; Kruse, Carol A; Cornforth, Andrew N; Kuznetsov, Yurii; McPherson, Alex; Martini, Filippo; Jadus, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells derived from Glioblastoma multiforme possess membranous protrusions allowing these cells to infiltrate surrounding tissue, while resisting lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Microvilli and filopodia are supported by actin filaments cross-linked by fascin. Fascin-1 was genetically silenced within human U251 glioma cells; these knock-down glioma cells lost their microvilli/filopodia. The doubling time of these fascin-1 knock-down cells was doubled that of shRNA control U251 cells. Fascin-1 knock-down cells lost their transmigratory ability responding to interleukin-6 or insulin-like growth factor-1. Fascin-1 silenced U251 cells were more easily killed by cytolytic lymphocytes. Fascin-1 knock-down provides unique opportunities to augment glioma immunotherapy by simultaneously targeting several key glioma functions: like cell transmigration, cell division and resisting immune responses. PMID:25901196

  18. Knockdown of retinoblastoma protein may sensitize glioma cells to cisplatin through inhibition of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sun, Kangjian; Wang, Handong; Dai, Yuyuan

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of cancer due to its limited sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cisplatin (CCDP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for tumors, but the agent often results in the development of chemo-resistance. In several cancers, cisplatin resistance is associated with autophagy induction. Here, we found that in glioma cells cisplatin treatment induced autophagy. Our data indicates that the autophagy induction plays a critical role in cisplatin resistance of glioma cells, knockdown of RB inhibited autophagy induced by cisplatin, and inhibition of autophagy improved cisplatin-induced apoptosis. It suggests that a combination of autophagy inhibitors with cisplatin may improve the therapeutic efficiency of cisplatin towards GBM with acquired resistance. PMID:27048711

  19. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    DOEpatents

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  20. Akt3 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjee; Kim, Young Yeon; Jee, Hye Jin; Bae, Sun Sik; Jeong, Na Young; Um, Jee-Hyun; Yun, Jeanho

    2016-05-01

    Akt/PKB plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation and survival. However, the isotype-specific roles of Akt in mitochondrial function have not been fully addressed. In this study, we explored the role of Akt in mitochondrial function after stable knockdown of the Akt isoforms in EJ human bladder cancer cells. We found that the mitochondrial mass was significantly increased in the Akt1- and Akt3-knockdown cells, and this increase was accompanied by an increase in TFAM and NRF1. Akt2 knockdown did not cause a similar effect. Interestingly, Akt3 knockdown also led to severe structural defects in the mitochondria, an increase in doxorubicin-induced senescence, and impairment of cell proliferation in galactose medium. Consistent with these observations, the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was significantly reduced in the Akt3-knockdown cells. An Akt3 deficiency-induced decrease in mitochondrial respiration was also observed in A549 lung cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt isoforms play distinct roles in mitochondrial function and that Akt3 is critical for proper mitochondrial respiration in human cancer cells. PMID:26972278

  1. Knockdown of GRP78 enhances cell death by cisplatin and radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Pu, Long-Jian; Song, Le-Le; Ma, Lin-Yan; Liu, Hao; Jiang, Chen-Chen

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy and adjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy are the mainstream approaches in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). These have been shown to effectively improve the outcome and reduce tumor recurrence. However, radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance during the course of treatment has become more common recently, resulting in the failure of NPC therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies or adjuvant drugs are urgently needed. The current study was designed to look for new treatment strategies or auxiliary drugs in the treatment of NPC. Two human NPC cell lines, HNE1 and HNE1/DDP, were used to examine the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and cisplatin (DDP). Cell proliferation was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Meanwhile, propidium iodide (PI) staining and PI/Annexin V staining were used to observe cell apoptosis. Finally, western blot was used to detect the endogenous expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and other apoptosis-related proteins. GRP78 small interference RNA was transfected using Lipofectamine 2000. Compared with HNE1/DDP, IR and DDP increased the cell apoptosis and inhibited the cell proliferation of HNE1. Inhibition of GRP78 can reverse IR and DDP resistance in NPC cells by PI/Annexin V staining. Knockdown of GRP78 upregulates the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and downregulates the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. These results indicate that HNE1 is more sensitive to DDP and IR than HNE1/DDP. Knockdown GRP78 can reverse IR and DDP resistance in NPC cells. Inhibition of GRP78 gives us a new target to overcome resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of NPC cells. Thus, this study should be further explored in vivo and assessed for possible clinical applications. PMID:27254284

  2. Optimization of Critical Hairpin Features Allows miRNA-based Gene Knockdown Upon Single-copy Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Myburgh, Renier; Cherpin, Ophélie; Schlaepfer, Erika; Rehrauer, Hubert; Speck, Roberto F; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Salmon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Gene knockdown using micro RNA (miRNA)-based vector constructs is likely to become a prominent gene therapy approach. It was the aim of this study to improve the efficiency of gene knockdown through optimizing the structure of miRNA mimics. Knockdown of two target genes was analyzed: CCR5 and green fluorescent protein. We describe here a novel and optimized miRNA mimic design called mirGE comprising a lower stem length of 13 base pairs (bp), positioning of the targeting strand on the 5′ side of the miRNA, together with nucleotide mismatches in upper stem positions 1 and 12 placed on the passenger strand. Our mirGE proved superior to miR-30 in four aspects: yield of targeting strand incorporation into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC); incorporation into RISC of correct targeting strand; precision of cleavage by Drosha; and ratio of targeting strand over passenger strand. A triple mirGE hairpin cassette targeting CCR5 was constructed. It allowed CCR5 knockdown with an efficiency of over 90% upon single-copy transduction. Importantly, single-copy expression of this construct rendered transduced target cells, including primary human macrophages, resistant to infection with a CCR5-tropic strain of HIV. Our results provide new insights for a better knockdown efficiency of constructs containing miRNA. Our results also provide the proof-of-principle that cells can be rendered HIV resistant through single-copy vector transduction, rendering this approach more compatible with clinical applications. PMID:25350582

  3. Catalytic in vivo protein knockdown by small-molecule PROTACs.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, Daniel P; Mares, Alina; Smith, Ian E D; Ko, Eunhwa; Campos, Sebastien; Miah, Afjal H; Mulholland, Katie E; Routly, Natasha; Buckley, Dennis L; Gustafson, Jeffrey L; Zinn, Nico; Grandi, Paola; Shimamura, Satoko; Bergamini, Giovanna; Faelth-Savitski, Maria; Bantscheff, Marcus; Cox, Carly; Gordon, Deborah A; Willard, Ryan R; Flanagan, John J; Casillas, Linda N; Votta, Bartholomew J; den Besten, Willem; Famm, Kristoffer; Kruidenier, Laurens; Carter, Paul S; Harling, John D; Churcher, Ian; Crews, Craig M

    2015-08-01

    The current predominant therapeutic paradigm is based on maximizing drug-receptor occupancy to achieve clinical benefit. This strategy, however, generally requires excessive drug concentrations to ensure sufficient occupancy, often leading to adverse side effects. Here, we describe major improvements to the proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) method, a chemical knockdown strategy in which a heterobifunctional molecule recruits a specific protein target to an E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in the target's ubiquitination and degradation. These compounds behave catalytically in their ability to induce the ubiquitination of super-stoichiometric quantities of proteins, providing efficacy that is not limited by equilibrium occupancy. We present two PROTACs that are capable of specifically reducing protein levels by >90% at nanomolar concentrations. In addition, mouse studies indicate that they provide broad tissue distribution and knockdown of the targeted protein in tumor xenografts. Together, these data demonstrate a protein knockdown system combining many of the favorable properties of small-molecule agents with the potent protein knockdown of RNAi and CRISPR. PMID:26075522

  4. Catalytic in vivo protein knockdown by small-molecule PROTACs

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, Daniel P; Mares, Alina; Smith, Ian E D; Ko, Eunhwa; Campos, Sebastien; Miah, Afjal H; Mulholland, Katie E; Routly, Natasha; Buckley, Dennis L; Gustafson, Jeffrey L; Zinn, Nico; Grandi, Paola; Shimamura, Satoko; Bergamini, Giovanna; Faelth-Savitski, Maria; Bantscheff, Marcus; Cox, Carly; Gordon, Deborah A; Willard, Ryan R; Flanagan, John J; Casillas, Linda N; Votta, Bartholomew J; den Besten, Willem; Famm, Kristoffer; Kruidenier, Laurens; Carter, Paul S; Harling, John D; Churcher, Ian; Crews, Craig M

    2015-01-01

    The current predominant theapeutic paradigm is based on maximizing drug-receptor occupancy to achieve clinical benefit. This strategy, however, generally requires excessive drug concentrations to ensure sufficient occupancy, often leading to adverse side effects. Here, we describe major improvements to the proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) method, a chemical knockdown strategy in which a heterobifunctional molecule recruits a specific protein target to an E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in the target’s ubiquitination and degradation. These compounds behave catalytically in their ability to induce the ubiquitination of super-stoichiometric quantities of proteins, providing efficacy that is not limited by equilibrium occupancy. We present two PROTACs that are capable of specifically reducing protein levels by >90% at nanomolar concentrations. In addition, mouse studies indicate that they provide broad tissue distribution and knockdown of the targeted protein in tumor xenografts. Together, these data demonstrate a protein knockdown system combining many of the favorable properties of small-molecule agents with the potent protein knockdown of RNAi and CRISPR. PMID:26075522

  5. AP endonuclease knockdown enhances methyl methanesulfonate hypersensitivity of DNA polymerase β knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Ryohei; Umetsu, Makio; Yamamoto, Mizuki; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Takenaka, Shigeo; Ide, Hiroshi; Kubo, Kihei

    2015-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (Apex) is required for base excision repair (BER), which is the major mechanism of repair for small DNA lesions such as alkylated bases. Apex incises the DNA strand at an AP site to leave 3′-OH and 5′-deoxyribose phosphate (5′-dRp) termini. DNA polymerase β (PolB) plays a dominant role in single nucleotide (Sn-) BER by incorporating a nucleotide and removing 5′-dRp. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced damage is repaired by Sn-BER, and thus mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in PolB show significantly increased sensitivity to MMS. However, the survival curve for PolB-knockout MEFs (PolBKOs) has a shoulder, and increased sensitivity is only apparent at relatively high MMS concentrations. In this study, we prepared Apex-knockdown/PolB-knockout MEFs (AKDBKOs) to examine whether BER is related to the apparent resistance of PolBKOs at low MMS concentrations. The viability of PolBKOs immediately after MMS treatment was significantly lower than that of wild-type MEFs, but there was essentially no effect of Apex-knockdown on cell viability in the presence or absence of PolB. In contrast, relative counts of MEFs after repair were decreased by Apex knockdown. Parental PolBKOs showed especially high sensitivity at >1.5 mM MMS, suggesting that PolBKOs have another repair mechanism in addition to PolB-dependent Sn-BER, and that the back-up mechanism is unable to repair damage induced by high MMS concentrations. Interestingly, AKDBKOs were hypersensitive to MMS in a relative cell growth assay, suggesting that MMS-induced damage in PolB-knockout MEFs is repaired by Apex-dependent repair mechanisms, presumably including long-patch BER. PMID:25724755

  6. MRP4 knockdown enhances migration, suppresses apoptosis, and produces aggregated morphology in human retinal vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, Mizuki; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Imai, Hisanori; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Honda, Shigeru; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Negi, Akira

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous VEGF decreases MRP4 expression in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} MRP4 knockdown leads to enhanced cell migration. {yields} MRP4 knockdown suppresses caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis. {yields} MRP4 knockdown produces cell assembly and cell aggregation. -- Abstract: The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) MRP4/ABCC4 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that actively effluxes endogenous and xenobiotic substrates out of cells. In the rodent retina, Mrp4 mRNA and protein are exclusively expressed in vascular endothelial cells, but the angiogenic properties of Mrp4 are poorly understood so far. This study aims to explore the angiogenic properties of MRP4 in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) utilizing the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. MRP4 expression was decreased at the mRNA and protein levels after stimulation with exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor in a dose-dependent manner. RNAi-mediated MRP4 knockdown in HRECs do not affect cell proliferation but enhances cell migration. Moreover, cell apoptosis induced by serum starvation was less prominent in MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs as compared to control siRNA-treated HRECs. In a Matrigel-based tube-formation assay, although MRP4 knockdown did not lead to a significant change in the total tube length, MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs assembled and aggregated into a massive tube-like structure, which was not observed in control siRNA-treated HRECs. These results suggest that MRP4 is uniquely involved in retinal angiogenesis.

  7. Adseverin knockdown inhibits osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    QI, WENTING; GAO, YAN; TIAN, JUN; JIANG, HONGWEI

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is a complex process that is highly dependent on the dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Adseverin (Ads), a member of the gelsolin superfamily of actin-binding proteins, regulates actin remodeling by severing and capping actin filaments. The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of Ads during osteoclastogenesis by assessing Ads expression and using a knockdown strategy. Immunoblot analyses were used to examine Ads expression during osteoclastogenesis. A stable Ads knockdown macrophage cell line was generated using a retroviral shRNA construct. Osteoclast differentiation was morphologically examined via cell staining with osteoclast specific markers and light microscopy. The results showed that Ads expression was significantly increased in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand during osteoclastogenesis, and Ads was highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. Ads-knockdown macrophages showed major osteoclastogenesis defects, most likely caused by a pre-osteoclast fusion defect. These results indicate that Ads deficiency in monocytes inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Thus, in future studies it could be noteworthy to investigate the function of Ads in bone marrow monocytes during osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25339151

  8. Knockdown of WAVE1 enhances apoptosis of leukemia cells by downregulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wu, Benqing; Chai, Wenwen; Cao, Lizhi; Wang, Yangping; Yu, Yan; Yang, Liangchun

    2016-06-01

    Chemoresistance of leukemia constitutes a great challenge for successful treatment of leukemia. Autophagy has recently attracted increasing attention for its role in conferring resistance to various conventional anti-neoplastic regiments. In the present study, the authors showed that WAVE1, a member of WASP family verprolin-homologous proteins, is a critical regulator of chemoresistance during autophagy. It is positively correlated with clinical status in pediatric acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and leukemia cell lines. The knockdown of WAVE1 expression decreased autophagy was accompanied by an upregulation of autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-Ⅱ, a degradation of SQSTM1/sequestosome 1 (p62) and the formation of autophagosomes. Moreover, a suppression of WAVE1 expression increased the sensitivity of leukemia cells to chemotherapy and apoptosis, and depletion of WAVE1 expression promoted the translocation of Bcl-2 from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. In addition, a knockdown of PI3K-Ⅲ expression significantly inhibited WAVE1-mediated autophagy. Furthermore, suppression of WAVE1 expression blocked the interactions between Beclin1 and PI3K-Ⅲ and the disassociation of Beclin1-Bcl-2 during enhanced autophagy. The above results suggested that WAVE1 is a critical pro-autophagic protein capable of enhancing cell survival and regulating chemoresistance in leukemia cells potentially through the Beclin1/Bcl-2 and Beclin1/PI3K-Ⅲ complex-dependent pathways. PMID:27035872

  9. siRNA Knock-Down of RANK Signaling to Control Osteoclast-Mediated Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuwei; Grainger, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the ability of small interfering (si)RNA targeting the cell receptor, RANK, to control osteoclast function in cultures of both primary and secondary osteoclasts and their precursor cells. Methods siRNA targeting RANK was transfected into both RAW264.7 and primary bone marrow cell cultures. RANK knock-down by siRNA and functional inhibition were assessed in both mature osteoclast and their precursor cell cultures. RANK mRNA message and protein expression after the transfections were analyzed by PCR and Western blot, respectively. Off-target effects were assessed. The inhibition of osteoclast formation was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay, and subsequent bone resorption was determined by resorption pit assay. Results Both osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors can be targeted by siRNA in serum-containing media. Delivery of siRNA targeting RANK to both RAW 264.7 and primary bone marrow cell cultures produces short term repression of RANK expression without off-targeting effects, and significantly inhibits both osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Moreover, data support successful RANK knock-down by siRNA specifically in mature osteoclast cultures. Conclusions RANK is demonstrated to be an attractive target for siRNA control of osteoclast activity, with utility for development of new therapeutics for low bone mass pathologies or osteoporosis. PMID:20333451

  10. In Vivo GFP Knockdown by Cationic Nanogel-siRNA Polyplexes

    PubMed Central

    Shrivats, Arun R.; Mishina, Yuji; Averick, Saadyah; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to treat diseases and elucidate target gene function. Prior to clinical implementation, however, challenges including the safe, efficient and targeted delivery of siRNA must be addressed. Here, we report cationic nanogel nanostructured polymers (NSPs) prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for in vitro and in vivo siRNA delivery in mammalian models. Outcomes from siRNA protection studies suggested that nanogel NSPs reduce enzymatic degradation of siRNA within polyplexes. Further, the methylation of siRNA may enhance nuclease resistance without compromising gene knockdown potency. NSP-mediated RNAi treatments against Gapdh significantly reduced GAPDH enzyme activity in mammalian cell culture models supplemented with 10% serum. Moreover, nanogel NSP-mediated siRNA delivery significantly inhibited in vivo GFP expression in a mouse model. GFP knockdown was siRNA sequence-dependent and facilitated by nanogel NSP carriers. Continued testing of NSP/siRNA compositions in disease models may produce important new therapeutic options for patient care. PMID:27280121

  11. siRNA knockdown validation 101: Incorporating negative controls in antibody research

    PubMed Central

    Olds, Will; Li, Jason

    2016-01-01

    More antibody validation protocols would identify non-specific reagents – a major source of irreproducible research – with the inclusion of negative controls. This article presents an overview of one such method: siRNA knockdown. The authors outline a general protocol, the knockdown mechanism, and tips for evaluating knockdown experiments. PMID:26998240

  12. Knockdown of EpCAM Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Breast Cancer Cells to 5-fluorouracil by Downregulating the Antiapoptotic Factor Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy is the main reason for the failure of cancer treatment, and drug resistance is associated with an inability of tumor cells to undergo apoptosis in response to treatment. Alterations in the expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) affect the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to anticancer treatment and the activity of intracellular signaling pathways. However, the role of EpCAM in the induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of EpCAM gene knockdown on chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in MCF-7 cells and explored the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that knockdown of EpCAM promoted apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell-cycle arrest. EpCAM knockdown enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, promoting apoptosis by downregulating the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and upregulating the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, and caspase3 via the ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that knockdown of EpCAM may have a tumor suppressor effect and suggest EpCAM as a potential target for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25019346

  13. Manipulating the in vivo immune response by targeted gene knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers, nucleic acids selected for high affinity binding to proteins, can be used to activate or antagonize immune mediators or receptors in a location and cell-type specific manner and to enhance antigen presentation. They can also be linked to other molecules (other aptamers, siRNAs or miRNAs, proteins, toxins) to produce multifunctional compounds for targeted immune modulation in vivo. Aptamer-siRNA chimeras (AsiCs) that induce efficient cell-specific knockdown in immune cells in vitro and in vivo can be used as an immunological research tool or potentially as an immunomodulating therapeutic. PMID:26149459

  14. Manipulating the in vivo immune response by targeted gene knockdown.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Judy

    2015-08-01

    Aptamers, nucleic acids selected for high affinity binding to proteins, can be used to activate or antagonize immune mediators or receptors in a location and cell-type specific manner and to enhance antigen presentation. They can also be linked to other molecules (other aptamers, siRNAs or miRNAs, proteins, toxins) to produce multifunctional compounds for targeted immune modulation in vivo. Aptamer-siRNA chimeras (AsiCs) that induce efficient cell-specific knockdown in immune cells in vitro and in vivo can be used as an immunological research tool or potentially as an immunomodulating therapeutic. PMID:26149459

  15. Knockdown of the adipokinetic hormone receptor increases feeding frequency in the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takahiro; Morooka, Nobukatsu; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide hormone that regulates the nutritional state in insects by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In the present study, we manipulated AKH signaling to evaluate how metabolic state regulates feeding in an orthopteran insect, the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This was accomplished by RNA interference (RNAi) targeting the receptor gene for AKH [G. bimaculatus AKHR (GrybiAKHR)]. We found that the knockdown of GrybiAKHR by AKHR-double-stranded RNA treatment decreased the levels of 1,2-diacylglycerol and trehalose in the hemolymph, whereas it increased the level of triacylglycerol in the fat body. In addition, the knockdown of GrybiAKHR enhanced starvation resistance and increased food intake. Furthermore, direct observation of GrybiAKHR(RNAi) crickets revealed that the knockdown of GrybiAKHR increased feeding frequency but did not alter meal duration, whereas locomotor activity decreased. The increased frequency of feeding by GrybiAKHR(RNAi) crickets eventually resulted in an increase of food intake. These data demonstrate that the regulation of the metabolic state by AKH signaling affects feeding frequency, probably through nutritional control. PMID:22619358

  16. A Possible Zebrafish Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease: Knockdown of wnt5a Causes Cysts in Zebrafish Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liwei; Xiao, An; Wecker, Andrea; McBride, Daniel A.; Choi, Soo Young; Zhou, Weibin; Lipschutz, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease, a devastating disease for which there is no cure. The molecular mechanisms leading to cyst formation in PKD remain somewhat unclear, but many genes are thought to be involved. Wnt5a is a non-canonical glycoprotein that regulates a wide range of developmental processes. Wnt5a works through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that regulates oriented cell division during renal tubular cell elongation. Defects of the PCP pathway have been found to cause kidney cyst formation. Our paper describes a method for developing a zebrafish cystic kidney disease model by knockdown of the wnt5a gene with wnt5a antisense morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides. Tg(wt1b:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were used to visualize kidney structure and kidney cysts following wnt5a knockdown. Two distinct antisense MOs (AUG - and splice-site) were used and both resulted in curly tail down phenotype and cyst formation after wnt5a knockdown. Injection of mouse Wnt5a mRNA, resistant to the MOs due to a difference in primary base pair structure, rescued the abnormal phenotype, demonstrating that the phenotype was not due to “off-target” effects of the morpholino. This work supports the validity of using a zebrafish model to study wnt5a function in the kidney. PMID:25489842

  17. Knockdown of specific host factors protects against influenza virus-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tran, A T; Rahim, M N; Ranadheera, C; Kroeker, A; Cortens, J P; Opanubi, K J; Wilkins, J A; Coombs, K M

    2013-01-01

    Cell death is a characteristic consequence of cellular infection by influenza virus. Mounting evidence indicates the critical involvement of host-mediated cellular death pathways in promoting efficient influenza virus replication. Furthermore, it appears that many signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, formerly suspected to solely promote cell survival, can also be manipulated to induce cell death. Current understanding of the cell death pathways involved in influenza virus-mediated cytopathology and in virus replication is limited. This study was designed to identify host genes that are required for influenza-induced cell death. The approach was to perform genome-wide lentiviral-mediated human gene silencing in A549 cells and determine which genes could be silenced to provide resistance to influenza-induced cell death. The assay proved to be highly reproducible with 138 genes being identified in independent screens. The results were independently validated using siRNA to each of these candidates. Graded protection was observed in this screen with the silencing of any of 19 genes, each providing >85% protection. Three gene products, TNFSF13 (APRIL), TNFSF12-TNFSF13 (TWE-PRIL) and USP47, were selected because of the high levels of protection conferred by their silencing. Protein and mRNA silencing and protection from influenza-induced cell death was confirmed using multiple shRNA clones and siRNA, indicating the specificity of the effects. USP47 knockdown prevented proper viral entry into the host cell, whereas TNFSF12-13/TNFSF13 knockdown blocked a late stage in viral replication. This screening approach offers the means to identify a large number of potential candidates for the analysis of viral-induced cell death. These results may also have much broader applicability in defining regulatory mechanisms involved in cell survival. PMID:23949218

  18. Knockdown of neuropeptide Y in the dorsomedial hypothalamus reverses high-fat diet-induced obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonwook J; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance. While DMH NPY overexpression causes hyperphagia and obesity in rats, knockdown of NPY in the DMH via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated RNAi (AAVshNPY) ameliorates these alterations. Whether this knockdown has a therapeutic effect on obesity and glycemic disorder has yet to be determined. The present study sought to test this potential using a rat model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance, mimicking human obesity with impaired glucose homeostasis. Rats had ad libitum access to rodent regular chow (RC) or HFD. Six weeks later, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for verifying HFD-induced glucose intolerance. After verification, obese rats received bilateral DMH injections of AAVshNPY or the control vector AAVshCTL, and OGTT and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed at 16 and 18 wk after viral injection (23 and 25 wk on HFD), respectively. Rats were killed at 26 wk on HFD. We found that AAVshCTL rats on HFD remained hyperphagic, obese, glucose intolerant, and insulin resistant relative to lean control RC-fed rats receiving DMH injection of AAVshCTL, whereas these alterations were reversed in NPY knockdown rats fed a HFD. NPY knockdown rats exhibited normal food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, as seen in lean control rats. Together, these results demonstrate a therapeutic action of DMH NPY knockdown against obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis in rats, providing a potential target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:26561644

  19. Knockdown of the cellular protein LRPPRC attenuates HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Cameron J; Matthews, John M; Madson, Christian J; Donnellan, Meghan R; Cerny, Ronald L; Belshan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 exploits numerous host cellular pathways for productive infection. To identify novel factors involved in HIV-1 replication, HIV-1 integrase and matrix protein complexes were captured at 4 hours post infection for proteomic analysis using an affinity purification system. Leucine-rich PPR-motif containing (LRPPRC) protein, a cellular protein involved in mitochondrial function, cell metabolism, and cell-cycle progression was identified as one of the candidate HIV-1 factors. Co-immunoprecipitation RT-PCR experiments confirmed that LRPPRC associated with HIV-1 nucleic acids during the early steps of virus infection. To establish if LRPPRC was critical for HIV-1 infection, three independent LRPPRC knockdown cell lines were constructed (2.7, 3.6, and 4.1). Subcellular fractionation of these cell lines revealed differential knockdown of LRPPRC in subcellular compartments. LRPPRC was knocked down in the insoluble/cytoskeletal fractions of all three cell lines, but the 3.6 and 4.1 cells also showed a reduction in nuclear LRPPRC. Additionally, several cellular factors were downregulated and/or disrupted by loss of LRPPRC. HIV-1 infection was reduced in all three cell lines, but virus production and RNA encapsidation were unaffected, suggesting that LRPPRC was critical for the afferent stage of virus replication. Two of the three cell lines (3.6, 4.1) were refractory for murine leukemia virus infection, a virus dependent on cellular proliferation for productive infection. Consistent with this, these two cell lines exhibited reduced cellular growth with no loss of cellular viability or change in cell cycle phenotype. The early steps of virus infection were also differentially affected among the cell lines. A reduced level of preintegration complex formation was observed in all three cell lines, but viral DNA nuclear import was reduced only in the 3.6 and 4.1 cells. Combined, these data identify LRPPRC as a HIV-1 factor that is involved in HIV-1 replication through more

  20. Hunchback knockdown induces supernumerary segment formation in Bombyx.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hajime

    2016-05-15

    Insect segment number within species appears to be fixed irrespective of germ types: long vs. short/intermediate. The present study showed induction of supernumerary segment formation by the knockdown of Bombyx hunchback (Bm-hb), presumably by terminal segment addition, a short/intermediate-like-segmentation mode that is not observed in normal Bombyx embryogenesis. This suggests that Bm-hb suppresses segmentation. The results obtained also suggest that the gap gene Bm-Kr (Bombyx Krüppel) provides a permissive environment for the progression of segmentation by suppressing the expression Bm-hb, which terminates segmentation. This indicates a novel mechanism by which the gap gene is involved in segmentation. It appears that Bm-Kr and Bm-hb are involved in segment counting and their interplay contributes to the correct number of segments being formed in Bombyx. Similar mechanisms may be operating in insects that employ the non-Drosophilan mode of segmentation such as in short/intermediate-germ insects. PMID:27016505

  1. Uncoupling protein-2 knockdown mediates the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Santandreu, Francisca M; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi

    2010-08-15

    Cisplatin is among the most important chemotherapeutic agents ever developed. However, more than a generation after its clinical introduction, its exact mechanism of action on tumor cells is not fully defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress as a mediator of cisplatin action on colon cancer cells, studying the influence of mitochondrial physiology and composition on its effectiveness. The chemosensitivity shown by cancer cells to mechanistically dissimilar antitumor drugs is shown to be associated with their capacity to induce early alterations in mitochondrial and redox metabolism. Specifically, cisplatin exerted a marked pro-oxidative action on mitochondria by inhibiting resting respiration and stimulating the immediate generation of ROS in isolated mitochondria. Antioxidants and mitochondrial uncouplers counteracted cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in tumor cells, reflecting that oxidative stress and the inhibition of mitochondrial uncoupling are relevant to its antiproliferative activity. Additionally, inhibition of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) caused cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells via ROS of mitochondrial origin. In conclusion, we show for the first time that UCP2 knockdown participates in the mechanism of action of cisplatin, thus providing evidence that targeting UCP2 may offer clinical benefit in the treatment of cancer. PMID:20595066

  2. Nanolayered siRNA dressing for sustained localized knockdown.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Steven; Wang, Mary; Hammond, Paula T

    2013-06-25

    The success of RNA interference (RNAi) in medicine relies on the development of technology capable of successfully delivering it to tissues of interest. Significant research has focused on the difficult task of systemic delivery of RNAi; however its local delivery could be a more easily realized approach. Localized delivery is of particular interest for many medical applications, including the treatment of localized diseases, the modulation of cellular response to implants or tissue engineering constructs, and the management of wound healing and regenerative medicine. In this work we present an ultrathin electrostatically assembled coating for localized and sustained delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA). This film was applied to a commercially available woven nylon dressing commonly used for surgical applications and was demonstrated to sustain significant knockdown of protein expression in multiple cell types for more than one week in vitro. Significantly, this coating can be easily applied to a medically relevant device and requires no externally delivered transfection agents for effective delivery of siRNA. These results present promising opportunities for the localized administration of RNAi. PMID:23672676

  3. Enhanced Inhibition of Bladder Cancer Cell Growth by Simultaneous Knockdown of Antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and Survivin in Combination with Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, Doreen; Erdmann, Kati; Froehner, Michael; Wirth, Manfred P.; Fuessel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The overexpression of antiapoptotic genes, such as Bcl-xL and survivin, contributes to the increased survival of tumor cells and to the development of treatment resistances. In the bladder cancer cell lines EJ28 and J82, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of survivin reduces cell proliferation and the inhibition of Bcl-xL sensitizes these cells towards subsequent chemotherapy with mitomycin C and cisplatin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze if the simultaneous knockdown of Bcl-xL and survivin might represent a more powerful treatment option for bladder cancer than the single inhibition of one of these target genes. At 96 h after transfection, reduction in cell viability was stronger after simultaneous inhibition of Bcl-xL and survivin (decrease of 40%–48%) in comparison to the single target treatments (decrease of 29% at best). Furthermore, simultaneous knockdown of Bcl-xL and survivin considerably increased the efficacy of subsequent chemotherapy. For example, cellular viability of EJ28 cells decreased to 6% in consequence of Bcl-xL and survivin inhibition plus cisplatin treatment whereas single target siRNA plus chemotherapy treatments mediated reductions down to 15%–36% only. In conclusion, the combination of simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and survivin—a multitarget molecular-based therapy—and conventional chemotherapy shows great potential for improving bladder cancer treatment. PMID:23749114

  4. Knockdown of phosphoethanolamine transmethylation enzymes decreases viability of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Witola, William H; Cooks-Fagbodun, Sheritta; Ordonez, Adriana Reyes; Matthews, Kwame; Abugri, Daniel A; McHugh, Mark

    2016-06-15

    The phosphobase methylation pathway, in which phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) successively catalyze the methylation of phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine, is essential in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two PMT-encoding genes (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2) cloned from Haemonchus contortus have been shown, by in vitro assays, to possess enzymatic characteristics similar to those of C. elegans PMTs, but their physiological significance in H. contortus is yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we endeavored to determine the importance of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the survival of H. contortus by adapting the use of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) antisense approach to block the translation of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the worms. We found that PPMOs targeting HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 down-regulated the expression of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 proteins in adult H. contortus. Analysis of the effect of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 knockdown showed that it significantly decreased worm motility and viability, thus validating HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 as essential enzymes for survival of H. contortus. Studies of gene function in H. contortus have been constrained by limited forward and reverse genetic technologies for use in H. contortus. Thus, our success in adaptation of use of PPMO antisense approach in H. contortus provides an important reverse genetic technological advance for studying this parasitic nematode of veterinary significance. PMID:27198768

  5. ATP citrate lyase knockdown impacts cancer stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, J-i; Doro, N; Seth, P; Sukhatme, V P

    2013-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) knockdown (KD) causes tumor suppression and induces differentiation. We have previously reported that ACL KD reverses epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. Because EMT is often associated with processes that induce stemness, we hypothesized that ACL KD impacts cancer stem cells. By assessing tumorsphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, we showed this to be the case in A549 cells, which harbor a Ras mutation, and in two other non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, H1975 and H1650, driven by activating EGFR mutations. Inducible ACL KD had the same effect as stable ACL KD. Similar effects were noted in another well-characterized Ras-induced mammary model system (HMLER). Moreover, treatment with hydroxycitrate phenocopied the effects of ACL KD, suggesting that the enzymatic activity of ACL was critical. Indeed, acetate treatment reversed the ACL KD phenotype. Having previously established that ACL KD impacts signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, not the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and that EMT can be reversed by PI3K inhibitors, we were surprised to find that stemness in these systems was maintained through Ras-MAPK signaling, and not via PI3K signaling. Snail is a downstream transcription factor impacted by Ras-MAPK signaling and known to promote EMT and stemness. We found that snail expression was reduced by ACL KD. In tumorigenic HMLER cells, ACL overexpression increased snail expression and stemness, both of which were reduced by ACL KD. Furthermore, ACL could not initiate either tumorigenesis or stemness by itself. ACL and snail proteins interacted and ACL expression regulated the transcriptional activity of snail. Finally, ACL KD counteracted stem cell characteristics induced in diverse cell systems driven by activation of pathways outside of Ras-MAPK signaling. Our findings unveil a novel aspect of ACL function, namely its impact on cancer

  6. ATP citrate lyase knockdown impacts cancer stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hanai, J-I; Doro, N; Seth, P; Sukhatme, V P

    2013-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) knockdown (KD) causes tumor suppression and induces differentiation. We have previously reported that ACL KD reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. Because EMT is often associated with processes that induce stemness, we hypothesized that ACL KD impacts cancer stem cells. By assessing tumorsphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, we showed this to be the case in A549 cells, which harbor a Ras mutation, and in two other non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, H1975 and H1650, driven by activating EGFR mutations. Inducible ACL KD had the same effect as stable ACL KD. Similar effects were noted in another well-characterized Ras-induced mammary model system (HMLER). Moreover, treatment with hydroxycitrate phenocopied the effects of ACL KD, suggesting that the enzymatic activity of ACL was critical. Indeed, acetate treatment reversed the ACL KD phenotype. Having previously established that ACL KD impacts signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, not the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and that EMT can be reversed by PI3K inhibitors, we were surprised to find that stemness in these systems was maintained through Ras-MAPK signaling, and not via PI3K signaling. Snail is a downstream transcription factor impacted by Ras-MAPK signaling and known to promote EMT and stemness. We found that snail expression was reduced by ACL KD. In tumorigenic HMLER cells, ACL overexpression increased snail expression and stemness, both of which were reduced by ACL KD. Furthermore, ACL could not initiate either tumorigenesis or stemness by itself. ACL and snail proteins interacted and ACL expression regulated the transcriptional activity of snail. Finally, ACL KD counteracted stem cell characteristics induced in diverse cell systems driven by activation of pathways outside of Ras-MAPK signaling. Our findings unveil a novel aspect of ACL function, namely its impact on cancer

  7. Specific in vivo knockdown of protein function by intrabodies

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, Andrea LJ; Dübel, Stefan; Böldicke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) are recombinant antibody fragments that bind to target proteins expressed inside of the same living cell producing the antibodies. The molecules are commonly used to study the function of the target proteins (i.e., their antigens). The intrabody technology is an attractive alternative to the generation of gene-targeted knockout animals, and complements knockdown techniques such as RNAi, miRNA and small molecule inhibitors, by-passing various limitations and disadvantages of these methods. The advantages of intrabodies include very high specificity for the target, the possibility to knock down several protein isoforms by one intrabody and targeting of specific splice variants or even post-translational modifications. Different types of intrabodies must be designed to target proteins at different locations, typically either in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus or in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Most straightforward is the use of intrabodies retained in the ER (ER intrabodies) to knock down the function of proteins passing the ER, which disturbs the function of members of the membrane or plasma proteomes. More effort is needed to functionally knock down cytoplasmic or nuclear proteins because in this case antibodies need to provide an inhibitory effect and must be able to fold in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm. In this review, we present a broad overview of intrabody technology, as well as applications both of ER and cytoplasmic intrabodies, which have yielded valuable insights in the biology of many targets relevant for drug development, including α-synuclein, TAU, BCR-ABL, ErbB-2, EGFR, HIV gp120, CCR5, IL-2, IL-6, β-amyloid protein and p75NTR. Strategies for the generation of intrabodies and various designs of their applications are also reviewed. PMID:26252565

  8. LMNA Knock-Down Affects Differentiation and Progression of Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Giovanna; Natoli, Manuela; Nardella, Marta; Arisi, Ivan; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Desideri, Marianna; Brandi, Rossella; D’Aguanno, Simona; Nicotra, Maria Rita; D’Onofrio, Mara; Urbani, Andrea; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Bufalo, Donatella Del

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most aggressive tumors that occur in childhood. Although genes, such as MYCN, have been shown to be involved in the aggressiveness of the disease, the identification of new biological markers is still desirable. The induction of differentiation is one of the strategies used in the treatment of neuroblastoma. A-type lamins are components of the nuclear lamina and are involved in differentiation. We studied the role of Lamin A/C in the differentiation and progression of neuroblastoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Knock-down of Lamin A/C (LMNA-KD) in neuroblastoma cells blocked retinoic acid-induced differentiation, preventing neurites outgrowth and the expression of neural markers. The genome-wide gene-expression profile and the proteomic analysis of LMNA-KD cells confirmed the inhibition of differentiation and demonstrated an increase of aggressiveness-related genes and molecules resulting in augmented migration/invasion, and increasing the drug resistance of the cells. The more aggressive phenotype acquired by LMNA-KD cells was also maintained in vivo after injection into nude mice. A preliminary immunohistochemistry analysis of Lamin A/C expression in nine primary stages human NB indicated that this protein is poorly expressed in most of these cases. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated for the first time in neuroblastoma cells that Lamin A/C plays a central role in the differentiation, and that the loss of this protein gave rise to a more aggressive tumor phenotype. PMID:23049808

  9. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest. PMID:27419079

  10. Knockdown of NFBD1/MDC1 enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin or 5-fluorouracil in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quan; Wang, Zhihai; Liu, Chuan; Gong, Zhitao; Yang, Li; Jiang, Liang; Ma, Zuxia; Qian, Yi; Yang, Yucheng; Kang, Houyong; Hong, Suling; Bu, Youquan; Hu, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare but highly invasive cancer that is prevalent among people of southern Chinese ancestry in southern China and Southeast Asia. Radiotherapy and cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy are the main treatment options. Unfortunately, disease response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy varies among patients with NPC, and many cases are resistant to CDDP and radiotherapy. NFBD1 functions in cell cycle checkpoint activation and DNA repair following DNA damage. In this study, we identified the NFBD1 as a tractable molecular target to chemosensitize NPC cells. NFBD1 expression in NPC CNE1 cell lines was depleted using lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA, and the elevated sensitivity of these NFBD1-inhibited NPC cells to therapeutic reagent CDDP and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was evaluated using MTS assays. Flow cytometry analysis also showed that NFBD1 knockdown led to an obvious induction of apoptosis in CDDP- or 5-FU-treated CNE1 cells. Furthermore, we implicated the involvement of NFBD1 in Rad51 and DNA-PKcs foci formation following CDDP or 5-FU chemotherapy. In conclusion, NFBD1 knockdown improves the chemosensitivity of NPC cells by inhibiting cell growth and promoting apoptosis through the impairment of DNA damage repair, suggesting NFBD1 as a novel therapeutic target for NPC. PMID:27334757

  11. Bacterial-Mediated Knockdown of Tumor Resistance to an Oncolytic Virus Enhances Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Michelle; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Murphy, Carola; Roy, Dominic G; Falls, Theresa; Bell, John C; Tangney, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) and bacteria share the property of tumor-selective replication following systemic administration. In the case of nonpathogenic bacteria, tumor selectivity relates to their ability to grow extracellularly within tumor stroma and is therefore ideally suited to restricting the production of bacterially produced therapeutic agents to tumors. We have previously shown the ability of the type 1 interferon antagonist B18R to enhance the replication and spread of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by overcoming related cellular innate immunity. In this study, we utilized nonpathogenic bacteria (E. coli) expressing B18R to facilitate tumor-specific production of B18R, resulting in a microenvironment depleted of bioactive antiviral cytokine, thus “preconditioning” the tumor to enhance subsequent tumor destruction by the OV. Both in vitro and in vivo infection by VSVΔ51 was greatly enhanced by B18R produced from E. coli. Moreover, a significant increase in therapeutic efficacy resulted from intravenous (IV) injection of bacteria to tumor-bearing mice 5 days prior to IV VSVΔ51 administration, as evidenced by a significant reduction in tumor growth and increased survival in mice. Our strategy is the first example where two such diverse microorganisms are rationally combined and demonstrates the feasibility of combining complementary microorganisms to improve therapeutic outcome. PMID:24569832

  12. Knockdown of dual specificity phosphatase 4 enhances the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells to doxorubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Du, Feiya; Chen, Wei; Yao, Minya; Lv, Kezhen; Fu, Peifen

    2013-12-10

    Background: Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer-related deaths in females world-wide. Doxorubicin-based therapy has limited efficacy in breast cancer due to drug resistance, which has been shown to be associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the molecular mechanisms linking the EMT and drug resistance in breast cancer cells remain unclear. Dual specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4), a member of the dual specificity phosphatase family, is associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation; however, its role in breast cancer progression is controversial. Methods: We used cell viability assays, Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining, combined with siRNA interference, to evaluate chemoresistance and the EMT in MCF-7 and adriamycin-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Results: Knockdown of DUSP4 significantly increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells to doxorubicin, and MCF-7/ADR cells which expressed high levels of DUSP4 had a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, knockdown of DUSP4 reversed the EMT in MCF-7/ADR cells, as demonstrated by upregulation of epithelial biomarkers and downregulation of mesenchymal biomarkers, and also increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin. Conclusions: DUSP4 might represent a potential drug target for inhibiting drug resistance and regulating the process of the EMT during the treatment of breast cancer. - Highlights: • We used different technologies to prove our conclusion. • DUSP4 knockdown increased doxorubicin chemosensitivity in breast cancer cells. • DUSP4 is a potential target for combating drug resistance in breast cancer. • DUSP4 is a potential target for regulating the EMT in breast cancer.

  13. Knock-down of Kaiso induces proliferation and blocks granulocytic differentiation in blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kaiso protein has been identified as a new member of the POZ-ZF subfamily of transcription factors that are involved in development and cancer. There is consistent evidence of the role of Kaiso and its involvement in human tumorigenesis but there is no evidence about its role in hematopoietic differentiation or establishment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We used, normal K562 cell line, established from a CML patient in blast crisis, and imatinib-resistant K562 cell line, to investigate the specific distribution of Kaiso and their contribution to the cell differentiation status of the blast crisis of CML (CML-BP). Results We found cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso, in K562 cells and patients, confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and western blot of cytoplasmic protein fraction. Kaiso was weakly expressed in the imatinib-resistant K562 cell line confirmed by immunofluorescence and western blot. The cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was not modified when the K562 cells were treated for 16 h with imatinib 0.1 and 1 μM. In our study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced to down regulate the expression of Kaiso and p120ctn in K562 cell line. Kaiso and p120ctn were down regulated individually (siRNA-Kaiso or siRNA-p120ctn) or in combination using a simultaneous co-transfection (siRNA-Kaiso/p120ctn). We next investigated whether knockdown either Kaiso or p120ctn alone or in combination affects the cell differentiation status in K562 cells. After down regulation we analyzed the expression of hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation genes: SCF, PU-1, c-MyB, C/EBPα, Gata-2 and maturation markers of hematopoietic cells expressed in the plasma membrane: CD15, CD11b, CD33, CD117. The levels of SCF and c-MyB were increased by 1000% and 65% respectively and PU-1, Gata-2 and C/EBPα were decreased by 66%, 50% and 80% respectively, when Kaiso levels were down regulated by siRNA. The results were similar when both Kaiso and p120

  14. Tafazzin knockdown interrupts cell cycle progression in cultured neonatal ventricular fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    He, Quan; Wang, Miao; Harris, Nicole; Han, Xianlin

    2013-11-01

    Mutation of the mitochondrial protein tafazzin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Previous studies have shown that tafazzin knockdown promotes hypertrophy of neonatal cardiac myocytes. The current investigation was designed to show whether tafazzin knockdown affects cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen secretion, which contribute to fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy. In primary cultures of neonatal ventricular fibroblasts (NVFs) transduced with a tafazzin short hairpin RNA adenovirus, tafazzin knockdown increased production of reactive oxygen species and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induced protein and DNA synthesis via cell cycle regulators. It also reduced intracellular ATP, activated AMPK, and caused multinucleation, hypertrophy, and enhanced collagen secretion. We concluded that tafazzin knockdown interrupts the NVF cell cycle and this in turn may contribute to fibrosis and dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. PMID:23997105

  15. Knockdown of TWIST1 enhances arsenic trioxide- and ionizing radiation-induced cell death in lung cancer cells by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Sung-Keum; Kim, Jae-Hee; Choi, Ha-Na; Choe, Tae-Boo; Hong, Seok-Il; Yi, Jae-Youn; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Knockdown of TWIST1 enhanced ATO- and IR-induced cell death in NSCLCs. • Intracellular ROS levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA. • TWIST1 siRNA induced MMP loss and mitochondrial fragmentation. • TWIST1 siRNA upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. - Abstract: TWIST1 is implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance in cancer cells, and therefore is a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that knockdown of TWIST1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced arsenic trioxide (ATO)- and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Interestingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA and further increased by co-treatment with ATO or IR. Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine markedly suppressed the cell death induced by combined treatment with TWIST1 siRNA and ATO or IR. Moreover, treatment of cells with TWIST1 siRNA induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated TWIST1 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances IR- and ATO-induced cell death in lung cancer cells.

  16. ZEB1 knockdown mediated using polypeptide cationic micelles inhibits metastasis and effects sensitization to a chemotherapeutic drug for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shengtao; Wu, Lei; Li, Mingxing; Yi, Huqiang; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Gong, Ping; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2014-08-01

    Metastasis and drug resistance are the main causes for the failure in clinical cancer therapy. Emerging evidence suggests an intricate role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in metastasis and drug resistance. The EMT-activator ZEB1 is crucial in malignant tumor progression by linking EMT-activation and stemness-maintenance. Here, we used multifunctional polypeptide micelle nanoparticles (NP) as nanocarriers for the delivery of ZEB1 siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX). The nanocarriers could effectively deliver siRNA to the cytoplasm and knockdown the target gene in H460 cells and H460 xenograft tumors, leading to reduced EMT and repressed CSC properties in vitro and in vivo. The complex micelle nanoparticles with ZEB1 siRNA (siRNA-NP) significantly reduced metastasis in the lung. When DOX and siRNA were co-delivered by the nanocarriers (siRNA-DOX-NP), a synergistic therapeutic effect was observed, resulting in dramatic inhibition of tumor growth in a H460 xenograft model. These results demonstrated that the siRNA-NP or siRNA-DOX-NP complex targeting ZEB1 could be developed into a new therapeutic approach for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment.Metastasis and drug resistance are the main causes for the failure in clinical cancer therapy. Emerging evidence suggests an intricate role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in metastasis and drug resistance. The EMT-activator ZEB1 is crucial in malignant tumor progression by linking EMT-activation and stemness-maintenance. Here, we used multifunctional polypeptide micelle nanoparticles (NP) as nanocarriers for the delivery of ZEB1 siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX). The nanocarriers could effectively deliver siRNA to the cytoplasm and knockdown the target gene in H460 cells and H460 xenograft tumors, leading to reduced EMT and repressed CSC properties in vitro and in vivo. The complex micelle nanoparticles with ZEB1 siRNA (siRNA-NP) significantly reduced

  17. Knockdown of Carboxypeptidase A6 in Zebrafish Larvae Reduces Response to Seizure-Inducing Drugs and Causes Changes in the Level of mRNAs Encoding Signaling Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Mark William; Sapio, Matthew R.; Leal, Rodrigo B.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2016-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase A6 (CPA6) is an extracellular matrix metallocarboxypeptidase that modulates peptide and protein function by removal of hydrophobic C-terminal amino acids. Mutations in the human CPA6 gene that reduce enzymatic activity in the extracellular matrix are associated with febrile seizures, temporal lobe epilepsy, and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. The characterization of these human mutations suggests a dominant mode of inheritance by haploinsufficiency through loss of function mutations, however the total number of humans with pathologic mutations in CPA6 identified to date remains small. To better understand the relationship between CPA6 and seizures we investigated the effects of morpholino knockdown of cpa6 mRNA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Knockdown of cpa6 mRNA resulted in resistance to the effect of seizure-inducing drugs pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine on swimming behaviors. Knockdown of cpa6 mRNA also reduced the levels of mRNAs encoding neuropeptide precursors (bdnf, npy, chga, pcsk1nl, tac1, nts, edn1), a neuropeptide processing enzyme (cpe), transcription factor (c-fos), and molecules implicated in glutamatergic signaling (grin1a and slc1a2b). Treatment of zebrafish embryos with 60 mM pilocarpine for 1 hour led to reductions in levels of many of the same mRNAs when measured 1 day after pilocarpine exposure, except for c-fos which was elevated 1 day after pilocarpine treatment. Pilocarpine treatment, like cpa6 knockdown, led to a reduced sensitivity to pentylenetetrazole when tested 1 day after pilocarpine treatment. Taken together, these results add to mounting evidence that peptidergic systems participate in the biological effects of seizure-inducing drugs, and are the first in vivo demonstration of the molecular and behavioral consequences of cpa6 insufficiency. PMID:27050163

  18. Nodes-and-connections RNAi knockdown screening: identification of a signaling molecule network involved in fulvestrant action and breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, N; Wittner, B S; Shioda, K; Hitora, T; Ito, T; Ramaswamy, S; Isselbacher, K J; Sgroi, D C; Shioda, T

    2015-01-01

    Although RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown screening of cancer cell cultures is an effective approach to predict drug targets or therapeutic/prognostic biomarkers, interactions among identified targets often remain obscure. Here, we introduce the nodes-and-connections RNAi knockdown screening that generates a map of target interactions through systematic iterations of in silico prediction of targets and their experimental validation. An initial RNAi knockdown screening of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells targeting 6560 proteins identified four signaling molecules required for their fulvestrant-induced apoptosis. Signaling molecules physically or functionally interacting with these four primary node targets were computationally predicted and experimentally validated, resulting in identification of four second-generation nodes. Three rounds of further iterations of the prediction–validation cycle generated third, fourth and fifth generation of nodes, completing a 19-node interaction map that contained three predicted nodes but without experimental validation because of technical limitations. The interaction map involved all three members of the death-associated protein kinases (DAPKs) as well as their upstream and downstream signaling molecules (calmodulins and myosin light chain kinases), suggesting that DAPKs play critical roles in the cytocidal action of fulvestrant. The in silico Kaplan–Meier analysis of previously reported human breast cancer cohorts demonstrated significant prognostic predictive power for five of the experimentally validated nodes and for three of the prediction-only nodes. Immunohistochemical studies on the expression of 10 nodal proteins in human breast cancer tissues not only supported their prognostic prediction power but also provided statistically significant evidence of their synchronized expression, implying functional interactions among these nodal proteins. Thus, the Nodes-and-Connections approach to RNAi knockdown screening yields

  19. Knockdown of astrocyte elevated gene-1 inhibits tumor growth and modifies microRNAs expression profiles in human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Sujun; Wu, Binwen; Li, Dongfeng; Zhou, Weihong; Deng, Gang; Zhang, Kaijun; Li, Youjia

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • AEG-1 expression in CRC cell lines and down-regulation or upregulation of AEG-1 in vitro. • Knockdown of AEG-1 inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. • Upregulation of AEG-1 enhances proliferation, invasion and colony formation. • Knockdown of AEG-1 accumulates G0/G1-phase cells and promotes apoptosis in CRC cells. • AEG-1 knockdown increases 5-FU cytotoxicity. - Abstract: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), upregulated in various types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC), has been reported to be associated with the carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. However, the functional significance of AEG-1 and the relationship between AEG-1 and microRNAs in human CRC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AEG-1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target of human CRC and its possible mechanism. We adopted a strategy of ectopic overexpression or RNA interference to upregulate or downregulate expression of AEG-1 in CRC models. Their phenotypic changes were analyzed by Western blot, MTT and transwell matrix penetration assays. MicroRNAs expression profiles were performed using microarray analysis followed by validation using qRT-PCR. Knockdown of AEG-1 could significantly inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion and promotes apoptosis. Conversely, upregulation of AEG-1 could significantly enhance cell proliferation, invasion and reduced apoptisis. AEG-1 directly contributes to resistance to chemotherapeutic drug. Targeted downregulation of AEG-1 might improve the expression of miR-181a-2{sup ∗}, -193b and -193a, and inversely inhibit miR-31 and -9{sup ∗}. Targeted inhibition of AEG-1 can lead to modification of key elemental characteristics, such as miRNAs, which may become a potential effective therapeutic strategy for CRC.

  20. Knockdown of Carboxypeptidase A6 in Zebrafish Larvae Reduces Response to Seizure-Inducing Drugs and Causes Changes in the Level of mRNAs Encoding Signaling Molecules.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mark William; Sapio, Matthew R; Leal, Rodrigo B; Fricker, Lloyd D

    2016-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase A6 (CPA6) is an extracellular matrix metallocarboxypeptidase that modulates peptide and protein function by removal of hydrophobic C-terminal amino acids. Mutations in the human CPA6 gene that reduce enzymatic activity in the extracellular matrix are associated with febrile seizures, temporal lobe epilepsy, and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. The characterization of these human mutations suggests a dominant mode of inheritance by haploinsufficiency through loss of function mutations, however the total number of humans with pathologic mutations in CPA6 identified to date remains small. To better understand the relationship between CPA6 and seizures we investigated the effects of morpholino knockdown of cpa6 mRNA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Knockdown of cpa6 mRNA resulted in resistance to the effect of seizure-inducing drugs pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine on swimming behaviors. Knockdown of cpa6 mRNA also reduced the levels of mRNAs encoding neuropeptide precursors (bdnf, npy, chga, pcsk1nl, tac1, nts, edn1), a neuropeptide processing enzyme (cpe), transcription factor (c-fos), and molecules implicated in glutamatergic signaling (grin1a and slc1a2b). Treatment of zebrafish embryos with 60 mM pilocarpine for 1 hour led to reductions in levels of many of the same mRNAs when measured 1 day after pilocarpine exposure, except for c-fos which was elevated 1 day after pilocarpine treatment. Pilocarpine treatment, like cpa6 knockdown, led to a reduced sensitivity to pentylenetetrazole when tested 1 day after pilocarpine treatment. Taken together, these results add to mounting evidence that peptidergic systems participate in the biological effects of seizure-inducing drugs, and are the first in vivo demonstration of the molecular and behavioral consequences of cpa6 insufficiency. PMID:27050163

  1. Selenoprotein X Gene Knockdown Aggravated H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Liver LO2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiayong; Cao, Lei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Longqiong; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Cai, Jingyi; Shang, Haiying; Zhao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    To determine the roles of selenoprotein X gene (Selx) in protecting liver cells against oxidative damage, the influences of Selx knockdown on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human normal hepatocyte (LO2) cells were studied. pSilencer 3.1 was used to develop knockdown vector targeting the 3'-UTR of human Selx. The Selx knockdown and control cells were further exposed to H2O2, and cell viability, cell apoptosis rate, and the expression levels of mRNA and protein of apoptosis-related genes were detected. The results showed that vector targeting the 3'-UTR of Selx successfully silenced mRNA or protein expression of SelX in LO2 cells. Selx knockdown resulted in decreased cell viability, increased percentage of early apoptotic cells, decreased Bcl2A1 and Bcl-2 expression, and increased phosphorylation of P38 in LO2 cells. When Selx knockdown LO2 cells were exposed to H2O2, characteristics of H2O2-induced cell dysfunctions were further exacerbated. Taken together, our findings suggested that SelX played important roles in protecting LO2 cells against oxidative damage and reducing H2O2-induced apoptosis in liver cells. PMID:26899321

  2. Stable SET knockdown in breast cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Yang, Xi-fei; Ren, Xiao-hu; Meng, Xiao-jing; Huang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Qiong-hui; Yuan, Jian-hui; Hong, Wen-xu; Xia, Bo; Huang, Xin-feng; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jian-jun; Zou, Fei

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We employed RNA interference to knockdown SET expression in breast cancer cells. • Knockdown of SET expression inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • Knockdown of SET expression increases the activity and expression of PP2A. • Knockdown of SET expression decreases the expression of MMP-9. - Abstract: Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor for women, however, the mechanisms underlying this devastating disease remain unclear. SET is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. SET could promote the occurrence of tumor through inhibiting PP2A. In this study, we explore the role of SET in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30. The stable suppression of SET expression through lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to inhibit the growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SET increases the activity and expression of PP2Ac and decrease the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). These data demonstrate that SET may be involved in the pathogenic processes of breast cancer, indicating that SET can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Knockdown of p53 suppresses Nanog expression in embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We investigate the role of p53 in ESCs in the absence of DNA damage. •p53 knockdown suppresses ESC proliferation. •p53 knockdown downregulates Nanog expression. •p53 is essential for mouse ESC self-renewal. -- Abstract: Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) express high levels of cytoplasmic p53. Exposure of mouse ESCs to DNA damage leads to activation of p53, inducing Nanog suppression. In contrast to earlier studies, we recently reported that chemical inhibition of p53 suppresses ESC proliferation. Here, we confirm that p53 signaling is involved in the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of p53 induced downregulation of p21 and defects in ESC proliferation. Furthermore, p53 knockdown resulted in a significant downregulation in Nanog expression at 24 and 48 h post-transfection. p53 knockdown also caused a reduction in Oct4 expression at 48 h post-transfection. Conversely, exposure of ESCs to DNA damage caused a higher reduction of Nanog expression in control siRNA-treated cells than in p53 siRNA-treated cells. These data show that in the absence of DNA damage, p53 is required for the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal by regulating Nanog expression.

  4. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    He, Quan; Harris, Nicole; Ren, Jun; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:25247053

  5. Knockdown of platinum-induced growth differentiation factor 15 abrogates p27-mediated tumor growth delay in the chemoresistant ovarian cancer model A2780cis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Julia C; Haendler, Bernard; Seidel, Henrik; Groth, Philip; Adams, Robert; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Kreft, Bertolt; Beckmann, Georg; Sommer, Anette; Kopitz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum-based treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing the identification of resistance-related factors. In this study, we used human whole-genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its platinum-resistant variant A2780cis before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified as one of five potential resistance-related genes in the A2780cis tumor model. Although A2780-bearing mice showed a strong carboplatin-induced increase of GDF15 plasma levels, the basal higher GDF15 plasma levels of A2780cis-bearing mice showed no further increase after short-term or long-term carboplatin treatment. This correlated with a decreased DNA damage response, enhanced AKT survival signaling and abrogated cell cycle arrest in the carboplatin-treated A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, knockdown of GDF15 in A2780cis cells did not alter cell proliferation but enhanced cell migration and colony size in vitro. Interestingly, in vivo knockdown of GDF15 in the A2780cis model led to a basal-enhanced tumor growth, but increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment as compared to the control-transduced A2780cis tumors. This was associated with larger necrotic areas, a lobular tumor structure and increased p53 and p16 expression of the carboplatin-treated shGDF15-A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated GDF15 knockdown abrogated p27 expression as compared to control-transduced A2780cis tumors. In conclusion, these data show that GDF15 may contribute to carboplatin resistance by suppressing tumor growth through p27. These data show that GDF15 might serve as a novel treatment target in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25490861

  6. Amastin Knockdown in Leishmania braziliensis Affects Parasite-Macrophage Interaction and Results in Impaired Viability of Intracellular Amastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagaki, Brenda Naemi; Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Canavaci, Adriana Monte Cassiano; Souza Melo, Normanda; Martinelli, Patrícia Massara; Fernandes, Ana Paula; daRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of δ-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. δ-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:26641088

  7. MRP1 knockdown down-regulates the deposition of collagen and leads to a reduced hypertrophic scar fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Longlong; Zheng, Zhao; Shi, Jihong; Wu, Xue; Guan, Hao; Jia, Yanhui; Tao, Ke; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Zhao, Bin; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) belongs to ATP-binding cassette transporters family. The overexpression of MRP1 is predominantly related with the failure of chemo-radiotherapy in various tumors. However, its possible role in hypertrophic scar (HS) is hardly investigated. Here we showed that the mRNA level and protein expression of MRP1 were higher in HS and HS derived fibroblasts (HSFs) than that in normal skin (NS) and NS derived fibroblasts (NSFs). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the percentage of positive cells was higher in HS and HSFs. Meanwhile, the co-localization of MRP1 and α-SMA was stronger in HS. MRP1 knockdown in HSFs provoked a significant reduction in the protein expressions of collagen 3 and α-SMA in vitro. Moreover, MRP1 siRNA transfection could decrease the deposition of collagen in cultured tissues ex vivo and inhibit the scar formation in rabbit ear scar model in vivo. H&E staining and Masson trichrome staining revealed thinner and more orderly arranged collagen fiber in the MRP1 siRNA transfection group. The appearance of scar was improved as well. All these results indicate that MRP1 plays an important role in the formation of HS, MRP1 knockdown could be a potential method to reduce the accumulation of collagen and to improve the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix in HS, which indicates that down-regulation of MRP1 has the potential therapeutic effect in the treatment and prophylaxis of HS. PMID:26092470

  8. Amastin Knockdown in Leishmania braziliensis Affects Parasite-Macrophage Interaction and Results in Impaired Viability of Intracellular Amastigotes.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Rita Marcia Cardoso; Grazielle-Silva, Viviane; Cardoso, Mariana Santos; Nakagaki, Brenda Naemi; Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Canavaci, Adriana Monte Cassiano; Souza Melo, Normanda; Martinelli, Patrícia Massara; Fernandes, Ana Paula; daRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Teixeira, Santuza M R

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of δ-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. δ-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:26641088

  9. Knockdown of GALNT1 suppresses malignant phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Miao-Juei; Hu, Rey-Heng; Chou, Chih-Hsing; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Liu, Ya-Wen; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Lai, I-Rue; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Yu, Sung-Liang; Wu, Yao-Ming; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    O-glycosylation is a common protein modification. Aberrant O-glycosylation is associated with many cancers. GALNT1 is a GalNAc-transferase that initiates protein O-glycosylation. We found that GALNT1 is frequently up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with poor patient survival. Overexpression of GALNT1 increased and knockdown decreased HCC cell migration and invasion. Knockdown of GALNT1 inhibited EGF-induced migration and invasion. Knockdown of GALNT1 decreased EGFR activation and increased EGFR degradation, by decreasing EGFR O-glycosylation. This study demonstrates that down-regulation of GALNT1 is sufficient to suppress malignant phenotype of HCC cells by decreasing EGFR signaling. Thus, GALNT1 is a potential target in HCC. PMID:25730904

  10. Sleeping Beauty-mediated knockdown of sheep myostatin by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Sai, Wujiafu; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Xudong; Qiao, Jun; Sheng, Jinliang; Guo, Fei; Chen, Chuangfu

    2011-10-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Myostatin dysfunction therefore offers a strategy for promoting animal muscle growth in livestock production. Knockdown of myostatin was achieved by combining RNA interference and the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system in sheep cells. Four targeting sites of sheep myostatin were designed and measured for myostatin silencing in sheep fetal fibroblasts by real-time PCR. The sh3 construct induced significant decrease of myostatin gene expression by 90% (P<0.05). Myostatin silencing induced by SB-mediated sh3 was further tested in stably transfected cells. SB transposition increased the integration frequency of genes into sheep genomes and mediated a more efficient myostatin knockdown than random integration of sh3. We suggest that SB-mediated shRNA provides a novel potential tool for gene knockdown in the donor cells of animal cloning. PMID:21698446

  11. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC. PMID:23924858

  12. FTO knockdown in rat ventromedial hypothalamus does not affect energy balance

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Margriet A.; Sanders, Loek E.; de Jong, Johannes W.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) clustered in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity‐associated (FTO) gene has been associated with obesity. FTO expression is ubiquitous, with particularly high levels in the hypothalamic area of the brain. To investigate the region‐specific role of FTO, AAV technology was applied to knockdown FTO in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). No effect of FTO knockdown was observed on bodyweight or parameters of energy balance. Animals were exposed twice to an overnight fast, followed by a high‐fat high‐sucrose (HFHS) diet for 1 week. FTO knockdown did not result in a different response to the diets. A region‐specific role for FTO in the VMH in the regulation of energy balance could not be found. PMID:25501432

  13. Knockdown of Akt Sensitizes Osteosarcoma Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Cisplatin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoyou; Li, Ming; Zhu, Xiaodong; Bai, Yushu; Yang, Changwei

    2011-01-01

    Akt plays an important role in the inhibition of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy and other stimuli. We therefore investigated if knockdown of Akt2 promoted drug-induced apoptosis in cultured osteosarcoma cells in vitro. SAOS-2 cells were transfected with Akt2 siRNA. The sensitivity of the transformed cell line to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin was assessed. Reduced expression of Akt2 did not directly inhibit the growth rate of the transfected cells; however, it significantly increased their sensitivity to cisplatin. Knockdown of Akt2, together with cisplatin treatment, promoted the expression of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). It is possible that the augmentation of cisplatin cytotoxicity may be mediated by PUMA activation. The results of this study suggest that knockdown of Akt2 expression may have therapeutic applications in enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma. PMID:21686164

  14. Knockdown of FAK inhibits the invasion and metastasis of Tca‑8113 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenbo; Jiang, Mingxin; Li, Hongdan; Li, Chunshan; Su, Rongjian; Huang, Keqiang

    2013-08-01

    Tongue cancer originating on the surface of the tongue is most commonly squamous cell carcinoma, which has a higher invasive ability and a lower survival rate compared with other forms of tongue cancer. Notably, tongue squamous cell carcinomas metastasize into lymph nodes at early stages. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important protein tyrosine kinase involved in invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In the present study, the role of FAK in the invasion and metastasis of tongue cancer was evaluated and the underlying mechanisms involved in this process were explored. FAK knockdown was performed using shRNA in the tongue cancer cell line, Tca‑8113, and the invasion and metastasis potentials were analyzed using wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. Cytoskeletal arrangement was detected by fluorescence using TRITC‑conjugated phalloidin staining. The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and ‑9 was examined by gelatin zymography. Paxillin distribution was observed by immunofluorescence. The levels of E‑cadherin, N‑cadherin, MMP‑2 and ‑9, and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) was detected by western blot analysis. Wound healing and transwell assays demonstrated that FAK knockdown inhibited the invasion and metastasis of Tca‑8113 cells. Further analysis revealed that FAK knockdown caused the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and decreased the activity of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that downregulation of FAK induced the relocalization of paxillin. Paxillin accumulated as dots and patches at the cell membrane in control cells. By contrast, in FAK knockdown cells, paxillin was distributed homogeneously in the cytoplasm. Western blot analysis revealed that FAK knockdown inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and decreased levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9, and p‑JNK. Knockdown of FAK inhibits the invasion and metastasis of Tca‑8113 by decreasing MMP‑2 and ‑9 activities and led to the

  15. Withaferin A inhibits in vivo growth of breast cancer cells accelerated by Notch2 knockdown.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Hyeong; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Arlotti, Julie A; Samanta, Suman K; Moura, Michelle B; Thorne, Stephen H; Shuai, Yongli; Anderson, Carolyn J; White, Alexander G; Lokshin, Anna; Lee, Joomin; Singh, Shivendra V

    2016-05-01

    The present study offers novel insights into the molecular circuitry of accelerated in vivo tumor growth by Notch2 knockdown in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Therapeutic vulnerability of Notch2-altered growth to a small molecule (withaferin A, WA) is also demonstrated. MDA-MB-231 and SUM159 cells were used for the xenograft studies. A variety of technologies were deployed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tumor growth augmentation by Notch2 knockdown and its reversal by WA, including Fluorescence Molecular Tomography for measurement of tumor angiogenesis in live mice, Seahorse Flux analyzer for ex vivo measurement of tumor metabolism, proteomics, and Luminex-based cytokine profiling. Stable knockdown of Notch2 resulted in accelerated in vivo tumor growth in both cells reflected by tumor volume and/or latency. For example, the wet tumor weight from mice bearing Notch2 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells was about 7.1-fold higher compared with control (P < 0.0001). Accelerated tumor growth by Notch2 knockdown was highly sensitive to inhibition by a promising steroidal lactone (WA) derived from a medicinal plant. Molecular underpinnings for tumor growth intensification by Notch2 knockdown included compensatory increase in Notch1 activation, increased cellular proliferation and/or angiogenesis, and increased plasma or tumor levels of growth stimulatory cytokines. WA administration reversed many of these effects providing explanation for its remarkable anti-cancer efficacy. Notch2 functions as a tumor growth suppressor in TNBC and WA offers a novel therapeutic strategy for restoring this function. PMID:27097807

  16. Gene knockdown by ihpRNA-triggering in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is a mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of the vast majority of trees. These include numerous ecologically and economically relevant species and the participating fungal symbionts are predominantly filamentous basidiomycetes. In natural ecosystems the plant nutrient uptake from soil takes place via the extraradical mycelia of these ECM mycosimbionts as a trade for plant photosyntates. The symbiotic phase in the life cycle of ECM basidiomycetes is the dikaryotic hyphae. Therefore, studies on symbiotic relevant gene functions require the inactivation of both gene copies in these dikaryotic fungi. RNA silencing is a eukaryotic sequence homology-dependent degradation of target RNAs which is believed to have evolved as a protection mechanism against invading nucleic acids. In different eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, the RNA silencing pathway can be artificially triggered to target and degrade gene transcripts of interest, resulting in gene knock-down. Most importantly, RNA silencing can act at the cytosolic level affecting mRNAs originating from several gene copies and different nuclei thus offering an efficient means of altering gene expression in dikaryotic organisms. Therefore, the pHg/pSILBAγ silencing vector was constructed for efficient RNA silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor. This cloning vector carries the Agaricus bisporus gpdII-promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a L. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the Aspergillus nidulans trpC terminator. pSILBAγ allows an easy two-step PCR-cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. With one further cloning step into pHg, a pCAMBIA1300-based binary vector carrying a hygromycin resistance cassette, makes the pHg/pSILBAγ plasmid compatible with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The pHg/pSILBAγ-system results in predominantly single integrations of RNA silencing triggering T-DNAs in the fungal genome

  17. Knockdown of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast protein disulfide isomerase 6 results in reduced levels of photoinhibition and increased D1 synthesis in high light.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Gal; Levitan, Alexander; Klein, Tamir; Dangoor, Inbal; Keren, Nir; Danon, Avihai

    2014-06-01

    A chloroplast protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was previously proposed to regulate translation of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast psbA mRNA, encoding the D1 protein, in response to light. Here we show that AtPDI6, one of 13 Arabidopsis thaliana PDI genes, also plays a role in the chloroplast. We found that AtPDI6 is targeted and localized to the chloroplast. Interestingly, AtPDI6 knockdown plants displayed higher resistance to photoinhibition than wild-type plants when exposed to a tenfold increase in light intensity. The AtPDI6 knockdown plants also displayed a higher rate of D1 synthesis under a similar light intensity. The increased resistance to photoinhibition may not be rationalized by changes in antenna or non-photochemical quenching. Thus, the increased D1 synthesis rate, which may result in a larger proportion of active D1 under light stress, may led to the decrease in photoinhibition. These results suggest that, although the D1 synthesis rates observed in wild-type plants under high light intensities are elevated, repair can potentially occur faster. The findings implicate AtPDI6 as an attenuator of D1 synthesis, modulating photoinhibition in a light-regulated manner. PMID:24684167

  18. FOXO4-Knockdown Suppresses Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Early Pro-Angiogenic Cells and Augments Their Neovascularization Capacities in Ischemic Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Nakayoshi, Takaharu; Sasaki, Ken-ichiro; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Koiwaya, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Masanori; Ueno, Takafumi; Chibana, Hidetoshi; Itaya, Naoki; Sasaki, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shinji; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic angiogenesis by intramuscular injection of early pro-angiogenic cells (EPCs) to ischemic limbs are unsatisfactory. Oxidative stress in the ischemic limbs may accelerate apoptosis of injected EPCs, leading to less neovascularization. Forkhead transcription factor 4 (FOXO4) was reported to play a pivotal role in apoptosis signaling of EPCs in response to oxidative stress. Accordingly, we assessed whether FOXO4-knockdown EPCs (FOXO4KD-EPCs) could suppress the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and augment the neovascularization capacity in ischemic limbs. We transfected small interfering RNA targeted against FOXO4 of human EPCs to generate FOXO4KD-EPCs and confirmed a successful knockdown. FOXO4KD-EPCs gained resistance to apoptosis in response to hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Oxidative stress stained by dihydroethidium was stronger for the immunodeficient rat ischemic limb tissue than for the rat non-ischemic one. Although the number of apoptotic EPCs injected into the rat ischemic limb was greater than that of apoptotic EPCs injected into the rat non-ischemic limb, FOXO4KD-EPCs injected into the rat ischemic limb brought less apoptosis and more neovascularization than EPCs. Taken together, the use of FOXO4KD-EPCs with resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis may be a new strategy to augment the effects of therapeutic angiogenesis by intramuscular injection of EPCs. PMID:24663349

  19. TET1 knockdown inhibits the odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Li-Jia; Yi, Bai-Cheng; Li, Qi-Meng; Xu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) possess the capacity to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and generate reparative dentin in response to exogenous stimuli or injury. Ten–eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a novel DNA methyldioxygenase that plays an important role in the promotion of DNA demethylation and transcriptional regulation in several cell lines. However, the role of TET1 in the biological functions of hDPCs is unknown. To investigate the effect of TET1 on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation potential of hDPCs, a recombinant shRNA lentiviral vector was used to knock down TET1 expression in hDPCs. Following TET1 knockdown, TET1 was significantly downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of the hDPCs was suppressed in the TET1 knockdown groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, the formation of mineralized nodules, and the expression levels of DSPP and DMP1 were all reduced in the TET1-knockdown hDPCs undergoing odontogenic differentiation. Based on these results, we concluded that TET1 knockdown can prevent the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, which suggests that TET1 may play an important role in dental pulp repair and regeneration. PMID:27357322

  20. TET1 knockdown inhibits the odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Li-Jia; Yi, Bai-Cheng; Li, Qi-Meng; Xu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) possess the capacity to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and generate reparative dentin in response to exogenous stimuli or injury. Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a novel DNA methyldioxygenase that plays an important role in the promotion of DNA demethylation and transcriptional regulation in several cell lines. However, the role of TET1 in the biological functions of hDPCs is unknown. To investigate the effect of TET1 on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation potential of hDPCs, a recombinant shRNA lentiviral vector was used to knock down TET1 expression in hDPCs. Following TET1 knockdown, TET1 was significantly downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of the hDPCs was suppressed in the TET1 knockdown groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, the formation of mineralized nodules, and the expression levels of DSPP and DMP1 were all reduced in the TET1-knockdown hDPCs undergoing odontogenic differentiation. Based on these results, we concluded that TET1 knockdown can prevent the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, which suggests that TET1 may play an important role in dental pulp repair and regeneration. PMID:27357322

  1. The functional genetic link of NLGN4X knockdown and neurodevelopment in neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lingling; Chang, Xiao; Zhang, Peilin; Coba, Marcelo P.; Lu, Wange; Wang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Genetic mutations in NLGN4X (neuroligin 4), including point mutations and copy number variants (CNVs), have been associated with susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, it is unclear how mutations in NLGN4X result in neurodevelopmental defects. Here, we used neural stem cells (NSCs) as in vitro models to explore the impacts of NLGN4X knockdown on neurodevelopment. Using two shRNAmir-based vectors targeting NLGN4X and one control shRNAmir vector, we modulated NLGN4X expression and differentiated these NSCs into mature neurons. We monitored the neurodevelopmental process at Weeks 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6, based on morphological analysis and whole-genome gene expression profiling. At the cellular level, in NSCs with NLGN4X knockdown, we observed increasingly delayed neuronal development and compromised neurite formation, starting from Week 2 through Week 6 post differentiation. At the molecular level, we identified multiple pathways, such as neurogenesis, neuron differentiation and muscle development, which are increasingly disturbed in cells with NLGN4X knockdown. Notably, several postsynaptic genes, including DLG4, NLGN1 and NLGN3, also have decreased expression. Based on in vitro models, NLGN4X knockdown directly impacts neurodevelopmental process during the formation of neurons and their connections. Our functional genomics study highlights the utility of NSCs models in understanding the functional roles of CNVs in affecting neurodevelopment and conferring susceptibility to neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:23710042

  2. Strength knock-down assessment of porosity in composites: modelling, characterising and specimen manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Alison J.; Archer, Edward; McIlhagger, Alistair; Lelong, Guillaume

    2012-08-01

    Porosity and inclusion of foreign material is known to reduce the strength of materials, and this paper addresses the particular problem of strength knock-down assessment due to porosity in composite materials. Porosity is often measured in terms of percentage of voids per unit volume of a component, because this can be related directly to ultra-sound absorption. Nevertheless, this is a poor indicator of actual strength knock-down, as it provides little information about void size, shape, orientation and whether they are evenly distributed or are clustered. Characterisation of void clustering enables a link between a cluster characteristic and the strength knock-down. Laboratory based testing achieves controlled porosity in specimens by introducing pin-holes into the RTM in-flow pipework, which entrains voids into the body of the preform within mould tooling. Specimens are manufactured to create resin regions bounded by a fibre reinforced picture frame, to allow for easy load application. Strength knock-downs from test are related to the theoretical expectations.

  3. Knockdown of EHF inhibited the proliferation, invasion and tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongping; Guo, Jing; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Yang, Weihong; Qu, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide. ETS homologous factor (EHF), a member of E26 transformation specific (ETS) transcription factors, has been reported overexpressed in ovarian cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the biological function of EHF in ovarian cancer is still unclear. Here, we found that EHF was elevated in ovarian cancer tissues compared with non-tumorous tissues. Moreover, high EHF expression level was correlated with short survival time of patients with ovarian cancer. Knockdown of EHF in ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3 and OVCAR3, significantly inhibited cell proliferation and increased cells population in G1 phase. The proteins promoting cell cycles (Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, and PCNA) were down-regulated and the protein negatively regulating cell cycle progression (P21) was up-regulated after EHF knockdown. Moreover, inhibition of EHF in ovarian cancer cells dramatically induced cell apoptosis, but impaired cell adhesion and cell invasion. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of ERK and AKT were notably reduced in EHF knockdown cells. Finally, in vivo data showed that knockdown of EHF inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. Our data indicates that EHF could be a potential prognosis marker for ovarian cancer and work as an oncogene by targeting ERK and AKT signaling, which can serve as a new target for ovarian cancer treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26258986

  4. Severe Nephrotoxic Nephritis following Conditional and Kidney-Specific Knockdown of Stanniocalcin-1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Luping; Lou, Yahuan; Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Lin; Pan, Jenny Szu-Chin; Ross, April; Sun, Yuxiang; Truong, Luan D.; Sheikh-Hamad, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation is the hallmark of nephrotoxic nephritis. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), a pro-survival factor, inhibits macrophages, stabilizes endothelial barrier function, and diminishes trans-endothelial migration of leukocytes; consistently, transgenic (Tg) overexpression of STC1 protects from nephrotoxic nephritis. Herein, we sought to determine the phenotype of nephrotoxic nephritis after conditional and kidney-specific knockdown of STC1. Methods We used Tg mice that, express either STC1 shRNA (70% knockdown of STC1 within 4d) or scrambled shRNA (control) upon delivery of Cre-expressing plasmid to the kidney using ultrasound microbubble technique. Sheep anti-mouse GBM antibody was administered 4d after shRNA activation; and mice were euthanized 10 days later for analysis. Results Serum creatinine, proteinuria, albuminuria and urine output were similar 10 days after anti-GBM delivery in both groups; however, anti-GBM antibody delivery to mice with kidney-specific knockdown of STC1 produced severe nephrotoxic nephritis, characterized by severe tubular necrosis, glomerular hyalinosis/necrosis and massive cast formation, while control mice manifested mild tubular injury and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Surprisingly, the expression of cytokines/chemokines and infiltration with T-cells and macrophages were also diminished in STC1 knockdown kidneys. Staining for sheep anti-mouse GBM antibody, deposition of mouse C3 and IgG in the kidney, and antibody response to sheep IgG were equal. Conclusions nephrotoxic nephritis after kidney-specific knockdown of STC1 is characterized by severe tubular and glomerular necrosis, possibly due to loss of STC1-mediated pro-survival factors, and we attribute the paucity of inflammation to diminished release of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors from the necrotic epithelium. PMID:26393521

  5. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25858017

  6. CGI-58 knockdown in mice causes hepatic steatosis but prevents diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance[S

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Betters, Jenna L.; Lord, Caleb; Ma, Yinyan; Han, Xianlin; Yang, Kui; Alger, Heather M.; Melchior, John; Sawyer, Janet; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Liu, Xiuli; Graham, Mark J.; Lee, Richard; Crooke, Rosanne; Shulman, Gerald I.; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yu, Liqing

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) in humans cause triglyceride (TG) accumulation in multiple tissues. Mice genetically lacking CGI-58 die shortly after birth due to a skin barrier defect. To study the role of CGI-58 in integrated lipid and energy metabolism, we utilized antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to inhibit CGI-58 expression in adult mice. Treatment with two distinct CGI-58-targeting ASOs resulted in ∼80–95% knockdown of CGI-58 protein expression in both liver and white adipose tissue. In chow-fed mice, ASO-mediated depletion of CGI-58 did not alter weight gain, plasma TG, or plasma glucose, yet raised hepatic TG levels ∼4-fold. When challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD), CGI-58 ASO-treated mice were protected against diet-induced obesity, but their hepatic contents of TG, diacylglycerols, and ceramides were all elevated, and intriguingly, their hepatic phosphatidylglycerol content was increased by 10-fold. These hepatic lipid alterations were associated with significant decreases in hepatic TG hydrolase activity, hepatic lipoprotein-TG secretion, and plasma concentrations of ketones, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin. Additionally, HFD-fed CGI-58 ASO-treated mice were more glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive. Collectively, this work demonstrates that CGI-58 plays a critical role in limiting hepatic steatosis and maintaining hepatic glycerophospholipid homeostasis and has unmasked an unexpected role for CGI-58 in promoting HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:20802159

  7. Peroxiredoxin 1 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to reactive oxygen species-generating drugs - an alternative approach for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    He, Tiantian; Hatem, Elie; Vernis, Laurence; Huang, Meng-Er

    2014-10-01

    Peroxiredoxins have multiple cellular functions as major antioxidants, signaling regulators and tumor suppressors. Peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1) is the most abundant among the six isoforms of human peroxiredoxins, catalyzing the reduction of peroxides utilizing thioredoxin 1as an electron donor. PRX1 is frequently over-expressed in various cancer cells, which is thought to be associated with carcinogenesis, metastasis and resistance to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. We investigated how modulations of intracellular redox system, especially PRX1, affect cancer cell sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating drugs. We observed that stable and transient Prx1 knockdown (Prx1-) significantly enhances HeLa cell sensitivity to β-lapachone (β-lap), a potential anticancer agent, and to other ROS-generating molecules. ROS accumulation played a crucial role in drug-enhanced Prx1- cell death. For β-lap, Prx1- cells sensitization is achieved through combined action of accumulation of ROS and enhancement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. The effect of other ROS-inducing drugs on Prx1- cell survival will also be presented and discussed. Taken together, our data provide evidence that PRX1 could be an interesting anticancer target and modulation of intracellular redox states through PRX1 inhibition could be an alternative approach to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to ROS-generating drugs. PMID:26461286

  8. Knockdown of TAZ modifies triple-negative breast cancer cell sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors by regulating YAP expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liwen; Zheng, Jiaping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Haohao; Shao, Guoliang; Teng, Lisong

    2016-08-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes ~10-15% of breast cancer patients and represents an aggressive subtype with poor overall prognosis. TNBC is an important clinical challenge because it does not respond well to endocrine therapy and have a higher rate of early recurrence and distant metastasis following chemotherapy. Although it has been reported that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was overexpressed in ~80% of TNBC, anti-EGFR therapy showed limited clinical benefit according to phase II studies. In this study, we first observed that knockdown of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ) gene can regulate the sensitivity of TNBC cell lines to EGFR inhibitors (EGFRI) in a cell context-depended manner. Furthermore, in certain breast cancer cell lines the YES-associated protein, paralog of TAZ (YAP) expression can be upregulated by TAZ inhibition which leads to EGFRI resistance. These results suggest a specific inhibitor to TAZ/YAP combined with anti-EGFR therapy may prove effective and provide a reason why targeting EGFR showed limited clinical benefit in TNBC treatment. PMID:27373987

  9. Effects of Shell-Buckling Knockdown Factors in Large Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Shell-buckling knockdown factors (SBKF) have been used in large cylindrical shell structures to account for uncertainty in buckling loads. As the diameter of the cylinder increases, achieving the manufacturing tolerances becomes increasingly more difficult. Knockdown factors account for manufacturing imperfections in the shell geometry by decreasing the allowable buckling load of the cylinder. In this paper, large-diameter (33 ft) cylinders are investigated by using various SBKF's. An investigation that is based on finite-element analysis (FEA) is used to develop design sensitivity relationships. Different manufacturing imperfections are modeled into a perfect cylinder to investigate the effects of these imperfections on buckling. The analysis results may be applicable to large- diameter rockets, cylindrical tower structures, bulk storage tanks, and silos.

  10. Lentivirus-Mediated knockdown of tectonic family member 1 inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Junjie; Wang, Chengfeng; Liang, Qinchuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Wang, Shousen; Ma, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1) encodes a member of the tectonic family which are evolutionarily conserved secreted and transmembrane proteins, involving in a diverse variety of developmental processes. It has been demonstrated that tectonics expressed in regions that participate in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during mouse embryonic development and was imperative for Hh-mediated patterning of the ventral neural tube. However, the expression and regulation of tectonics in human tumor is still not clear. In this study, shRNA-expressing lentivirus was constructed to knockdown TCTN1 in medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. The results showed that knockdown of TCTN1 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in Daoy cell line, also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M boundary. Taken all together, our data suggest that TCTN1 might play an important role in the progression of medulloblastoma. PMID:26550235

  11. Cathepsin L knockdown enhances curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yao; Xiong, Yajie; Zhao, Yifan; Wang, Wenjuan; Han, Meilin; Wang, Long; Tan, Caihong; Liang, Zhongqin

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin can be used to prevent and treat cancer. However, its exact underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is overexpressed in several cancer types. This study aimed to determine the role of cathepsin L in curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. Results revealed that the activity of cathepsin L was enhanced in curcumin-treated glioma cells. Cathepsin L knockdown induced by RNA interference significantly promoted curcumin-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. The knockdown also inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Our results suggested that the inhibition of cathepsin L can enhance the sensitivity of glioma cells to curcumin. Therefore, cathepsin L may be a new target to enhance the efficacy of curcumin against cancers. PMID:27373979

  12. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells leads to epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ju; Jin, Guoxiang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zai; Lin, Raozhou; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-07-17

    Polarization of epithelial cells requires vectorial sorting and transport of polarity proteins to apical or basolateral domains. Kif5b is the mouse homologue of the human ubiquitous Kinesin Heavy Chain (uKHC). To investigate the function of Kif5b in epithelial cells, we examined the phenotypes of Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation rate, profound changes in cell morphology, loss of epithelial cell marker, and gain of mesenchymal marker, as well as increased cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis abilities. E-cadherin and NMMIIA could interact with Kif5b in polarized MDCK cells, and their expression levels were decreased in Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Overexpression of E-cadherin and NMMIIA in Kif5b depleted MDCK cells could decrease mesenchymal marker expression and cell migration ability. These results indicate that stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells can lead to epithelial–mesenchymal transition, which is mediated by defective E-cadherin and NMMIIA expression. - Highlights: • Knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation rate. • Kif5b deficient MDCK cells underwent epithelial–mesenchymal transition. • E-cadherin and NMMIIA could interact with Kif5b in polarized MDCK cells. • Decreased E-cadherin and NMMIIA levels mediate EMT in Kif5b deficient MDCK cells. • Overexpression of E-cadherin and NMMIIA reverse the effects of Kif5b knockdown.

  13. A Simple Retroelement Based Knock-Down System in Dictyostelium: Further Insights into RNA Interference Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Isabelle; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of DIRS-1 Mediated Knock-Downs We have previously shown that the most abundant Dictyostelium discoideum retroelement DIRS-1 is suppressed by RNAi mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that both inverted terminal repeats have strong promoter activity and that bidirectional expression apparently generates a substrate for Dicer. A cassette containing the inverted terminal repeats and a fragment of a gene of interest was sufficient to activate the RNAi response, resulting in the generation of ~21 nt siRNAs, a reduction of mRNA and protein expression of the respective endogene. Surprisingly, no transitivity was observed on the endogene. This was in contrast to previous observations, where endogenous siRNAs caused spreading on an artificial transgene. Knock-down was successful on seven target genes that we examined. In three cases a phenotypic analysis proved the efficiency of the approach. One of the target genes was apparently essential because no knock-out could be obtained; the RNAi mediated knock-down, however, resulted in a very slow growing culture indicating a still viable reduction of gene expression. Advantages of the DIRS-1–RNAi System The knock-down system required a short DNA fragment (~400 bp) of the target gene as an initial trigger. Further siRNAs were generated by RdRPs since we have shown some siRNAs with a 5’-triphosphate group. Extrachromosomal vectors facilitate the procedure and allowed for molecular and phenotypic analysis within one week. The system provides an efficient and rapid method to reduce protein levels including those of essential genes. PMID:26110905

  14. Knockdown of pre-mRNA cleavage factor Im 25 kDa promotes neurite outgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown promoted NGF-induced neurite out growth from PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of CFIm25 did not influence the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm regulated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth via coordinating RhoA activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown increase the number of primary dendrites of hippocampal neurons. -- Abstract: Mammalian precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) cleavage factor I (CFIm) plays important roles in the selection of poly(A) sites in a 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR), producing mRNAs with variable 3 Prime ends. Because 3 Prime -UTRs often contain cis elements that impact stability or localization of mRNA or translation, alternative polyadenylation diversifies utilization of primary transcripts in mammalian cells. However, the physiological role of CFIm remains unclear. CFIm acts as a heterodimer comprising a 25 kDa subunit (CFIm25) and one of the three large subunits-CFIm59, CFIm68, or CFIm72. CFIm25 binds directly to RNA and introduces and anchors the larger subunit. To examine the physiological roles of CFIm, we knocked down the CFIm25 gene in neuronal cells using RNA interference. Knockdown of CFIm25 increased the number of primary dendrites of developing hippocampal neurons and promoted nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite extension from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells without affecting the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. On the other hand, CFIm25 knockdown did not influence constitutively active or dominantly negative RhoA suppression or promotion of NGF-induced neurite extension from PC12 cells, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that endogenous CFIm may promote neuritogenesis in developing neurons by coordinating events upstream of NGF-induced RhoA inactivation.

  15. Short Hairpin RNA (shRNA): Design, Delivery, and Assessment of Gene Knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Chris B.; Guthrie, Elizabeth H.; Huang, Max Tze-Han; Taxman, Debra J.

    2013-01-01

    Shortly after the cellular mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) was first described, scientists began using this powerful technique to study gene function. This included designing better methods for the successful delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) into mammalian cells. While the simplest method for RNAi is the cytosolic delivery of siRNA oligonucleotides, this technique is limited to cells capable of transfection and is primarily utilized during transient in vitro studies. The introduction of shRNA into mammalian cells through infection with viral vectors allows for stable integration of shRNA and long-term knockdown of the targeted gene; however, several challenges exist with the implementation of this technology. Here we describe some well-tested protocols which should increase the chances of successful design, delivery, and assessment of gene knockdown by shRNA. We provide suggestions for designing shRNA targets and controls, a protocol for sequencing through the secondary structure of the shRNA hairpin structure, and protocols for packaging and delivery of shRNA lentiviral particles. Using real-time PCR and functional assays we demonstrate the successful knockdown of ASC, an inflammatory adaptor molecule. These studies demonstrate the practicality of including two shRNAs with different efficacies of knockdown to provide an additional level of control and to verify dose dependency of functional effects. Along with the methods described here, as new techniques and algorithms are designed in the future, shRNA is likely to include further promising application and continue to be a critical component of gene discovery. PMID:20387148

  16. Knockdown of NBCe1 In Vivo Compromises the Corneal Endothelial Pump

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cailing; Cheng, Qiang; Nguyen, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) as a component of the corneal endothelial pump in the in vivo rabbit eye. Methods. Lentiviruses with NBCe1 shRNA and GFP expression cassettes were injected intracamerally. Knockdown efficacy was determined 1 week to 4 weeks later by immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and PCR. Functional effects were monitored by corneal thickness (CT) and brinzolamide sensitivity. Results. Within 24 hours there was a modest anterior chamber inflammation that resolved within 48 hours. At 4 × 106 IFU, more than 95% of the corneal endothelial surface showed GFP fluorescence above background within 7 days. At 14 to 21 days, signs of anterior chamber inflammation reemerged, and endothelial cell GFP fluorescence disappeared within 40 days after injection. The second phase of inflammation could be avoided by using GFP-less viruses. There was no significant difference in CT between scrambled sequence and NBCe1 shRNA–injected eyes over 3 weeks. Two drops of 1% brinzolamide produced 7.85% ± 3.3% corneal swelling within 5 hours of topical instillation. However, in corneas showing more than 25% NBCe1 knockdown (30 of 42 rabbits; 59% ± 15% knockdown), corneal swelling was significantly higher (10.1% ± 2.9%) relative to control eyes. Conclusions. FIV-based lentiviral vectors can transfect CE with shRNA in rabbits. The response to GFP is consistent, with previous studies showing the production of anti-GFP antibodies. Partial knockdown of NBCe1 did not affect baseline CT, which is consistent with the corneal endothelium having a substantial functional reserve. Provocative testing using, brinzolamide, however, revealed an underlying deficiency, confirming the importance of NBCe1 bicarbonate transport and demonstrating the concerted action between NBCe1 and carbonic anhydrases. PMID:20445126

  17. LRRK2 knockdown in zebrafish causes developmental defects, neuronal loss, and synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Prabhudesai, Shubhangi; Bensabeur, Fatima Zahra; Abdullah, Rashed; Basak, Indranil; Baez, Solange; Alves, Guido; Holtzman, Nathalia G; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir

    2016-08-01

    Although mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease, their function is largely unknown. LRRK2 is pleiotropic in nature, shown to be involved in neurodegeneration and in more peripheral processes, including kidney functions, in rats and mice. Recent studies in zebrafish have shown conflicting evidence that removal of the LRRK2 WD40 domain may or may not affect dopaminergic neurons and/or locomotion. This study shows that ∼50% LRRK2 knockdown in zebrafish causes not only neuronal loss but also developmental perturbations such as axis curvature defects, ocular abnormalities, and edema in the eyes, lens, and otic vesicles. We further show that LRRK2 knockdown results in significant neuronal loss, including a reduction of dopaminergic neurons. Immunofluorescence demonstrates that endogenous LRRK2 is expressed in the lens, brain, heart, spinal cord, and kidney (pronephros), which mirror the LRRK2 morphant phenotypes observed. LRRK2 knockdown results further in the concomitant upregulation of β-synuclein, PARK13, and SOD1 and causes β-synuclein aggregation in the diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain, and postoptic commissure. LRRK2 knockdown causes mislocalization of the Na(+) /K(+) ATPase protein in the pronephric ducts, suggesting that the edema might be linked to renal malfunction and that LRRK2 might be associated with pronephric duct epithelial cell differentiation. Combined, our study shows that LRRK2 has multifaceted roles in zebrafish and that zebrafish represent a complementary model to further our understanding of this central protein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27265751

  18. Prediction of siRNA knockdown efficiency using artificial neural network models

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Guangtao . E-mail: guge@eecs.tufts.edu; Wong, G.William . E-mail: wong@wi.mit.edu; Luo Biao . E-mail: bluo@broad.mit.edu

    2005-10-21

    Selective knockdown of gene expression by short interference RNAs (siRNAs) has allowed rapid validation of gene functions and made possible a high throughput, genome scale approach to interrogate gene function. However, randomly designed siRNAs display different knockdown efficiencies of target genes. Hence, various prediction algorithms based on siRNA functionality have recently been constructed to increase the likelihood of selecting effective siRNAs, thereby reducing the experimental cost. Toward this end, we have trained three Back-propagation and Bayesian neural network models, previously not used in this context, to predict the knockdown efficiencies of 180 experimentally verified siRNAs on their corresponding target genes. Using our input coding based primarily on RNA structure thermodynamic parameters and cross-validation method, we showed that our neural network models outperformed most other methods and are comparable to the best predicting algorithm thus far published. Furthermore, our neural network models correctly classified 74% of all siRNAs into different efficiency categories; with a correlation coefficient of 0.43 and receiver operating characteristic curve score of 0.78, thus highlighting the potential utility of this method to complement other existing siRNA classification and prediction schemes.

  19. Genetic and chemical knockdown: a complementary strategy for evaluating an anti-infective target.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vasanthi; Singh, Ragini; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Mohapatra, Subrat; Khandelwal, Swati; Patel, Sanjana; Datta, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    The equity of a drug target is principally evaluated by its genetic vulnerability with tools ranging from antisense- and microRNA-driven knockdowns to induced expression of the target protein. In order to upgrade the process of antibacterial target identification and discern its most effective type of inhibition, an in silico toolbox that evaluates its genetic and chemical vulnerability leading either to stasis or cidal outcome was constructed and validated. By precise simulation and careful experimentation using enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase and its specific inhibitor glyphosate, it was shown that genetic knockdown is distinct from chemical knockdown. It was also observed that depending on the particular mechanism of inhibition, viz competitive, uncompetitive, and noncompetitive, the antimicrobial potency of an inhibitor could be orders of magnitude different. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to glyphosate and the lack of it in Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be predicted by the in silico platform. Finally, as predicted and simulated in the in silico platform, the translation of growth inhibition to a cidal effect was able to be demonstrated experimentally by altering the carbon source from sorbitol to glucose. PMID:23413046

  20. Hematopoietic knockdown of PPARδ reduces atherosclerosis in LDLR −/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, G; Chen, C; Laing, SD; Ballard, C; Biju, KC; Reddick, RL; Clark, RA; Li, S

    2016-01-01

    PPARδ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ) mediates inflammation in response to lipid accumulation. Systemic administration of a PPARδ agonist can ameliorate atherosclerosis. Paradoxically, genetic deletion of PPARδ in hematopoietic cells led to a reduction of atherosclerosis in murine models, suggesting that downregulation of PPARδ expression in these cells may mitigate atherogenesis. To advance this finding forward to potential clinical translation through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-based gene therapy, we employed a microRNA (miRNA) approach to knock down PPARδ expression in bone marrow cells followed by transplantation of the cells into LDLR −/− mice. We found that knockdown of PPARδ expression in the hematopoietic system caused a dramatic reduction in aortic atherosclerotic lesions. In macrophages, a key component in atherogenesis, knockdown of PPARδ led to decreased expression of multiple pro-inflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Expression of CCR2, a receptor for MCP-1, was also decreased. The downregulation of pro-inflammatory factors is consistent with significant reduction of macrophage presence in the lesions, which may also be attributable to elevation of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1) and depression of adipocyte differentiate-related protein. Furthermore, the abundance of both MCP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 proteins was reduced in plaque areas. Our results demonstrate that miRNA-mediated PPARδ knockdown in hematopoietic cells is able to ameliorate atherosclerosis. PMID:26204499

  1. Let-7a gene knockdown protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong-kun; Liu, Fang-fang; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xin-mei; Yu, Xue-fan

    2016-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) let-7 was one of the first miRNAs to be discovered, and is highly conserved and widely expressed among species. let-7 expression increases in brain tissue after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, no studies have reported let-7 effects on nerve injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. To investigate the effects of let-7 gene knockdown on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, we established a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that 12 hours after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, let-7 expression was up-regulated, peaked at 24 hours, and was still higher than that in control rats after 72 hours. Let-7 gene knockdown in rats suppressed microglial activation and inflammatory factor release, reduced neuronal apoptosis and infarct volume in brain tissue after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Western blot assays and luciferase assays revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1) is a direct target of let-7. Let-7 enhanced phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression by down-regulating MKP1. These findings suggest that knockdown of let-7 inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways by up-regulating MKP1 expression, reduced apoptosis and the inflammatory reaction, and exerted a neuroprotective effect following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27073379

  2. Testis-specific Fank1 gene in knockdown mice produces oligospermia via apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Huang, Hua-Liang; Yang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Yu, Yang; Zhou, Sheng-Lai; Wang, Wei; Lv, Xiang-Chuan; Li, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Mei-Ying; Zheng, Zhi-Hong; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Fank1 is exclusively expressed in the testis from the meiosis phase to the haploid phase of spermatogenesis. In this study, we examined the function of Fank1 by establishing a Fank1-knockdown transgenic mouse model. The apoptotic statuses of the testes of the transgenic mice were tested using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The FANK1 consensus DNA-binding sequence was identified using cyclic amplification of sequence target (CAST) analysis. Differentially expressed genes were examined using microarray analysis. A reduction in sperm number and an increase in apoptotic spermatocytes were observed in Fank1-knockdown mice, and the apoptotic cells were found to be primarily spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The CAST results demonstrated that the consensus DNA-binding sequence was AAAAAG, in which the percentage occurrence of each base at each position ranged from 55 to 86%. This sequence was present in the promoter regions of 10 differentially expressed genes that were examined using microarray analysis. In total, 17 genes were differentially expressed with changes in their expression levels greater than twofold. The abnormal expression of Fank1 target genes that were regulated directly or indirectly by Fank1 reduced the number of sperm in the knockdown mice. Thus, FANK1 may play a pivotal role in spermatogenesis as a transcription factor. PMID:24369145

  3. Effects of ezrin knockdown on the structure of gastric glandular epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Saori; Yamamoto, Hiroto; Tetsui, Takahito; Kobayakawa, Yuka; Hatano, Ryo; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Asano, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Ezrin, an adaptor protein that cross-links plasma membrane-associated proteins with the actin cytoskeleton, is concentrated on apical surfaces of epithelial cells, especially in microvilli of the small intestine and stomach. In the stomach, ezrin is predominantly expressed on the apical canalicular membrane of parietal cells. Transgenic ezrin knockdown mice in which the expression level of ezrin was reduced to <7% compared with the wild-type suffered from achlorhydria because of impairment of membrane fusion between tubulovesicles and apical membranes. We observed, for the first time, hypergastrinemia and foveolar hyperplasia in the gastric fundic region of the knockdown mice. Dilation of fundic glands was observed, the percentage of parietal and chief cells was reduced, and that of mucous-secreting cells was increased. The parietal cells of knockdown mice contained dilated tubulovesicles and abnormal mitochondria, and subsets of these cells contained abnormal vacuoles and multilamellar structures. Therefore, lack of ezrin not only causes achlorhydria and hypergastrinemia but also changes the structure of gastric glands, with severe perturbation of the secretory membranes of parietal cells. PMID:26329936

  4. Knockdown of Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 Inhibits the Progression of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Cao, Hui-qin; Ta, Jin-bao; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yu-hong

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to explore the underlying mechanism of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) in the development of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The level of PMP22 expression in CD34(+) cells isolated from CML patients' bone marrow samples (BMMCs) and peripheral blood samples (PBMCs) was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, PMP22-siRNA and scrambled control siRNA were transfected into human CML cell line K562 with Lipofectamine 2000 reagent. Cell viability and apoptosis were, respectively, determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Besides, the level of caspase 3 and Bcl-xL was then detected using Western blot. The level of PMP22 expression in CML patients' CD34(+) cells isolated from both PBMCs and BMMCs was significantly higher than the control group. PMP22 expression in K562 cells was successfully knocked down by siRNA. MTT analysis showed that knockdown of PMP22 inhibited the proliferation of CML cells. Flow cytometry showed that knockdown of PMP22 promoted the apoptosis of CML cells. Besides, Bcl-xL expression markedly decreased, while the expression of caspase 3 in CML cells significantly increased after knockdown of PMP22 expression. Our findings indicate that high expression of PMP22 may promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis via upregulation of Bcl-xL or inhibition of caspase 3 activation, and thus may contribute to the development of CML. PMP22 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of CML. PMID:26629937

  5. ETV4 and Myeov knockdown impairs colon cancer cell line proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Alan C. . E-mail: amoss@bidmc.harvard.edu; Lawlor, Garrett; Murray, David; Tighe, Donal; Madden, Stephen F.; Mulligan, Anne-Marie; Keane, Conor O.; Brady, Hugh R.; Doran, Peter P.; MacMathuna, Padraic

    2006-06-23

    We have identified novel colorectal cancer-associated genes using NCBI's UNIGENE cDNA libraries. Colon cancer libraries were examined using Digital Differential Display and disease-associated genes were selected. Among these were ETV4 and MYEOV, novel colorectal cancer-associated genes. Samples of matched normal and neoplastic colon were obtained from human subjects and gene expression was quantified using real-time PCR. ETV4 gene expression was significantly increased in colonic neoplasia in comparison to matched normal colonic tissue (p < 0.05). Myeov expression was also increased in colon neoplasia in comparison to matched normal tissue. The effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of ETV4 and Myeov on cell proliferation and invasion was assessed. ETV4 knockdown resulted in a 90% decrease in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and a 67% decrease in cell invasion. Myeov knockdown resulted in a 48% decrease in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and a 36% decrease in cell invasion. These data suggest that ETV4 and Myeov may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Gene expression profiling of selenophosphate synthetase 2 knockdown in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Li, Gaopeng; Liu, Liying; Li, Ping; Chen, Luonan; Song, Haiyun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important trace element for many organisms and is incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec). In eukaryotes, selenophosphate synthetase SPS2 is essential for Sec biosynthesis. In recent years, genetic disruptions of both Sec biosynthesis genes and selenoprotein genes have been investigated in different animal models, which provide important clues for understanding the Se metabolism and function in these organisms. However, a systematic study on the knockdown of SPS2 has not been performed in vivo. Herein, we conducted microarray experiments to study the transcriptome of fruit flies with knockdown of SPS2 in larval and adult stages. Several hundred differentially expressed genes were identified in each stage. In spite that the expression levels of other Sec biosynthesis genes and selenoprotein genes were not significantly changed, it is possible that selenoprotein translation might be reduced without impacting the mRNA level. Functional enrichment and network-based analyses revealed that although different sets of differentially expressed genes were obtained in each stage, they were both significantly enriched in the carbohydrate metabolism and redox processes. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI)-based network clustering analysis implied that several hub genes detected in the top modules, such as Nimrod C1 and regucalcin, could be considered as key regulators that are responsible for the complex responses caused by SPS2 knockdown. Overall, our data provide new insights into the relationship between Se utilization and several fundamental cellular processes as well as diseases. PMID:26824785

  7. PDIA3 Knockdown Exacerbates Free Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatocyte Steatosis and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao-hui; Xu, Cheng-fu; Xu, Lei; Li, You-ming; Chen, Wei-xing

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as one of the most common chronic liver disease over the past decades. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a pivotal role during the development of NAFLD. This study aims to analyze the potential role of protein disulfide isomerase A3 precursor (PDIA3), one of the ER chaperones, in free fatty acid-induced cell model of NAFLD. Human liver L02 cell line was treated with sodium palmitate for 24 hours, which developed severe intracellular lipid accumulation. The increased protein level of PDIA3 was detected via immunoblotting analysis in the fat loaded cell models of NAFLD. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PDIA3 in L02 cells not only increased the cellular lipid accumulation, but also exacerbated hepatocytes apoptosis induced by sodium palmitate. Further investigation revealed that knockdown of PDIA3 up-regulated protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), a key enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis. PDIA3 knockdown also up-regulated key molecules of ERS pathway, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-PKR-like ER kinase (p-PERK), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Our results suggested that ER chaperone PDIA3 plays a pivotal role in FFA-induced hepatocyte steatosis and apoptosis. PMID:26214517

  8. In vivo identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin receptors by RNA interference knockdown of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked aminopeptidase N transcripts in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Saengwiman, Suchada; Aroonkesorn, Aratee; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Sakdee, Somsri; Leetachewa, Somphob; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan; Pootanakit, Kusol

    2011-04-22

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin selectively kills Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae as it is in part due to the presence of specific membrane-bound protein receptors. In this study, using data mining approach, we initially identified three potential glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked aminopeptidase N (GPI-APN) isoforms, APN2778, APN2783 and APN5808, which are believed to act as Cry4Ba toxin receptors. These three isoforms that are functionally expressed in the larval midgut can be sequence-specific knocked down (ranging from ∼80 % to 95 %) by soaking the Aedes aegypti larvae in buffer of long double-stranded GPI-APN RNAs (∼300-680 bp). Finally, to see the physiological effect of APN knockdowns, the larvae were fed with Escherichia coli expressing Cry4Ba toxin. The results revealed that all the three identified GPI-APN isoforms may possibly function as a Cry4Ba receptor, particularly for APN2783 as those larvae with this transcript knockdown showed a dramatic increase in resistance to Cry4Ba toxicity. PMID:21439264

  9. Enhanced radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in glioma CD133-positive cells by knockdown of SirT1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.-J.; Hsu, C.-C.; Yung, M.-C.; Chen, K.-Y.; Tzao Ching; Wu, W.-F.; Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Lu, K.-H.; Chiou, S.-H.; Ma, H.-I

    2009-03-06

    CD133-expressing glioma cells play a critical role in tumor recovery after treatment and are resistant to radiotherapy. Herein, we demonstrated that glioblastoma-derived CD133-positive cells (GBM-CD133{sup +}) are capable of self-renewal and express high levels of embryonic stem cell genes and SirT1 compared to GBM-CD133{sup -} cells. To evaluate the role of SirT1 in GBM-CD133{sup +}, we used a lentiviral vector expressing shRNA to knock-down SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1) in GBM-CD133{sup +}. Silencing of SirT1 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of GBM-CD133{sup +} to radiation and increased the level of radiation-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, knock-down of SirT1 increased the effectiveness of radiotherapy in the inhibition of tumor growth in nude mice transplanted with GBM-CD133{sup +}. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of GBM-CD133{sup +} mice treated with radiotherapy was significantly improved by Sh-SirT1 as well. In sum, these results suggest that SirT1 is a potential target for increasing the sensitivity of GBM and glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells to radiotherapy.

  10. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F.; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Foster, Cliff E.; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C.; Moskvin, Oleg V.; Johnson, Eric T.; Willhoit, Megan E.; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  11. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.

    PubMed

    Cass, Cynthia L; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D; Bukhman, Yury V; Foster, Cliff E; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C; Moskvin, Oleg V; Johnson, Eric T; Willhoit, Megan E; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C

    2015-07-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  12. Knockdown of DDX46 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Li, Yu-Min; He, Wen-Ting; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Hong-Wen; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Song, Tie-Niu; Zhou, Ya-Li

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of esophageal carcinoma and remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. DEAD-box RNA helicases play critical roles in cellular metabolism and in many cases have been implicated in cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. DDX46 belongs to DEAD-box helicase family, the expression pattern of DDX46 in ESCC tissues and the biologic role in ESCC progression have not been implicated previously. In this study, DDX46 expression in human ESCC and adjacent normal tissues were explored using immunohistochemistry, and ESCC cell lines compared with normal esophageal epithelium cell were quantified using real‑time PCR. Next, lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was applied to silence DDX46 in TE-1 and Eca-109 cells. Cell growth was monitored using high content screening. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cell colony-forming capacity was measured by colony formation assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Further, the stress and apoptosis signaling antibody array kit was used to detect the changes of signaling molecules in TE-1 cells after DDX46 knockdown. We found that DDX46 was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues and cells compared with normal tissues and cells. DDX46 knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in TE-1 and Eca-109 cells. Moreover, DDX46 silencing resulted in apoptotic induction via decreased phosphorylation of Akt and IκBα, as well as negative regulation of NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that DDX46 knockdown inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis, suggest that DDX46 is critical for ESCC cells proliferation. In addition, this study provides a foundation for further study into the clinical potential diagnosis and novel therapeutic target for ESCC. PMID:27176873

  13. ATF2 knockdown reinforces oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in TE7 cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Walluscheck, Diana; Poehlmann, Angela; Hartig, Roland; Lendeckel, Uwe; Schönfeld, Peter; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Reissig, Kathrin; Bajbouj, Khuloud; Roessner, Albert; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells showing low apoptotic effects following oxidative stress-induced DNA damage are mainly affected by growth arrest. Thus, recent studies focus on improving anti-cancer therapies by increasing apoptosis sensitivity. We aimed at identifying a universal molecule as potential target to enhance oxidative stress-based anti-cancer therapy through a switch from cell cycle arrest to apoptosis. A cDNA microarray was performed with hydrogen peroxide-treated oesophageal squamous epithelial cancer cells TE7. This cell line showed checkpoint activation via p21WAF1, but low apoptotic response following DNA damage. The potential target molecule was chosen depended on the following demands: it should regulate DNA damage response, cell cycle and apoptosis. As the transcription factor ATF2 is implicated in all these processes, we focused on this protein. We investigated checkpoint activation via ATF2. Indeed, ATF2 knockdown revealed ATF2-triggered p21WAF1 protein expression, suggesting p21WAF1 transactivation through ATF2. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we identified a hitherto unknown ATF2-binding sequence in the p21WAF1 promoter. p-ATF2 was found to interact with p-c-Jun, creating the AP-1 complex. Moreover, ATF2 knockdown led to c-Jun downregulation. This suggests ATF2-driven induction of c-Jun expression, thereby enhancing ATF2 transcriptional activity via c-Jun-ATF2 heterodimerization. Notably, downregulation of ATF2 caused a switch from cell cycle arrest to reinforced apoptosis, presumably via p21WAF1 downregulation, confirming the importance of ATF2 in the establishment of cell cycle arrest. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene also led to ATF2-dependent G2/M arrest, suggesting that this is a general feature induced by oxidative stress. As ATF2 knockdown also increased apoptosis, we propose ATF2 as a target for combined oxidative stress-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:23800081

  14. Regeneration of diabetic axons is enhanced by selective knockdown of the PTEN gene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhagat; Singh, Vandana; Krishnan, Anand; Koshy, Kurien; Martinez, Jose A; Cheng, Chu; Almquist, Chris; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus renders both widespread and localized irreversible damage to peripheral axons while imposing critical limitations on their ability to regenerate. A major failure of regenerative capacity thereby imposes a 'double hit' in diabetic patients who frequently develop focal neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome in addition to generalized diffuse polyneuropathy. The mechanisms of diabetic neuron regenerative failure have been speculative and few approaches have offered therapeutic opportunities. In this work we identify an unexpected but major role for PTEN upregulation in diabetic peripheral neurons in attenuating axon regrowth. In chronic diabetic neuropathy models in mice, we identified significant PTEN upregulation in peripheral sensory neurons of messenger RNA and protein compared to littermate controls. In vitro, sensory neurons from these mice responded to PTEN knockdown with substantial rises in neurite outgrowth and branching. To test regenerative plasticity in a chronic diabetic model with established neuropathy, we superimposed an additional focal sciatic nerve crush injury and assessed morphological, electrophysiological and behavioural recovery. Knockdown of PTEN in dorsal root ganglia ipsilateral to the side of injury was achieved using a unique form of non-viral short interfering RNA delivery to the ipsilateral nerve injury site and paw. In comparison with scrambled sequence control short interfering RNA, PTEN short interfering RNA improved several facets of regeneration: recovery of compound muscle action potentials, reflecting numbers of reconnected motor axons to endplates, conduction velocities of both motor and sensory axons, reflecting their maturation during regrowth, numbers and calibre of regenerating myelinated axons distal to the injury site, reinnervation of the skin by unmyelinated epidermal axons and recovery of mechanical sensation. Collectively, these findings identify a novel therapeutic approach, potentially

  15. siRNA mediated knockdown of tissue factor expression in pigs for xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, H E; Petersen, B; Herrmann, D; Lucas-Hahn, A; Hassel, P; Ziegler, M; Kues, W A; Baulain, U; Baars, W; Schwinzer, R; Denner, J; Rataj, D; Werwitzke, S; Tiede, A; Bongoni, A K; Garimella, P S; Despont, A; Rieben, R; Niemann, H

    2015-05-01

    Acute vascular rejection (AVR), in particular microvascular thrombosis, is an important barrier to successful pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Here, we report the generation of pigs with decreased tissue factor (TF) levels induced by small interfering (si)RNA-mediated gene silencing. Porcine fibroblasts were transfected with TF-targeting small hairpin (sh)RNA and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Offspring were analyzed for siRNA, TF mRNA and TF protein level. Functionality of TF downregulation was investigated by a whole blood clotting test and a flow chamber assay. TF siRNA was expressed in all twelve liveborn piglets. TF mRNA expression was reduced by 94.1 ± 4.7% in TF knockdown (TFkd) fibroblasts compared to wild-type (WT). TF protein expression in PAEC stimulated with 50 ng/mL TNF-α was significantly lower in TFkd pigs (mean fluorescence intensity TFkd: 7136 ± 136 vs. WT: 13 038 ± 1672). TF downregulation significantly increased clotting time (TFkd: 73.3 ± 8.8 min, WT: 45.8 ± 7.7 min, p < 0.0001) and significantly decreased thrombus formation compared to WT (mean thrombus coverage per viewing field in %; WT: 23.5 ± 13.0, TFkd: 2.6 ± 3.7, p < 0.0001). Our data show that a functional knockdown of TF is compatible with normal development and survival of pigs. TF knockdown could be a valuable component in the generation of multi-transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation. PMID:25808638

  16. β-catenin knockdown inhibits the proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHONG; CHEN, QIANXUE

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin is a crucial oncogene that is capable of regulating cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether β-catenin was associated with the proliferation and progress of glioma. In order to knockdown the expression of β-catenin in human U251 glioma cells, three pairs of small interfering (si)RNA were designed and synthesized and the most effective siRNA was selected and used for silencing the endogenous β-catenin, which was detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Proliferation was subsequently detected using a methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the results demonstrated that knockdown of β-catenin significantly inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Cell apoptosis rate was analyzed using flow cytometry and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining demonstrated that β-catenin siRNA significantly increased the apoptosis of U251 cells (P<0.01). Furthermore, the results of an in vitro scratch assay demonstrated that β-catenin silencing suppressed the proliferation of U251 cells, as compared with the control group (P<0.01). In vivo, β-catenin expression levels in U251 cells were significantly inhibited (P<0.01) following β-catenin short hairpin (sh)RNA lentiviral-vector transfection, as detected by western blot analysis and RT-qPCR. Tumorigenicity experiments demonstrated that β-catenin inhibition significantly increased the survival rate of nude mice. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of β-catenin expression significantly inhibited the progression of human glioma cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo; thus suggesting that β-catenin silencing may be a novel therapy for the treatment of human glioma. PMID:26998037

  17. Core Binding Factor-β Knockdown Alters Ovarian Gene Expression and Function in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kalin; Park, Jiyeon; Curry, Thomas E; Mishra, Birendra; Gossen, Jan; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Jo, Misung

    2016-07-01

    Core binding factor (CBF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor complex composed of a DNA-binding subunit, one of three runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) factors, and a non-DNA binding subunit, CBFβ. CBFβ is critical for DNA binding and stability of the CBF transcription factor complex. In the ovary, the LH surge increases the expression of Runx1 and Runx2 in periovulatory follicles, implicating a role for CBFs in the periovulatory process. The present study investigated the functional significance of CBFs (RUNX1/CBFβ and RUNX2/CBFβ) in the ovary by examining the ovarian phenotype of granulosa cell-specific CBFβ knockdown mice; CBFβ f/f * Cyp19 cre. The mutant female mice exhibited significant reductions in fertility, with smaller litter sizes, decreased progesterone during gestation, and fewer cumulus oocyte complexes collected after an induced superovulation. RNA sequencing and transcriptome assembly revealed altered expression of more than 200 mRNA transcripts in the granulosa cells of Cbfb knockdown mice after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in vitro. Among the affected transcripts are known regulators of ovulation and luteinization including Sfrp4, Sgk1, Lhcgr, Prlr, Wnt4, and Edn2 as well as many genes not yet characterized in the ovary. Cbfβ knockdown mice also exhibited decreased expression of key genes within the corpora lutea and morphological changes in the ovarian structure, including the presence of large antral follicles well into the luteal phase. Overall, these data suggest a role for CBFs as significant regulators of gene expression, ovulatory processes, and luteal development in the ovary. PMID:27176614

  18. Partial knockdown of TRF2 increase radiosensitivity of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Orun, O; Tiber, P Mega; Serakinci, N

    2016-09-01

    Telomere repeat binding factor TRF2 is a member of shelterin complex with an important role in protecting and stabilizing chromosomal ends. In the present study, we investigated the effect of partial knockdown of TRF2 on radiosensitivity of telomerase immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-telo1), which have a higher radioresistance compared to non telomerized counterpart. Partial knockdown of the protein achieved 15-20% reduction in TRF2 protein levels. The study compared the effect of 2.5Gy radiation in two-four days after irradiation for hMSC-telo1 cells and the cells transfected with siTRF2 and null control vector. Radio-response of the cells were examined using senescence associated β-Gal assay (β-Gal), colony forming assay (CFU) and γ-H2AX phosphorylation. TRF2 deficiency substantially increased radiosensitivity of cells compared to controls in both proliferation and senescence assay (2.4 fold increase in β-Gal, 1.6 fold decrease in CFU). In addition, it increased the γ-H2AX foci as revealed by both immunfluorescence and Western blot analysis. Our data suggests that partial knockdown of TRF2 in hMSC-telo1 cells cause increased γ-H2AX foci which led to fail TRF2 to protect telomeres from radiation thus TRF2 deficiency led to a 1,5-2 fold increase in the radiosensitivity of hMSC-telo1 cells through telomere destabilization. PMID:26598048

  19. Knockdown of Inner Arm Protein IC138 in Trypanosoma brucei Causes Defective Motility and Flagellar Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Corinne S.; Chang, Alex J.; Greene, Rebecca; Machado, Sulynn; Parsons, Matthew W.; Takats, Taylor A.; Zambetti, Luke J.; Springer, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Motility in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is conferred by a single flagellum, attached alongside the cell, which moves the cell forward using a beat that is generated from tip-to-base. We are interested in characterizing components that regulate flagellar beating, in this study we extend the characterization of TbIC138, the ortholog of a dynein intermediate chain that regulates axonemal inner arm dynein f/I1. TbIC138 was tagged In situ-and shown to fractionate with the inner arm components of the flagellum. RNAi knockdown of TbIC138 resulted in significantly reduced protein levels, mild growth defect and significant motility defects. These cells tended to cluster, exhibited slow and abnormal motility and some cells had partially or fully detached flagella. Slight but significant increases were observed in the incidence of mis-localized or missing kinetoplasts. To document development of the TbIC138 knockdown phenotype over time, we performed a detailed analysis of flagellar detachment and motility changes over 108 hours following induction of RNAi. Abnormal motility, such as slow twitching or irregular beating, was observed early, and became progressively more severe such that by 72 hours-post-induction, approximately 80% of the cells were immotile. Progressively more cells exhibited flagellar detachment over time, but this phenotype was not as prevalent as immotility, affecting less than 60% of the population. Detached flagella had abnormal beating, but abnormal beating was also observed in cells with no flagellar detachment, suggesting that TbIC138 has a direct, or primary, effect on the flagellar beat, whereas detachment is a secondary phenotype of TbIC138 knockdown. Our results are consistent with the role of TbIC138 as a regulator of motility, and has a phenotype amenable to more extensive structure-function analyses to further elucidate its role in the control of flagellar beat in T. brucei. PMID:26555902

  20. Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M.; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  1. NBS1 knockdown by small interfering RNA increases ionizing radiation mutagenesis and telomere association in human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ying; Lim, Chang U K.; Williams, Eli S.; Zhou, Junqing; Zhang, Qinming; Fox, Michael H.; Bailey, Susan M.; Liber, Howard L.

    2005-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations which lead to decreased function of the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that imparts an increased predisposition to development of malignancy. The NBS1 protein is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex that plays a critical role in cellular responses to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Using small interfering RNA transfection, we have knocked down NBS1 protein levels and analyzed relevant phenotypes in two closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different p53 status, namely wild-type TK6 and mutated WTK1. Both TK6 and WTK1 cells showed an increased level of ionizing radiation-induced mutation at the TK and HPRT loci, impaired phosphorylation of H2AX (gamma-H2AX), and impaired activation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulating kinase, Chk2. In TK6 cells, ionizing radiation-induced accumulation of p53/p21 and apoptosis were reduced. There was a differential response to ionizing radiation-induced cell killing between TK6 and WTK1 cells after NBS1 knockdown; TK6 cells were more resistant to killing, whereas WTK1 cells were more sensitive. NBS1 deficiency also resulted in a significant increase in telomere association that was independent of radiation exposure and p53 status. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that NBS1 deficiency in human cells leads to hypermutability and telomere associations, phenotypes that may contribute to the cancer predisposition seen among patients with this disease.

  2. Knock-down of heat-shock protein 90 and isocitrate lyase gene expression reduced root-knot nematode reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; Martins-de-Sa, Diogo; Viana, Antônio Américo Barbosa; Carneiro, Regina Maria Dechechi Gomes; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Fragoso, Rodrigo Rocha; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2015-05-01

    Crop losses caused by nematode infections are estimated to be valued at USD 157 billion per year. Meloidogyne incognita, a root-knot nematode (RKN), is considered to be one of the most important plant pathogens due to its worldwide distribution and the austere damage it can cause to a large variety of agronomically important crops. RNA interference (RNAi), a gene silencing process, has proven to be a valuable biotechnology alternative method for RKN control. In this study, the RNAi approach was applied, using fragments of M. incognita genes that encode for two essential molecules, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and isocitrate lyase (ICL). Plant-mediated RNAi of these genes led to a significant level of resistance against M. incognita in the transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants. Bioassays of plants expressing HSP90 dsRNA demonstrated a delay in gall formation and up to 46% reduction in eggs compared with wild-type plants. A reduction in the level of HSP90 transcripts was observed in recovered eggs from plants expressing dsRNA, indicating that gene silencing persisted and was passed along to first progeny. The ICL knock-down had no clear effect on gall formation but resulted in up to 77% reduction in egg oviposition compared with wild-type plants. Our data suggest that both genes may be involved in RKN development and reproduction. Thus, in this paper, we describe essential candidate genes that could be applied to generate genetically modified crops, using the RNAi strategy to control RKN parasitism. PMID:26020830

  3. Ron Knockdown and Ron Monoclonal Antibody IMC-RON8 Sensitize Pancreatic Cancer to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Howell, Gillian M.; Humphrey, Lisa E.; Wang, Jing; Brattain, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Recepteur d’origine nantais (Ron) is overexpressed in a panel of pancreatic cancer cells and tissue samples from pancreatic cancer patients. Ron can be activated by its ligand macrophage stimulating protein (MSP), thereby activating oncogenic signaling pathways. Crosstalk between Ron and EGFR, c-Met, or IGF-1R may provide a mechanism underlying drug resistance. Thus, targeting Ron may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. IMC-RON8 is the first Ron monoclonal antibody (mAb) entering clinical trial for targeting Ron overexpression. Our studies show IMC-RON8 downmodulated Ron expression in pancreatic cancer cells and significantly blocked MSP-stimulated Ron activation, downstream Akt and ERK phosphorylation, and survivin mRNA expression. IMC-RON8 hindered MSP-induced cell migration and reduced cell transformation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are reported to target expression of various genes through modification of nucleosome histones and non-histone proteins. Our work shows HDACi TSA and Panobinostat (PS) decreased Ron mRNA and protein expression in pancreatic cancer cells. PS also reduced downstream signaling of pAkt, survivin, and XIAP, as well as enhanced cell apoptosis. Interestingly, PS reduced colony formation in Ron knockdown cells to a greater extent than Ron scramble control cells in colony formation and soft agarose assays. IMC-RON8 could also sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to PS, as reflected by reduced colony numbers and size in combination treatment with IMC-RON8 and PS compared to single treatment alone. The co-treatment further reduced Ron expression and pAkt, and increased PARP cleavage compared to either treatment alone. This study suggests the potential for a novel combination approach which may ultimately be of value in treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23922886

  4. AMPK Knockdown in Placental Trophoblast Cells Results in Altered Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Erica A.K.; Albers, Renee E.; Doliboa, Savannah R.; Hughes, Martha; Wyatt, Christopher N.; Natale, David R.C.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is a transient organ that develops upon the initiation of pregnancy and is essential for embryonic development and fetal survival. The rodent placenta consists of distinct lineages and includes cell types that are analogous to those that make up the human placenta. Trophoblast cells within the labyrinth layer, which lies closest to the fetus, fuse and come in contact with maternal blood, thus facilitating nutrient and waste exchange between the mother and the baby. Abnormalities of the placenta may occur as a result of cellular stress and have been associated with pregnancy-associated disorders: such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental insufficiency. Cellular stress has also been shown to alter proliferation and differentiation rates of trophoblast cells. This stress response is important for cell survival and ensures continued placental functionality. AMP-activated protein kinase is an important sensor of cellular metabolism and stress. To study the role of AMPK in the trophoblast cells, we used RNA interference to simultaneously knockdown levels of both the AMPK alpha isoforms, AMPKα1 and AMPKα2. SM10 trophoblast progenitor cells were transduced with AMPKα1/2 shRNA and stable clones were established to analyze the effects of AMPK knockdown on important cellular functions. Our results indicate that a reduction in AMPK levels causes alterations in cell morphology, growth rate, and nutrient transport, thus identifying an important role for AMPK in the regulation of placental trophoblast differentiation. PMID:25003940

  5. Gene expression profiling of NB4 cells following knockdown of nucleostemin using DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XIAOLI; JIA, YU; WEI, YUANYU; LIU, SHUAI; YUE, BAOHONG

    2016-01-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is mainly expressed in stem and tumor cells, and is necessary for the maintenance of their self-renewal and proliferation. Originally, NS was thought to exert its effects through inhibiting p53, while recent studies have revealed that NS is also able to function independently of p53. The present study performed a gene expression profiling analysis of p53-mutant NB4 leukeima cells following knockdown of NS in order to elucidate the p53-independent NS pathway. NS expression was silenced using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference technology, and gene expression profiling of NB4 cells was performed by DNA microarray analysis. A total of 1,953 genes were identified to be differentially expressed (fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5) following knockdown of NS expression. Furthermore, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the expression of certain candidate genes, and the results were in agreement with the micaroarray data. Pathway analysis indicated that aberrant genes were enhanced in endoplasmic, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mineral absorption pathways. The present study shed light on the mechanisms of the p54-independent NS pathway in NB4 cells and provided a foundation for the discovery of promising targets for the treatment of p53-mutant leukemia. PMID:27374947

  6. Knockdown of Pentraxin 3 suppresses tumorigenicity and metastasis of human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tsung-Ho; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chu-Liang; Hung, Chia-Hung; Tsai, Jen-Pi; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as an inflammatory molecule has been shown to be involved in immune response, inflammation, and cancer. However, the effects of PTX3 on the biological features of cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo have not been delineated. Immunohistochemical staining showed that increased PTX3 expression was significantly associated with tumor grade (P < 0.011) and differentiation (P < 0.019). Knocking down PTX3 with lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in cervical cancer cell lines resulted in inhibited cell viability, diminished colony-forming ability, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, along with downregulated expression of cyclin B1, cdc2, and cdc25c, and upregulated expression of p-cdc2, p-cdc25c, p21, and p27. Furthermore, knockdown of PTX3 significantly decreased the potential of migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells by inhibiting matrix metalloproteidase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Moreover, in vivo functional studies showed PTX3-knockdown in mice suppressed tumorigenicity and lung metastatic potential. Conversely, overexpression of PTX3 enhanced proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that PTX3 contributes to tumorigenesis and metastasis of human cervical cancer cells. Further studies are warranted to demonstrate PTX3 as a novel therapeutic biomarker for human cervical cancer. PMID:27377307

  7. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jiajia; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Jie

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Knockdown of versican 1 blocks cigarette-induced loss of insoluble elastin in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu-lu; Lu, Yun-tao; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Lian; Merrilees, Mervyn J; Qu, Jie-ming

    2015-08-15

    COPD lung is characterized by loss of alveolar elastic fibers and an increase in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) matrix proteoglycan versican V1 (V1). V1 is a known inhibitor of elastic fiber deposition and this study investigates the effects of knockdown of V1, and add-back of CS, on CCL-210 lung fibroblasts treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) as a model for COPD. CSE inhibited fibroblast proliferation, viability, tropoelastin synthesis, and elastin deposition, and increased V1 synthesis and secretion. V1 siRNA decreased V1 and constituent CS, did not affect tropoelastin production, but blocked the CSE-induced loss in insoluble elastin. Exogenous CS reduced insoluble elastin, even in the presence of V1 siRNA. These findings confirm that V1 and CS impair the assembly of tropoelastin monomers into insoluble fibers, and further demonstrate that specific knockdown of V1 alleviates the impaired assembly of elastin seen in cultures of pulmonary fibroblasts exposed to CSE, indicating a regulatory role for this protein in the pathophysiology of COPD. PMID:25999281

  9. REST/NRSF Knockdown Alters Survival, Lineage Differentiation and Signaling in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thakore-Shah, Kaushali; Koleilat, Tasneem; Jan, Majib; John, Alan; Pyle, April D.

    2015-01-01

    REST (RE1 silencing transcription factor), also known as NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor), is a well-known transcriptional repressor of neural genes in non-neural tissues and stem cells. Dysregulation of REST activity is thought to play a role in diverse diseases including epilepsy, cancer, Down’s syndrome and Huntington’s disease. The role of REST/NRSF in control of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) fate has never been examined. To evaluate the role of REST in hESCs we developed an inducible REST knockdown system and examined both growth and differentiation over short and long term culture. Interestingly, we have found that altering REST levels in multiple hESC lines does not result in loss of self-renewal but instead leads to increased survival. During differentiation, REST knockdown resulted in increased MAPK/ERK and WNT signaling and increased expression of mesendoderm differentiation markers. Therefore we have uncovered a new role for REST in regulation of growth and early differentiation decisions in human embryonic stem cells. PMID:26690059

  10. Knockdown of TRAF4 expression suppresses osteosarcoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weitao; Wang, Xin; Cai, Qiqing; Gao, Songtao; Wang, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is an adapter molecule that is overexpressed in certain cancers. TRAF4 is overexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues and osteosarcoma cells. Using the technique of RNA interference, the expression of TRAF4 in the human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cell line was shown to be downregulated. The proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis ability of Saos‑2 cells were examined, as was tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. The results showed that the TRAF4 knockdown exerts inhibitory effects on the proliferation ability of Saos-2 cells and tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. Simultaneously, it was found that TRAF4 knockdown led to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and promoted Saos-2 cell apoptosis. Following TNF-α treatment, the expression of nuclear factor κB was significantly reduced in the TRAF4‑small interfering RNA group. These results indicate that TRAF4 regulated osteosarcoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo, and offers a candidate molecular target for osteosarcoma prevention and therapy. PMID:25270078

  11. Rapid and reversible knockdown of endogenous proteins by peptide-directed lysosomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xuelai; Jin, Wu Yang; Lu, Jie; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and reversible methods for altering the level of endogenous proteins are critically important for studying biological systems and developing therapeutics. Here, we describe a membrane permeable targeting peptide-based method that rapidly and reversibly knocks down endogenous proteins through chaperone-mediated autophagy in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated the specificity, efficacy and generalizability of the method by showing efficient knockdown of various proteins including death associated protein kinase 1 (160kDa), scaffolding protein PSD-95 (95kDa) and α-synuclein (18kDa) with their respective targeting peptides in a dose-, time- and lysosomal activity-dependent manner in neuronal cultures. More significantly, we showed that when given systemically, the peptide system efficiently knocked down the targeted protein in the brain of intact rats. Our study provides a robust and convenient research tool to manipulate endogenous protein levels, and may also lead to the development of protein knockdown-based novel therapeutics for treating various human diseases. PMID:24464042

  12. Knockdown of linc-UFC1 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, T; Shan, T-D; Li, J-Y; Huang, C-Z; Wang, S-Y; Ouyang, H; Lu, X-J; Xu, J-H; Zhong, W; Chen, Q-K

    2016-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have important roles in biological functions, molecular mechanisms and prognostic values in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this context, the roles of linc-UFC1 remain to be elucidated. In this study, linc-UFC1 was overexpressed in CRC patient tissues and positively correlated with tumor grade, N stage and M stage. Inhibition of linc-UFC1 resulted in cell proliferation inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest, which was mediated by cyclin D1, CDK4, Rb and phosphorylated Rb. In addition, inhibition of linc-UFC1 induced cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. An investigation of the signaling pathway revealed that the effects on proliferation and apoptosis following linc-UFC1 knockdown were mediated by suppression of β-catenin and activation of phosphorylated P38. Furthermore, the P38 inhibitor SB203580 could attenuate the apoptotic effect achieved by linc-UFC1 knockdown, confirming the involvement of P38 signaling in the induced apoptosis. Taken together, linc-UFC1 might have a critical role in pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis in CRC by regulating the cell cycle, intrinsic apoptosis, and β-catenin and P38 signaling. Thus, linc-UFC1 could be a potential therapeutic target and novel molecular biomarker for CRC. PMID:27195675

  13. Inducible Knockdown of Plasmodium Gene Expression Using the glmS Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Prommana, Parichat; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Wongsombat, Chayaphat; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Knuepfer, Ellen; Holder, Anthony A.; Shaw, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional reverse genetic approaches for study of Plasmodium malaria parasite gene function are limited, or not applicable. Hence, new inducible systems are needed. Here we describe a method to control P. falciparum gene expression in which target genes bearing a glmS ribozyme in the 3′ untranslated region are efficiently knocked down in transgenic P. falciparum parasites in response to glucosamine inducer. Using reporter genes, we show that the glmS ribozyme cleaves reporter mRNA in vivo leading to reduction in mRNA expression following glucosamine treatment. Glucosamine-induced ribozyme activation led to efficient reduction of reporter protein, which could be rapidly reversed by removing the inducer. The glmS ribozyme was validated as a reverse-genetic tool by integration into the essential gene and antifolate drug target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (PfDHFR-TS). Glucosamine treatment of transgenic parasites led to rapid and efficient knockdown of PfDHFR-TS mRNA and protein. PfDHFR-TS knockdown led to a growth/arrest mutant phenotype and hypersensitivity to pyrimethamine. The glmS ribozyme may thus be a tool for study of essential genes in P. falciparum and other parasite species amenable to transfection. PMID:24023691

  14. Zebrafish ambra1a and ambra1b knockdown impairs skeletal muscle development.

    PubMed

    Skobo, Tatjana; Benato, Francesca; Grumati, Paolo; Meneghetti, Giacomo; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Castagnaro, Silvia; Chrisam, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Bonaldo, Paolo; Cecconi, Francesco; Dalla Valle, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The essential role of autophagy in muscle homeostasis has been clearly demonstrated by phenotype analysis of mice with muscle-specific inactivation of genes encoding autophagy-related proteins. Ambra1 is a key component of the Beclin 1 complex and, in zebrafish, it is encoded by two paralogous genes, ambra1a and ambra1b, both required for normal embryogenesis and larval development. In this study we focused on the function of Ambra1, a positive regulator of the autophagic process, during skeletal muscle development by means of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown and compared the phenotype of zebrafish Ambra1-depleted embryos with that of Ambra1gt/gt mouse embryos. Morphological analysis of zebrafish morphant embryos revealed that silencing of ambra1 impairs locomotor activity and muscle development, as well as myoD1 expression. Skeletal muscles in ATG-morphant embryos displayed severe histopathological changes and contained only small areas of organized myofibrils that were widely dispersed throughout the cell. Double knockdown of ambra1a and ambra1b resulted in a more severe phenotype whereas defects were much less evident in splice-morphants. The morphants phenotypes were effectively rescued by co-injection with human AMBRA1 mRNA. Together, these results indicate that ambra1a and ambra1b are required for the correct development and morphogenesis of skeletal muscle. PMID:24922546

  15. Exogenous cardiolipin localizes to mitochondria and prevents TAZ knockdown-induced apoptosis in myeloid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ikon, Nikita; Su, Betty; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-21

    The concentration and composition of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria are altered in age-related heart disease, Barth Syndrome, and other rare genetic disorders, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. To explore whether exogenous CL can be delivered to cells, CL was combined with apolipoprotein A-I to generate water-soluble, nanoscale complexes termed nanodisks (ND). Mass spectrometry of HL60 myeloid progenitor cell extracts revealed a 30-fold increase in cellular CL content following incubation with CL-ND. When CL-ND containing a fluorescent CL analogue was employed, confocal microscopy revealed CL localization to mitochondria. The ability of CL-ND to elicit a physiological response was examined in an HL60 cell culture model of Barth Syndrome neutropenia. siRNA knockdown of the phospholipid transacylase, tafazzin (TAZ), induced apoptosis in these cells. When TAZ knockdown cells were incubated with CL-ND, the apoptotic response was attenuated. Thus, CL-ND represent a potential intervention strategy for replenishment of CL in Barth Syndrome, age-related heart disease, and other disorders characterized by depletion of this key mitochondrial phospholipid. PMID:26164234

  16. Knockdown of ttc26 disrupts ciliogenesis of the photoreceptor cells and the pronephros in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Qin; Austin, Chrissy; Drummond, Iain; Pierce, Eric A

    2012-08-01

    In our effort to understand genetic disorders of the photoreceptor cells of the retina, we have focused on intraflagellar transport in photoreceptor sensory cilia. From previous mouse proteomic data we identified a cilia protein Ttc26, orthologue of dyf-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans, as a target. We localized Ttc26 to the transition zone of photoreceptor and to the transition zone of cilia in cultured murine inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) renal cells. Knockdown of Ttc26 in mIMCD3 cells produced shortened and defective primary cilia, as revealed by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. To study Ttc26 function in sensory cilia in vivo, we utilized a zebrafish vertebrate model system. Morpholino knockdown of ttc26 in zebrafish embryos caused ciliary defects in the pronephric kidney at 27 h postfertilization and distension/dilation of pronephros at 5 d postfertilization (dpf). In the eyes, the outer segments of photoreceptor cells appeared shortened or absent, whereas cellular lamination appeared normal in retinas at 5 dpf. This suggests that loss of ttc26 function prevents normal ciliogenesis and differentiation in the photoreceptor cells, and that ttc26 is required for normal development and differentiation in retina and pronephros. Our studies support the importance of Ttc26 function in ciliogenesis and suggest that screening for TTC26 mutations in human ciliopathies is justified. PMID:22718903

  17. Deiodinase knockdown affects zebrafish eye development at the level of gene expression, morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Houbrechts, Anne M; Vergauwen, Lucia; Bagci, Enise; Van Houcke, Jolien; Heijlen, Marjolein; Kulemeka, Bernard; Hyde, David R; Knapen, Dries; Darras, Veerle M

    2016-03-15

    Retinal development in vertebrates relies extensively on thyroid hormones. Their local availability is tightly controlled by several regulators, including deiodinases (Ds). Here we used morpholino technology to explore the roles of Ds during eye development in zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis at 3 days post fertilization (dpf) revealed a pronounced effect of knockdown of both T4-activating Ds (D1D2MO) or knockdown of T3-inactivating D3 (D3bMO) on phototransduction and retinoid recycling. This was accompanied by morphological defects (studied from 1 to 7 dpf) including reduced eye size, disturbed retinal lamination and strong reduction in rods and all four cone types. Defects were more prominent and persistent in D3-deficient fish. Finally, D3-deficient zebrafish larvae had disrupted visual function at 4 dpf and were less sensitive to a light stimulus at 5 dpf. These data demonstrate the importance of TH-activating and -inactivating Ds for correct zebrafish eye development, and point to D3b as a central player. PMID:26802877

  18. Raman spectroscopic study of keratin 8 knockdown oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Alam, Hunain; Dmello, Crismita; Vaidya, Milind M.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-03-01

    Keratins are one of most widely used markers for oral cancers. Keratin 8 and 18 are expressed in simple epithelia and perform both mechanical and regulatory functions. Their expression are not seen in normal oral tissues but are often expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Aberrant expression of keratins 8 and 18 is most common change in human oral cancer. Optical-spectroscopic methods are sensitive to biochemical changes and being projected as novel diagnostic tools for cancer diagnosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting minor changes associated with differential level of keratin expression in tongue-cancer-derived AW13516 cells. Knockdown clones for K8 were generated and synchronized by growing under serum-free conditions. Cell pellets of three independent experiments in duplicate were used for recording Raman spectra with fiberoptic-probe coupled HE-785 Raman-instrument. A total of 123 and 96 spectra from knockdown clones and vector controls respectively in 1200-1800 cm-1 region were successfully utilized for classification using LDA. Two separate clusters with classification-efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Leave-one-out cross-validation yielded ~63% efficiency. Findings of the study demonstrate the potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting even subtle changes such as variations in keratin expression levels. Future studies towards identifying Raman signals from keratin in oral cells can help in precise cancer diagnosis.

  19. A Simple Alternative to Stereotactic Injection for Brain Specific Knockdown of miRNA.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sarangdhar, Mayuresh Anant; Vij, Manika; Roshan, Reema; Singh, Vijay Pal; Ganguli, Munia; Pillai, Beena

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. In the brain, vital processes like neurodevelopment and neuronal functions depend on the correct expression of microRNAs. Perturbation of microRNAs in the brain can be used to model neurodegenerative diseases by modulating neuronal cell death. Currently, stereotactic injection is used to deliver miRNA knockdown agents to specific location in the brain. Here, we discuss strategies to design antagomirs against miRNA with locked nucleotide modifications (LNA). Subsequently describe a method for brain specific delivery of antagomirs, uniformly across different regions of the brain. This method is simple and widely applicable since it overcomes the surgery, associated injury and limitation of local delivery in stereotactic injections. We prepared a complex of neurotropic, cell-penetrating peptide Rabies Virus Glycoprotein (RVG) with antagomir against miRNA-29 and injected through tail vein, to specifically deliver in the brain. The antagomir design incorporated features that allow specific targeting of the miRNA and formation of non-covalent complexes with the peptide. The knock-down of the miRNA in neuronal cells, resulted in apoptotic cell death and associated behavioural defects. Thus, the method can be used for acute models of neuro-degeneration through the perturbation of miRNAs. PMID:26779762

  20. Effects of Buckling Knockdown Factor, Internal Pressure and Material on the Design of Stiffened Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Chunchu, Prasad B.

    2010-01-01

    A design study was conducted to investigate the effect shell buckling knockdown factor (SBKF), internal pressure and aluminum alloy material selection on the structural weight of stiffened cylindrical shells. Two structural optimization codes were used for the design study to determine the optimum minimum-weight design for a series of design cases, and included an in-house developed genetic algorithm (GA) code and PANDA2. Each design case specified a unique set of geometry, material, knockdown factor combinations and loads. The resulting designs were examined and compared to determine the effects of SBKF, internal pressure and material selection on the acreage design weight and controlling failure mode. This design study shows that use of less conservative SBKF values, including internal pressure, and proper selection of material alloy can result in significant weight savings for stiffened cylinders. In particular, buckling-critical cylinders with integrally machined stiffener construction can benefit from the use of thicker plate material that enables taller stiffeners, even when the stiffness, strength and density properties of these materials appear to be inferior.

  1. Knockdown of human deubiquitinase PSMD14 induces cell cycle arrest and senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Ann; McLaren, Rajashree P.; Mason, Paul; Chai, Lilly; Dufault, Michael R.; Huang, Yinyin; Liang, Beirong; Gans, Joseph D.; Zhang, Mindy; Carter, Kara; Gladysheva, Tatiana B.; Teicher, Beverly A.; Biemann, Hans-Peter N.; Booker, Michael; Goldberg, Mark A.; Klinger, Katherine W.; Lillie, James; Madden, Stephen L.; Jiang, Yide

    2010-01-15

    The PSMD14 (POH1, also known as Rpn11/MPR1/S13/CepP1) protein within the 19S complex (19S cap; PA700) is responsible for substrate deubiquitination during proteasomal degradation. The role of PSMD14 in cell proliferation and senescence was explored using siRNA knockdown in carcinoma cell lines. Our results reveal that down-regulation of PSMD14 by siRNA transfection had a considerable impact on cell viability causing cell arrest in the G0-G1 phase, ultimately leading to senescence. The molecular events associated with decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and senescence include down-regulation of cyclin B1-CDK1-CDC25C, down-regulation of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p21{sup /Cip} and p27{sup /Kip1}. Most notably, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein was markedly reduced in PSMD14 knockdown cells. A comparative study with PSMB5, a subunit of the 20S proteasome, revealed that PSMB5 and PSMD14 have different effects on cell cycle, senescence and associated molecular events. These data support the view that the 19S and 20S subunits of the proteasome have distinct biological functions and imply that targeting 19S and 20S would have distinct molecular consequences on tumor cells.

  2. Acute Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) Knockdown Rapidly Mobilizes Hepatic Cholesterol for Fecal Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephanie M.; Gromovsky, Anthony D.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Lee, Richard G.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Graham, Mark J.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD), the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ∼2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion. PMID:24901470

  3. Aquaporin 4 knockdown exacerbates streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy through aggravating inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bei; Sun, Jin-Hua; Xiang, Fen-Fen; Liu, Lin; Li, Wen-Jie

    2012-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Diabetes is known to alter the amount of retinal expression of the water-selective channels aquaporin 4 (AQP4). However, the function and impact of AQP4 in diabetic retinopathy is not well understood. In the present work, diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats. Two weeks later, AQP4 shRNA (r) lentiviral particles or negative lentiviral particles were delivered by intravitreal injection to the eyes. Gene delivery was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis. Eight weeks later, BRB breakdown was measured using Evans blue dye. Images of retinal sections were obtained and the thicknesses of the retinas were determined. Retinal leukostasis measurement was performed using acridine orange leukocyte fluorography. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined using qRT-PCR method. AQP4 shRNA (r) lentiviral particles or negative lentiviral particles were transfected into rMC-1 cells to investigate its effect on inflammation induced by high glucose. Incubation with IL-1β or IL-6 was performed to test their effect on AQP4 expression in rMC-1 cells. In the current work, it was found that AQP4 expression was enhanced in the retina of diabetic rats. AQP4 knockdown led to exacerbation of retinopathy including enhancing retinal vascular permeability, retinal thickness, pro-inflammatory factors expression, and VEGF and GFAP expression in retinas of diabetic rats. AQP4 knockdown enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by high glucose in rMC-1 cells. In addition, AQP4 knockdown enhanced the release of IL-6 and VEGF from rMC-1 cells into the medium. Moreover, it was found that incubation with IL-1β or IL-6 suppressed AQP4

  4. Knockdown of IRF6 Attenuates Hydrogen Dioxide-Induced Oxidative Stress via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Min; Chen, Bo; Lv, Jian-Meng; Lei, Qi; Pan, Ya-Juan; Yang, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cell damage is involved in many neurological diseases. Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, is required for the differentiation of skin, breast epithelium, and oral epithelium. However, the regulation and function of IRF6 in central nervous system remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of IRF6 in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative neuronal injury in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. Treatment with H2O2 significantly increased the expression of IRF6 at both mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of IRF6 using specific small interfering RNA reduced H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis. Knockdown of IRF6 attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation, and also preserved endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. The inhibitory effect of IRF6 knockdown on mitochondrial dysfunction was demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial oxidative level, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP generation, as well as attenuated mitochondrial swelling. In addition, down-regulation of IRF6 inhibited the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic factors, whereas IRF6 knockdown together with caspase inhibitors had no extra effect on cell viability and LDH release. These results suggest that knockdown of IRF6 has protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by reducing ROS accumulation and apoptosis, and these protective effects are dependent on preservation of mitochondrial function. PMID:26620051

  5. Identification of Genetic Suppressors of the Sin3A Knockdown Wing Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephanie; Gammouh, Sarah; Pile, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the Sin3A transcriptional corepressor in regulating the cell cycle is established in various metazoans. Little is known, however, about the signaling pathways that trigger or are triggered by Sin3A function. To discover genes that work in similar or opposing pathways to Sin3A during development, we have performed an unbiased screen of deficiencies of the Drosophila third chromosome. Additionally, we have performed a targeted loss of function screen to identify cell cycle genes that genetically interact with Sin3A. We have identified genes that encode proteins involved in regulation of gene expression, signaling pathways and cell cycle that can suppress the curved wing phenotype caused by the knockdown of Sin3A. These data indicate that Sin3A function is quite diverse and impacts a wide variety of cellular processes. PMID:23166712

  6. RPS24 knockdown inhibits colorectal cancer cell migration and proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Sui, Jinke; Li, Xu; Cao, Fuao; He, Jian; Yang, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoming; Sun, Yongsheng; Pu, Y D

    2015-10-25

    Besides new proteins synthesis, ribosomal protein has a role in extra-ribosomal functions, which are related to many diseases, such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia, hypoplasia, and cell apoptosis. However, the importance of RPS24 in human colon cancer is largely unknown. In this study, RPS24 gene expression was significantly inhibited in human colon cancer HCT116 and HT-29 cells using a lentivirus shRNA approach. Knockdown of RPS24 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration and arrested cell in S phase. The results demonstrated for the first time that RPS24 gene had a critical role in human colon cancer. Therefore, our findings indicated that RPS24 gene may be a promising biomarker for therapy in human colon cancer and may have a potential application in the diagnosis or treatment of human colon cancer. PMID:26149657

  7. Proteomic dataset for altered glycoprotein expression upon GALNT3 knockdown in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sheta, Razan; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Woo, Christina M; Fournier, Frédéric; Bourassa, Sylvie; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Droit, Arnaud; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2016-09-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in "Role of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 in ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in abnormal mucin O-glycosylation" [1]. The data presented here was obtained with the application of a bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy analyzing differential glycoprotein expression following the knock-down (KD) of the GALNT3 gene in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780s. LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis was then performed and the processed data related to the identified glycoproteins show that several hundred proteins are differentially expressed between control and GALNT3 KD A2780s cells. The obtained data also uncover numerous novel glycoproteins; some of which could represent new potential EOC biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. PMID:27331112

  8. SIRT2 knockdown increases basal autophagy and prevents postslippage death by abnormally prolonging the mitotic arrest that is induced by microtubule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Yuji; Li, Yanze; Matsumori, Haruka; Takahashi, Haruka; Kojima, Hirotada; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Katoh, Motonobu; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2014-06-01

    Mitotic catastrophe, a form of cell death that occurs during mitosis and after mitotic slippage to a tetraploid state, plays important roles in the efficacy of cancer cell killing by microtubule inhibitors (MTIs). Prolonged mitotic arrest by the spindle assembly checkpoint is a well-known requirement for mitotic catastrophe, and thus for conferring sensitivity to MTIs. We previously reported that turning off spindle assembly checkpoint activation after a defined period of time is another requirement for efficient postslippage death from a tetraploid state, and we identified SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin protein family, as a regulator of this process. Here, we investigated whether SIRT2 regulates basal autophagy and whether, in that case, autophagy regulation by SIRT2 is required for postslippage death, by analogy with previous insights into SIRT1 functions in autophagy. We show, by combined knockdown of autophagy genes and SIRT2, that SIRT2 serves this function at least partially by suppressing basal autophagy levels. Notably, increased autophagy induced by rapamycin and mild starvation caused mitotic arrest for an abnormally long period of time in the presence of MTIs, and this was followed by delayed postslippage death, which was also observed in cells with SIRT2 knockdown. These results underscore a causal association among increased autophagy levels, mitotic arrest for an abnormally long period of time after exposure to MTIs, and resistance to MTIs. Although autophagy acts as a tumor suppressor mechanism, this study highlights its negative aspects, as increased autophagy may cause mitotic catastrophe malfunction. Thus, SIRT2 offers a novel target for tumor therapy. PMID:24712640

  9. Enhancement of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Angiogenesis through knockdown of a BMP-2 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin; Nelson, Emily R.; Hyun, Jeong S.; Glotzbach, Jason P.; Li, Shuli; Nauta, Allison; Montoro, Daniel T.; Lee, Min; Commons, George C.; Hu, Shijun; Wu, Joseph C.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction When employing tissue engineering approaches to clinical problems, cells are often transplanted to a distant site on a scaffold into an environment different from their original niche. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of Noggin, a BMP inhibitor in vascular development and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that noggin suppression in human adipose derived stromal cells (hASCs) would enhance VEGF secretion and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo to a greater extent than BMP-2 alone. Methods hASCs were isolated from human lipoaspirate (n=6) and transfected with a Noggin shRNA construct. Knockdown was confirmed and angiogenesis was assessed by tubule formation and qRT-PCR. Cells were seeded on scaffolds with or without BMP-2 and implanted into a 4mm critical size calvarial defect. In vivo angiogenic signaling was assessed by immunofluoresence and immunohistochemistry. Results hASCs with noggin suppression secreted significantly higher amounts of VEGF protein on ELISA (*p<0.05). hASCs with noggin knockdown expressed higher levels of angionegic gene markers by qRT-PCR (VE-cadherein, VEGFA, and HIF1A), and displayed enhanced vascular tubule formation in vitro. In vivo, calvarial defects seeded with noggin shRNA hASCs exhibited a significantly higher number of vessels in the defect site than controls by immunohistochemistry (*p<0.05). Additionally, BMP-2 releasing scaffolds significantly enhanced VEGF and PECAM protein levels in the defect site. Conclusion hASCs demonstrate significant increases in angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo both with noggin suppression and BMP-2 supplementation. By creating a cell with noggin suppressed and by using a scaffold with increased BMP-2, we can create a more angiogenic niche. PMID:21915082

  10. Quantification of Functionalised Gold Nanoparticle-Targeted Knockdown of Gene Expression in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiwaji, Meesbah; Sandison, Mairi E.; Reboud, Julien; Stevenson, Ross; Daly, Rónán; Barkess, Gráinne; Faulds, Karen; Kolch, Walter; Graham, Duncan; Girolami, Mark A.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Pitt, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gene therapy continues to grow as an important area of research, primarily because of its potential in the treatment of disease. One significant area where there is a need for better understanding is in improving the efficiency of oligonucleotide delivery to the cell and indeed, following delivery, the characterization of the effects on the cell. Methods In this report, we compare different transfection reagents as delivery vehicles for gold nanoparticles functionalized with DNA oligonucleotides, and quantify their relative transfection efficiencies. The inhibitory properties of small interfering RNA (siRNA), single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sequences targeted to human metallothionein hMT-IIa are also quantified in HeLa cells. Techniques used in this study include fluorescence and confocal microscopy, qPCR and Western analysis. Findings We show that the use of transfection reagents does significantly increase nanoparticle transfection efficiencies. Furthermore, siRNA, ssRNA and ssDNA sequences all have comparable inhibitory properties to ssDNA sequences immobilized onto gold nanoparticles. We also show that functionalized gold nanoparticles can co-localize with autophagosomes and illustrate other factors that can affect data collection and interpretation when performing studies with functionalized nanoparticles. Conclusions The desired outcome for biological knockdown studies is the efficient reduction of a specific target; which we demonstrate by using ssDNA inhibitory sequences targeted to human metallothionein IIa gene transcripts that result in the knockdown of both the mRNA transcript and the target protein. PMID:24926959

  11. Early protective role of MST1 knockdown in response to experimental diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weihua; Zhang, Maoping; Ou, Santao; Liu, Xing; Xue, Ling; Liu, Jian; Wu, Yuke; Li, Ying; Liu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by the damage of capillaries in kidney’s glomeruli. Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) has been reported to play an important role in many disease, such as diabetes, cardiac disease and ect. However, the potential role of MST1 pathway in DN has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we hypothesized that MST1 could be involved in DN, and MST1 knockdown would attenuate the DN injury in experimental diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The sieving method was used to generate primary cultures of rat podocytes, and cultured according to the previous reports. The clinical data were analyzed for vein specimens from ESRD. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine the mRNA levels. Immuno-fluorescence assay was used for primary podocyte in vitro. Lectrophoretic mobility shift assay was used for DNA binding activity of NF-κB. HE staining for histological examination and western blot assay for protein expression were employed. The average GBM thickness (GBMT) was measured By using the electron microscopy. In vitro, MST1 level increased significantly in primary rat podocyte cultured in hyperglycemia condition. In vivo experiment, diabetes induced by a single STZ injection (50 mg/kg) in SD rats. Knockdown of MST1 expression by lentiviral mediated gene transfer partly reduced the proteinuria and the level of FASL, and improved the pathological changes of the diabetic kidney. In conclusion, the MST1 could be involved in DN pathogenesis and may serve as the target for development of new therapies for DN. PMID:27186267

  12. Nucleostemin Knockdown Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Ultraviolet and Serum Starvation-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fuwen; Cheng, Qian; Li, Guodong; Tong, Tanjun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is a GTP-binding protein that is predominantly expressed in embryonic and adult stem cells but not in terminally differentiated cells. NS plays an essential role in maintaining the continuous proliferation of stem cells and some types of cancer cells. However, the role of NS in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of NS in HCC. First, we demonstrated high expression of NS in most HCC cell lines and liver cancer tissues. NS knockdown induced a severe decline in cell viability of MHCC97H cells as detected by MTT and cell proliferation assays. Next, we used ultraviolet (UV) and serum starvation-induced apoptosis models to investigate whether NS suppression or up-regulation affects HCC cell apoptosis. After UV treatment or serum starvation, apoptosis was strongly enhanced in MHCC97H and Bel7402 cells transfected with small interfering RNA against NS, whereas NS overexpression inhibited UV- and serum-induced apoptosis of HCC cells. Furthermore, after UV irradiation, inhibition of NS increased the expression of pro-apoptosis protein caspase 3 and decreased the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. A caspase 3 inhibitor could obviously prevent NS knockdown-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated overexpression of NS in most HCC tissues compared with their matched surrounding tissues, and silencing NS promoted UV- and serum starvation-induced apoptosis of MHCC97H and Bel7402 cells. Therefore, the NS gene might be a potential therapeutic target of HCC. PMID:26517370

  13. Immobilization of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans with addressable light-induced heat knockdown (ALINK).

    PubMed

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chen, Chang-Shi; Chiu, Wen-Tai

    2013-08-01

    Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans is a model animal used in genetics, neuroscience, and developmental biology. Researchers often immobilize squirming worms to obtain high-quality images for analysis. However, current methods usually require physical contact or anesthetics. This can cause injuries to worm bodies or neuron disturbances. This study presents an alternative technique, called addressable light-induced heat knockdown (ALINK), to effectively immobilize worms by using light-induced sublethal heat. A microchip composed of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate and an ITO glass plate coated with a photoconductive layer (a-Si:H) was produced. Worms to be immobilized were immersed in a liquid medium and sandwiched between the two plates. When the worms were irradiated with a focused laser beam in the presence of electric fields (referred to as an optoelectric treatment), the optoelectric effect heated the liquid medium. The neural functions of the worms shut down temporarily when a critical temperature (>31 °C) was reached. Their neural functions resumed after the heat source was removed. A temperature above 37 °C killed all worms. Using short-wavelength light reduced the worms' recovery time. An equivalent circuit was modeled to predict the operating modes, and an optoelectric treatment with a high-concentration medium enhanced rapid heating. A safe operating range (20 Vpp (peak-to-peak voltage), 100 kHz to 10 MHz, 31 to 37 °C) to induce heat knockdown (KD) was also investigated. The results show that the heat KD was well controlled, autonomous, and reversible. This technique can be used for worm immobilization. PMID:23719845

  14. Nucleostemin Knockdown Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Ultraviolet and Serum Starvation-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guodong; Tong, Tanjun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is a GTP-binding protein that is predominantly expressed in embryonic and adult stem cells but not in terminally differentiated cells. NS plays an essential role in maintaining the continuous proliferation of stem cells and some types of cancer cells. However, the role of NS in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of NS in HCC. First, we demonstrated high expression of NS in most HCC cell lines and liver cancer tissues. NS knockdown induced a severe decline in cell viability of MHCC97H cells as detected by MTT and cell proliferation assays. Next, we used ultraviolet (UV) and serum starvation-induced apoptosis models to investigate whether NS suppression or up-regulation affects HCC cell apoptosis. After UV treatment or serum starvation, apoptosis was strongly enhanced in MHCC97H and Bel7402 cells transfected with small interfering RNA against NS, whereas NS overexpression inhibited UV- and serum-induced apoptosis of HCC cells. Furthermore, after UV irradiation, inhibition of NS increased the expression of pro-apoptosis protein caspase 3 and decreased the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. A caspase 3 inhibitor could obviously prevent NS knockdown-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated overexpression of NS in most HCC tissues compared with their matched surrounding tissues, and silencing NS promoted UV- and serum starvation-induced apoptosis of MHCC97H and Bel7402 cells. Therefore, the NS gene might be a potential therapeutic target of HCC. PMID:26517370

  15. Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pantothenate Kinase Vulnerability through Target Knockdown and Mechanistically Diverse Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, B. K. Kishore; Landge, Sudhir; Ravishankar, Sudha; Patil, Vikas; Shinde, Vikas; Tantry, Subramanyam; Kale, Manoj; Raichurkar, Anandkumar; Menasinakai, Sreenivasaiah; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Ambady, Anisha; Ghosh, Anirban; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Kaur, Parvinder; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Naveen; Bharath, Sowmya; Sundaram, Aishwarya; Bhat, Jyothi; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Björkelid, Christofer; Jones, T. Alwyn; Das, Kaveri; Bandodkar, Balachandra; Malolanarasimhan, Krishnan; Mukherjee, Kakoli

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of pantothenate, the first committed and rate-limiting step toward coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. In our earlier reports, we had established that the type I isoform encoded by the coaA gene is an essential pantothenate kinase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and this vital information was then exploited to screen large libraries for identification of mechanistically different classes of PanK inhibitors. The present report summarizes the synthesis and expansion efforts to understand the structure-activity relationships leading to the optimization of enzyme inhibition along with antimycobacterial activity. Additionally, we report the progression of two distinct classes of inhibitors, the triazoles, which are ATP competitors, and the biaryl acetic acids, with a mixed mode of inhibition. Cocrystallization studies provided evidence of these inhibitors binding to the enzyme. This was further substantiated with the biaryl acids having MIC against the wild-type M. tuberculosis strain and the subsequent establishment of a target link with an upshift in MIC in a strain overexpressing PanK. On the other hand, the ATP competitors had cellular activity only in a M. tuberculosis knockdown strain with reduced PanK expression levels. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo survival kinetic studies performed with a M. tuberculosis PanK (MtPanK) knockdown strain indicated that the target levels have to be significantly reduced to bring in growth inhibition. The dual approaches employed here thus established the poor vulnerability of PanK in M. tuberculosis. PMID:24687493

  16. In vivo knockdown of ErbB3 in mice inhibits Schwann cell precursor migration.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Takada, Shuji; Tsumura, Hideki; Arai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-09-26

    The myelin sheath insulates neuronal axons and markedly increases the nerve conduction velocity. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cell precursors migrate along embryonic neuronal axons to their final destinations, where they eventually wrap around individual axons to form the myelin sheath after birth. ErbB2 and ErbB3 tyrosine kinase receptors form a heterodimer and are extensively expressed in Schwann lineage cells. ErbB2/3 is thought to be one of the primary regulators controlling the entire Schwann cell development. ErbB3 is the bona fide Schwann cell receptor for the neuronal ligand neuregulin-1. Although ErbB2/3 is well known to regulate both Schwann cell precursor migration and myelination by Schwann cells in fishes, it still remains unclear whether in mammals, ErbB2/3 actually regulates Schwann cell precursor migration. Here, we show that knockdown of ErbB3 using a Schwann cell-specific promoter in mice causes delayed migration of Schwann cell precursors. In contrast, littermate control mice display normal migration. Similar results are seen in an in vitro migration assay using reaggregated Schwann cell precursors. Also, ErbB3 knockdown in mice reduces myelin thickness in sciatic nerves, consistent with the established role of ErbB3 in myelination. Thus, ErbB3 plays a key role in migration, as well as in myelination, in mouse Schwann lineage cells, presenting a genetically conservative role of ErbB3 in Schwann cell precursor migration. PMID:25204498

  17. Molecular characterization and knock-down of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) prostaglandin E synthase.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Nilsen, Frank; Dalvin, Sussie

    2015-12-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major parasite of salmonid fish in the marine environment. The interaction between the parasite and the host upon infection is not completely understood. However, it is clear that the parasite influences the host and its immune system. Prostaglandins produced by parasites such as flatworms, roundworms and ticks are documented or assumed to play a role in immunomodulation of the host. In the salmon louse, the effect of prostaglandins on the host is assumed, but remains to be documented. In this study, a salmon louse prostaglandin E2 synthase (LsPGES2) is characterized. Ontogenetic analysis showed that LsPGES2 is relatively stable expressed during development. The highest level of expression was seen in the free living stages, although elevated levels of LsPGES2 were also found in adult females. In copepodids, LsPGES2 is found around muscle cells, while it is observed in the reproductive organs of adult female lice. LsPGES2 expression was knocked-down by RNA interference in nauplii, but emerging copepodids did not display any changes in morphology nor ability to infect and develop to adult stages on fish. Additional knock-down of LsPGES2 in adult female lice did not produce any characteristic changes in phenotype nor reproductive output. It is concluded that under these experimental conditions, knock-down of LsPGES2 did not affect any essential functions of the salmon louse, neither in the free-living nor the parasitic stages. PMID:26348267

  18. Knockdown of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 enhances cartilage formation by induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Diekman, Brian O; Thakore, Pratiksha I; O'Connor, Shannon K; Willard, Vincent P; Brunger, Jonathan M; Christoforou, Nicolas; Leong, Kam W; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid

    2015-04-01

    The limited regenerative capacity of articular cartilage contributes to progressive joint dysfunction associated with cartilage injury or osteoarthritis. Cartilage tissue engineering seeks to provide a biological substitute for repairing damaged or diseased cartilage, but requires a cell source with the capacity for extensive expansion without loss of chondrogenic potential. In this study, we hypothesized that decreased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 would enhance the proliferative and chondrogenic potential of differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Murine iPSCs were directed to differentiate toward the chondrogenic lineage with an established protocol and then engineered to express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to reduce the expression of p21. Cells expressing the p21 shRNA demonstrated higher proliferative potential during monolayer expansion and increased synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in pellet cultures. Furthermore, these cells could be expanded ∼150-fold over three additional passages without a reduction in the subsequent production of GAGs, while control cells showed reduced potential for GAG synthesis with three additional passages. In pellets from extensively passaged cells, knockdown of p21 attenuated the sharp decrease in cell number that occurred in control cells, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that p21 knockdown limited the production of type I and type X collagen while maintaining synthesis of cartilage-specific type II collagen. These findings suggest that manipulating the cell cycle can augment the monolayer expansion and preserve the chondrogenic capacity of differentiated iPSCs, providing a strategy for enhancing iPSC-based cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25517798

  19. Beta tubulin isoforms are not interchangeable for rescuing impaired radial migration due to Tubb3 knockdown.

    PubMed

    Saillour, Yoann; Broix, Loïc; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Lebrun, Nicolas; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rucci, Julien; Poirier, Karine; Belvindrah, Richard; Francis, Fiona; Chelly, Jamel

    2014-03-15

    Over the last years, the critical role of cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development including neuronal migration as well as in neuronal morphology has been well established. Inputs from genetic studies were provided through the identification of several mutated genes encoding either proteins associated with microtubules (DCX, LIS1, KIF2A, KIF5C, DYNC1H1) or tubulin subunits (TUBA1A, TUBB2B, TUBB5 and TUBG1), in malformations of cortical development (MCD). We also reported the identification of missense mutations in TUBB3, the postmitotic neuronal specific tubulin, in six different families presenting either polymicrogyria or gyral disorganization in combination with cerebellar and basal ganglial abnormalities. Here, we investigate further the association between TUBB3 mutations and MCDs by analyzing the consequences of Tubb3 knockdown on cortical development in mice. Using the in utero-electroporation approach, we demonstrate that Tubb3 knockdown leads to delayed bipolar morphology and radial migration with evidence, suggesting that the neuronal arrest is a transient phenomenon overcome after birth. Silenced blocked cells display a round-shape and decreased number of processes and a delay in the acquisition of the bipolar morphology. Also, more Tbr2 positive cells are observed, although less cells express the proliferation marker Ki67, suggesting that Tubb3 inactivation might have an indirect effect on intermediate progenitor proliferation. Furthermore, we show by rescue experiments the non-interchangeability of other beta-tubulins which are unable to rescue the phenotype. Our study highlights the critical and specific role of Tubb3 on the stereotyped morphological changes and polarization processes that are required for initiating radial migration to the cortical plate. PMID:24179174

  20. Knockdown of malic enzyme 2 suppresses lung tumor growth, induces differentiation and impacts PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Guo; Seth, Pankaj; Clish, Clary B; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K; Higashi, Richard M; Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial malic enzyme 2 (ME2) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to yield CO2 and pyruvate, with concomitant reduction of dinucleotide cofactor NAD(+) or NADP(+). We find that ME2 is highly expressed in many solid tumors. In the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, ME2 depletion inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death and differentiation, accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADP(+)/NADPH ratio, a drop in ATP, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. ME2 knockdown impacts phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression, leading to AKT inhibition. Depletion of ME2 leads to malate accumulation and pyruvate decrease, and exogenous cell permeable dimethyl-malate (DMM) mimics the ME2 knockdown phenotype. Both ME2 knockdown and DMM treatment reduce A549 cell growth in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that ME2 is a potential target for cancer therapy. PMID:24957098

  1. Ribonucleotide reductase is an effective target to overcome gemcitabine resistance in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells with dual resistant factors.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kentaro; Shinsato, Yoshinari; Yamamoto, Masatatsu; Takahashi, Homare; Zhang, Shaoxuan; Nishizawa, Yukihiko; Tabata, Sho; Ikeda, Ryuji; Kawahara, Kohich; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Yamada, Katsushi; Akiyama, Shin-ichi; Pérez-Torras, Sandra; Pastor-Anglada, Marcal; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Yasuo, Takeda

    2015-03-01

    Gemcitabine is widely used for pancreatic, lung, and bladder cancer. However, drug resistance against gemcitabine is a large obstacle to effective chemotherapy. Nucleoside transporters, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolic enzymes, and efflux transporters have been reported to be involved in gemcitabine resistance. Although most of the resistant factors are supposed to be related to each other, it is unclear how one factor can affect the other one. In this study, we established gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines. Gemcitabine resistance in these cells is caused by two major processes: a decrease in gemcitabine uptake and overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (RRM1). Knockdown of RRM1, but not the overexpression of concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1), could completely overcome the gemcitabine resistance. RRM1 knockdown in gemcitabine-resistant cells could increase the intracellular accumulation of gemcitabine by increasing the nucleoside transporter expression. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was observed between hydroxyurea, a ribonucleotide reductase (RR) inhibitor, and gemcitabine on the gemcitabine-resistant cells. Here we indicate that RR is one of the most promising targets to overcome gemcitabine resistance in gemcitabine-resistant cells with dual resistant factors. PMID:25837929

  2. Brain-specific knockdown of miR-29 results in neuronal cell death and ataxia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, Reema; Shridhar, Shruti; Sarangdhar, Mayuresh A.; Banik, Arpita; Chawla, Mrinal; Garg, Manali; Singh, Vijay PAL; Pillai, Beena

    2014-01-01

    Several microRNAs have been implicated in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, neurodevelopment, and memory. Development of miRNA-based therapeutics, however, needs tools for effective miRNA modulation, tissue-specific delivery, and in vivo evidence of functional effects following the knockdown of miRNA. Expression of miR-29a is reduced in patients and animal models of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and spinocerebellar ataxias. The temporal expression pattern of miR-29b during development also correlates with its protective role in neuronal survival. Here, we report the cellular and behavioral effect of in vivo, brain-specific knockdown of miR-29. We delivered specific anti-miRNAs to the mouse brain using a neurotropic peptide, thus overcoming the blood-brain-barrier and restricting the effect of knockdown to the neuronal cells. Large regions of the hippocampus and cerebellum showed massive cell death, reiterating the role of miR-29 in neuronal survival. The mice showed characteristic features of ataxia, including reduced step length. However, the apoptotic targets of miR-29, such as Puma, Bim, Bak, or Bace1, failed to show expected levels of up-regulation in mice, following knockdown of miR-29. In contrast, another miR-29 target, voltage-dependent anion channel1 (VDAC1), was found to be induced several fold in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex of mice following miRNA knockdown. Partial restoration of apoptosis was achieved by down-regulation of VDAC1 in miR-29 knockdown cells. Our study suggests that regulation of VDAC1 expression by miR-29 is an important determinant of neuronal cell survival in the brain. Loss of miR-29 results in dysregulation of VDAC1, neuronal cell death, and an ataxic phenotype. PMID:24958907

  3. Lentiviral Small Hairpin RNA Knockdown of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1γ Ameliorates Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Po-Chuan; Lu, Chia-Sing; Shiau, Ai-Li; Lee, Che-Hsin; Jou, I-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). CD4+ T cells were activated during the onset of OA and induced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1γ expression and subsequent osteoclast formation. We evaluated the effects of local knockdown of MIP-1γ in a mouse OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection. The mouse macrophage cell lines and osteoclast-like cells generated from immature hematopoietic monocyte/macrophage progenitors of murine bone marrow were cocultured with either receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) or CD4+ T cells. The levels of MIP-1γ and RANKL in cells and mice were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K staining. OA was induced in one hind-leg knee joint of B6 mice. Lentiviral vector encoding MIP-1γ small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and control vector were individually injected intra-articularly into the knee joints, which were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. The expression of MIP-1γ and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and osteoclastogenesis in tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry. CD4+ T cells were involved in OA by inducing MIP-1γ expression in osteoclast progenitors and the subsequent osteoclast formation. Neutralizing MIP-1γ with a specific antibody abolishes RANKL-stimulated and CD4+ T-cell-stimulated osteoclast formation. MIP-1γ levels were significantly higher in synovium and the chondro-osseous junction of joints 90 days postsurgery. The number of infiltrated CD4+ T cells and macrophages and IL-1β expression were reduced in the synovial tissues of mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA. Histopathological examinations revealed that mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA had less severe OA than control mice had, as well as decreased osteoclast formation and MMP-13 expression. Locally inhibiting MIP-1

  4. SMC3 knockdown triggers genomic instability and p53-dependent apoptosis in human and zebrafish cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    Background The structural maintenance of chromosome 3 (SMC3) protein is a constituent of a number of nuclear multimeric protein complexes that are involved in DNA recombination and repair in addition to chromosomal segregation. Overexpression of SMC3 activates a tumorigenic cascade through which mammalian cells acquire a transformed phenotype. This has led us to examine in depth how SMC3 level affects cell growth and genomic stability. In this paper the effect of SMC3 knockdown has been investigated. Results Mammalian cells that are SMC3 deficient fail to expand in a clonal population. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanism, experiments were conducted in zebrafish embryos in which cell competence to undergo apoptosis is acquired at specific stages of development and affects tissue morphogenesis. Zebrafish Smc3 is 95% identical to the human protein, is maternally contributed, and is expressed ubiquitously at all developmental stages. Antisense-mediated loss of Smc3 function leads to increased apoptosis in Smc3 expressing cells of the developing tail and notocord causing morphological malformations. The apoptosis and the ensuing phenotype can be suppressed by injection of a p53-specific MO that blocks the generation of endogenous p53 protein. Results in human cells constitutively lacking p53 or BAX, confirmed that a p53-dependent pathway mediates apoptosis in SMC3-deficient cells. A population of aneuploid cells accumulated in zebrafish embryos following Smc3-knockdown whereas in human cells the transient downregulation of SMC3 level lead to the generation of cells with amplified centrosome number. Conclusion Smc3 is required for normal embryonic development. Its deficiency affects the morphogenesis of tissues with high mitotic index by triggering an apoptotic cascade involving p53 and the downstream p53 target gene bax. Cells with low SMC3 level display centrosome abnormalities that can lead to or are the consequence of dysfunctional mitosis and

  5. NLRC5 knockdown in chicken macrophages alters response to LPS and poly (I:C) stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background NLRC5 is a member of the CARD domain containing, nucleotide-binding oligomerization (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family, which recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiates an innate immune response leading to inflammation and/or cell death. However, the specific role of NLRC5 as a modulator of the inflammatory immune response remains controversial. It has been reported to be a mediator of type I IFNs, NF-kB, and MHC class I gene. But no study on NLRC5 function has been reported to date in chickens. In the current study, we investigated the role of NLRC5 in the regulation of IFNA, IFNB, IL-6, and MHC class I in the chicken HD11 macrophage cell line, by using RNAi technology. HD11 cells were transfected with one of five siRNAs (s1, s2, s3, negative-siRNA, or a mixture of s1, s2, s3-siRNAs). After 24 hours, cells were exposed to LPS or poly (I:C) or a vehicle control. Gene expression of NLRC5, IFNA, IFNB, IL-6, and MHC class I at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps) was quantified by qPCR. Results The expression of NLRC5, IFNA, IFNB, and IL-6 genes in negative irrelevant transfection controls was up-regulated at 2 hps after LPS treatment compared to the vehicle controls. S3-siRNA effectively knocked down NLRC5 expression at 4 hps, and the expression of IFNA and IFNB (but not IL-6 and MHC class I) was also down-regulated at 4 hps in s3-siRNA transfected cells, compared to negative irrelevant transfection controls. Stimulation by LPS appeared to relatively restore the decrease in NLRC5, IFNA, and IFNB expression, but the difference is not significant. Conclusions Functional characterization of chicken NLRC5 in an in vitro system demonstrated its importance in regulating intracellular molecules involved in inflammatory response. The knockdown of NLRC5 expression negatively mediates gene expression of IFNA and IFNB in the chicken HD11 cell line; therefore, NLRC5 likely has a role in positive regulation of IFNA and IFNB expression

  6. RNAi-mediated knockdown of IKK1 in transgenic mice using a transgenic construct containing the human H1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Maldonado, Rodolfo; Murillas, Rodolfo; Navarro, Manuel; Page, Angustias; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Ramirez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of gene expression through siRNAs is a tool increasingly used for the study of gene function in model systems, including transgenic mice. To achieve perdurable effects, the stable expression of siRNAs by an integrated transgenic construct is necessary. For transgenic siRNA expression, promoters transcribed by either RNApol II or III (such as U6 or H1 promoters) can be used. Relatively large amounts of small RNAs synthesis are achieved when using RNApol III promoters, which can be advantageous in knockdown experiments. To study the feasibility of H1 promoter-driven RNAi-expressing constructs for protein knockdown in transgenic mice, we chose IKK1 as the target gene. Our results indicate that constructs containing the H1 promoter are sensitive to the presence of prokaryotic sequences and to transgene position effects, similar to RNApol II promoters-driven constructs. We observed variable expression levels of transgenic siRNA among different tissues and animals and a reduction of up to 80% in IKK1 expression. Furthermore, IKK1 knockdown led to hair follicle alterations. In summary, we show that constructs directed by the H1 promoter can be used for knockdown of genes of interest in different organs and for the generation of animal models complementary to knockout and overexpression models. PMID:24523631

  7. Persistence of RNAi-Mediated Knockdown in Drosophila Complicates Mosaic Analysis Yet Enables Highly Sensitive Lineage Tracing.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Justin A; Sumabat, Taryn M; Hariharan, Iswar K

    2016-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful way of reducing gene function in Drosophila melanogaster tissues. By expressing synthetic short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) using the Gal4/UAS system, knockdown is efficiently achieved in specific tissues or in clones of marked cells. Here we show that knockdown by shRNAs is so potent and persistent that even transient exposure of cells to shRNAs can reduce gene function in their descendants. When using the FLP-out Gal4 method, in some instances we observed unmarked "shadow RNAi" clones adjacent to Gal4-expressing clones, which may have resulted from brief Gal4 expression following recombination but prior to cell division. Similarly, Gal4 driver lines with dynamic expression patterns can generate shadow RNAi cells after their activity has ceased in those cells. Importantly, these effects can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the cell autonomy of knockdown phenotypes. We have investigated the basis of this phenomenon and suggested experimental designs for eliminating ambiguities in interpretation. We have also exploited the persistence of shRNA-mediated knockdown to design a sensitive lineage-tracing method, i-TRACE, which is capable of detecting even low levels of past reporter expression. Using i-TRACE, we demonstrate transient infidelities in the expression of some cell-identity markers near compartment boundaries in the wing imaginal disc. PMID:26984059

  8. Rescue of Impaired Long-Term Facilitation at Sensorimotor Synapses of Aplysia following siRNA Knockdown of CREB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  9. miRNA-embedded shRNAs for Lineage-specific BCL11A Knockdown and Hemoglobin F Induction

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Swaroopa; Brendel, Christian; Renella, Raffaele; Du, Peng; Bauer, Daniel E; Canver, Matthew C; Grenier, Jennifer K; Grimson, Andrew W; Kamran, Sophia C; Thornton, James; de Boer, Helen; Root, David E; Milsom, Michael D; Orkin, Stuart H; Gregory, Richard I; Williams, David A

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) expressed via RNA polymerase (pol) III promoters has been widely exploited to modulate gene expression in a variety of mammalian cell types. For certain applications, such as lineage-specific knockdown, embedding targeting sequences into pol II-driven microRNA (miRNA) architecture is required. Here, using the potential therapeutic target BCL11A, we demonstrate that pol III-driven shRNAs lead to significantly increased knockdown but also increased cytotoxcity in comparison to pol II-driven miRNA adapted shRNAs (shRNAmiR) in multiple hematopoietic cell lines. We show that the two expression systems yield mature guide strand sequences that differ by a 4 bp shift. This results in alternate seed sequences and consequently influences the efficacy of target gene knockdown. Incorporating a corresponding 4 bp shift into the guide strand of shRNAmiRs resulted in improved knockdown efficiency of BCL11A. This was associated with a significant de-repression of the hemoglobin target of BCL11A, human γ-globin or the murine homolog Hbb-y. Our results suggest the requirement for optimization of shRNA sequences upon incorporation into a miRNA backbone. These findings have important implications in future design of shRNAmiRs for RNAi-based therapy in hemoglobinopathies and other diseases requiring lineage-specific expression of gene silencing sequences. PMID:26080908

  10. Knockdown of COUP-TFII inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through upregulating BRCA1 in renal cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Qin, Weijun; Jiao, Dian; Ren, Jing; Wei, Ming; Shi, Shengjia; Xi, Wenjin; Wang, He; Yang, An-Gang; Huan, Yi; Wen, Weihong

    2016-10-01

    COUP-TFII belongs to the nuclear receptor family, which is highly expressed in many kinds of tumors. Previous studies have shown that COUP-TFII can promote tumor progression through regulating tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation and migration of certain cancer cells. However, the function of COUP-TFII in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not clear. Here, we showed that clinical RCC tumor tissues showed much higher COUP-TFII expression level than adjacent normal tissues. When COUP-TFII was knocked down in RCC 769-P and 786-O cells by siRNA or shRNA-expressing lentivirus, the cell proliferation was markedly inhibited, and apoptosis increased. Moreover, the tumor growth of COUP-TFII knockdown 769-P and 786-O xenografts in nude mice was also obviously inhibited. Using qRT-PCR and Western blot, we showed that the expression of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 was upregulated in COUP-TFII knockdown cells. Simultaneously knockdown of BRCA1 and COUP-TFII partially rescued the inhibited cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in COUP-TFII single knockdown cells. These results indicate that COUP-TFII may play an oncogenic role in RCC, and COUP-TFII may promote tumor progression through inhibiting BRCA1. PMID:27193872

  11. Persistence of RNAi-Mediated Knockdown in Drosophila Complicates Mosaic Analysis Yet Enables Highly Sensitive Lineage Tracing

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Justin A.; Sumabat, Taryn M.; Hariharan, Iswar K.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful way of reducing gene function in Drosophila melanogaster tissues. By expressing synthetic short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) using the Gal4/UAS system, knockdown is efficiently achieved in specific tissues or in clones of marked cells. Here we show that knockdown by shRNAs is so potent and persistent that even transient exposure of cells to shRNAs can reduce gene function in their descendants. When using the FLP-out Gal4 method, in some instances we observed unmarked “shadow RNAi” clones adjacent to Gal4-expressing clones, which may have resulted from brief Gal4 expression following recombination but prior to cell division. Similarly, Gal4 driver lines with dynamic expression patterns can generate shadow RNAi cells after their activity has ceased in those cells. Importantly, these effects can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the cell autonomy of knockdown phenotypes. We have investigated the basis of this phenomenon and suggested experimental designs for eliminating ambiguities in interpretation. We have also exploited the persistence of shRNA-mediated knockdown to design a sensitive lineage-tracing method, i-TRACE, which is capable of detecting even low levels of past reporter expression. Using i-TRACE, we demonstrate transient infidelities in the expression of some cell-identity markers near compartment boundaries in the wing imaginal disc. PMID:26984059

  12. Simultaneous knockdown of six non-family genes using a single synthetic RNAi fragment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Bryan, Anthony C.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Yang, Xiaohan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Gui; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2016-02-17

    Genetic engineering of plants that results in successful establishment of new biochemical or regulatory pathways requires stable introduction of one or more genes into the plant genome. It might also be necessary to down-regulate or turn off expression of endogenous genes in order to reduce activity of competing pathways. An established way to knockdown gene expression in plants is expressing a hairpin-RNAi construct, eventually leading to degradation of a specifically targeted mRNA. Knockdown of multiple genes that do not share homologous sequences is still challenging and involves either sophisticated cloning strategies to create vectors with different serial expression constructs ormore » multiple transformation events that is often restricted by a lack of available transformation markers. Synthetic RNAi fragments were assembled in yeast carrying homologous sequences to six or seven non-family genes and introduced into pAGRIKOLA. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and subsequent expression analysis of targeted genes proved efficient knockdown of all target genes. In conclusion, we present a simple and cost-effective method to create constructs to simultaneously knockdown multiple non-family genes or genes that do not share sequence homology. The presented method can be applied in plant and animal synthetic biology as well as traditional plant and animal genetic engineering.« less

  13. Rescue of impaired long-term facilitation at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia following siRNA knockdown of CREB1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J; Byrne, John H

    2015-01-28

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  14. ZFX knockdown inhibits growth and migration of non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line H1299.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Zhu, Zhi-Chuan; Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Ji-Wei; Wang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Shen, Xu; Hu, Ze-Lan; Zheng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    ZFX (zinc finger transcription factor, X chromosome-linked) contributes to the maintenance of different types of stem cells and the progression of various cancers. We have previously reported that ZFX knockdown inhibits proliferation of glioma in vitro and in vivo. Since overexpression of ZFX in lung cancer tissue correlates with lymph node metastasis, we hypothesized that ZFX may play a role in lung cancer. In this study, we identified ZFX as a promoter of lung cancer growth and migration in a NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma) cell line H1299. ZFX knockdown caused proliferation inhibition determined by MTT assay and colony formation assay, G0/G1 arrest of cell cycle and slightly increased proportion of apoptotic cells assessed by flow cytometry assay, decreased population of migrating cells showed by wound-healing assay, increased cell senescence evidenced by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. ZFX knockdown also led to decreased proportion of tumor bearing mice and reduced mean tumor volume in a subcutaneous tumor model. In addition, western blot showed that ZFX knockdown down regulated a set of proteins involved in proliferation, survival and motility. Altogether, these results suggest that ZFX may be a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:24228108

  15. Knockdown of S100A7 reduces lung squamous cell carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guijuan; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Guilan; Song, Xueying; Zhang, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: S100A7 plays a role in the malignant potential of several epithelial cancers, and could candidate diagnostic marker or therapeutic target. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulates cancer cell growth and is modulated by phospholipase activity in many cancer cells. In the present study, we first evaluate the involvement of S100A7 in lung squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical usefulness for diagnosis. We then study whether knockdown of S100A7 in lung squamous cell carcinoma cells would reduce cell proliferation and NF-κB activity in vitro and attenuate tumor growth in vivo. Methods: We examined S100A7 expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues by immunohistology .The human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line NCI-H520 were transduced with short hairpin RNA targeting S100A7. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting confirmed knockdown of S100A7 messenger RNA and protein, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay. NF-κB phosphorylation was assayed by western blot. 1×106 of NCI-H520/S100A7 knockdown cells were injected into the left flanks of nude mice (aged 6 to 8 weeks). Tumors were followed for 35 days, then removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, stained with Ki-67, and analyzed for S100A7 protein expression. Results: S100A7 protein levels were significantly higher in carcinoma specimens than in nonneoplastic tissues. S100A7 might be a useful marker for diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. In vitro data showed that inhibition of S100A7 decreased proliferation of NCI-H520 cells. S100A7 knockdown reduced NF-κB phosphorylation and tumor growth in vivo and vivo. Explanted knockdown tumors maintained lower S100A7 levels compared with wild-type, confirmed by immunohistology. Ki-67 staining was more prominent throughout the wild-type tumors compared with knockdown tumors. Conclusions: Our present results suggest that S100A7 level is a promising tool for diagnosis of lung

  16. Combined antisense knockdown of type 1 and type 2 iodothyronine deiodinases disrupts embryonic development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Walpita, Chaminda N; Crawford, Alexander D; Darras, Veerle M

    2010-03-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of gene expression during vertebrate development. In teleosts, early embryos rely on the maternal TH deposit in the egg yolk, consisting predominantly of T(4). Activation of T(4) to T(3) by iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds) may therefore be an important factor in determining T(3)-dependent development. In zebrafish, both Ds capable of T(3) production, D1 and D2, are first expressed very early during embryonic development. We sought to determine their relative importance for zebrafish embryonic development by inhibiting their expression via antisense oligonucleotides against D1 and D2, and by a combined knockdown of both deiodinases. The impact of these treatments on the rate of embryonic development was estimated via three morphological indices: otic vesicle length, head-trunk angle and pigmentation index. Knockdown of D1 alone seemed not to affect developmental progression. In contrast, D2 knockdown resulted in a clear developmental delay in all parameters scored, suggesting that D2 is the major contributor to TH activation in developing zebrafish embryos. Importantly, combined knockdown of D1 and D2 caused not only a more pronounced developmental delay than D2 knockdown alone but also the appearance of dysmorphologies in a substantial minority of treated embryos. This shows that although D1 may not be essential in euthyroid conditions, it may be crucial under depleted thyroid status as is the case when T(3) production by D2 is inhibited. These results indicate that zebrafish embryos are dependent on T(4) uptake and its subsequent activation to T(3), and suggest that substantial inhibition of embryonic T(4) to T(3) conversion reduces intracellular T(3) availability below the threshold level necessary for normal development. PMID:19800339

  17. Knockdown of long noncoding RNA H19 sensitizes human glioma cells to temozolomide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pengfei; Wang, Ping; Sun, Xiaoling; Yuan, Zhongshun; Zhan, Rucai; Ma, Xiangyu; Li, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is commonly used in glioma chemotherapy. However, a great clinical challenge for TMZ is chemoresistance. H19 transcripts are recognized as long noncoding RNAs, which potentially interact with chromatin-modifying complexes to regulate gene expression via epigenetic changes. Our data based on glioma patients showed that the expression of H19 was significantly upregulated in TMZ-resistant tumors compared with the TMZ-sensitive tumors. To determine the function of H19 in glioma, cell lines U87 and U251 were exposed to TMZ to establish TMZ-resistant clones U87TMZ and U251TMZ. In U87TMZ and U251TMZ, the expression level of H19 transcripts was increased compared to wild-type or nonresistant clones, as determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Concomitant treatment with small interfering RNA specifically targeting H19 and TMZ in resistant glioma clones resulted in decreased IC50 values for TMZ, and increased apoptotic rates than control small interfering RNA-treated cells. This was also evident by the increased PARP cleavage in resistant cells exposed to TMZ + si-H19. Furthermore, the reduced expression of H19 altered major drug resistance genes, such as MDR, MRP, and ABCG2, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that H19 plays an important role in the development of TMZ resistance, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for TMZ-resistant gliomas. PMID:27366087

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Knock-Down in Post-Mitotic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Saulnier, Jessica L.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The prokaryotic adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas9 has recently been adapted for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. This technique allows for sequence-specific induction of double-strand breaks in genomic DNA of individual cells, effectively resulting in knock-out of targeted genes. It thus promises to be an ideal candidate for application in neuroscience where constitutive genetic modifications are frequently either lethal or ineffective due to adaptive changes of the brain. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9 to knock-out Grin1, the gene encoding the obligatory NMDA receptor subunit protein GluN1, in a sparse population of mouse pyramidal neurons. Within this genetically mosaic tissue, manipulated cells lack synaptic current mediated by NMDA-type glutamate receptors consistent with complete knock-out of the targeted gene. Our results show the first proof-of-principle demonstration of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-down in neurons in vivo, where it can be a useful tool to study the function of specific proteins in neuronal circuits. PMID:25140704

  19. In vivo knockdown of Piccolino disrupts presynaptic ribbon morphology in mouse photoreceptor synapses

    PubMed Central

    Regus-Leidig, Hanna; Fuchs, Michaela; Löhner, Martina; Leist, Sarah R.; Leal-Ortiz, Sergio; Chiodo, Vince A.; Hauswirth, William W.; Garner, Craig C.; Brandstätter, Johann H.

    2014-01-01

    Piccolo is the largest known cytomatrix protein at active zones of chemical synapses. A growing number of studies on conventional chemical synapses assign Piccolo a role in the recruitment and integration of molecules relevant for both endo- and exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, the dynamic assembly of presynaptic F-actin, as well as the proteostasis of presynaptic proteins, yet a direct function in the structural organization of the active zone has not been uncovered in part due to the expression of multiple alternatively spliced isoforms. We recently identified Piccolino, a Piccolo splice variant specifically expressed in sensory ribbon synapses of the eye and ear. Here we down regulated Piccolino in vivo via an adeno-associated virus-based RNA interference approach and explored the impact on the presynaptic structure of mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Detailed immunocytochemical light and electron microscopical analysis of Piccolino knockdown in photoreceptors revealed a hitherto undescribed photoreceptor ribbon synaptic phenotype with striking morphological changes of synaptic ribbon ultrastructure. PMID:25232303

  20. Lentivirus-Mediated Knockdown of Myosin VI Inhibits Cell Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Biyun; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Ziang

    2015-10-01

    Myosin VI (MYO6) is a unique member of the myosin superfamily, and almost no experimental studies link MYO6 to tumorigenesis of breast cancer. However, previous microarray data demonstrated that MYO6 was frequently overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. In this study, to further develop its role in breast cancer, endogenous expression of MYO6 was significantly inhibited in breast cancer ZR-75-30 and MDA-MB-231 cells using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot were applied to detect the expression level of MYO6. Cell viability of both cell lines was measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium and colony formation assays. Besides, cell cycle assay was utilized to acquire the distribution information of cell phase. The results demonstrated that knockdown of MYO6 markedly reduced cell viability and colony formation, as well as suppressed cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells. The results suggested that MYO6 played a vital role in breast cancer cells and might provide useful information for diagnosis and therapy of human breast cancer in future. PMID:26407123

  1. Effective knockdown of Drosophila long non-coding RNAs by CRISPR interference.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Tibbit, Charlotte; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-05-19

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of gene expression across metazoa. Interestingly, some lncRNAs function independently of their transcripts - the transcription of the lncRNA locus itself affects target genes. However, current methods of loss-of-function analysis are insufficient to address the role of lncRNA transcription from the transcript which has impeded analysis of their function. Using the minimal CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, we show that coexpression of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and guide RNAs targeting the endogenous roX locus in the Drosophila cells results in a robust and specific knockdown of roX1 and roX2 RNAs, thus eliminating the need for recruiting chromatin modifying proteins for effective gene silencing. Additionally, we find that the human and Drosophila codon optimized dCas9 genes are functional and show similar transcription repressive activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the minimal CRISPRi system suppresses roX transcription efficiently in vivo resulting in loss-of-function phenotype, thus validating the method for the first time in a multicelluar organism. Our analysis expands the genetic toolkit available for interrogating lncRNA function in situ and is adaptable for targeting multiple genes across model organisms. PMID:26850642

  2. Mitofusin-2 knockdown increases ER-mitochondria contact and decreases amyloid β-peptide production.

    PubMed

    Leal, Nuno Santos; Schreiner, Bernadette; Pinho, Catarina Moreira; Filadi, Riccardo; Wiehager, Birgitta; Karlström, Helena; Pizzo, Paola; Ankarcrona, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are physically and biochemically in contact with other organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Such contacts are formed between mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized subregions of ER, and the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). We have previously shown increased expression of MAM-associated proteins and enhanced ER to mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer from ER to mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-related neuronal models. Here, we report that siRNA knockdown of mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), a protein that is involved in the tethering of ER and mitochondria, leads to increased contact between the two organelles. Cells depleted in Mfn2 showed increased Ca(2+) transfer from ER to mitchondria and longer stretches of ER forming contacts with OMM. Interestingly, increased contact resulted in decreased concentrations of intra- and extracellular Aβ40 and Aβ42 . Analysis of γ-secretase protein expression, maturation and activity revealed that the low Aβ concentrations were a result of impaired γ-secretase complex function. Amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 and neprilysin expression as well as neprilysin activity were not affected by Mfn2 siRNA treatment. In summary, our data shows that modulation of ER-mitochondria contact affects γ-secretase activity and Aβ generation. Increased ER-mitochondria contact results in lower γ-secretase activity suggesting a new mechanism by which Aβ generation can be controlled. PMID:27203684

  3. Investigation of micronucleus induction in MTH1 knockdown cells exposed to UVA, UVB or UVC.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Asal; Cornella, Nicola; Ramezani, Mehrafarin; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2015-11-01

    The longer wave parts of UVR can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can oxidize nucleotides in the DNA or in the nucleotide pool leading to mutations. Oxidized bases in the DNA are repaired mainly by the DNA base excision repair system and incorporation of oxidized nucleotides into newly synthesized DNA can be prevented by the enzyme MTH1. Here we hypothesize that the formation of several oxidized base damages (from pool and DNA) in close proximity, would cause a high number of base excision repair events, leading to DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and therefore giving rise to cytogenetic damage. If this hypothesis is true, cells with low levels of MTH1 will show higher cytogenetic damage after the longer wave parts of UVR. We analyzed micronuclei induction (MN) as an endpoint for cytogenetic damage in the human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6, with a normal and a reduced level of MTH1 exposed to UVR. The results indicate a higher level of micronuclei at all incubation times after exposure to the longer wave parts of UVR. There is no significant difference between wildtype and MTH1-knockdown TK6 cells, indicating that MTH1 has no protective role in UVR-induced cytogenetic damage. This indicates that DSBs induced by UV arise from damage forms by direct interaction of UV or ROS with the DNA rather than through oxidation of dNTP. PMID:26520386

  4. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  5. Dynamic knockdown of E. coli central metabolism for redirecting fluxes of primary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Irene M.; Prather, Kristala L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Control of native enzyme levels is important when optimizing strains for overproduction of heterologous compounds. However, for many central metabolic enzymes, static knockdown results in poor growth and protein expression. We have developed a strategy for dynamically modulating the abundance of native enzymes within the host cell and applied this to a model system for myo-inositol production from glucose. This system relies on controlled degradation of a key glycolytic enzyme, phosphofructokinase-I (Pfk-I). Through tuning Pfk-I levels, we have been able to develop an E. coli strain with a growth mode close to wild type and a production mode with an increased glucose-6-phosphate pool available for conversion into myo-inositol. The switch to production mode is trigged by inducer addition, allowing yield, titer, and productivity to be managed through induction time. By varying the time of Pfk-I degradation, we were able to achieve a two-fold improvement in yield and titers of myo-inositol. PMID:25542851

  6. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells.

    PubMed

    Marine, Akira; Krager, Kimberly J; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Macmillan-Crow, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS) which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels) induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation. PMID:24563852

  7. p27 Nuclear localization and growth arrest caused by perlecan knockdown in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Katsuya; Oka, Kiyomasa; Matsumoto, Kunio; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2010-02-12

    Perlecan, a secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a major component of the vascular basement membrane and participates in angiogenesis. Here, we used small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of perlecan expression to investigate the regulatory function of perlecan in the growth of human vascular endothelial cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression were unchanged by perlecan deficiency in endothelial cells; however, perlecan deficiency inhibited the Rb protein phosphorylation and DNA synthesis induced by bFGF. By contrast to cytoplasmic localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in control endothelial cells, p27 was localized in the nucleus and its expression increased in perlecan-deficient cells, which suggests that p27 mediates inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. In addition to the well-characterized function of perlecan as a co-receptor for heparin-binding growth factors such as bFGF, our results suggest that perlecan plays an indispensible role in endothelial cell proliferation and acts through a mechanism that involves subcellular localization of p27.

  8. Knockdown of Brm and Baf170, Components of Chromatin Remodeling Complex, Facilitates Reprogramming of Somatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zongliang; Tang, Yong; Zhao, Xueming; Zhang, Mingyuan; Donovan, David M; Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2015-10-01

    The SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable or BAF, Brg/Brahma-associated factors) complexes are epigenetic modifiers of chromatin structure and undergo progressive changes in subunit composition during cellular differentiation. For example, in embryonic stem cells, esBAF contains Brg1 and Baf155, while their homologs, Brm and Baf170, are present in BAF of somatic cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether Brm and Baf170 play any roles in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming by using shRNA-mediated knockdown studies in the mouse model. We found that knocking down Brm during early, mid, and late stages (days 3, 6, and 9 after initial iPSC induction) and knocking down Baf170 during late-stage (day 9) reprogramming improve the numbers of iPSC colonies formed. We further showed that inhibition of these somatic BAF components also promotes complete reprogramming of partially reprogrammed somatic cells (pre-iPSCs). Finally, we found that the expression of Brm and Baf170 during reprogramming was regulated by Jak/Stat3 activity. Taken together, these data suggest that inhibiting somatic BAF improves complete reprogramming by facilitating the activation of the pluripotency circuitry. PMID:26121422

  9. Antisense precision polymer micelles require less poly(ethylenimine) for efficient gene knockdown.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Johans J; Edwardson, Thomas G; Conway, Justin W; Trinh, Tuan; Khan, Farhad; Barłóg, Maciej; Bazzi, Hassan S; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2015-12-28

    Therapeutic nucleic acids are powerful molecules for shutting down protein expression. However, their cellular uptake is poor and requires transport vectors, such as cationic polymers. Of these, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) has been shown to be an efficient vehicle for nucleic acid transport into cells. However, cytotoxicity has been a major hurdle in the development of PEI-DNA complexes as clinically viable therapeutics. We have synthesized antisense-polymer conjugates, where the polymeric block is completely monodisperse and sequence-controlled. Depending on the polymer sequence, these can self-assemble to produce micelles of very low polydispersity. The introduction of linear poly(ethylenimine) to these micelles leads to aggregation into size-defined PEI-mediated superstructures. Subsequently, both cellular uptake and gene silencing are greatly enhanced over extended periods compared to antisense alone, while at the same time cellular cytotoxicity remains very low. In contrast, gene silencing is not enhanced with antisense polymer conjugates that are not able to self-assemble into micelles. Thus, using antisense precision micelles, we are able to achieve significant transfection and knockdown with minimal cytotoxicity at much lower concentrations of linear PEI then previously reported. Consequently, a conceptual solution to the problem of antisense or siRNA delivery is to self-assemble these molecules into 'gene-like' micelles with high local charge and increased stability, thus reducing the amount of transfection agent needed for effective gene silencing. PMID:26597764

  10. Establishment of bovine embryonic stem cells after knockdown of CDX2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Song, Miao; Yang, Xi; Liu, Xin; Liu, Kun; Jiao, Cuihua; Wang, Jinze; Bai, Chunling; Su, Guanghua; Liu, Xuefei; Li, Guangpeng

    2016-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs) have not been successfully established yet. One reason could be that CDX2, as the trophectoderm regulator, expresses in bovine inner cell mass (ICM), which probably becomes a technical barrier for maintaining the pluripotency of bESCs in vitro. We hypothesized that CDX2 knockdown (CDX2-KD) could remove such negative effort, which will be helpful for capturing complete and permanent capacity of pluripotency. Expression and localization of pluripotent genes were not affected in CDX2-KD blastocysts. The CDX2-KD bESCs grew into monolayers on feeder layer. Pluripotent genes expressed at an improved levels and lasted longer time in CDX2-KD bESCs, along with down-regulation of DNA methylation on promoters of both OCT4 and SOX2. The cystic structure typical for trophoblast cells did not show during culturing CDX2-KD bESCs. CDX2-KD bESC-derived Embryoid bodies showed with compact morphology and with the improved levels of differentiations in three germ layers. CDX2-KD bESCs still carried the capacity of forming teratomas with three germ layers after long-term culture. In summary, CDX2 in bovine ICM was inducer of trophoblast lineage with negative effect on maintenance of pluripotency of bESCs. Precise regulation CDX2 expression to switch on/off will be studied next for application on establishment of bESCs. PMID:27320776

  11. Knockdown of proteins involved in iron metabolism limits tick reproduction and development

    PubMed Central

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Sojka, Daniel; Kopacek, Petr; Buresova, Veronika; Franta, Zdenek; Sauman, Ivo; Winzerling, Joy; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of a wide range of human and animal diseases. During blood feeding, ticks are exposed to an enormous amount of free iron that must be appropriately used and detoxified. However, the mechanism of iron metabolism in ticks is poorly understood. Here, we show that ticks possess a complex system that efficiently utilizes, stores and transports non-heme iron within the tick body. We have characterized a new secreted ferritin (FER2) and an iron regulatory protein (IRP1) from the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus, and have demonstrated their relationship to a previously described tick intracellular ferritin (FER1). By using RNA interference-mediated gene silencing in the tick, we show that synthesis of FER1, but not of FER2, is subject to IRP1-mediated translational control. Further, we find that depletion of FER2 from the tick plasma leads to a loss of FER1 expression in the salivary glands and ovaries that normally follows blood ingestion. We therefore suggest that secreted FER2 functions as the primary transporter of non-heme iron between the tick gut and the peripheral tissues. Silencing of the fer1, fer2, and irp1 genes by RNAi has an adverse impact on hatching rate and decreases postbloodmeal weight in tick females. Importantly, knockdown of fer2 dramatically impairs the ability of ticks to feed, thus making FER2 a promising candidate for development of an efficient anti-tick vaccine. PMID:19171899

  12. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  13. Morphological Profiles of RNAi-Induced Gene Knockdown Are Highly Reproducible but Dominated by Seed Effects

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shantanu; Wu, Xiaoyun; Ljosa, Vebjorn; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Piccioni, Federica; Root, David E.; Doench, John G.; Boehm, Jesse S.; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference and morphological profiling—the measurement of thousands of phenotypes from individual cells by microscopy and image analysis—are a potentially powerful combination. We show that morphological profiles of RNAi-induced knockdown using the Cell Painting assay are in fact highly sensitive and reproducible. However, we find that the magnitude and prevalence of off-target effects via the RNAi seed-based mechanism make morphological profiles of RNAi reagents targeting the same gene look no more similar than reagents targeting different genes. Pairs of RNAi reagents that share the same seed sequence produce image-based profiles that are much more similar to each other than profiles from pairs designed to target the same gene, a phenomenon previously observed in small-scale gene-expression profiling experiments. Various strategies have been used to enrich on-target versus off-target effects in the context of RNAi screening where a narrow set of phenotypes are measured, mostly based on comparing multiple sequences targeting the same gene; however, new approaches will be needed to make RNAi morphological profiling (that is, comparing multi-dimensional phenotypes) viable. We have shared our raw data and computational pipelines to facilitate research. PMID:26197079

  14. KLF8 knockdown suppresses proliferation and invasion in human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LIN, FENG; SHEN, ZAN; TANG, LI-NA; ZHENG, SHUI-ER; SUN, YUAN-JUE; MIN, DA-LIU; YAO, YANG

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) is a transcription factor that is important in the regulation of the cell cycle and has a critical role in oncogenic transformation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is a key process in tumor metastasis. Although overexpression of KLF8 has been observed in a variety of human tumor types, the role of KLF8 in human osteosarcoma is yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the biological impact of KLF8 on Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. KLF8 gene expression was knocked down in vitro using a lentivirus-mediated small interfering (si)RNA method. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were evaluated using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-yl)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide and colony formation assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell invasion was analyzed using a Transwell® invasion assay. Knockdown of KLF8 was found to significantly inhibit proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma cells. These data suggest that KLF8 may exhibit an important role in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis and that KLF8 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:24604387

  15. Establishment of bovine embryonic stem cells after knockdown of CDX2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Song, Miao; Yang, Xi; Liu, Xin; Liu, Kun; Jiao, Cuihua; Wang, Jinze; Bai, Chunling; Su, Guanghua; Liu, Xuefei; Li, Guangpeng

    2016-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs) have not been successfully established yet. One reason could be that CDX2, as the trophectoderm regulator, expresses in bovine inner cell mass (ICM), which probably becomes a technical barrier for maintaining the pluripotency of bESCs in vitro. We hypothesized that CDX2 knockdown (CDX2-KD) could remove such negative effort, which will be helpful for capturing complete and permanent capacity of pluripotency. Expression and localization of pluripotent genes were not affected in CDX2-KD blastocysts. The CDX2-KD bESCs grew into monolayers on feeder layer. Pluripotent genes expressed at an improved levels and lasted longer time in CDX2-KD bESCs, along with down-regulation of DNA methylation on promoters of both OCT4 and SOX2. The cystic structure typical for trophoblast cells did not show during culturing CDX2-KD bESCs. CDX2-KD bESC-derived Embryoid bodies showed with compact morphology and with the improved levels of differentiations in three germ layers. CDX2-KD bESCs still carried the capacity of forming teratomas with three germ layers after long-term culture. In summary, CDX2 in bovine ICM was inducer of trophoblast lineage with negative effect on maintenance of pluripotency of bESCs. Precise regulation CDX2 expression to switch on/off will be studied next for application on establishment of bESCs. PMID:27320776

  16. First knockdown gene expression in bat (Hipposideros armiger) brain mediated by lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhu, Tengteng; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Junpeng; Sun, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent experimental tool for investigating gene functions in vitro and in vivo. It has advantages that transgenic technology lacks. However, in vivo applications are difficult to apply in the central nervous system of non-model organisms due to the lack of a standard brain atlas and genetic information. Here, we report the development of an in vivo gene delivery system used in bat brain tissue for the first time, based on lentivirus (LV) vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Hipposideros armiger forkhead box P2 (FoxP2). In vitro transfection into HEK 293T cell with the vector bearing the cassettes encoding FoxP2 shRNA verified the knockdown efficiency. Pseudovirus particles were administered via stereotactic intracerebral microinjection into the anterior cingulate cortex of H. armiger. FoxP2 is of major interest because of its role in sensorimotor coordination and probably in echolocation. Subsequent in situ hybridization validated the in vivo silencing of the target gene. This report demonstrates that LV-mediated expression of RNAi could achieve effective gene silencing in bats, a non-model organism, and will assist in elucidating the functions of bat genes. PMID:22965420

  17. Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 attenuates hepatocyte growth factor-induced endothelial progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yankun; Song, Mingbao; Guo, Ruiwei; Wang, Hong; Gao, Pan; Shi, Weibin; Huang, Lan

    2010-03-01

    Increased Ca(2+) entry through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCCs) plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell proliferation. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is thought to transmit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store depletion signals to the plasma membrane (PM), causing the opening of SOCCs in the PM. However, the relationship between HGF and STIM1 in endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) proliferation remains uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential involvement of STIM1 in HGF-induced EPC proliferation. For this purpose, we used cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs and found that HGF-induced EPC proliferation at low concentrations. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) was elevated in HGF-treated EPCs, and the SOCC inhibitors 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and BTP-2 inhibited the HGF-induced proliferation response. Moreover, STIM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were increased in response to HGF stimulation and knockdown of STMI1 decreased SOCE and prevented HGF-induced EPC proliferation. In conclusion, our data suggest that HGF-induced EPC proliferation is mediated partly via activation of STIM1. PMID:20404049

  18. The Knockdown of αkap Alters the Postsynaptic Apparatus of Neuromuscular Junctions in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Pena y Valenzuela, Isabel; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Chen, Po-Ju

    2015-01-01

    A muscle-specific nonkinase anchoring protein (αkap), encoded within the calcium/calmodulin kinase II (camk2) α gene, was recently found to control the stability of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters on the surface of cultured myotubes. However, it remains unknown whether this protein has any effect on receptor stability and the maintenance of the structural integrity of neuromuscular synapses in vivo. By knocking down the endogenous expression of αkap in mouse sternomastoid muscles with shRNA, we found that the postsynaptic receptor density was dramatically reduced, the turnover rate of receptors at synaptic sites was significantly increased, and the insertion rates of both newly synthesized and recycled receptors into the postsynaptic membrane were depressed. Moreover, we found that αkap shRNA knockdown impaired synaptic structure as postsynaptic AChR clusters and their associated postsynaptic scaffold proteins within the neuromuscular junction were completely eliminated. These results provide new mechanistic insight into the role of αkap in regulating the stability of the postsynaptic apparatus of neuromuscular synapses. PMID:25834039

  19. Systems-wide Analysis of a Phosphatase Knock-down by Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Maximiliane; Bonaldi, Tiziana; Gnad, Florian; Mann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Signal transduction in metazoans regulates almost all aspects of biological function, and aberrant signaling is involved in many diseases. Perturbations in phosphorylation-based signaling networks are typically studied in a hypothesis-driven approach, using phospho-specific antibodies. Here we apply quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine the systems response to the depletion of one signaling component. Drosophila cells were metabolically labeled using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and the phosphatase Ptp61F, the ortholog of mammalian PTB1B, a drug target for diabetes, was knocked down by RNAi. In total we detected more than 10,000 phosphorylation sites in the phosphoproteome of Drosophila Schneider cells and trained a phosphorylation site predictor with this data. SILAC-based quantitation after phosphatase knock-down showed that apart from the phosphatase, the proteome was minimally affected whereas 288 of 6,478 high-confidence phosphorylation sites changed significantly. Responses at the phosphotyrosine level included the already described Ptp61F substrates Stat92E and Abi. Our analysis highlights a connection of Ptp61F to cytoskeletal regulation through GTPase regulating proteins and focal adhesion components. PMID:19429919

  20. Genetic Architecture of a Hormonal Response to Gene Knockdown in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Ying; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several other traits cosegregate with these behavioral phenotypes, comprising the pollen hoarding syndrome (PHS) one of the best-described animal behavioral syndromes. Genotype differences in responsiveness of JH to Vg are a potential mechanistic basis for the PHS. Here, we reduced Vg expression via RNA interference in progeny from a backcross between 2 selected lines of honey bees that differ in JH responsiveness to Vg reduction and measured JH response and ovary size, which represents another key aspect of the PHS. Genetic mapping based on restriction site-associated DNA tag sequencing identified suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ovary size and JH responsiveness. We confirmed genetic effects on both traits near many QTL that had been identified previously for their effect on various PHS traits. Thus, our results support a role for endocrine control of complex traits at a genetic level. Furthermore, this first example of a genetic map of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in a social insect helps to refine the genetic understanding of complex behaviors and the physiology that may underlie behavioral control in general. PMID:25596612

  1. Effective knockdown of Drosophila long non-coding RNAs by CRISPR interference

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Tibbit, Charlotte; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of gene expression across metazoa. Interestingly, some lncRNAs function independently of their transcripts – the transcription of the lncRNA locus itself affects target genes. However, current methods of loss-of-function analysis are insufficient to address the role of lncRNA transcription from the transcript which has impeded analysis of their function. Using the minimal CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, we show that coexpression of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and guide RNAs targeting the endogenous roX locus in the Drosophila cells results in a robust and specific knockdown of roX1 and roX2 RNAs, thus eliminating the need for recruiting chromatin modifying proteins for effective gene silencing. Additionally, we find that the human and Drosophila codon optimized dCas9 genes are functional and show similar transcription repressive activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the minimal CRISPRi system suppresses roX transcription efficiently in vivo resulting in loss-of-function phenotype, thus validating the method for the first time in a multicelluar organism. Our analysis expands the genetic toolkit available for interrogating lncRNA function in situ and is adaptable for targeting multiple genes across model organisms. PMID:26850642

  2. Knockdown of ANXA1 suppresses the biological behavior of human NSCLC cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    FANG, YING; GUAN, XIAOYING; CAI, TONGHUI; LONG, JIE; WANG, HONGYAN; XIE, XIAOBIN; ZHANG, YAJIE

    2016-01-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin superfamily. Previous studies have reported that ANXA1 is highly expressed in various types of malignant tumor; however, its role in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains to be fully clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the oncogenic role of ANXA1 in NSCLC cells in vitro. RNA interference was used to down-regulate ANXA1 expression in A549 and H1299 cells using a small interfering RNA lentiviral vector. Subsequently, cell proliferation and migration were detected using Cell Counting kit-8, clone formation, wound healing and Transwell chamber assays. Successful transfection was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy, which demonstrated that ANXA1 had been efficiently inhibited. ANXA1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence suggesting that ANXA1 may contribute to the growth and invasion of NSCLC cell lines, and ANXA1 may be exploited as an in vitro therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27035116

  3. Knockdown of ANXA1 suppresses the biological behavior of human NSCLC cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Guan, Xiaoying; Cai, Tonghui; Long, Jie; Wang, Hongyan; Xie, Xiaobin; Zhang, Yajie

    2016-05-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin superfamily. Previous studies have reported that ANXA1 is highly expressed in various types of malignant tumor; however, its role in the progression of non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains to be fully clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the oncogenic role of ANXA1 in NSCLC cells in vitro. RNA interference was used to downregulate ANXA1 expression in A549 and H1299 cells using a small interfering RNA lentiviral vector. Subsequently, cell proliferation and migration were detected using Cell Counting kit‑8, clone formation, wound healing and Transwell chamber assays. Successful transfection was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy, which demonstrated that ANXA1 had been efficiently inhibited. ANXA1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence suggesting that ANXA1 may contribute to the growth and invasion of NSCLC cell lines, and ANXA1 may be exploited as an in vitro therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27035116

  4. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10. PMID:27258267

  5. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C–C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10. PMID:27258267

  6. Antisense precision polymer micelles require less poly(ethylenimine) for efficient gene knockdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhoury, Johans J.; Edwardson, Thomas G.; Conway, Justin W.; Trinh, Tuan; Khan, Farhad; Barłóg, Maciej; Bazzi, Hassan S.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic nucleic acids are powerful molecules for shutting down protein expression. However, their cellular uptake is poor and requires transport vectors, such as cationic polymers. Of these, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) has been shown to be an efficient vehicle for nucleic acid transport into cells. However, cytotoxicity has been a major hurdle in the development of PEI-DNA complexes as clinically viable therapeutics. We have synthesized antisense-polymer conjugates, where the polymeric block is completely monodisperse and sequence-controlled. Depending on the polymer sequence, these can self-assemble to produce micelles of very low polydispersity. The introduction of linear poly(ethylenimine) to these micelles leads to aggregation into size-defined PEI-mediated superstructures. Subsequently, both cellular uptake and gene silencing are greatly enhanced over extended periods compared to antisense alone, while at the same time cellular cytotoxicity remains very low. In contrast, gene silencing is not enhanced with antisense polymer conjugates that are not able to self-assemble into micelles. Thus, using antisense precision micelles, we are able to achieve significant transfection and knockdown with minimal cytotoxicity at much lower concentrations of linear PEI then previously reported. Consequently, a conceptual solution to the problem of antisense or siRNA delivery is to self-assemble these molecules into `gene-like' micelles with high local charge and increased stability, thus reducing the amount of transfection agent needed for effective gene silencing.Therapeutic nucleic acids are powerful molecules for shutting down protein expression. However, their cellular uptake is poor and requires transport vectors, such as cationic polymers. Of these, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) has been shown to be an efficient vehicle for nucleic acid transport into cells. However, cytotoxicity has been a major hurdle in the development of PEI-DNA complexes as clinically viable

  7. GATA4 knockdown in MA-10 Leydig cells identifies multiple target genes in the steroidogenic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Francis; Nadeau, Gabriel; Viger, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    GATA4 is an essential transcription factor required for the initiation of genital ridge formation, for normal testicular and ovarian differentiation at the time of sex determination, and for male and female fertility in adulthood. In spite of its crucial roles, the genes and/or gene networks that are ultimately regulated by GATA4 in gonadal tissues remain to be fully understood. This is particularly true for the steroidogenic lineages such as Leydig cells of the testis where many in vitro (promoter) studies have provided good circumstantial evidence that GATA4 is a key regulator of Leydig cell gene expression and steroidogenesis, but formal proof is still lacking. We therefore performed a microarray screening analysis of MA-10 Leydig cells in which Gata4 expression was knocked down using an siRNA strategy. Analysis identified several GATA4-regulated pathways including cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol transport, and especially steroidogenesis. A decrease in GATA4 protein was associated with decreased expression of steroidogenic genes previously suspected to be GATA4 targets such as Cyp11a1 and Star. Gata4 knockdown also led to an important decrease in other novel steroidogenic targets including Srd5a1, Gsta3, Hsd3b1, and Hsd3b6, as well as genes known to participate in cholesterol metabolism such as Scarb1, Ldlr, Soat1, Scap, and Cyp51. Consistent with the decreased expression of these genes, a reduction in GATA4 protein compromised the ability of MA-10 cells to produce steroids both basally and under hormone stimulation. These data therefore provide strong evidence that GATA4 is an essential transcription factor that sits atop of the Leydig cell steroidogenic program. PMID:25504870

  8. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase knockdown protects against diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Daniel; Yang, Qin; Kong, Dong; Banks, Alexander S; Zhang, Lin; Rodgers, Joseph T; Pirinen, Eija; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas C; Gong, Fengying; Wang, Ya-chin; Cen, Yana; Sauve, Anthony A; Asara, John M; Peroni, Odile D; Monia, Brett P; Bhanot, Sanjay; Alhonen, Leena; Puigserver, Pere; Kahn, Barbara B

    2014-04-10

    In obesity and type 2 diabetes, Glut4 glucose transporter expression is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific knockout or overexpression of Glut4 alters systemic insulin sensitivity. Here we show, using DNA array analyses, that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) is the most strongly reciprocally regulated gene when comparing gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) from adipose-specific Glut4-knockout or adipose-specific Glut4-overexpressing mice with their respective controls. NNMT methylates nicotinamide (vitamin B3) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Nicotinamide is a precursor of NAD(+), an important cofactor linking cellular redox states with energy metabolism. SAM provides propylamine for polyamine biosynthesis and donates a methyl group for histone methylation. Polyamine flux including synthesis, catabolism and excretion, is controlled by the rate-limiting enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine-spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT; encoded by Sat1) and by polyamine oxidase (PAO), and has a major role in energy metabolism. We report that NNMT expression is increased in WAT and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Nnmt knockdown in WAT and liver protects against diet-induced obesity by augmenting cellular energy expenditure. NNMT inhibition increases adipose SAM and NAD(+) levels and upregulates ODC and SSAT activity as well as expression, owing to the effects of NNMT on histone H3 lysine 4 methylation in adipose tissue. Direct evidence for increased polyamine flux resulting from NNMT inhibition includes elevated urinary excretion and adipocyte secretion of diacetylspermine, a product of polyamine metabolism. NNMT inhibition in adipocytes increases oxygen consumption in an ODC-, SSAT- and PAO-dependent manner. Thus, NNMT is a novel regulator of histone methylation, polyamine flux and NAD(+)-dependent SIRT1 signalling, and is a unique and attractive target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID

  9. Knockdown of ROS1 gene sensitizes breast tumor growth to doxorubicin in a syngeneic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tiash, Snigdha; Chua, Ming Jang; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of breast cancer, the second leading cause of female deaths worldwide, with classical drugs is often accompanied by treatment failure and relapse of disease condition. Development of chemoresistance and drug toxicity compels compromising the drug concentration below the threshold level with the consequence of therapeutic inefficacy. Moreover, amplification and over-activation of proto-oncogenes in tumor cells make the treatment more challenging. The oncogene, ROS1 which is highly expressed in diverse types of cancers including breast carcinoma, functions as a survival protein aiding cancer progression. Thus we speculated that selective silencing of ROS1 gene by carrier-mediated delivery of siRNA might sensitize the cancer cells to the classical drugs at a relatively low concentration. In this investigation we showed that intracellular delivery of c-ROS1-targeting siRNA using pH-sensitive inorganic nanoparticles of carbonate apatite sensitizes mouse breast cancer cells (4T1) to doxorubicin, but not to cisplatin or paclitaxel, with the highest enhancement in chemosensitivity obtained at 40 nM of the drug concentration. Although intravenous administrations of ROS1-loaded nanoparticles reduced growth of the tumor, a further substantial effect on growth retardation was noted when the mice were treated with the siRNA- and Dox-bound particles, thus suggesting that silencing of ROS1 gene could sensitize the mouse breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo to doxorubicin as a result of synergistic effect of the gene knockdown and the drug action, eventually preventing activation of the survival pathway protein, AKT1. Our findings therefore provide valuable insight into the potential cross-talk between the pathways of ROS1 and doxorubicin for future development of effective therapeutics for breast cancer. PMID:27035628

  10. Knockdown of LI-cadherin alters expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and galectin-3.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiongfang; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Huangyan; Dong, Weiguo; Gao, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Liver-intestine cadherin (LI-cadherin), a novel member of the cadherin family, has been associated with the ability of a tumor to acquire an aggressive phenotype in several types of cancer. However, the exact function of LI-cadherin in the process of tumor invasion and metastasis remains predominantly unknown. To explore the effect of LI-cadherin on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and galectin-3 in LoVo human colorectal cancer cells, a RNA interference technique was applied to suppress the expression of LI‑cadherin. Subsequently, the mRNA levels and activities of MMP-2 and -9 were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and gelatin zymography, respectively. Additionally, the protein expression level of galectin-3 was determined by western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-silencing of LI-cadherin significantly increased the mRNA levels and activities of MMP‑2 and ‑9, and significantly reduced the protein levels of galectin‑3 in LoVo cells compared with control shRNA (P<0.05). These data indicate that knockdown of LI‑cadherin facilitates the invasion of cancer cells by degrading extracellular matrix components via activation of MMP‑2 and ‑9, and increases cancer cell adhesion and migration via altered expression of galectin‑3. This suggests that LI‑cadherin serves an important role in the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer, and may be used as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27035870