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Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Leucaena, tantan Leguminosae (Mimosoideae) Legume Family.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leucaena leucocephala commonly known as leucaena, tantan, guaje (Mexico), huaxin (Central America), zarcilla (Puerto Rico), and by many other names, is one of the most extensively cultivated leguminous trees in the world. Adapted to a wide range of lowlan...



'Leucaena leucocephala': An Excellent Feed for Livestock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leucaena leucocephala, a leguminous tree native to Central America, is extremely well-suited to the seasonally dry tropics. It can be fed fresh, or as leaf meal, silage, or browse to cows, goats, chickens, and a variety of fish. This report describes char...

M. D. Benge



'Leucaena leucocephala': A Tree That Defies the Woodcutter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leucaena leucocephala, a long-ignored, versatile legume native to Central America, could offer solutions to global ecological problems of denudation, soil erosion, dwindling wood supplies, and crop production. This report documents the potential importanc...



Toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala for steers in the wet tropics.  


Brahman crossbred steers grazed Leucaena leucocephala (cv Peru) for 0, 1/2, 1 1/2, 2 1/2, 3 1/2, 4 1/2, 5 1/2, or 6 1/2 days per week grazing Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) for the 1 1/2, remainder, for at least 50 weeks. Animals grazing Buffel grass only or Leucaena for 1/2 day only grew faster than all other groups in the wet season (0.75 dg/day) but not in the dry season (0.44 dg/day) and had normal thyroxine concentrations in blood. All other groups grew more slowly, had reduced blood thyroxine, fatter carcasses and in some cases showed alopecia, excessive salivation and goitre; 1 steer died. Poorest growth rates in the wet season (0.44 dg/day) were achieved with signs occurred with 4 1/2, 5 1/2 or 6 1/2 days of Leucaena. The frequent observation of toxicity of Leucaena when grazed by cattle under irrigated or wet tropical conditions suggests that its use as a browse legume under these conditions needs further examination. PMID:7233563

Holmes, J H



Forest Disturbance Leads to the Rapid Spread of the Invasive Leucaena Leucocephala in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study, based on different investigative documents and analytical methods, elucidates spatial distribution of habitats for major invasive exotic plants, Leucaena leucocephala, in Taiwan. Results show that Leucaena leucocephala is most harmful to broad-leaved trees and its invasion directly relates to changes in the physical environment. Leucaena leucocephala can bloom and bear fruits all year round and during the period of seeds sprouting and saplings, the invasion varies greatly among different soil types. Leucaena leucocephala prefers weakly acidic soil, though it grows well with other soil textures and nutrients as well. The average spreading rate of Leucaena leucocephala is 3.55 ha year-1 on abandoned farm land calculated from the aerial photographs taken in 1982, 1992, 2003, and 2007.

Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.; Jump, A. S.



Lime-aluminium-phosphorus interactions and the growth of Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lime and P on the chemical composition of the tropical legume Leucaena leucocephala were studied in a controlled climate laboratory experiment using 4 (Koronivia, Nadroloulou, Batiri, and Seqaqa) highly-weathered, acid soils from Fiji. For all soils, changes in the concentration of P in the Leucaena tops followed trends similar to the yield response curve, i.e., the concentration

R. Naidu; R. W. Tillman; J. K. Syers; J. H. Kirkman



Nutritive value of Leucaena leucocephala for growing bull calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve cross-bred (Holstein × Gir) bull calves (11–12 months of age) were divided into two groups and fed over a 90 day period on two levels of leucaena. Animals in Group 1 were offered leucaenaad lib. whilst those in Group 2 received a restricted amount of leucaena plus a mixture of sorghum straw and molasses (75 : 25) fedad lib.

B. N. Sobale; S. T. Kharat; V. L. Prasad; A. L. Joshi; D. V. Rangnekar; S. S. Deshmukh



Effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements to teff straw given to Ethiopian highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements on intake, digestibility and live weight changes was evaluated using 102 male Ethiopian highland sheep in a 90-day trial. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or supplemented with graded levels (15, 30, 45, 60% of ration dry matter intake)

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. Van Bruchem



Effect of Dietary Levels of Processed Leucaena leucocephala Seeds on Broiler Performance and Blood Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current experiment, Leucaena leucocephala seeds were subjected to three treatments (soaking, roasting and supplementation with 40mg\\/Kg ferrous oxide). Then treated and untreated leucaena seeds were incorporated in boiler diets at 0, 6 and 12%. Soaking and roasting of the seeds reduced phytate, whereas tannin was not significantly affected. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with

Mohamed Elamin Ahmed; Khadiga Abbas Abdelati



Mimosine degradation in calves fed a sole diet of Leucaena leucocephala in india  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Karan Swiss crossbred (Sahiwal × Brown Swiss) calves were abruptly switched over from a diet of concentrate and maize fodder toad libitum air driedLeucaena leucocephala leaves plus twigs. After 17 days on theL. leucocephala diet, 3 of the calves were supplemented with copper sulphate (10 mg\\/kg DML. leucocephala) for 12 days. Thereafter all the calves were taken off theL.

Jag Jiwan Ram; P. P. Atreja; R. C. Chopra; A. Chhabra



Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala.  


Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), a leguminous shrub promising to cope with feed scarcity in the tropics, may help in mitigating ruminal methane (CH4) emission in the tropics as well. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena and major secondary compounds of this plant in ruminants. At first, effects of Leucaena tannins and mimosine on ruminal CH4 and nutrient degradability were tested in vitro. Incubations were made with Leucaena without or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to exclude the tannins effects, as well as with Bermuda grass (Tifton) and lucerne hays, both either untreated or supplemented with mimosine at the same concentration that has been provided by the tested Leucaena (6.52 mg/g DM). Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment a control diet (per kg DM 700 g Tifton hay) and Leucaena diets (per kg DM 350 g Tifton hay and 350 g Leucaena), either with or without 20 g PEG/d per head, were evaluated in six Santa Inês sheep following a double Latin square design. In vitro, Leucaena resulted in the lowest (p < 0.05) gas and CH4 production and the highest (p < 0.05) partitioning factor, a measure for microbial efficiency, whereas the amount of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) was lowest (p < 0.05) with Tifton among the experimental forage plants. Mimosine addition to lucerne and Tifton as well as PEG addition to Leucaena had no effect on ruminal CH4 and TDOM. In vivo Leucaena, compared to the Tifton diet, enhanced (p < 0.05) intake, faecal nitrogen excretion, body nitrogen retention and the excretion of urinary purine derivatives as an indicator for microbial protein synthesis and availability. This was independent of PEG addition. Leucaena also decreased (p < 0.001) CH4 emission per unit of digested organic matter by 14.1% and 10.8%, without and with PEG, respectively. No significant diet differences were observed in total-tract nutrient digestibility. The study demonstrated efficiency of Leucaena to mitigate in vivo methane emission of sheep, but did not reveal which constituent of Leucaena was primarily responsible for that since no clear efficiency of either tannins or mimosine could be demonstrated. PMID:23742642

Soltan, Yosra A; Morsy, Amr S; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Lucas, Ronaldo C; Louvandini, Helder; Kreuzer, Michael; Abdalla, Adibe L



Changes in Dinitrogen Fixation in Maturing Stands of 'Casuarina equisetifolia' and 'Leucaena leucocephala'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological dinitrification fixation in Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. & G. Forst, and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was evaluated using the (sup 15)N-enrichment technique under field conditions in single-species and mixed-species plantings (with a non...

J. A. Parrotta D. D. Baker M. Fried



Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos  

PubMed Central

The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol.

Jube, Sandro



In vivo decondensation of chromatin and nucleolar fibrillar component by Leucaena leucocephala ingredient.  


Feeding of the shrimp, Penaeus monodon, with diets containing leaf meal of the leguminous shrub, Leucaena leucocephala, resulted in complete chromatin decondensation of hepatopancreas cells. The fibrillar component of the nucleolus was decondensed in parallel, whereas the granular component remained intact. This unique combination of nuclear signs was accompanied by only moderate alterations of other cell organelles. Our findings therefore demonstrate an encouraging possibility to manipulate the chromatin organization in living cells. Furthermore, ultrastructural features obtained thus far only in isolated and chromatin-depleted nuclei could be verified. These are, for instance, filament bundles which attach the nucleolus to the nuclear periphery, or a filamentous skeleton of the nuclear pores. In addition, the attachment of chromatin to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope was observed. Decondensation was probably caused by the major Leucaena ingredient mimosine and is obviously related to its copper chelating properties. PMID:1794061

Vogt, G



The Type 3 Protein Secretion System of Cupriavidus taiwanensis Strain LMG19424 Compromises Symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala  

PubMed Central

Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS.

Saad, Maged M.; Crevecoeur, Michele; Masson-Boivin, Catherine



Interactions among cutting frequency, reserve carbohydrates, and post-cutting biomass production in Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of trees and shrubs to coppice vigorously after being cut or pruned is of great importance in the management of agroforestry systems. In a study conducted in the seasonally dry climate of Ibadan, Nigeria, frequent cutting progressively decreased concentrations of starch and total reserve carbohydrates in Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit. In frequently

C. R. Latt; P. K. R. Nair; B. T. Kang



The type 3 protein secretion system of Cupriavidus taiwanensis strain LMG19424 compromises symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala.  


Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS. PMID:22865066

Saad, Maged M; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Perret, Xavier



Effect of different pre-sowing seed treatments on the germination of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Acacia farnesiana (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia farnesiana are tree species used for several agricultural purposes in the Mediterranean region. The seeds of these species exhibit dormancy,\\u000a causing delayed germination. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of pre-sowing treatments (scarification,\\u000a hot water, or soaking) on seed germination of L. leucocephala and A. farnesiana. In one experiment, seeds were exposed to three

Maher J. TadrosNezar; Nezar H. Samarah; Ahmad M. Alqudah


Polyphasic characterization of rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala from Panxi, China.  


Leucaena leucocephala was introduced into Panxi, Sichuan, China, in the 1980s and 1990s for afforestation and preventing water loss and soil erosion in this area. The co-introduction of rhizobial symbionts of introduced plants has drawn attention since they may influence local soil communities. We studied the phylogenetic position of the L. leucocephala isolates and assessed if the rhizobia were introduced together with the host to Panxi, Sichuan, China. The glnII and atpD genes of fifteen representative isolates were sequenced and analyzed, and applied multilocus sequence analyses in which the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD were included. Furthermore, we estimated the within species diversity directly with 23S rDNA and IGS RFLP and indirectly through phenotypic analysis of forty L. leucocephala isolates. The isolates represented seven species and 38 diversified strains in the genera Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The within species diversity of the Ensifer isolates was large, proposing a potential to occupy novel niches. There was not conclusive evidence to show that any of the strains would have been co-introduced with L. leucocephala. On the contrary, we came to a conclusion that the possible introduction should not be inferred from sequence data alone. PMID:23749221

Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Zou, Lan; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Hu, Chao; Liu, Fan



Pt/Al?O?-catalytic deoxygenation for upgrading of Leucaena leucocephala-pyrolysis oil.  


The aim of this study was to improve the quality of bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of Leucaena leucocephala trunks via catalytic deoxygenation using Pt/Al2O3 (Pt content=1.32% (w/w)). The minimum molar ratio of oxygen/carbon (O/C) at 0.14 was achieved when the amount of catalyst was 10% (w/w, bio-oil) and was applied under 4 bar of initial nitrogen pressure at 340°C for 1h. The reaction mechanism of the catalytic deoxygenation, in terms of reforming, water-gas shift and dehydration reactions, was proposed. To consider the effect of different biomass types on the efficiency of catalytic deoxygenation, the bio-oils obtained from the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice straw and green microalgae were likewise evaluated for direct comparison. PMID:23648762

Payormhorm, Jiraporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Reubroycharoen, Presert; Kuchonthara, Prapan; Hinchiranan, Napida



Photosynthetic and leaf morphological characteristics in Leucaena leucocephala as affected by growth under different neutral shade levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and physiological measurements on individual leaves of Leucaena leucocephala seedlings were used to study acclimation to neutral shading. The light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pn max) ranged from 19.6 to 6.5 ?mol CO2 m?2 s?1 as photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) during growth decreased from 27 to 1.6 mol m?2 s?1. Stomatal density varied from 144 mm?2 in plants grown in

Matthew H. Perry; Douglas J. C. Friend; Harry Y. Yamamoto



Prospective Application of Leucaena Leucocephala for Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and Nitrogen Fixation in Metal Polluted Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study deals with phytoextraction of Zn and Cd by Leucaena leucocephala grown on effluent fed and low nitrogen soils collected from S1, S2, and S3 sites, representing decreasing metal content with increasing distance from the effluent drain. Plant nitrogen fixation potential and soil micro-biochemical attributes against metal stress were also assessed. Increasing soil metal content and plant growth enhanced

Shweta Saraswat; J. P. N. Rai



Competition among rhizobium species for nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in two tropical soils  

SciTech Connect

The successful nodulation of legumes by a Rhizobium strain is determined by the competitve ability of that strain against the mixture of other native and inoculant rhizobia. Competition among six Leucaena rhizobial strains in single and multistrain inoculants were studied. Field inoculation trials were conducted in an oxisol and a mollisol soil, both of which contained indigenous Leucaena-nodulating rhizobia. Strain-specific fluorescent antibodies were used for the identification of the strains in Leucaena nodules. Mixtures of three recommended inoculum strains for Leucaena species (TAL82, TAL582, and TAL1145) were used in peat-based inocula either alone or with one of the three other strains isolated from the sites, B213, B214, and B215. Each of these latter three strains was also used as single-strain inocula to study their competition with the native rhizobia in the two soil systems. In the oxisol soil, strains B213 and B215, when used as single-strain inocula, outcompeted the native rhizobia and formed 92 and 62% of the nodules, respectively. Strain B214 was the least competitive in oxisol soil, where it formed 30% of the nodules, and the best in mollisol soil, where it formed 70% of the nodules. The most successful competitor for nodulation in multistrain inocula was strain TAL1145, which outcompeted native and other inoculum Leucaena rhizobia is both soils. None of the strains in single or multistrain inoculants was capable of completely overcoming the resident rhizobia, which formed 4 to 70% of the total nodules in oxisol soil and 12 to 72% in mollisol soil. No strong relationship was detected between the size of the rhizosphere population of a strain and its successful occupation of nodules. 24 references.

Moawad, H.; Bohlool, B.B.



Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.  


Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm(-3) of As. PMID:22704769

Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães



Palatability and effect on dairy cow milk yield of dried fodder from the forage trees Acacia boliviana, Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four groups of three Holstein–Friesian cows were supplemented with 1.5kg of air-dried tree fodder of Acacia boliviana, Calliandra calothyrsus or Leucaena leucocephala, or 1.5kg Rhodes grass hay as a control, mixed with 5g of a commercial polyethylene glycol (PEG)-containing digestive modifier (Browse Plus). Cows on all treatments were fed a basal diet of maize silage, cottonseed cake and crushed maize

B. V Maasdorp; V Muchenje; M Titterton



Plant growth, leaf water potential, nitrogenase activity and nodule anatomy in Leucaena leucocephala as affected by water stress and nitrogen availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water stress and nitrogen availability on leaf water potential, nitrogenase activity, and growth was studied\\u000a in a pot experiment with Leucaena leucocephala seedlings. Water stress was imposed on fertilized and unfertilized plants after inoculation with Rhizobium. Non-inoculated seedlings were used as control plants. Water stress lowered leaf water potential in all seedlings after 14\\u000a days of treatment.

A. F. Mrema; U. Granhall; L. Sennerby-Forsse



Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06?±?1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina



Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.  


Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p?>?0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p?

Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid



Purification and characterization of a zinc-dependent cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume.  


A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) from the secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala has been purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity column chromatographies. CAD was purified to 514.2 folds with overall recovery of 13 % and specific activity of 812. 5 nkat/mg. Native and subunit molecular masses of the purified enzyme were found to be ?76 and ?38 kDa, respectively, suggesting it to be a homodimer. The enzyme exhibited highest catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km 3.75 ?M(-1) s(-1)) with cinnamyl aldehyde among all the substrates investigated. The pH and temperature optima of the purified CAD were pH 8.8 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of 2.0 mM Mg(2+), while Zn(2+) at the same concentration exerted an inhibitory effect. The inclusion of 2.0 mM EDTA in the assay system activated the enzyme. The enzyme was inhibited with caffeic acid and ferulic acid in a concentration-dependent manner, while no inhibition was observed with salicylic acid. Peptide mass analysis of the purified CAD by MALDI-TOF showed a significant homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of MDR superfamily. PMID:24532464

Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda P; Shasany, A K; Dwivedi, U N



Polymerization degrees, molecular weights and protein-binding affinities of condensed tannin fractions from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid.  


Condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with proteins and are able to protect them from degradation, which could lead to rumen bypass proteins. Depending on their degrees of polymerization (DP) and molecular weights, CT fractions vary in their capability to bind proteins. In this study, purified condensed tannins (CTs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five different molecular weight fractions. The structures of the CT fractions were investigated using 13C-NMR. The DP of the CT fractions were determined using a modified vanillin assay and their molecular weights were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS. The protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay. The DP of the five CT fractions (fractions F1-F5) measured by the vanillin assay in acetic acid ranged from 4.86 to 1.56. The 13C-NMR results showed that the CT fractions possessed monomer unit structural heterogeneity. The number-average molecular weights (Mn) of the different fractions were 1265.8, 1028.6, 652.2, 562.2, and 469.6 for fractions F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5, respectively. The b values representing the CT quantities needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable bovine serum albumin increased with decreasing molecular weight--from fraction F1 to fraction F5 with values of 0.216, 0.295, 0.359, 0.425, and 0.460, respectively. This indicated that higher molecular weight fractions of CTs from L. leucocephala have higher protein-binding affinities than those with lower molecular weights. PMID:24927368

Saminathan, Mookiah; Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Wong, Clemente Michael Vui Ling; Abdulmalek, Emilia; Ho, Yin Wan



EFECTO DE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN CON LEUCAENA (Leucaena leucocephala LAM. DE WIT) SOBRE LA DEGRADABILIDAD RUMINAL DEL PASTO ALEMÁN (Echinochloa polystachya H.B.K. HITCH) Effect of Leucaena Supplementation (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. De Wit) on Ruminal Degradability of Aleman-Grass (Echinochloa polystachya H.B.K. Hitch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of Leucaena supplementation on in situ ruminal dry matter (DM) degradability of Aleman-grass (AG), DM potential degradability (a+b), soluble fraction (a), maximum degradability (DM), degradation rate (c), ruminal pH and am- monia nitrogen, three ruminal cannulated Criollo Limonero steers were fed at 14-day adaptation period (F1) and samples were taken during the following 4-day period (F2).

Juan Vergara-López; Ángel Rodríguez-Petit; Carlos Navarro; Ángel Atencio


Effect of Dietary Graded Levels of Leucaena leucocephala Seeds on Layers Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The layers experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of leucaena seed (0, 8, 16 and 24%) on 27 weeks of old laying hens. Parameters studied were egg production, external and internal quality characteristics of eggs, haematological indices and plasma constituents. Feed intake, hen- day egg production, FCR (kg feed\\/kg egg) and FCR (kg feed\\/dozens of egg)

Mohamed Elamin Ahmed; Khadiga Abbas Abdelati



Functional characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of ?-glucosidase responsible for bioactivation of cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides from Leucaena leucocephala (subabul).  


Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 ?-glucosidases are important enzymes that serve many diverse functions in plants including defense, whereby hydrolyzing the defensive compounds such as hydroxynitrile glucosides. A hydroxynitrile glucoside cleaving ?-glucosidase gene (Llbglu1) was isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, cloned into pET-28a (+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for this ?-glucosidase were found to be 45 °C and 4.8, respectively. The purified Llbglu1 enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic glycosides, pNPGlucoside (pNPGlc) and pNPGalactoside (pNPGal). Also, the enzyme hydrolyzed amygdalin, a hydroxynitrile glycoside and a few of the tested flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides. The kinetic parameters K (m) and V (max) were found to be 38.59 ?M and 0.8237 ?M/mg/min for pNPGlc, whereas for pNPGal the values were observed as 1845 ?M and 0.1037 ?M/mg/min. In the present study, a three dimensional (3D) model of the Llbglu1 was built by MODELLER software to find out the substrate binding sites and the quality of the model was examined using the program PROCHEK. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues are Glu 199, Glu 413, His 153, Asn 198, Val 270, Asn 340, and Trp 462. Docking of rhodiocyanoside A with the modeled Llbglu1 resulted in a binding with free energy change (?G) of -5.52 kcal/mol on which basis rhodiocyanoside A could be considered as a potential substrate. PMID:23079707

Shaik, Noor M; Misra, Anurag; Singh, Somesh; Fatangare, Amol B; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M



Manual harvesting of high population Leucaena stands  

SciTech Connect

Five-year-old giant Leucaena leucocephala, planted at spacing 1x0.5 m, were harvested using bolos (Filipino machetes) and chainsaws. For felling alone, chainsaws took 35% less time than bolos. For the total harvest including delimbing and hauling an average 20 m to the edge of the stand, chainsaws took 20% less time than bolos. Assuming chainsaws are economically viable, it may be advisable to fell with chainsaws in advance of bolo teams that buck and haul. 2 references.

Pecson, R.D.; Van Den Beldt, R.J.



Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.  


Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz



High-resolution transcriptomic analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 bacteroids in determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata and indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala.  


The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin



High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 Bacteroids in Determinate Nodules of Vigna unguiculata and Indeterminate Nodules of Leucaena leucocephala  

PubMed Central

The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata.

Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin



Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass  

SciTech Connect

Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

Swift, J.F.



Evaluation of herbicides for use in transplanting leucaena leucocephala and prosopis alba on semi-arid lands without irrigation  

SciTech Connect

Five herbicides were applied to plots at 2 rates in April 1982, and 3-month old seedlings planted 2 days later. Basal diameter was measured after 110 days and converted to dry weight using published equations. Percent weed cover was recorded 45, 75, and 105 days after planting. All herbicides increased survival over untreated controls. The greatest biomass production of both species was obtained with oryzalin treatment at 2.8 kg/ha active ingredient, which increased production 4-5X compared with control plots. Oryzalin was second to napropamide (2.24 kg/ha active ingredient) in grass control and equal to oxyfluorfen (1.12 kg/ha active ingredient) in forb control, oxyfluorfen at this rate also gave the second best biomass production. Oryzalin increased survival from 71 to 87% for Leucaena and from 81-94% for Prosopis, and is considered to be the best herbicide tested, followed by oxyfluorfen and metolachlor. Alachlor was considered to be too short-lived and napropamide too expensive.

Felker, P.; Smith, D.; Smith, M.; Bingham, R.L.; Reyes, I.



Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.  


Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the diets of untreated stover supplemented with forage legumes. The DMI was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the GS diet than in the EV or LL diets. Significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the urea-treated stover and the diets of stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), organic matter (OM) and energy. In experiment 2, four mature goats, pre-experimental body weight 27.0 +/- 0.3 kg, 24-28 months old, were used to measure their response when the urea-treated maize stover and the maize stover and forage legume diets were sprayed with molasses. The intake of the urea-treated stover diet sprayed with molasses was significantly lower (p < 0.05) that that of the maize stover/forage legume diets sprayed with molasses. The DMI of the diets improved with the addition of molasses. The DMI among the goats offered the maize stover/forage legume diets + molasses did not differ significantly. (p > 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as protein supplements improved the feed quality of maize stover in the diets of mature goats. It is suggested that molasses should be sprayed on fresh leaves of Gliricicia sepium and other forage legumes that are initially rejected, in order to improve acceptance and DMI when fed to ruminant animals in confinement or in a cut-and-carry system of production. PMID:14998316

Aregheore, E M; Perera, D



Forage yield and compositional analysis of Leucaena species and hybrids adapted to cool sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of Leucaena (L. leucocephala, L. diversifolia 2n and 4n, andL. pallida) and three interspecific hybrids KX1 (L. diversifolia × L. pallida), KX2 (L. leucocephala × L. pallida), and KX3 (L. leucocephala × L. pallida) were evaluated for forage yield on a cool upland site at the Mealani Research Station on the island of Hawaii (900 m elevation). Two-month-old

R. A. Wheeler; W. R. Chaney; M. J. Cecava; J. L. Brewbaker



Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.  


Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza



Ethanol technical potential in Hawaii based on sugarcane, banagrass, Eucalyptus, and Leucaena  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of ethanol production potential from dedicated energy crops was conducted for the State of Hawaii considering lands, crop species, and conversion technologies. Evaluation of the spatial distributions of soil types, zoning, and annual rainfall was conducted using geographic information system data. Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane), Pennisetum purpureum (banagrass), Leucaena leucocephala, and Eucalyptus grandis were selected as potential feedstocks for

V. I. Keffer; S. Q. Turn; C. M. Kinoshita; D. E. Evans



Effect of supplementing teff straw with different levels of leucaena or sesbania leaves on the degradabilities of teff straw, sesbania, leucaena, tagasaste and vernonia and on certain rumen and blood metabolites in Ethiopian Menz sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro gas production, dry matter and nitrogen degradabilities of fresh and sun-dried foliages of four fodder trees (FTs) (Sesbania sesban, Leucaena leucocephala, Chamaecytisus palmensis (tagasaste), Vernonia amygdalina) and of teff straw were estimated. In Experiment 1, feed samples were incubated in three different rumen environments (ecologies) created by feeding sheep the following: teff straw, teff straw + 174 g

M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji; A. K. Tuah



Potential contribution of leucaena hedgerows intercropped with maize to the production of organic nitrogen and fuelwood in the lowland tropics. [L. leucocephala  

SciTech Connect

Data from the literature was analysed. Annual N-production by L. leucocephala hedgerows planted more than 150 cm apart and cut every 8 weeks to 15-30 cm was estimated to be 45 g/linear m of hedgerow. The system is thought to be useful where soil-N availability is a limiting factor and where maize productivity is less than 1000 kg/ha (when increases of 112% for 1.5 m hedge spacings to 28% for 6 m spacings are predicted).

Torres, F.



Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and certain rumen characteristics of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw supplemented with cotton seed cake, dry sesbania, dry leucaena or fresh leucaena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty five rumen fistulated Ethiopian Menz sheep were used in a completely randomized block design to determine roughage utilization when different types of supplements (sesbania, leucaena, cotton seed cake (CSC)) and forms (fresh or dry leucaena) were fed. The chemical composition, intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumen degradability coefficients were determined. Rumen pH and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) levels were estimated in

M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji; A. K. Tuah; N. N. Umunna



Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics. Second Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1976 the National Research Council and the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources research convened a meeting to review the available information on leucaena, a versatile, nitrogen-fixing tree for tropical and subtropical countries. Since tha...



Variation in the nutritional value of leaf and stem fractions of nineteen leucaena lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, 2.5-month-old edible regrowth of the genus Leucaena (varying in tolerance to the leucaena psyllid pest attack) were analysed for nutritive value. In Experiment 1, forage of nine lines was separated into young leaves, young stems (within woody fraction <5 mm diameter), old leaves and old stems (within a woody fraction 5–10 mm diameter) whereas in Experiment 2,

M Karachi



Biomass resource potential for selected crops in Hawaii. [Koa haole (giant leucaena); napier and guinea grass  

SciTech Connect

The biomass crops selected for review were koa haole (giant leucaena), napier and guinea grass, and eucalyptus (saligna, grandis, and globulus). The islands examined were Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Molokai. The potential land acreage for growing these crops was estimated grossly. As anticipated, the island of Hawaii had the largest land potential with eucalyptus having the greatest potential land acreage.

Seki, A.



Leucaena and dried poultry waste improve the performance of West African Dwarf sheep on a grass diet.  


This study investigated the effects on digestibility and growth when West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep were fed a basal diet of Tripsacum laxum with Leucaena leucocephala or dried poultry waste as supplement. Fifteen WAD sheep (12 rams and 3 ewes) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments of 5 animals each, namely T1-basal diet of chopped T. laxum (control), T2-basal diet plus dried poultry waste, and T3-basal diet plus L. leucocephala. Animals had access to drinking water and a mineral mix ad libitum. They were weighed weekly after a 2-week adaptation period, for a duration of 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rams randomly selected from each treatment group were used for the digestibility study. Results revealed that average daily intake of L. leucocephala (350.0 ± 0.3 g/animal) was higher than that of dried poultry waste (260.0 ± 0.1 g/animal). The supplemented groups, T2 and T3, gained 21.4 and 31.0 g daily respectively, while animals of the control group (T1) lost 6.0 g daily. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) in dry matter intake between the control and supplemented groups, with T2 recording the highest intake. Organic matter intake of treatment 3 was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of T1 and T2. The differences in crude fibre (CF) ingestion between T2 and T1 as well as T3 and T1 were significant (P<0.01), with the highest ingestion of CF occurring in T1. The dry matter digestibility of the supplemented groups was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The organic matter digestibility of T2 and T3, as well as T1 and T3 were significantly different (P<0.05), being highest in T3 (77.0 ± 2.1 %) and lowest in T2 (58.1 ± 1.0 %) It was concluded from the study that T. laxum can be better utilized in West African Dwarf sheep when supplemented with dried poultry waste or L. leucocephala. PMID:23224820

Agbor, Euphresia Besongtakor; Ndamukong, Kenneth Jacob Ngoh; Pamo, Etienne Tendonkeng



Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150 g), Leucaena (200 or 400 g) or Sesbania (200 or 400 g). The animals

R. J. Kaitho; A. Tegegne; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J Van Bruchem; J. M. Arts



Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats.  


Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on testicular histology. Within species, animals were blocked based on body weight and scrotal circumference and randomly assigned, within blocks, to five nutritional treatment groups in a complete randomised block design. All animals were provided with unchopped teff (Eragrostis tef) straw ad libitum and were supplemented with either 150g of wheat bran (control), leucaena (200 or 400g) or sesbania (200 or 400g) leaves for a period of 6 months. At the end of the experimental period, all animals were surgically castrated and testicular samples were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. In sheep 200g S. sesban induced relatively more necrosis of the seminiferous tubules than 200g L. pallida, but with similar degree of tubular degeneration. However, lesions in testis of goats fed on 200g S. sesban and 200g L. pallida did not differ. The effect of 400g S. sesban and 400g L. pallida in sheep indicated that the former hardly induced lesions except depressive effect on spermatogenesis. Similar results were observed in goats. About 400g S. sesban induced milder lesions in sheep and goats than were 200g S. sesban. The lesions were compared and discussed in relation to the phytochemical composition of the supplementary feeds. PMID:11530271

Woldemeskel, M; Tegegne, A; Umunna, N N; Kaitho, R J; Tamminga, S



Assessment of Partial Equi-Protein Replacement of Soyabean Meal with Cassava and Leucaena Leaf Meals in the Diets of Broiler Chicken Finishers  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Three hundred and fifty broiler chickens (Anak, 2000) were used to study the effect of partia l replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) protein with cassava and or leucaena leaf meals. Diet 1 was the control diet with soyabean meal but no leaf meal. Diets 2 and 3 had 30% and 60% SBM protein respectively replaced with cassava

G. E. Onibi; O. R. Folorunso; C. Elumelu



Nutritional and economic benefits of Leucaena and Gliricidia as feed supplements for small ruminants in humid West Africa.  


Considering leguminous trees Leucaena and Gliricidia as good sources of quality food, on-station and on-farm studies were conducted in the humid zone of West Africa to establish animal responses to levels, times and forms of browse supplementation, to develop alternative feeding strategies for utilising limited feed supply and to assess the economic benefits of feed supplements as against the use of tree foliage as mulch for crop production. Results indicate that at any level of supplement, sheep grew twice as fast as goats. The main benefits of supplementation came through increased growth and survival. Form and level of supplementation had significant effect on intake. Economic analyses showed that crop response to mulching was the principal competing determinant of whether the use of tree foliage as feed supplement was economic. PMID:9090017

Jabbar, M A; Reynolds, L; Larbi, A; Smith, J



Production of rhizobia biofertilizers using baker's yeast effluent and their application to Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial baker's yeast effluent (BYE) was experimented on as a culture medium for growth and biomass production of six fast-growing rhizobia strains. Diluting the effluent with distilled water was necessary to maximize bacterial biomass production. The addition of phosphate buffer, ammonium chloride or trace-elements did not improve the final biomass yield of tested micro-organisms. Rhizobial growth and biomass on the

Sayeda M. Ali; Gamil Amin; Mohammed Fayez; Mahmoud El-Tahan; Mohammed Monib; Nabil A. Hegazi



Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.  


A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185°C), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor. PMID:22789829

Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Garrote, G; López, F



Productivity of annual cropping and agroforestry systems on a shallow Alfisol in semi-arid India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted at ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India from June 1984 to April 1988 on a shallow Alfisol to determine whether the productivity of annual\\u000a crop systems can be improved by adding perennial species such as Leucaena leucocephala managed as hedgerows. Except in the first year, crop yields were suppressed by Leucaena due to competition for moisture. The severity

M. R. Rao; C. K. Ong; P. Pathak; M. M. Sharma



Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions  

SciTech Connect

A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.



Grazing and Rangeland Development for Livestock Production: A Handbook for Volunteers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three technical papers from AID's Agriculture Technology for Development series, covering basic rangeland management, leucaena leucocephala as livestock feed and combined crop/livestock farming systems in the tropics and subtropics. Illustrated with chart...



Factors affecting production of COS and CS 2 in Leucaena and Mimosa species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are colorless, foul-smelling, volatile sulfur compounds with biocidal properties. Some plants produce CS2 or COS or both. When used as an intercrop or forecrop, these plants may have agronomic potential in protecting other plants. Most of the factors which affect production of these plant-generated organic sulfides are unknown. We determined the effects of

Zhe Feng; Peter G. Hartel



The Potential of Albizia lebbeck as a Supplementary Feed for Goats in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty growing goats (20 males and 20 females) were used in a 90-day growth and intake study to evaluate the potential of Albizia lebbeck (ABC) based concentrate as compared with Gliricidia sepium (GBC), Leucaena leucocephala (LBC), and Moringa oleifera (MBC) based concentrates with cotton seed cake (CSC) as a control. The animals were fed a basal diet of maize stover

E. E. Ndemanisho; B. N. Kimoro; E. J. Mtengeti; V. R. M. Muhikambele




Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb>9850 mg kg) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer

Weeradej Meeinkuirt; Phanwimol Tanhan; Prayad Pokethitiyook; Maleeya Kruatrachue; Rattanawat Chaiyarat



Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Trees in Soil Extracts from Korangi and Landhi Industrial Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil extracts from Khan Towel, Tanveer Garment, One Tech Rubber, and One Tech Ply Board factories in the vicinity of Korangi and Landhi industrial areas on seed germination and growth of cultivated plants like Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, Thespesia populnea, and Peltophorum pterocarpum and naturally growing plants such as Prosopis juliflora (Karachi University and Korangi and Landhi

Syed Atiqur Rehman; Muhammad Zafar Iqbal



Evaluación estacional de la recuperación de larvas de Boophilus microplus en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras en parcelas experimentalmente infestadas Seasonal assessment of Boophilus microplus larvae recovery in four forage legumes in experimental infested plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the number of Boophilus microplus larvae recovered from plots planted with Leucaena leucocephala, Macroptilium artropurpureum, Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata experimentally infested with larvae during five seasons in a subtropic, subhumid climate. The experiment was carried out in the Municipality of Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico. The experimental area consisted of 24 plots of

Manuel Fernández-Ruvalcaba; Jorge Saltijeral-Oaxaca


Recent work on the production and utilization of tree fodder in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the work discussed in the paper is part of the Agroforestry Research Network for Africa (AFRENA). In the sub-humid highlands the most common form of livestock management is a mixture of grazing, tethering and stall feeding. In the arid and semi-arid lowlands of Kenya the normal livestock management practice is grazing. Leucaena leucocephala was a popular fodder species

R. L. Roothaert; R. T. Paterson



Invasive Plants and Their Control in Micronesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plants introduced accidentally or for ornamental pur- poses have established in Micronesia and are considered invasive species. These include: Antigonon leptopus Hooker & Arnott, Bidens pilosa L., Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don, Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, Cuscuta sp., Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach, Imperata conferta (Presl) Ohwi, Ipomea spp., Lantana camaraL., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)



In vitro larval migration and kinetics of exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus larvae exposed to four tropical tanniniferous plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As for some temperate forage, some tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP) from browsing might represent an alternative to chemical anthelmintic. The anthelmintic effect of four TTP (Acacia pennatula, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula, Leucaena leucocephala) on Haemonchus contortus was measured using two in vitro assays. First, the effects of increasing concentrations of lyophilized extracts (150, 300, 600, 1200?g\\/ml PBS) were tested on

M. A. Alonso-Díaz; J. F. J. Torres-Acosta; C. A. Sandoval-Castro; A. J. Aguilar-Caballero; H. Hoste



Effects of four tropical tanniniferous plant extracts on the inhibition of larval migration and the exsheathment process of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infective stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic (AH) effect of Acacia pennatula, Leucaena leucocephala, Lisyloma latisiliquum and Piscidia piscipula was evaluated in the infective larvae (L3) of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Different concentrations of lyophilized extracts were tested using the larval migration inhibition (LMI) test. An inhibitor of tannins (the polyvinyl polypyrrolidone [PVPP]) was used to verify whether these compounds were responsible for the AH effects. Then,

M. A. Alonso-Díaz; J. F. J. Torres-Acosta; C. A. Sandoval-Castro; C. Capetillo-Leal; S. Brunet; H. Hoste



Farmers' adoptability of Mucuna fallowing and agroforestry technologies in the coastal savanna of Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technologies to counter soil fertility decline, alley farming with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, annual short-season Mucuna pruriëns var. Utilis fallowing, and perennial Acacia auriculiformis fallowing have been tested. With alley farming, timely pruning is a critical element in farmers' capacity to match on-station yield levels: 55% of the farmers who delayed pruning suffered about 60% yield losses. Farmers

M. N. Versteeg; F. Amadji; A. Eteka; A Gogan; V. Koudokpon



Impact of residue quality on the C and N mineralization of leaf and root residues of three agroforestry species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory incubation experiment with 15N labeled root and leaf residues of 3 agroforestry species (Leucaena leucocephala, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla) was conducted under controlled conditions (25 C) for 56 days to quantify residue C and N mineralization and its relationship with residue quality.

B. Vanlauwe; O. C. Nwoke; N. Sanginga; R. Merckx



Economic analysis of a simulated alley cropping system for semi-arid conditions, using micro computers  

SciTech Connect

Returns were simulated for the semi-arid areas in Mackakos District, Kenya (bimodal rainfall distribution, 600 mm/yr) comparing the present system (maize and beans intercropped twice a year) with a Leucaena leucocephala hedgerow system. Although some of the assumptions contain a large element of uncertainty, the results were promising enough for the system to be considered further. 4 references.

Hoekstra, D.A.



Effects of ectomycorrhizal and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on drought tolerance of four leguminous woody seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings ofAcacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex. Benth.,Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.,Gliricidia sepium (Jac.) Walp andLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. were inoculated with an ectomycorrhizal (Boletus suillus (l. ex. Fr.) or indigenous vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in a low P soil. The plants were subjected to unstressed\\u000a (well-watered) and drought-stressed (water-stressed) conditions. InGliricidia andLeucaena, both mycorrhizal inoculations stimulated greater plant growth, P

O. Osonubi; K. Mulongoy; O. O. Awotoye; M. O. Atayese; D. U. U. Okali



The effect of feeding cottonseed cake, sesbania or leucaena with crushed maize as supplement to teff straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at determining the effects of feeding an energy source on nitrogen utilization by Ethiopian Menzrams. Intake, digestibility, teff straw degradation, rumen pH and ammonia-nitrogen, nitrogen balance and purine derivatives were measured in the digestibility and nylon bag studies. All experimental sheep were offered teff straw basal diet ad libitum (unrestricted). With the exception of sheep fed

M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji



Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.  


A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases. PMID:24502152

Miah, Md Abdul Quddus



Agroindustrial by-products as roughage source for beef cattle: Chemical composition, nutrient digestibility and energy values of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil - Ipil leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was carried out to determine the nutritive value of agro-industrial by-products and nutrient digestibility of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil - Ipil leaves (Leucaena leucocephala). Four native cattle were assigned by Latin Square Design to receive all dietary treatments in four experimental periods, i.e. ensiled sweet corn cob and husk (ESCH), ensiled

Sompong Sruamsiri; Pirote Silman


Agroforestry systems and soil surface management of a tropical alfisol: I: Soil moisture and crop yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted on a tropical Alfisol at Ibadan, Nigeria, to evaluate the effects on soil moisture and crop yields of three agroforestry systems. Effects of agroforestry treatments involving two perennial shrubs (Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium), each at 2-m and 4-m row spacings, were compared with no-till and plow-till systems of seedbed preparation. Measurements were made for soil

R. Lal



Effects of chemical composition on N, Ca, and Mg release during incubation of leaves from selected agroforestry and fallow plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen, Ca and Mg release from leaves of ten selected plant residues with varying chemical compositions was studied under laboratory conditions. Three patterns of N-release were observed over a seven week incubation period: (a)Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens andCentrosema pubescens leaves showed rapid N release, (b)Acioa barteri andDialium guineense leaves immobilized N, and (c)Alchornea cordifolia, Anthonata macrophylla, Cassia siamea

G. Tian; B. T. Kang; L. Brussaard



Nitrogen fixation by trees in relation to soil nitrogen economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N2-fixing potential (NFP) (i.e. the amount of fixed N2 in a constraint-free environment) of N2-fixing trees (NFTs) varies with the genotype. The NFP can be higher than 30-50 g N2 fixed tree-1 year-1 in the most active species, be they leguminous trees such asAlbizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium andLeucaena leucocephala, or actinorhizal trees such asCasuarina equisetifolia. The actual amount of

Y. R. Dommergues



Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  


This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V



Effect of condensed tannins on bovine rumen protist diversity based on 18S rRNA gene sequences.  


Molecular diversity of protists from bovine rumen fluid incubated with condensed tannins of Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang at 20 mg/500 mg dry matter (treatment) or without condensed tannins (control) was investigated using 18S rRNA gene library. Clones from the control library were distributed within nine genera, but clones from the condensed tannin treatment clone library were related to only six genera. Diversity estimators such as abundance-based coverage estimation and Chao1 showed significant differences between the two libraries, although no differences were found based on Shannon-Weaver index and Libshuff. PMID:23205499

Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Liang, Juan Boo; Huang, Xiao Dan; Ho, Yin Wan



Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.  


The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban. PMID:21888233

Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma



[Vegetation biomass allocation and its spatial distribution after 20 years ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].  


By using layering harvest method, a comparative study was conducted on the biomass allocation and its spatial distribution of 20-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation, Leucaena leucocephala plantation, and E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation in Yuanmou dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The stand biomass in the mixed E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation (82.99 t x hm(-2)) was between that of monoculture E. camaldulensis plantation (60.64 t x hm(-2)) and L. leucocephala plantation (127.79 t x hm(-2)). The individual tree biomass of E. camaldulensis in the mixed plantation (44.32 kg) was 49.8% higher than that in monoculture plantation (29.58 kg). The branch and leaf biomass of L. leucocephala (25.4%) in monoculture plantation was larger than that of E. camaldulensis (8.9%) in monoculture plantation, and the aboveground biomass distribution ratio (78.0%) of L. leucocephala (25.4%) was also higher than that of E. camaldulensis (73.4%). The roots of L. leucocephala in both monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer, while those of E. camaldulensis in monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly found in 0-80 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. The proportion of biomass allocated to roots including medium roots, small roots, and fine roots of L. leucocephala in mixed plantation was higher than that in monoculture plantation, but it was contrary for E. camaldulensis. It was suggested that introducing L. leucocephala in E. camaldulensis plantation promoted the growth of E. camaldulensis, especially for its aboveground biomass, and increased the amount of lateral roots in 0-20 cm soil layer, which had significance in soil and water conservation in the study area. PMID:24066529

Li, Bin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Li, Kun; Gao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Fang-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Fei



1H and 13C NMR assignments for two new cordiaquinones from roots of Cordia leucocephala.  


From the roots of Cordia leucocephala (Boraginaceae), two new meroterpenoid naphthoquinones, 6-[10-(12,12-dimethyl-13alpha-hydroxy-16-methenyl-cyclohexyl)ethyl]-1,4-naphthalenedione (cordiaquinone L) and 5-methyl-6-[10-(12,12-dimethyl-13beta-hydroxy-16-methenyl-cyclohexyl)methyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (cordiaquinone M) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated after detailed 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) data analyses and comparison with literature data for analogous compounds. PMID:19025970

Diniz, Jaécio Carlos; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Oliveira, Odaci Fernandes; Maciel, Maria Aparecida M; Torres, Maria da Conceição de Menezes; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L



Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.  


Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J



The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.  


The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

Clément, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M



Preparative scale isolation, purification and derivatization of mimosine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid.  


Focusing on drug discovery non-proteinogenic amino acids have often been used as important building blocks for construction of compound libraries in the filed of combinatorial chemistry and chemical biology. Highly homogeneous L: -mimosine, ?-amino-?-(3-hydoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-propanoic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, has been successfully isolated and purified on an industrial scale from wild leaves of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit) which is a widely distributed legume in Okinawa, a sub-tropical island in Japan. Optical purity determinations used for quality control have been established through diastereomer formation. Physico-chemical properties and biological properties of purified mimosine have been clarified. Mimosine is sparingly soluble in water and organic solvents but can be dissolved in aqueous alkaline solution. The tyrosinase pathway is of particular interest in the cosmetic field, since mimosine is an analog of tyrosine. Thus the present purified mimosine have been tested in tyrosinase inhibitory assays. The IC50 for tyrosinase inhibitory activity of purified Mim was compared with kojic acid. Mimosine shows significant inhibition of melanin production in murine melanoma cells. The derivatization of mimosine has been investigated with a focus on its use in conventional peptide syntheses to generate mimosyl peptides. N-(9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyloxy)-mimosine and resin-bound mimosine for solid-phase syntheses have also been performed. Highly homogeneous Mim is a useful material for the development of functional cosmetics or active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:21993536

Nokihara, Kiyoshi; Hirata, Akiyoshi; Sogon, Tetsuya; Ohyama, Takafumi



Multiple copies of nodD in Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 and BR816.  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium tropici strains are able to nodulate a wide range of host plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena spp., and Macroptilium atropurpureum. We studied the nodD regulatory gene for nodulation of two R. tropici strains: CIAT899, the reference R. tropici type IIb strain, and BR816, a heat-tolerant strain isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. A survey revealed several nodD-hybridizing DNA regions in both strains: five distinct regions in CIAT899 and four distinct regions in BR816. Induction experiments of a nodABC-uidA fusion in combination with different nodD-hybridizing fragments in the presence of root exudates of the different hosts indicate that one particular nodD copy contributes to nodulation gene induction far more than any other nodD copy present. The nucleotide sequences of both nodD genes are reported here and show significant homology to those of the nodD genes of other rhizobia and a Bradyrhizobium strain. A dendrogram based on the protein sequences of 15 different NodD proteins shows that the R. tropici NodD proteins are linked most closely to each other and then to the NodD of Rhizobium phaseoli 8002. Images

van Rhijn, P J; Feys, B; Verreth, C; Vanderleyden, J



Mutual reproductive dependence of distylic Cordia leucocephala (Cordiaceae) and oligolectic Ceblurgus longipalpis (Halictidae, Rophitinae) in the Caatinga  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The close relationship between distylic Cordia leucocephala and the bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, both endemic to the Caatinga, north-east Brazil, was investigated, emphasizing reproductive dependence, morphological adaptations of the partners, and pollen flow. Methods In the municipality of Pedra, in the Caatinga of Pernambuco, the breeding system and reproductive success of C. leucocephala, its interaction with flower visitors and inter- and intramorph pollen flow were determined. Key Results The bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, the unique flower visitor and effective pollinator of self-incompatible Cordia leucocephala, presents morphological features adapted to exploit hidden pollen and nectar in the long and narrow corolla tubes. Pollen of low-level anthers is collected with hairs on prolonged mouthparts and pollen of high-level anthers with clypeus, mandibles, and labrum, showing pollen removal from both levels with the same effectiveness. In both morphs, this results in similar legitimate, i.e. intermorph cross-pollen flow. Illegitimate pollen flow to stigmas of pin flowers, however, was much higher than to stigmas of thrum flowers. Moreover, more illegitimate pollen was transported to stigmas of pin and less to those of thrum flowers when compared with legitimate pollen flow. Conclusions The study reveals a one-to-one reproductive inter-dependence between both partners. Data indicate that this relationship between bee species and plant species is one of the rare cases of monolecty among bees. Monotypic Ceblurgus longipalpis, the only rophitine species of Brazil, evolved prolonged mouthparts rare among short-tongued bees that enable them to access pollen from flowers with short-level anthers hidden for bees of other species, and nectar at the base of the flower tube.

Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Schlindwein, Clemens



Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.  


We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G



Effect of six tropical tanniferous plant extracts on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus.  


Tanniferous plants represent a promising alternative for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. This experiment evaluated the effects of extracts from the leaf and stem of Anadenanthera colubrina, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa tenuiflora on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus in vitro and verified the role of tannins in this process. Third-stage larvae of H. contortus were incubated with extracts for 3 hours and were exposed to sodium hypochlorite solution. The extracts were tested at 300 ?g.mL(-1) and accompanied by controls: phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). The larval exsheathment was evaluated for 60 minutes, and the results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). The six extracts blocked larval exsheathment. After PVPP addition, a tannin inhibitor, the exsheathment percentage was similar to the PBS (p > 0.05), except for L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora leaf extracts. However, pre-incubation with PVPP of these two extracts significantly changed larval exsheathment when compared to the non-treated extracts (p < 0.05). These results suggest that A. colubrina, L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora could be useful in gastrointestinal nematode control and that tannins are probably the main compounds involved in the observed effects. However, in vivo and toxicological studies should be conducted. PMID:21722491

Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Morais, Selene Maia de; Monteiro, Maria Vivina Barros; Campello, Claudio Cabral; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Batista, Emanuelle Karine Frota



Interaction of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Erosion in an Oxisol †  

PubMed Central

The development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis was monitored in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an Oxisol subjected to incremental simulated erosion. The density of VAM infective propagules in the soil diminished as the level of simulated erosion (removal of surface soil) was increased from 0 to 50 cm. The level of infection on L. leucocephala roots observed at harvest was not significantly influenced by simulated erosion unless removal of surface soil exceeded 25 cm. Inoculation of this soil and the uneroded soil with Glomus aggregatum enhanced the early onset of infection but did not significantly influence the level of infection observed at the time of harvest. Simulated erosion in excess of 7.5 cm of surface soil removal significantly delayed the development of VAM effectiveness monitored in terms of the P status of L. leucocephala subleaflets and also curtailed the level of maximum effectiveness observed. Decreases in VAM effectiveness were significantly correlated with decreases in soil chemical constituents. However, VAM effectiveness in a soil subjected to 30 cm of surface soil removal was not restored to a significant extent unless the soil was amended with P, even though other nutrients were restored to sufficiency levels. Our results demonstrate that the development of VAM effectiveness is the phase of the VAM symbiosis that is most adversely influenced by simulated erosion and that this effect appears to be caused primarily by insufficient P in the soil solution.

Habte, M.; Fox, R. L.; Aziz, T.; El-Swaify, S. A.



Above and below ground interactions in alley-cropping in semi-arid India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of micro-environment on the growth and yield of cowpea, castor and sorghum was investigated in a 10 m wide alley cropping system. The alleys were formed by Leucaena hedgerows pruned for both fodder and pole production. Below-ground interaction was examined by installing a polythene root barrier between the root systems of crops and Leucaena and by measurements of

R. P. Singh; N. Saharan; C. K. Ong



Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique  

PubMed Central

In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it’s highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium.

Seresinhe, T.; Madushika, S. A. C.; Seresinhe, Y.; Lal, P. K.; ?rskov, E. R.



Comparing the sensitivity of two in vitro assays to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tropical tannin rich plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.  


The present trial aimed at comparing the sensitivity of two in vitro methods, i.e. the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and the larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA), to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) properties of tannin-rich plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae. The two assays were applied on the same batch of H. contortus infective larvae exposed to water/acetonic extracts obtained from four tropical plants with different tannin contents: Acacia gaumeri, Brosimum alicastrum, Havardia albicans and Leucaena leucocephala. Increasing concentrations (0, 75, 150, 300, 600, 1200 ?g/ml PBS) of lyophilized extracts were used in both in vitro assays. A general lineal model test was used to determine the dose-effect in the LMIA or the difference in the percentage of exsheathed larvae between the respective control and treated groups. The LMIA showed a dose-dependent AH effect for H. albicans (P<0.001) and A. gaumeri (P<0.05), but not for L. leucocephala and B. alicastrum. In contrast, the exsheathment process was significantly affected by all doses of H. albicans and A. gaumeri extracts and a significant dose-dependent effect was found for B. alicastrum and L. leucocephala. Calculation of lethal dose (LD) was possible with LEIA using B. alicastrum and L. leucocephala but not with H. albicans and A. gaumeri as the lowest tested concentration was achieving more than 50% inhibition. Calculation of LD with the LMIA results was not feasible. These results suggest that tannin-rich plant extracts are more potent inhibitors of the exsheathment of H. contortus L(3) larvae than their motility. This information underlines the difference of sensitivity between methodological procedures to evaluate the AH properties of plant extracts on the same nematode stage. PMID:21530082

Alonso-Díaz, M A; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H



Cupriavidus necator isolates are able to fix nitrogen in symbiosis with different legume species.  


The aim of the present study was to identify a collection of 35 Cupriavidus isolates at the species level and to examine their capacity to nodulate and fix N(2). These isolates were previously obtained from the root nodules of two promiscuous trap species, Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala, inoculated with soil samples collected near Sesbania virgata plants growing in Minas Gerais (Brazil) pastures. Phenotypic and genotypic methods applied for this study were SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequencing. To confirm the ability to nodulate and fix N(2), the presence of the nodC and nifH genes was also determined, and an experiment was carried out with two representative isolates in order to authenticate them as legume nodule symbionts. All 35 isolates belonged to the betaproteobacterium Cupriavidus necator, they possessed the nodC and nifH genes, and two representative isolates were able to nodulate five different promiscuous legume species: Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, L. leucocephala, Macroptilium atropurpureum, P. vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata. This is the first study to demonstrate that C. necator can nodulate legume species. PMID:22361568

da Silva, Krisle; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; da Silva, Karina Barroso; de Brandt, Evie; Vandamme, Peter; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria



Contrasting bee pollination in two co-occurring distylic species of Cordia (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) in the Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga: generalist in C. globosa vs. specialist in C. leucocephala.  


In this study we compare the reproductive biology of Cordia globosa and C. leucocephala (Cordiaceae, Boraginales; formerly referred to Boraginaceae) to understand the functioning of the floral morphs and the relations with their effective pollinators. The species are synchronopatric, distylic, and self-incompatible. Though they share melittophilous traits, the main visitor and pollinator of C. globosa was the generalist and exotic bee Apis mellifera, while the only one of C. leucocephala was the oligoletic bee Ceblurgus longipalpis. These two latter species are restricted to the Caatinga of NE Brazil, contrasting with the wide distribution of Cordia globosa. While the fruit-set for C. globosa was high, independently if the pollen donor/stigma receptor was a pin (long-styled) or thrum (short-styled) individual, in C. leucocephala the fruit-set was low and occurred only when a thrum individual was the pollen donor. This raises the possibility of this species moving towards dioecy. The high natural fruit-set of C. globosa confirms the generalist bee as its effective pollinator. The low fruit-set after manual crosses in C. leucocephala may be due to low pollen viability. Additionally, the low natural fruit-set (two times lower than after crosses) may be related with the foraging behavior of the specialist pollinator. PMID:21152762

Machado, Isabel C; Lopes, Ariadna V; Sazima, Marlies



International Consultation on Ipil-Ipil Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discoveries on the multi-uses of ipil-ipil (Leucaena spp.) generated worldwide interest in the production of this versatile plant. Originating from Mexico, this species was introduced to various tropical countries especially in Southeast Asia. Undoubtedly...



Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.  


The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop-roots) and L. leucocephala (pod seed) in C. gariepinus when supplemented in artificial feed. PMID:24120503

Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om



The economic potential of leguminous tree crops in zero-tillage cropping in Nigeria: a linear programming model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic evaluation of zero-tillage farming system against the background of small-scale farmers in south west Nigeria was undertaken using the linear programming method to maximize yearly net return on Alfisols. Alternative crop rotation systems considered were maize-maize, maize-Stylo, maize-maize\\/Stylo, maize-pigeon pea, maize-maize\\/pigeon pea, and maize\\/Leucaena-maize\\/Leucaena.

I. Verinumbe; H. C. Knipscheer; E. E. Enabor



Exopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium loti are fully effective on a determinate nodulating host but are ineffective on an indeterminate nodulating host.  

PubMed Central

By Tn5 mutagenesis of Rhizobium loti PN184 (NZP2037 str-1) and selection for nonfluorescence of colonies on Calcofluor agar, eight independently generated expolysaccharide (EPS) mutants (three smooth and five rough) were isolated. The parent strain, PN184, was found to produce an acidic EPS. This EPS was produced. with reduced O acetylation, by the smooth EPS mutants but not by the rough EPS mutants. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from all mutants and was identical to that of PN184 as defined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All mutants were resistant to lysis by R. loti bacteriophage phi 2037/1. Cosmids that complemented the mutations in the rough EPS mutants were isolated from a pLAFR1 gene library of NZP2037 by complementation of the nonfluorescent phenotype. The genes identified were shown to be unlinked and located on the chromosome. All mutants were fully effective when inoculated onto Lotus pedunculatus, a determinate nodulating host, but were ineffective, inducing the formation of very small nodules or tumorlike growths, when inoculated onto Leucaena leucocephala, an indeterminate nodulating host. These results, obtained in an isogenic Rhizobium background, support suggestions that acidic EPS is required for effective nodulation of indeterminate nodulating legumes but is not required for effective nodulation of determinate nodulating legumes. Images

Hotter, G S; Scott, D B



Exopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium loti are fully effective on a determinate nodulating host but are ineffective on an indeterminate nodulating host.  


By Tn5 mutagenesis of Rhizobium loti PN184 (NZP2037 str-1) and selection for nonfluorescence of colonies on Calcofluor agar, eight independently generated expolysaccharide (EPS) mutants (three smooth and five rough) were isolated. The parent strain, PN184, was found to produce an acidic EPS. This EPS was produced. with reduced O acetylation, by the smooth EPS mutants but not by the rough EPS mutants. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from all mutants and was identical to that of PN184 as defined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All mutants were resistant to lysis by R. loti bacteriophage phi 2037/1. Cosmids that complemented the mutations in the rough EPS mutants were isolated from a pLAFR1 gene library of NZP2037 by complementation of the nonfluorescent phenotype. The genes identified were shown to be unlinked and located on the chromosome. All mutants were fully effective when inoculated onto Lotus pedunculatus, a determinate nodulating host, but were ineffective, inducing the formation of very small nodules or tumorlike growths, when inoculated onto Leucaena leucocephala, an indeterminate nodulating host. These results, obtained in an isogenic Rhizobium background, support suggestions that acidic EPS is required for effective nodulation of indeterminate nodulating legumes but is not required for effective nodulation of determinate nodulating legumes. PMID:1987168

Hotter, G S; Scott, D B



Novel and complex chromosomal arrangement of Rhizobium loti nodulation genes.  


A mutational and structural analysis of Rhizobium loti nodulation genes in strains NZP2037 and NZP2213 was carried out. Unlike the case with other Rhizobium strains examined to date, nodB was found on an operon separate from nodACIJ. Sequence analysis of the nodACIJ and nodB operon regions confirm that R. loti common nod genes have a gene organization different from that of other Rhizobium spp. At least 4 copies of nodD-like sequences were identified in R. loti. The complete nucleotide sequence of one of these, nodD3, was determined. A new host-specific nod gene, nolL, was identified adjacent to nodD3. NolL shares homology with NodX and other O-acetyl transferases. Mutational analysis of the nod regions of strains NZP2037 and NZP2213 showed that nodD3, nodI, nodJ, and nolL were all essential for R. loti strains to effectively nodulate the extended host Lotus pedunculatus, but were not necessary for effective nodulation of the less restrictive host, Lotus corniculatus. Both nodD3 and nolL were essential for R. loti strains to nodulate Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:8850088

Scott, D B; Young, C A; Collins-Emerson, J M; Terzaghi, E A; Rockman, E S; Lewis, P E; Pankhurst, C E



Description of nests, eggs, and nestlings of the endangered nightingale reed-warbler on Saipan, Micronesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the first verified nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Nightingale Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), an endangered species endemic to the Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Nest composition, nest dimensions, and eggs were studied on the island of Saipan. Nests were located within three habitat types: upland introduced tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) forest, a native mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) wetland, and a native reed (Phragmites karka) wetland. Nesting substrates included five native and two introduced tree species and one native reed species. Nests were composed primarily of dry vine stems, needle-like branchlets of ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), and tangantangan petioles. Nests were compact to bulky in construction and were secured to a forked arrangement of branches or stems. The background color of eggs ranged from white to cream to ivory-buff. Eggs were spotted, speckled, and blotched with gray, brown, black, and rust colored markings. Clutch size was 2-4, with a mode of two. Hatchlings were altricial with closed eyelids and devoid of natal down with dark gray to black skin. Nestlings examined prior to fledging resembled the adult plumage, except for the lack of the yellow supercilium found in adults. The nests and eggs have some characteristics similar to those of other Acrocephaline warblers found throughout Micronesia and Polynesia.

Mosher, S. M.; Fancy, S. G.



Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.  


The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves. PMID:24420892

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C



Distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal chemical fractions in artificial soil on rock cut slopes alongside railways.  


Artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes alongside railroad tracks to promote revegetation. This study evaluated the heavy metal content and the distribution of heavy metal chemical fractions in the soil, as well as the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The soil at four sites was determined to be considerably contaminated with Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increased with the length of time the railway had been in use and decreased further away from the railway tracks. Pb primarily existed in reducible form but as residual fractions, whereas Cd was predominantly in exchangeable form. A correlation analysis indicated that pH, organic matter, and total phosphorus levels were important factors affecting the distribution of the heavy metal chemical fractions. The amounts of exchangeable Pb and Cd in the soil were highly correlated with their amounts in the plants sampled, indicating that the exchangeable fraction is a better indication of heavy metal phytoavailability than the total amount of heavy metals in the soil. Bioaccumulation and translocation factors indicated that Indigofera amblyantha had moderate tolerance and bioaccumulation capability for Pb, as did Leucaena leucocephala for Cd. These two plant species can serve as ideal slope remediation plants. PMID:24727018

Chen, Zhaoqiong; Ai, Yingwei; Fang, Chen; Wang, Kexiu; Li, Wei; Liu, Shui; Li, Chunlin; Xiao, Jingyao; Huang, Zhiyu



Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.  


A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K



Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.  


As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher



Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos  

PubMed Central

As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum).

Guezou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher



Evidence of an American Origin for Symbiosis-Related Genes in Rhizobium lusitanum ?  

PubMed Central

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of 179 bean isolates recovered from six field sites in the Arcos de Valdevez region of northwestern Portugal. The isolates were divided into 6 groups based on the fingerprint patterns that were obtained. Representatives for each group were selected for sequence analysis of 4 chromosomal DNA regions. Five of the groups were placed within Rhizobium lusitanum, and the other group was placed within R. tropici type IIA. Therefore, the collection of Portuguese bean isolates was shown to include the two species R. lusitanum and R. tropici. In plant tests, the strains P1-7, P1-1, P1-2, and P1-16 of R. lusitanum nodulated and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses both with Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene identical with the R. tropici locus that confers wide host range was detected in the strain P1-7 as well as 24 others identified as R. lusitanum. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene also was detected in the remaining isolates of R. lusitanum, but in this case the locus was that identified with the narrow-host-range R. etli. Representatives of isolates with the nodS of R. etli formed effective nitrogen-fixing symbioses with P. vulgaris and did not nodulate L. leucocephala. From sequence data of nodS, the R. lusitanum genes for symbiosis were placed within those of either R. tropici or R. etli. These results would support the suggestion that R. lusitanum was the recipient of the genes for symbiosis with beans from both R. tropici and R. etli.

Valverde, Angel; Velazquez, Encarna; Cervantes, Emilio; Igual, Jose M.; van Berkum, Peter



Distribution and diversity of rhizobia nodulating agroforestry legumes in soils from three continents in the tropics.  


The natural rhizobial populations of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban were assessed in soils from nine sites across tropical areas of three continents. The rhizobial population size varied from undetectable numbers to 1.8 x 104 cells/g of soil depending on the trap host and the soil. Calliandra calothyrsus was the most promiscuous legume, nodulating in eight soils, while S. sesban nodulated in only one of the soils. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes were used to assess the diversity and relative abundance of rhizobia trapped from seven of the soils by C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and L. leucocephala. Representatives of the 16S rRNA RFLP groups were also subjected to sequence analysis of the first 950 base pairs of the 16S rRNA gene. Eighty ITS groups were obtained, with none of the ITS types being sampled in more than one soil. RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA yielded 23 'species' groups distributed among the Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Agrobacterium branches of the rhizobial phylogenetic tree. The phylogeny of the isolates was independent of the site or host of isolation, with different rhizobial groups associated with each host across the soils from widely separated geographical regions. Although rhizobial populations in soils sampled from the centre of diversity of the host legumes were the most genetically diverse, soil acidity was highly correlated with the diversity of ITS types. Our results support the hypothesis that the success of these tree legumes in soils throughout the tropics is the result of their relative promiscuity (permissiveness) allowing nodulation with diverse indigenous rhizobial types. PMID:12753212

Bala, Abdullah; Murphy, Phillip; Giller, Ken E



In vitro acaricidal effect of tannin-rich plants against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal effects of lyophilized extracts of four tannin rich plants (Acacia pennatula, Piscidia piscipula, Leucaena leucocephala and Lysiloma latisiliquum) against diverse stages of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and to asses whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to block tannins. Larval immersion (LIT) and adult immersion (AIT) tests were used to evaluate the acaricidal effect of each of the lyophilized extracts against larval and adult stages of R. microplus respectively. Larvae and adult ticks were exposed to increasing concentrations of each plant extract (0, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 and 19,200 ?g ml(-1)) for 10 min. Larval mortality was recorded at 48 h post-incubation. Adult mortality was recorded daily over 14 days, at which point their reproductive efficiency was evaluated. PEG was added to the extracts to verify whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect. The effect on egg laying inhibition and larval mortality was analyzed using the GLM procedure in SAS. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the effect of PEG on LIT results. Calculation of the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) was performed using a probit analysis. All extracts reduced the viability of R. microplus larval stages (P<0.001), and viability was restored with the addition of PEG suggesting an important role of tannins in the acaricidal effect (P<0.001). The LC50 values of L. latisiliquum and P. piscipula plant extracts were 6.402 and 2.466 ?g ml(-1). None of the tannin-rich plant extracts affected adult mortality (P>0.05). Lysiloma latisiliquum extract inhibited egg hatching of R. microplus (P<0.01). Tannin-rich plant extracts from A. pennatula, P. piscipula, L. leucocephala and L. latisiliquum showed potential acaricidal activity. Further in vivo studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:20947253

Fernández-Salas, A; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Acosta-Rodríguez, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I



Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.  


The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P < 0.01) methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity. PMID:22205224

Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia



midD-encoded 'rhizomimosinase' from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate and ammonia.  


Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 catabolizes mimosine, which is a toxic non-protein amino acid present in Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). The objective of this investigation was to study the biochemical and catalytic properties of the enzyme encoded by midD, one of the TAL1145 genes involved in mimosine degradation. The midD-encoded enzyme, MidD, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for biochemical and catalytic studies using mimosine as the substrate. The reaction products in the enzyme assay were analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. MidD has a molecular mass of ~45 kDa and its catalytic activity was found to be optimal at 37 °C and pH 8.5. The major product formed in the reaction had the same retention time as that of synthetic 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P). It was confirmed to be 3H4P by MS/MS analysis of the HPLC-purified product. The K m, V max and K cat of MidD were 1.27 × 10(-4) mol, 4.96 × 10(-5) mol s(-1) mg(-1), and 2,256.05 s(-1), respectively. Although MidD has sequence similarities with aminotransferases, it is not an aminotransferase because it does not require a keto acid as the co-substrate in the degradation reaction. It is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and the addition of 50 ?M hydroxylamine completely inhibited the reaction. However, the supplementation of the reaction with 0.1 ?M PLP restored the catalytic activity of MidD in the reaction containing 50 ?M hydroxylamine. The catalytic activity of MidD was found to be specific to mimosine, and the presence of its structural analogs including L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine did not show any competitive inhibition. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products in equimolar quantities of the substrate used. The degradation of mimosine into a ring compound, 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicates that MidD of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase. PMID:23462928

Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal



Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.  


This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88?±?2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder



Reproductive Capacities and Development of a Seed Bruchid Beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a Potential Host for the Mass Rearing of the Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis  

PubMed Central

The reproductive capacities and development of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), found in Togo, were determined under natural conditions in a Guinean zone for its use as a substitute host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalts Rond (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a biological agent for the control of beetles that are pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae). Population dynamics at the field level; and survival, fecundity and offspring production by A. macrophthalmus under laboratory conditions were measured when fed on its natural plant-host Leucaena leucocephala (Lamark) deWit (Fabales: Mimosaceae). The data resulting from the laboratory study were used to calculate the demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus by establishing its fertility and life tables. Contrary to cultivated leguminous food plants, L. leucocephala is a perennial sub-spontaneous leguminous plant whose pods are available year round. Although A. macrophthalmus was present in nature throughout the year, its infestation rate of the pods fluctuated according to the phenology of the plant. The maximum infestation of L. leucocephala pods was observed between August and December. Four larval stages and one pupal stage of A. macrophthalmus were identified in the laboratory. The total mean development time varied on average 33.75 ± 2.87 days on the mature pods and 33.39 ± 2.02 days on seeds. The adult female lived from one to two weeks. During its life time, the female laid an average of 62.3 ± 19 and 43.1 ± 13 eggs on the mature pods and seeds respectively and produced an average of 36.7 ± 11.3 offspring on the mature pods and 21.8 ± 8.4 offspring on seeds. On seeds, the net reproduction rate was 5.88 females per female and the intrinsic rate of population increase 0.051 per day. The generation time was 34.59 days and the doubling time 13.59 days. The demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus in this study are close to those of Callobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), the natural host of D. basalts in a previous study. A. macrophthalmus could therefore be used as substitute host for the mass rearing of D. basalts and subsequently its release in farmers' storage containers. The data presented in this study provide some baseline information regarding the reproductive capacities of A. macrophthalmus that may be useful for its promotion as a substitute host for mass rearing of D. basalts.

TQ, Effowe; K, Amevoin; Y, Nuto; D, Mondedji; IA, Glitho



The effect of protein supplement source or supply pattern on the intake, digestibility, rumen kinetics, nitrogen utilisation and growth of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of trials were conducted to study the effect of either nitrogen source or supply pattern on the growth, rumen fermentation pattern and utilisation of straw by Ethiopian Menz sheep. All experimental sheep were given teff straw basal diet (CON). Irrespective of the trial, treatment sheep were offered either cottonseed cake (CSC), leucaena (LEU) and sesbania (SESM) in the

M. L. K. Bonsi; A. K. Tuah; P. O. Osuji; V. I. Nsahlai; N. N. Umunna



Hydropyrolysis of biomass and related materials for the production of liquids  

SciTech Connect

Test data for the pyrolytic conversion of eucalyptus wood, leucaena wood, and peat to liquid fuel have been analyzed. Charts have been developed to facilitate prediction of the quantity and composition of the various end products as a function of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, and carrier gas composition.

Bodle, W.W.; Wright, K.A.



Landscape and microsite influences on shrub recruitment in a disturbed semi-arid Quercus-Juniperus woodland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling demography of the leguminous shrubs Leucaena pulverulenta and Acacia berlandieri was monitored to determine the functional role of microsites in the resto- ration of disturbed semiarid woodlands. Seeds were sown on replicated landscapes during 1989 and again in 1990 into four microsites after brush clearing: 1) Rocky, with shallow soils (<10 cm) and low vegetative cover (<<50%), 2) Herbaceous,

M. K. Owens; R. B. Wallace; S. R. Archer



Re-marriage of crops and trees  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

Nair, P.K.R.



Steady State Fluorescence Studies of Wild Type Recombinant Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (Ll-CCRH1) and its Active Site Mutants.  


Fluorescence quenching and time resolved fluorescence studies of wild type recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase (Ll-CCRH1), a multitryptophan protein from Leucaena leucocephala and 10 different active site mutants were carried out to investigate tryptophan environment. The enzyme showed highest affinity for feruloyl CoA (K a ?=?3.72?×?10(5) M(-1)) over other CoA esters and cinnamaldehydes, as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Quenching of the fluorescence by acrylamide for wild type and active site mutants was collisional with almost 100 % of the tryptophan fluorescence accessible under native condition and remained same after denaturation of protein with 6 M GdnHCl. In wild type Ll-CCRH1, the extent of quenching achieved with iodide (f a?=?1.0) was significantly higher than cesium ions (f a?=?0.33) suggesting more density of positive charge around surface of trp conformers under native conditions. Denaturation of wild type protein with 6 M GdnHCl led to significant increase in the quenching with cesium (f a?=?0.54), whereas quenching with iodide ion was decreased (f a?=?0.78), indicating reorientation of charge density around trp from positive to negative and heterogeneity in trp environment. The Stern-Volmer plots for wild type and mutants Ll-CCRH1 under native and denatured conditions, with cesium ion yielded biphasic quenching profiles. The extent of quenching for cesium and iodide ions under native and denatured conditions observed in active site mutants was significantly different from wild type Ll-CCRH1 under the same conditions. Thus, single substitution type mutations of active site residues showed heterogeneity in tryptophan microenvironment and differential degree of conformation of protein under native or denatured conditions. PMID:24322526

Sonawane, Prashant; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Singh, Somesh; Gaikwad, Sushama; Khan, Bashir M



Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay  

PubMed Central

We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191.

del Papa, Maria F.; Balague, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martinez; Toro, Nicolas; Niehaus, Karsten; Puhler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martinez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio



Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use.

Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.



Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation  

PubMed Central

An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.



Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.  


One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures. Our results suggest that the main photosensitisers from terrestrial plants are likely based on the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure and photosensitisers with other structures, if present, are present in minor amounts or are not as active as those with the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure. PMID:19647445

Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon



Galactomannan thin films as supports for the immobilization of Concanavalin A and/or dengue viruses.  


The immobilization of the glucose/mannose-binding lectin from Concanavalia ensiformis seeds (ConA) onto a monolayer made of a galactomannan extracted from Leucaena leucocephala seeds (GML), which was adsorbed onto - amino-terminated surfaces, was investigated by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The mean thickness of GML monolayer, which polysaccharide consists of linear 1?4-linked ?-D-mannopyranosil units partially substituted at C-6 by ?-D-galactopyranosyl units, amounted to (1.5±0.2) nm. ConA molecules adsorbed onto GML surfaces forming (2.0±0.5) nm thick layers. However, in the presence of mannose the adsorption failed, indicating that ConA binding sites were blocked by mannose and were no longer available for mannose units present in the GML backbone. The GML film was also used as support for the adsorption of three serotypes of dengue virus particles (DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3), where DENV-2 formed the thickest film (4±2) nm. The adsorbed layer of DENV-2 onto ConA-covered GML surfaces presented mean thickness values similar to that determined for DENV-2 onto bare GML surfaces. The addition of free mannose units prevented DENV-2 adsorption onto ConA-covered GML films by ~50%, suggesting competition between virus and mannose for ConA binding sites. This finding suggests that if ConA is also adsorbed to GML surface and its binding site is blocked by free mannose, virus particles are able to recognized GML mannose unities substituted by galactose. Interactions between polysaccharides thin films, proteins, and viruses are of great relevance since they can provide basis for the development of biotechnological devices. These results indicate that GML is a potential polysaccharide for biomaterials development, as those could involve interactions between ConA in immune system and viruses. PMID:22020153

Valenga, Francine; Petri, Denise F S; Lucyszyn, Neoli; Jó, Tatiane A; Sierakowski, Maria Rita



Allelopathic potential of Macaranga tanarius (L.) muell.-arg.  


Macaranga tanarius is widely distributed in the abandoned lowlands of Taiwan where substantial amounts of leaves accumulate on the ground. A unique pattern of weed exclusion underneath trees is often found and thought to result from allelopathic interactions. Density-dependent phytotoxicity analysis of Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) growing in soil mixed with the powder of M. tanarius leaves showed a significant deviation from the expected yield-density relationship. Lettuce growth was most suppressed in the low seed density experiment suggesting that the phytotoxins produced during leaf decomposition inhibit the growth of lettuce seedlings. Bidens pilosa and Leucaena leucocephala, growing in soil mixed with the leaf powder of M. tanarius were also suppressed. Aqueous leaf extracts were bioassayed against lettuce and B. pilosa, and exhibited a significant suppression in radicle growth. Compounds identified from leaves included nymphaeol-A (1), nymphaeol-B (2), nymphaeol-C (3), quercetin (4), abscisic acid (ABA) (5), blumenol A (6), blumenol B (7), roseoside II (8), tanariflavanone A (9), and tanariflavanone B (10), ABA was the major growth inhibitor. At concentrations of 20 ppm, ABA suppressed lettuce germination, while at 120 ppm it inhibited the growth of Miscanthus floridulus, Chloris barbata, and Bidens pilosa. At 600 ppm, quercetin, blumenol A, and blumenol B, caused 20-25% inhibition of radicle and shoot growth of M. floridulus. The amount of ABA in M. tanarius leaves was approximately 3-5 microg g(-1) dry weight, significantly higher than previously reported. We conclude that the pattern of weed exclusion underneath stands of M. tanarius and its invasion into its adjacent grassland vegetation results from allelopathic interactions. PMID:12857035

Tseng, Mei-Huims; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Yih-Ming; Chou, Chang-Hung



In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.  


Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7 ?g/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0 ?g/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1 ?g/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated a dose-dependent effect on larval feeding with respective IC50 estimates (mean±s.e.) of 0.015 mg/ml ±0.001 and 3.465 mg/ml ±0.144, effects which were partly reversed by the inclusion of either the tannin inhibitor polyethylene glycol or the lectin inhibitor Fetuin. These studies demonstrate that plant lectins can have an inhibitory effect on the feeding behaviour of first stage larvae of ovine GIN in vitro. Moreover they also provide novel evidence that lectins may contribute to the anthelmintic properties of some tropical forage plant extracts, such as G. sepium and L. leucocephala. PMID:22130336

Ríos-de Álvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F



Agroforestry systems for soil and water conservation and sustainable production from foothill areas of north India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some conservation based agroforestry systems (AFS) were developed for possible adoption in place of high risk rainfed farming on land capability classes Ito IV of a typical topo-sequence of foothill north India. The agri-silvi-horticulture system integrating leucaena, lemon, papaya and turmeric on class I irrigated land provided sustainable mean net returns of Rs. 17066 against Rs. 7852 ha.–1 yr.–1 from

S. S. Grewal; S. P. Mittal; Surjit Dyal; Y. Agnihotri



In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin–protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12mg CT, 10mg 15N-protein, and 2.77mg

S. M. Andrabi; M. M. Ritchie; C. Stimson; A. Horadagoda; M. Hyde; D. M. McNeill



Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.



Evaluating sugarcane diets for dairy cows using a digestion model.  


To eliminate unnecessary feeding trials, a mechanistic model of sugarcane digestion was used in the search for suitable supplements to improve milk production. Milk production simulated by the model was compared with data observed in four feeding trials published in the tropical literature where crossbred dairy cows were fed sugarcane/urea diets with different types of supplements. The predicted effects of the supplements on the ruminal microbial population, concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids were also compared with the published results in one experiment. The model indicated the nutrient most limiting milk production for the different feeding situations. The addtion of Leucaena to the basal sugarcane/urea improved the availability of amino acids and long-chain fatty acids, with energy becoming the limiting factor. Supplementation with rice bran increased the availability of energy and long-chain fatty acids, but amino acids then became the limiting factor. Supplementation with both Leucaena and rice bran further improved the milk yield, but availability of energy now limited milk production. Supplementation with Leucaena increased milk production more than supplementation with king grass. The main reason for this increase was increased amino acid absorption due to increased microbial outflow. In all feeding situations, the average difference between the predicted milk production and that observed experimentally was 0.57 kg/d (ranging from 0.08 to 1 kg/d). PMID:11254073

Kebreab, E; Assis, A G; Dijkstra, J; France, J



Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Report on Energy Tree Farm Workshop No. 2, Hilo, Hawaii, June 1982  

SciTech Connect

Results of the workshop show that a eucalyptus tree plantation, including a small nursery to produce the seedlings not available from the Waimea State Tree Nursery, could be established on 12,000 acres of Puna Sugar Company land. At approximately six years of age, the trees could be harvested, chipped, and burned in the renovated Puna Sugar Company's bagasse boiler to generate electricity. The cost of a bone dry ton of chips would be $37 if a real money rate of 3% is assumed, and $50 at a real money rate of 8%. Electricity could be produced at 7.7 cents per kWh assuming a 3% real money rate, and at 9.8 cents per kWh at an 8% rate. This workshop included an evaluation of soils at the selected Keeau site. Tree crop requirements were matched with soil and other environmental characteristics such as rainfall, altitude, and temperature. Leucaena Leucocephala, L. diversifolia, Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, and E. robusta were among the primary species considered, and based upon known environmental requirements and previous experience, E. grandis was selected. A conservative yield estimate for E. grandis at the specified site is 10 bone dry tons (20 green tons)/acre/year of total biomass. The 12,000 acre area would be planted continuously over period of six years at an annual production rate of 2000 acres per year. Spacing would be 6x6, or 1210 trees per acre, which, including a 10% seedling discard rate, would bring the total number of seedlings required to 2.7 million/year. Harvesting operations would begin in the 7th year, and three coppice crops would be harvested before replanting became necessary again. For the production of 120,000 bone dry tons (240,000 green tons) per year, four separate harvesting systems would be needed. Each would consist of 1 mobile whole tree chipper, 2 tracked feller-bunchers, 3 rubber-tired and tracked grapple skidders, 2 truck trailers, 3 chip vans, and 1 D-4 dozer. 10 figures, 31 tables.

Troy, M. (ed.)



Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 ± 5.0 ?g/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 ± 5.0 ?g/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 ?g/disc and 500 ?g/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C. pulcherrima, C. tergemina and P. pterocarpum. These preliminary results would be a guide in the selection of potential candidates for further pharmacological study and in search of new drug candidate in treating MRSA infections.



An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in-filled in a long process of base level lowering and landscape denudation. These valley processes are linked to hillslope "throughflow" lines and exfiltration points appear in gully walls from which secondary gullies develop, thus creating expanding erosional networks. After incision, channel widening and meandering are followed by gully wall declination and in duplex soils headwall retreat consumes the A horizon of the surrounding hillslope soils. Consequently, sediment from eroding headwalls on the slopes is deposited in the gullies and lower slopes. New vegetation establishes and completely masks the previous gully. This is a different kind of base level effect when compared with the traditional incision by trunk and regional catchment networks and needs to be understood when considering the effects of grazing management. Recent advances in knowledge about the Southern Oscillation Index and the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation are a two-edged sword for land managers because some parts of properties can be best rehabilitated during wet periods while other very productive parts can be damaged the most. Rehabilitation of some key areas on hillslopes, successful introduction of tropical legumes and buffel grass(Cenchus Celaris), choking of gullies where deposition is occurring with growth of Leucaena leucocephala shrubs, and rotational resting (Time Controlled Grazing) from grazing has been highly successful in changing hydrology and erosion.

Ciesiolka, Cyril



Liquid fuels from the hydropyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect

A process designed to produce principally liquid fuel from Hawaiian biomass has been completed recently. This system consists of short residence-time pyrolysis of solids, entrained in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique, which has been extensively developed at IGT for conversion of lignite, is termed HYFLEX. Following reaction at about 1100/sup 0/F (595/sup 0/C) and 200 psig (1.4 MPa), char and liquids are separated from the reactor outlet gas. Since fuel gas is not a desirable product at the location contemplated, the remaining gas is reformed with steam for production of a high-hydrogen-content gas which is recycled to the HYFLEX reactor. Bench-scale experiments were conducted with eucalyptus wood and leucaena wood feeds to establish data for process design. This paper describes the results of the wood tests and their comparison with similar data on peat. (JMT)

Bodle, W.W.; Wright, K.A.



Evaluation of Nigerian animal feeds by particle-induced X-ray emission.  


There is need to evaluate the locally available animal feeds in Nigeria so as to be able to combine them in acceptable proportions to the animals to achieve the desired growth rate. The technique of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was employed for the evaluation of these locally available animal feeds, which include Panicum maximum (Guinea grass), Cynodon plectostachyum (grass), Leucaena leucephala (legume), Calopogonium mucunoides (legume), Gliricidia sepium (legume), Euphorbia polychrome (legume), Pueraria phaseloides (legume), and Centrosema pubescens (legume). The proton beam delivered by the 2.5-MV AN 2,000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. Twenty-one different elements were detected at various concentrations and their nutritional effects on different animals are discussed. PMID:16217142

Olabanji, S O; Olubunmi, P; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; De Poli, M; Moschini, G



Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely facilitate and support a high-density Brown Tree Snake population, even as native species are reduced or extirpated. ?? 2009 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

Wiewel, A. S.; Adams, A. A. Y.; Rodda, G. H.



Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program  

SciTech Connect

Hawaii provides a unique environment for production of biomass resources that can be converted into renewable energy products. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of several biomass resources, including sugarcane, eucalyptus, and leucaena, particularly for utilization in thermochemical conversion processes to produce liquid or gaseous transportation fuels. This research program supports ongoing efforts of the Biofuels and Municipal Solid Waste Technology (BMWT) Program of the Department of Energy (DOE) and has goals that are consistent with BMWT. The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) work completed here consists of research activities that support two of the five renewable fuel cycles being pursued by DOE researchers. The results are directly applicable in the American territories throughout the Pacific Basin and the Caribbean, and also to many parts of the United States and worldwide. The Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program is organized into the following six research tasks, which are presented as appendices in report form: Biomass Resource Assessment and System Modeling (Task 1); Bioenergy Tree Research (Task 2); Breeding, Culture, and Selection of Tropical Grasses for Increased Energy Potential (Task 3); Study of Eucalyptus Plantations for Energy Production in Hawaii (Task 4); Fundamental Solvolysis Research (Task 5); and Effects of Feedstock Composition on Pyrolysis Products (Task 6). 54 refs., 35 figs., 55 tabs.

Takahashi, P.K.



Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.  


The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions. PMID:23764913

Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela



Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.



Rhizobia from wild legumes: diversity, taxonomy, ecology, nitrogen fixation and biotechnology.  


Wild legumes (herb or tree) are widely distributed in arid regions and actively contribute to soil fertility in these environments. The N2-fixing activity and tolerance to drastic conditions may be higher in wild legumes than in crop legumes. The wild legumes in arid zones harbor diverse and promiscuous rhizobia in their root-nodules. Specificity existed only in few rhizobia from wild legumes, however, the majority of them are with wide host range. Based on phenotypic characteristics and molecular techniques (protein profiles, polysaccharides, plasmids, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16SrRNA, etc.), the root-nodule bacteria that was isolated from wild legumes had been classified into four genera (Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium). The rhizobia of wild legumes in arid zones, exhibit higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, e.g. salt stress, elevated temperatures and desiccation. These rhizobia may be used to inoculate wild, as well as, crop legumes, cultivated in reclaimed desert lands. Recent reports indicated that the wild-legume rhizobia formed successful symbioses with some grain legumes. Moreover, intercropping of some N2-fixing tree legumes (e.g. Lablab, Leucaena, Sesbania, etc.) to pasture grasses improved biomass yield and herb quality. In recent years, the rhizobia of wild legumes turn the attention of biotechnologists. These bacteria may have specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through genetic engineering tools or used to produce industrially important compounds. Therefore, these bacteria are very important from both economic and environmental points of view. PMID:11566386

Zahran, H H



Agriculture and nutrition at village level, Underexploited village resources.  


Developing country villages contain plants, animals and technologies whose extraordinary potentials are poorly appreciated by scientists. Examples of nutritious village crops that are still largely undeveloped and unappreciated outside their traditional villages are the winged bean, amaranths and the tepary bean. Tropical tree legumes, such as leucaena, grow fast and fix nitrogen and--although barely studied by foresters--are promising sources for village firewood and lumber. There are several animals with great promise for use in villages. The water buffalo is a gentle, productive village resource, neglected by the cow used by Indonesian villagers and unknown elsewhere in the tropics. And Papua New Guinea's new village farms for crocodiles and butterflies graphically demonstrate that wildlife husbandry can be valuable for remote rural areas, despite its neglect by animal science. Among exceptionally useful village technologies, an example is the amazingly efficient cooking system used on the small Indonesian islands of Roti and Sumba, which has so far been described only in Captain Cook's journals. PMID:6106942

Vietmeyer, N D



Coburning in institutional incinerators  

SciTech Connect

Our program, initiated in 1980, originally sought to replace imported oil by coburning coal and natural gas in oil designed boilers. Success came in 1986 with the co-combustion of coal water slurries (CWS) and natural gas (G) in a 20 MMBtu/hr watertube oil designed boiler. We achieved stable flames over broad load levels, good boiler efficiencies, low emissions, benign ash and--by increasing the G/CWS ratio--full power rating. Our biomass-waste co-combustion experiments will utilize a two chamber ram fed incinerator. Advanced analytical techniques will be used to measure available energy and stack emissions from various waste-biomass-fossil fuel combinations. Heating values, H/C ratios, percent moisture, emissions, prices and tipping fees are discussed. Locally grown annual dry biomass yields of napiergrass and leucaena, energetically equivalent to 30-50 barrels of oil per acre, are reported. Abundant local sources of waste biomass are identified. Together community waste and cultivated and waste biomass constitute a substantial source of renewable energy of use in forested and agricultural regions. Modular waste to energy systems are available in the 10-100 ton per day range. With aggressive recycling and hazardous waste reduction measures and good combustion management and emission controls, emissions should be maintained at low levels. The results from our system, a small modular waste-biomass to energy system, should be applicable to many institutions and small communities. 41 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Green, A.; Prine, G.; Yost, R.; Green, B.; Williams, D.; Schwartz, J.; Wagner, J.; Clauson, D.; Proctor, B.; Feinberg, A.



Selenium volatilization in vegetated agricultural drainage sediment from the San Luis Drain, Central California.  


The presence of large amounts of Se-laden agricultural drainage sediment in the San Luis Drain, Central California, poses a serious toxic threat to wildlife in the surrounding environment. Effective management of the drainage sediment becomes a practical challenge because the sediment is polluted with high levels of Se, B, and salts. This two-year field study was conducted to identify the best plant species that are salt and B tolerant and that have a superior ability of volatilizing Se from drainage sediment. The drainage sediment was mixed with clean soil, and vegetated with salado alfalfa (Medicago sativa 'salado'), salado grass (Sporobulus airoides 'salado'), saltgrass-turf (Distichlis spp. 'NYPA Turf'), saltgrass-forage (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene), cordgrass (Spartina patens 'Flageo'), Leucaenia (Leucaena leucocephola), elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum), or wild type-Brassica (Brassica spp.). Results show that elephant grass produced the greatest amount of biomass and accumulated highest concentrations of B. Highest concentrations of Se, S, and Cl were observed in wild-type Brassica. Biogenic volatilization of Se by plants and soil microbes was greater in summer. Among the treatments, the mean daily rates of Se volatilization (microg Se m(-2)d(-1)) were wild-type Brassica (39) > saltgrass-turf (31) > cordgrass (27) > saltgrass forage (24) > elephant grass (22) > salado grass (21) > leucaenia (19) > salado alfalfa (14) > irrigated bare soil (11) > non-irrigated bare soil (6). Overall, rates of Se volatilization in drainage sediment were relatively low due to high levels of sulfate. To manage Se in drainage sediment by phytoremediation, the biological volatilization process needs to be enhanced substantially under field conditions. PMID:16018890

Bañuelos, G S; Lin, Z-Q; Arroyo, I; Terry, N



Ochrobactrum cytisi sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Cytisus scoparius in Spain.  


Two strains named ESC1(T) and ESC5 were isolated from nodules of Cytisus scoparius growing in a Spanish soil. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that these strains belong to the genus Ochrobactrum, their closest relatives being Ochrobactrum anthropi and Ochrobactrum lupini, with 100 and 99.9 % similarity to the respective type strains. Despite this high similarity, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic tests and fatty acid analyses showed that these strains represent a novel species of genus Ochrobactrum. The DNA-DNA hybridization values were respectively 70, 66 and 55 % with respect to O. lupini LUP21(T), O. anthropi DSM 6882(T) and Ochrobactrum tritici DSM 13340(T). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(18 : 1) 2-OH. Strains ESC1(T) and ESC5 were strictly aerobic and were able to reduce nitrate and to hydrolyse aesculin. They produced beta-galactosidase and beta-glucosidase and did not produce urease after 48 h incubation. The G+C content of strain ESC1(T) was 56.4 mol%. Both strains ESC1(T) and ESC5 contained nodD and nifH genes on megaplasmids that were related phylogenetically to those of rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus, Leucaena, Trifolium and Lupinus. From the results of this work, we propose that the strains isolated in this study be included in a novel species named Ochrobactrum cytisi sp. nov. The type strain is ESC1(T) (=LMG 22713(T)=CECT 7172(T)). PMID:17392207

Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Rivas, Raúl; Trujillo, Martha E; Vizcaíno, Nieves; Carrasco, José Antonio; Chamber, Manuel; Palomares, Antonio; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna



Effect of molecular weight and concentration of legume condensed tannins on in vitro larval migration inhibition of Haemonchus contortus.  


The effect of molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) from a variety of warm-season perennial legumes commonly consumed by sheep and goats on anthelmintic activity has not been previously explored. The objectives of this study were to determine if molecular weight of CT from warm-season perennial legumes could predict the biological activity of CT relative to anthelmintic activity against ivermectin resistant L3 stage Haemonchus contortus (HC) using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. A second objective was to determine if CT from warm-season perennial legumes possess anthelmintic properties against L3 stage (HC). Lespedeza stuevei had the greatest concentration of total condensed tannin (TCT; 11.7%), whereas, with the exception of Arachis glabrata, a CT-free negative control, Leucaena retusa had the least TCT (3.3%). Weight-average molecular weight of CT ranged from 552 Da for L. stuevei to 1483 Da for Lespedeza cuneata. The treatments demonstrating the greatest percent LMI were L. retusa, L. stuevei and Acacia angustissima var. hirta (65.4%, 63.1% and 42.2%, respectively). The ivermectin treatment had the smallest percent LMI (12.5%) against ivermectin resistant L3 HC. There was a weak correlation (R(2)=0.34; P=0.05) between CT MW and percent LMI, suggesting that molecular weight of CT is a weak contributing factor to CT biological activity as it relates to LMI of L3 stage HC. L. stuevei, L. retusa and A. angustissima var. hirta STP5 warrant further evaluation of anthelmintic properties in vivo. PMID:24126088

Naumann, H D; Armstrong, S A; Lambert, B D; Muir, J P; Tedeschi, L O; Kothmann, M M



Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.  


This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently. PMID:12179631

Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P



Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.  


Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of rainfed agroecosystems. PMID:24210647

Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar



In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600–700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources.

Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Perez-Negron, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso



Serotypes in Saccharomyces telluris: Their relation to source of isolation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three serotypes have been characterized with three reference strains of Saccharomyces telluris and designated as A, B, and C. One reference strain of Torpulopsis bovina, the imperfect form of S. telluris, belonged to serotype B. Strains of S. telluris isolated from four columbid species were serotyped. All 98 strains of this yeast isolated from Columba livia belonged to serotype B. Three other columbid species, C. leucocephala, C. fasciata, and Zenaidura macroura harbored strains of serotype C only. Serotype A was not isolated from any of the avian species.

Hasenclever, H.F.; Kocan, R.M.



Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain.  


The ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis, was introduced to Great Britain in the mid-20th century and has recently spread to other Western European countries. In Spain, ruddy ducks hybridize with the globally endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala. We assessed the effects of hybridization on the Spanish white-headed ducks, which constitute 25% of the global population of this species, using a panel of eight nuclear intron markers, 10 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA control region sequences. These data allowed parental individuals, F(1) hybrids, and the progeny of backcrossing to be reliably distinguished. We show that hybrids between the two species are fertile and produce viable offspring in backcrosses with both parental species. To date, however, we found no extensive introgression of ruddy duck genes into the Spanish white-headed duck population, probably due to the early implementation of an effective ruddy duck and hybrid control programme. We also show that genetic diversity in the expanding European ruddy duck population, which was founded by just seven individuals, exceeds that of the native Spanish white-headed duck population, which recently recovered from a severe bottleneck. Unless effective control of ruddy ducks is continued, genetic introgression will compromise the unique behavioural and ecological adaptations of white-headed ducks and consequently their survival as a genetically and evolutionary distinct species. PMID:17257118

Muñoz-Fuentes, V; Vilà, C; Green, A J; Negro, J J; Sorenson, M D



The ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in Europe: natural colonization or human introduction?  


Native to North America, ruddy ducks Oxyura jamaicensis now occur in 21 countries in the western Palaearctic (including Iceland) and their expanding population threatens the native white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala, through hybridization and possibly competition for food and nest sites. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the European ruddy duck population is descended solely from the captive population in the UK, which traces to seven individuals imported from the USA in 1948, or, alternatively, has been augmented by natural dispersal of birds from North America. Limited genetic diversity in the European population is consistent with a founder population as small as seven birds. In addition, shifts in allele frequencies at several loci, presumably due to genetic drift in the founding population, result in significant differentiation between the European and North American populations. Despite the recent separation of these populations, almost all individuals could be unambiguously assigned based on their composite genotypes, to one of two distinct populations, one comprising all of the European ruddy ducks we sampled (including those from Iceland and captive birds in the UK) and the other comprising all North American samples. Our results confirm that the European ruddy duck population is likely to derive solely from the captive population in the UK and we find no evidence of recent arrivals from North America or of admixture between ruddy ducks from Europe and North America. PMID:16629802

Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Green, Andy J; Sorenson, Michael D; Negro, Juan J; Vilà, Carles



Characterization of extrachromosomal replicons present in the extended host range Rhizobium sp. LPU83.  


In several rhizobia, bacteria that inhabit the soil in free-living conditions and associate in symbiosis with the root of legumes as nitrogen-fixing organisms, plasmid DNA can constitute a high percentage of the genome. We have characterized acid-tolerant isolates of rhizobia-here represented by the strain Rhizobium sp. LPU83-that have an extended nodulation-host range including alfalfa, the common bean, and Leucena leucocephala. In this study we analyzed the plasmids of R. sp. LPU83 in order to characterize their role in the evolution of Medicago symbionts and their involvement in symbiotic behavior. The pLPU83a plasmid was found to be transmissible with no associated phenotypic traits. The symbiotic plasmid pLPU83b could be transferred at very low frequencies under laboratory conditions only when pLPU83a was present; could restore nodulation to a strain cured of its symbiotic plasmid, S. meliloti A818; but could not restore the full nitrogen fixation associated with alfalfa. PMID:20621118

Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, María Florencia; de los Angeles Giusti, María; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano



Oxidative stress induction by (+)-cordiaquinone J triggers both mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and necrosis in leukemia cells.  


(+)-Cordiaquinone J is a 1,4-naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of Cordia leucocephala that has antifungal and larvicidal effects. However, the cytotoxic effects of (+)-cordiaquinone J have never being explored. In the present study, the effect of (+)-cordiaquinone J on tumor cells viability was investigated, showing IC(50) values in the range of 2.7-6.6muM in HL-60 and SF-295 cells, respectively. Studies performed in HL-60 leukemia cells indicated that (+)-cordiaquinone J (1.5 and 3.0muM) reduces cell viability and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation after 24h of incubation. (+)-Cordiaquinone J showed rapid induction of apoptosis, as indicated by phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, morphologic changes, and rapid induction of necrosis, as indicated by the loss of membrane integrity and morphologic changes. (+)-Cordiaquinone J altered the redox potential of cells by inducing the depletion of reduced GSH intracellular content, the generation of reactive oxygen species and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. However, pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine abolished most of the observed effects related to (+)-cordiaquinone J treatment, including those involving apoptosis and necrosis induction. PMID:19962971

Marinho-Filho, José Delano B; Bezerra, Daniel P; Araújo, Ana J; Montenegro, Raquel C; Pessoa, Claudia; Diniz, Jaécio C; Viana, Francisco A; Pessoa, Otília D L; Silveira, Edilberto R; de Moraes, Manoel O; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V



Effects of energy supplementation on productivity of dual-purpose cows grazing in a silvopastoral system in the tropics.  


The aim of the present work was to evaluate milk yield, postpartum (pp) ovarian activity and pregnancy rate in dual-purpose cows grazing Cynodon nlemfuensis and browsing L. leucocephala, with or without energy supplementation. Twenty-four Bos taurus × B. indicus cows were divided in two groups from calving to 70 days post-calving: supplemented group (SG) with ground sorghum grain offered at 0.4% of live weight at calving and control group (CG) without supplement. There was a trend for milk yield (kg day(-1)) to be greater (p = 0.08) for SG (10.55 ± 0.51) compared to CG (9.53 ± 0.61), although without differences in fat (0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.38 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)), protein (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 kg day(-1)) or lactose (0.49 ± 0.02 vs. 0.49 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)) concentration. Populations of large, medium and small follicles were similar between treatments. Percentage of cows which showed corpus luteum tended to be greater in SG (50%), compared to CG (33%). Supplemented cows tended to have a shorter calving-first corpus luteum interval (40 ± 10 vs. 51 ± 10 days) and had a significantly higher (? (2) = 0.03) pregnancy rate (42% vs. 0%). It is concluded that energy supplementation helped to improve ovarian activity and pregnancy rate. Since supplementation did not avoid loss of body condition, the higher pregnancy rate in SG suggests beneficial effects of supplementation probably mediated by metabolic hormones. PMID:22193937

Tinoco-Magaña, Juan Carlos; Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Delgado-León, Roger; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Herrera-Camacho, Jose



The nodulation of alfalfa by the acid-tolerant Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 does not require sulfated forms of lipochitooligosaccharide nodulation signals.  


The induction of root nodules by the majority of rhizobia has a strict requirement for the secretion of symbiosis-specific lipochitooligosaccharides (nodulation factors [NFs]). The nature of the chemical substitution on the NFs depends on the particular rhizobium and contributes to the host specificity imparted by the NFs. We present here a description of the genetic organization of the nod gene cluster and the characterization of the chemical structure of the NFs associated with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83, a bacterium capable of nodulating at least alfalfa, bean, and Leucena leucocephala. The nod gene cluster was located on the plasmid pLPU83b. The organization of the cluster showed synteny with those of the alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae. Interestingly, the strongest sequence similarity observed was between the partial nod sequences of Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844 and the corresponding LPU83 nod genes sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic region nodEG positions strain LPU83 and the type strain R. mongolense 1844 in the same branch, which indicates that Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 might represent an early alfalfa-nodulating genotype. The NF chemical structures obtained for the wild-type strain consist of a trimeric, tetrameric, and pentameric chitin backbone that shares some substitutions with both alfalfa- and bean-nodulating rhizobia. Remarkably, while in strain LPU83 most of the NFs were sulfated in their reducing terminal residue, none of the NFs isolated from the nodH mutant LPU83-H were sulfated. The evidence obtained supports the notion that the sulfate decoration of NFs in LPU83 is not necessary for alfalfa nodulation. PMID:20971905

Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, María Florencia; Soria-Diaz, M Eugenia; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Giusti, María de los Ángeles; Manyani, Hamid; Megías, Manuel; Gil Serrano, Antonio; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano



The Nodulation of Alfalfa by the Acid-Tolerant Rhizobium sp. Strain LPU83 Does Not Require Sulfated Forms of Lipochitooligosaccharide Nodulation Signals?  

PubMed Central

The induction of root nodules by the majority of rhizobia has a strict requirement for the secretion of symbiosis-specific lipochitooligosaccharides (nodulation factors [NFs]). The nature of the chemical substitution on the NFs depends on the particular rhizobium and contributes to the host specificity imparted by the NFs. We present here a description of the genetic organization of the nod gene cluster and the characterization of the chemical structure of the NFs associated with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83, a bacterium capable of nodulating at least alfalfa, bean, and Leucena leucocephala. The nod gene cluster was located on the plasmid pLPU83b. The organization of the cluster showed synteny with those of the alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae. Interestingly, the strongest sequence similarity observed was between the partial nod sequences of Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844 and the corresponding LPU83 nod genes sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic region nodEG positions strain LPU83 and the type strain R. mongolense 1844 in the same branch, which indicates that Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 might represent an early alfalfa-nodulating genotype. The NF chemical structures obtained for the wild-type strain consist of a trimeric, tetrameric, and pentameric chitin backbone that shares some substitutions with both alfalfa- and bean-nodulating rhizobia. Remarkably, while in strain LPU83 most of the NFs were sulfated in their reducing terminal residue, none of the NFs isolated from the nodH mutant LPU83-H were sulfated. The evidence obtained supports the notion that the sulfate decoration of NFs in LPU83 is not necessary for alfalfa nodulation.

Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, Maria Florencia; Soria-Diaz, M. Eugenia; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Giusti, Maria de los Angeles; Manyani, Hamid; Megias, Manuel; Gil Serrano, Antonio; Puhler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano



Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution based on patterns of codon-degeneracy and chemical dissimilarity indicate that the nucleotide and amino acid changes postulated by the molecular tree are more plausible than those postulated by the morphological tree. These findings teach general lessons about the utility of highly adaptive characters (in particular those related to foraging ecology) and underscore the problems that convergence can pose for attempts to recover phylogeny. They also demonstrate how the concept of natural data partitions and simple models of evolution (e.g., parsimony, likelihood, neutrality) can be used to test the accuracy of independent phylogenetic estimates and provide arguments in favor of one tree topology over another.

Mccracken, K. G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D. A.; Afton, A. D.