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Sample records for leucaena leucaena leucocephala

  1. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643

  2. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of Mimosinase from Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Borthakur, Dulal

    2016-01-01

    Heterologous expression of eukaryotic genes in bacterial system is an important method in synthetic biology to characterize proteins. It is a widely used method, which can be sometimes quite challenging, as a number of factors that act along the path of expression of a transgene to mRNA, and mRNA to protein, can potentially affect the expression of a transgene in a heterologous system. Here, we describe a method for successful cloning and expression of mimosinase-encoding gene from Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) in E. coli as the heterologous host. Mimosinase is an important enzyme especially in the context of metabolic engineering of plant secondary metabolite as it catalyzes the degradation of mimosine, which is a toxic secondary metabolite found in all Leucaena and Mimosa species. We also describe the methods used for characterization of the recombinant mimosinase. PMID:26843166

  3. A note on averting goats to a toxic but palatable plant, Leucaena leucocephala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditioned taste aversions are a useful tool to reduce livestock consumption of toxic plants. The forage legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is both toxic and palatable. The objective of this study was to determine if goats could be aversively conditioned to avoid leucaena. Adult and juvenil...

  4. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when contemplating leucaena introduction into or near wildlife habitat. PMID:25809223

  5. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Soares, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos; Arajo, Sandra Alves de; Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Costa Junior, Livio Martins

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract), SE (shell extract) and CE (cotyledon extract). Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL-1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL-1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50) was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL-1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts. PMID:26689178

  6. Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Yosra A; Morsy, Amr S; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Lucas, Ronaldo C; Louvandini, Helder; Kreuzer, Michael; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2013-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), a leguminous shrub promising to cope with feed scarcity in the tropics, may help in mitigating ruminal methane (CH4) emission in the tropics as well. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena and major secondary compounds of this plant in ruminants. At first, effects of Leucaena tannins and mimosine on ruminal CH4 and nutrient degradability were tested in vitro. Incubations were made with Leucaena without or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to exclude the tannins effects, as well as with Bermuda grass (Tifton) and lucerne hays, both either untreated or supplemented with mimosine at the same concentration that has been provided by the tested Leucaena (6.52 mg/g DM). Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment a control diet (per kg DM 700 g Tifton hay) and Leucaena diets (per kg DM 350 g Tifton hay and 350 g Leucaena), either with or without 20 g PEG/d per head, were evaluated in six Santa Inês sheep following a double Latin square design. In vitro, Leucaena resulted in the lowest (p < 0.05) gas and CH4 production and the highest (p < 0.05) partitioning factor, a measure for microbial efficiency, whereas the amount of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) was lowest (p < 0.05) with Tifton among the experimental forage plants. Mimosine addition to lucerne and Tifton as well as PEG addition to Leucaena had no effect on ruminal CH4 and TDOM. In vivo Leucaena, compared to the Tifton diet, enhanced (p < 0.05) intake, faecal nitrogen excretion, body nitrogen retention and the excretion of urinary purine derivatives as an indicator for microbial protein synthesis and availability. This was independent of PEG addition. Leucaena also decreased (p < 0.001) CH4 emission per unit of digested organic matter by 14.1% and 10.8%, without and with PEG, respectively. No significant diet differences were observed in total-tract nutrient digestibility. The study demonstrated efficiency of Leucaena to mitigate in vivo methane emission of sheep, but did not reveal which constituent of Leucaena was primarily responsible for that since no clear efficiency of either tannins or mimosine could be demonstrated. PMID:23742642

  7. Improved method of in vitro regeneration in Leucaena leucocephala - a leguminous pulpwood tree species.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Noor M; Arha, Manish; Nookaraju, A; Gupta, Sushim K; Srivastava, Sameer; Yadav, Arun K; Kulkarni, Pallavi S; Abhilash, O U; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Singh, Somesh; Tatkare, Rajeshri; Chinnathambi, Kannan; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2009-10-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast growing multipurpose legume tree used for forage, leaf manure, paper and pulp. Lignin in Leucaena pulp adversely influences the quality of paper produced. Developing transgenic Leucaena with altered lignin by genetic engineering demands an optimized regeneration system. The present study deals with optimization of regeneration system for L. leucocephala cv. K636. Multiple shoot induction from the cotyledonary nodes of L. leucocephala was studied in response to cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) and N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) supplemented in half strength MS (½-MS) medium and also their effect on in vitro rooting of the regenerated shoots. Multiple shoots were induced from cotyledonary nodes at varied frequencies depending on the type and concentration of cytokinin used in the medium. TDZ was found to induce more number of shoots per explant than BA, with a maximum of 7 shoots at an optimum concentration of 0.23 µM. Further increase in TDZ concentration resulted in reduced shoot length and fasciation of the shoots. Liquid pulse treatment of the explants with TDZ did not improve the shoot production further but improved the subsequent rooting of the shoots that regenerated. Regenerated shoots successfully rooted on ½-MS medium supplemented with 0.54 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooted shoots of Leucaena were transferred to coco-peat and hardened plantlets showed ≥ 90 % establishment in the green house. PMID:23572941

  8. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2009-01-01

    The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol. PMID:20041041

  9. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos

    PubMed Central

    Jube, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol. PMID:20041041

  10. Rumen function in vivo and in vitro in sheep fed Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 % L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 % L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3. Leucaena CP degradation was higher in T2 and T3 but for P. purpureum it was only significantly higher in T3. Leucaena aNDF and CP degradation rate (c) was 50 % higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3, but only higher in T3 for P. purpureum. Voluntary intake and rumen (N-NH3) was higher in T2 and T3 (P = 0.0001, P = 0.005, respectively). Molar VFA proportions were similar for all treatments (P > 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001). Estimated methane yield (mol CH4/day) was higher in sheep fed leucaena (P < 0.0001). However, CH4 yield relative to animal performance (mol CH4/g LW gain) was lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.0001). In summary, these results indicate that including L. leucocephala in sheep diets did not modify rumen fermentation pattern (same VFA ratios) nor reduce the amount of CH4 per unit of DMI (mol CH4/g DMI). However, leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake. PMID:25764346

  11. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior. PMID:26210396

  12. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  13. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    PubMed

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 μM sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 μM cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as β-substituted alanine synthases. PMID:24777760

  14. Transgenic Leucaena leucocephala expressing the Rhizobium gene pydA encoding a meta-cleavage dioxygenase shows reduced mimosine content.

    PubMed

    Jube, Sandro L R; Borthakur, Dulal

    2010-04-01

    The use of the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena), which contains high levels of proteins in its foliage, is limited due to the presence of the toxic free amino acid mimosine. The goal of this research was to develop transgenic leucaena with reduced mimosine content. Two genes, pydA and pydB, encoding a meta-cleavage dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.2) and a pyruvate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.6), respectively, from the mimosine-degrading leucaena symbiont Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145, were used to transform leucaena. These bacterial genes were sequence-optimized for expression in leucaena and cloned into the plant binary vector pCAMBIA3201 for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Using immature zygotic embryos as the start explant material, six pydA and three pydB transgenic lines were developed. The presence and expression of the bacterial genes in the transgenic lines were verified by PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and Southern analyses. HPLC analyses of the transgenic plants determined that the mimosine contents of the pydA-expressing lines were reduced up to 22.5% in comparison to the wild-type. No significant reduction in mimosine content was observed in the pydB-expressing lines. This is the first example of using a gene from a bacterial symbiont to reduce the toxicity of a tree-legume. PMID:20138776

  15. Polyphasic characterization of rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala from Panxi, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Zou, Lan; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Hu, Chao; Liu, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Leucaena leucocephala was introduced into Panxi, Sichuan, China, in the 1980s and 1990s for afforestation and preventing water loss and soil erosion in this area. The co-introduction of rhizobial symbionts of introduced plants has drawn attention since they may influence local soil communities. We studied the phylogenetic position of the L. leucocephala isolates and assessed if the rhizobia were introduced together with the host to Panxi, Sichuan, China. The glnII and atpD genes of fifteen representative isolates were sequenced and analyzed, and applied multilocus sequence analyses in which the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD were included. Furthermore, we estimated the within species diversity directly with 23S rDNA and IGS RFLP and indirectly through phenotypic analysis of forty L. leucocephala isolates. The isolates represented seven species and 38 diversified strains in the genera Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The within species diversity of the Ensifer isolates was large, proposing a potential to occupy novel niches. There was not conclusive evidence to show that any of the strains would have been co-introduced with L. leucocephala. On the contrary, we came to a conclusion that the possible introduction should not be inferred from sequence data alone. PMID:23749221

  16. Amino acid contents and transport of fixed N in nodules of Leucaena leucocephala variety K-8

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala var. K-8 were grown with a N-free fertilizer or fertilizer containing /sup 15/N-depleted (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.01 atom /sup 15/N; 10 ppm). The nodules of 5 month old trees grown on N-free media were used for /sup 15/N-enriched treatment and as controls. Nodules from plants grown on /sup 15/N-depleted media were also used. Nodules were extracted with 0.5% aqueous toluene and aliquots were analyzed with a Beckman 120B Amino Acid Analyzer. Samples were separated into free ammonium, Asp-N, Glu-N, Asn and Gln amide- and amino-N, and remaining amino acids. Fractions were then analyzed for /sup 15/N content. Asn (27.3 umol/gfw) represented 56% of the total free amino acid pool in the nodules. Asn (amide-N and amino-N) also represented approximately 77% of the total N fixed during the one hour /sup 15/N-enriched N/sub 2/ and the /sup 15/N-depleted treatments. Based on these findings and the fact that the ureide fraction is barely detectable in the nodules (0.25 ..mu..mol/gfw), the authors considers L. leucocephala an amide transporter of fixed N. Additional information will be presented on the amino acid contents of tissues, as well as a time course of amino acid content from seed through nodulation.

  17. Highly porous activated carbons from resource-recovered Leucaena leucocephala wood as capacitive deionization electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liu, Nei-Ling; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Highly porous activated carbons were resource-recovered from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. wood through combined chemical and physical activation (i.e., KOH etching followed by CO2 activation). This invasive species, which has severely damaged the ecological economics of Taiwan, was used as the precursor for producing high-quality carbonaceous electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI). Carbonization and activation conditions strongly influenced the structure of chars and activated carbons. The total surface area and pore volume of activated carbons increased with increasing KOH/char ratio and activation time. Overgasification induced a substantial amount of mesopores in the activated carbons. In addition, the electrochemical properties and CDI electrosorptive performance of the activated carbons were evaluated; cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements revealed a typical capacitive behavior and electrical double layer formation, confirming ion electrosorption in the porous structure. The activated-carbon electrode, which possessed high surface area and both mesopores and micropores, exhibited improved capacitor characteristics and high electrosorptive performance. Highly porous activated carbons derived from waste L. leucocephala were demonstrated to be suitable CDI electrode materials. PMID:26135977

  18. A carbon-nitrogen lyase from Leucaena leucocephala catalyzes the first step of mimosine degradation.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-02-01

    The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala contains a large amount of a toxic nonprotein aromatic amino acid, mimosine, and also an enzyme, mimosinase, for mimosine degradation. In this study, we isolated a 1,520-bp complementary DNA (cDNA) for mimosinase from L. leucocephala and characterized the encoded enzyme for mimosine-degrading activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of the cDNA was predicted to have a chloroplast transit peptide. The nucleotide sequence, excluding the sequence for the chloroplast transit peptide, was codon optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was used in mimosine degradation assays, and the chromatogram of the major product was found to be identical to that of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P), which was further verified by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The enzyme activity requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not α-keto acid; therefore, the enzyme is not an aminotransferase. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products. The dependence of the enzyme on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and the production of 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicate that it is a carbon-nitrogen lyase. It was found to be highly efficient and specific in catalyzing mimosine degradation, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 1.16×10(-4) m and 5.05×10(-5) mol s(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The presence of other aromatic amino acids, including l-tyrosine, l-phenylalanine, and l-tryptophan, in the reaction did not show any competitive inhibition. The isolation of the mimosinase cDNA and the biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme will be useful in developing transgenic L. leucocephala with reduced mimosine content in the future. PMID:24351687

  19. Effects of supplementing rice straw with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliages on digestibility, microbial N supply and nitrogen balance of growing goats.

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Paengkoum, S

    2010-10-01

    A total of 12 crossbred (Boer Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a commercial farm on the basis of similar body weight (25.0 3.1 kg). The goats were housed in individual pens and allowed 3 weeks to adapt to experimental conditions. The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in a 3 3 Latin square experiment (replicated four times). Within each period, each goat was given rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diet. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses, urea and commercial mineral and vitamin mix. The experimental treatments were (i) soybean meal (SBM), (ii) partial substitution of SBM with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) foliage and (iii) partial substitution of SBM with Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliage. Nutrient intakes, ruminal characteristics (pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids), nitrogen balances, plasma urea nitrogen and microbial N supply were not significantly different among treatments. The results of this study indicate that protein foliages from locally grown shrubs and trees can substitute imported feedstuff concentrates (e.g. SBM) as protein supplement for goat production. PMID:20487095

  20. Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-15

    Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

  1. The co-occurrence of two pyridine alkaloids, mimosine and trigonelline, in Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Misako; Watanabe, Shin; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a nitrogen-fixing tropical leguminous tree that produces two pyridine alkaloids, i. e. mimosine [beta-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridon-1-yl)-L-alanine] and trigonelline (1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate). Mimosine has been detected in leaves, flowers, pods, seeds, and roots, and it is one of the principal non-protein amino acids that occurs in all organs. Asparagine was the most abundant amino acid in flowers. The mimosine content varied from 3.3 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) in developing flowers to 171 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. Trigonelline was also detected in leaves, flowers, pods, and seeds, but not roots. The trigonelline content was lower than that of mimosine in all organs. It varied from 0.12 micromol/g FW in developing seeds to 2.6 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. [2-14C]Nicotinic acid supplied to the developing seeds was incorporated into trigonelline but not mimosine. This indicates that the pyridine and dihydroxypyridine structures of these two alkaloids are derived from distinct precursors. The physiological functions of mimosine and trigonelline are discussed briefly. PMID:24873033

  2. Competition Among Rhizobium spp. for Nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in Two Tropical Soils.

    PubMed

    Moawad, H; Bohlool, B B

    1984-07-01

    The successful nodulation of legumes by a Rhizobium strain is determined by the competitive ability of that strain against the mixture of other native and inoculant rhizobia. Competition among six Leucaena rhizobial strains in single and multistrain inoculants were studied. Field inoculation trials were conducted in an oxisol and a mollisol soil, both of which contained indigenous Leucaena-nodulating rhizobia. Strain-specific fluorescent antibodies were used for the identification of the strains in Leucaena nodules. Mixtures of three recommended inoculum strains for Leucaena spp. (TAL82, TAL582, and TAL1145) were used in peat-based inocula either alone or with one of the three other strains isolated from the sites, B213, B214, and B215. Each of these latter three strains was also used as single-strain inocula to study their competition with the native rhizobia in the two soil systems. In the oxisol soil, strains B213 and B215, when used as single-strain inocula, outcompeted the native rhizobia and formed 92 and 62% of the nodules, respectively. Strain B214 was the least competitive in oxisol soil, where it formed 30% of the nodules, and the best in mollisol soil, where it formed 70% of the nodules. The most successful competitor for nodulation in multistrain inocula was strain TAL1145, which outcompeted native and other inoculum Leucaena rhizobia in both soils. None of the strains in single or multistrain inoculants was capable of completely overcoming the resident rhizobia, which formed 4 to 70% of the total nodules in oxisol soil and 12 to 72% in mollisol soil. No strong relationship was detected between the size of the rhizosphere population of a strain and its successful occupation of nodules. PMID:16346600

  3. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil.

    PubMed

    Jayanthy, V; Geetha, R; Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthik Sundaram, S; Dinesh Kumar, S; Santhanam, P

    2014-09-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC-MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  4. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UVvis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GCMS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  5. Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimares

    2013-11-15

    Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm(-3) of As. PMID:22704769

  6. PEI modified Leucaena leucocephala seed powder, a potential biosorbent for the decontamination of arsenic species from water bodies: bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Kumar Rohit; Kardam, Abhishek; Srivastava, Shalini

    2013-03-01

    Environmental contamination due to anthropogenic and natural sources is increasing day by day because of increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Arsenic species released into the environment tend to persist indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain, thus becoming a serious threat to the environment. The present study explores the effectiveness of Leucaena leucocephala seed powder (agricultural waste) in removing arsenic ions from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out to characterize As (III) and As (V) removal capability of L. leucocephala seed powder. Maximum biosorption capacity for As (III) and As (V) was found to be 81.88 and 92.61 %, respectively. Amino acid-arsenic interaction has been highlighted on the basis of shifting of FTIR bands of native LLSP. Morphological changes and reduction in pore area have been observed in modified LLSP. Modification on the native LLSP results into the increase in percentage sorption of As (III) and As (V) up to 85 and 99 %, respectively. Enhancement in the percentage sorption is due the increase in the stability of the biosorbent due to increase in the final decomposition temperature of the modified LLSP. The findings showed that L. leucocephala seed powder can easily be envisaged as a new, vibrant, low-cost biosorbent for arsenic clean-up operations.

  7. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  8. A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X.; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-01-01

    The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala contains a large amount of a toxic nonprotein aromatic amino acid, mimosine, and also an enzyme, mimosinase, for mimosine degradation. In this study, we isolated a 1,520-bp complementary DNA (cDNA) for mimosinase from L. leucocephala and characterized the encoded enzyme for mimosine-degrading activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of the cDNA was predicted to have a chloroplast transit peptide. The nucleotide sequence, excluding the sequence for the chloroplast transit peptide, was codon optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was used in mimosine degradation assays, and the chromatogram of the major product was found to be identical to that of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P), which was further verified by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The enzyme activity requires pyridoxal 5′-phosphate but not α-keto acid; therefore, the enzyme is not an aminotransferase. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products. The dependence of the enzyme on pyridoxal 5′-phosphate and the production of 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicate that it is a carbon-nitrogen lyase. It was found to be highly efficient and specific in catalyzing mimosine degradation, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 1.16 × 10−4 m and 5.05 × 10−5 mol s−1 mg−1, respectively. The presence of other aromatic amino acids, including l-tyrosine, l-phenylalanine, and l-tryptophan, in the reaction did not show any competitive inhibition. The isolation of the mimosinase cDNA and the biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme will be useful in developing transgenic L. leucocephala with reduced mimosine content in the future. PMID:24351687

  9. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

  10. Within-country variation in the ability of ruminants to degrade DHP following the ingestion of Leucaena leucocephala--a Thailand experience.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-02-01

    Goats fed Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) at an experimental site in Thailand were shown to be excreting DHP in their urine. This was unexpected as earlier results from another site had shown that goats and cattle fed leucaena did not excrete DHP and so possessed DHP-degrading bacteria. Goats sampled near the earlier sample site excreted no DHP in their urine. Rumen fluid taken from these goats was successfully used to transfer DHP--degrading ability to the goats at the Experimental site some 350 km away that did not show the presence of DHP-degrading bacteria. Degradation of mimosine in-vitro and excretion of DHP in the urine ceased 72 hr after addition of rumen fluid and infusion with rumen fluid from protected goats, respectively. The situation in Thailand may not be unique. Countries where leucaena is fed should check that animals are protected. Fortunately, the ferric chloride urine test is simple to use and effective in detecting the problem and also the recovery after transfer of rumen fluid from protected animals. PMID:19544003

  11. Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40 %) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30 % LLM, 40 % LLM, 30 % MOLM, and 40 % MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30 % MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000 g and 31.6 and 30.6 g/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30 % MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40 % LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40 % improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40 % without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits. PMID:24935404

  12. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p < 0.05). Generally, lead seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200 ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including β-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23729420

  13. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Daz, Miguel ngel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Gonzlez-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1mgml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.492.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.060.14mgml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid. PMID:26477279

  14. Leucaena: promising forage and tree crop for the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A report mainly on L. leucocephala with similar chapters to those found in the first edition, and additional chapters on: experiences with Leucaena - illustrating the growth and use of L. leucocephala throughout the tropics and subtropics; and other Leucaena species - giving very brief descriptions of L. diversifolia, L. esulenta, L. macrophylla, L. pulverulenta, L. shannoni, L. retusa, L. lanceolata, L. collinsii and L. trichodes. 34 references.

  15. Biomass estimation in a young stand of mesquite (Prosopis species), ironwood (Olneya tesota), pado verde (Cercidium floridium, and Parkinsonia aculeata), and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Simple methods for estimating standing biomass in a stand of tree legumes containing the genera Prosopis, Cercidium, Olneya, Leucaena, and Parkinsonia are reported. Fresh and dry biomass were related to height and stem diameter measurements for 212 leguminous trees ranging in biomass from 0.04 to 17.8 kg using linear regression. The dry matter content of the above-ground biomass of these genera ranged from 40-56% and the stem dry matter percentage ranged from 70 to 96%. The best functional form of the model was log 10 dry weight (kg) = 2.55 log basal diameter (cm)-1.25, which had an r2 of 0.956 for 212 samples.

  16. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  17. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  18. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  19. Characterization of rhizobia isolated from Albizia spp. in comparison with microsymbionts of Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala grown in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Qin; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Yong Fa; Chen, Wen Xin

    2006-09-01

    This is the first systematic study of rhizobia associated with Albizia trees. The analyses of PCR-RFLP and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and clustering of phenotypic characters grouped the 31 rhizobial strains isolated from Albizia into eight putative species within the genera Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium. Among these eight rhizobial species, five were unique to Albizia and the remaining three were shared with Acacia and Leucaena, two legume trees coexisting with Albizia in China. These results indicated that Albizia species nodulate with a wide range of rhizobial species and had preference of microsymbionts different from Acacia and Leucaena. The definition of four novel groups, Mesorhizobium sp., Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II and "R. giardinii", indicates that further studies with enlarged rhizobial population are necessary to better understand the diversity and to clarify the taxonomic relationships of Albizia-associated rhizobia. PMID:16406708

  20. [Nutritional evaluation of the seeds of "ipil-ipil" (Leucaena leucocephala), "casco de vaca" (Bauhinia monandra) and scented carob (Albizia lebbeck)].

    PubMed

    Abreu Peate, M; Bencomo Hernndez, A; Sampere Daz, E; Farrs Fernndez, I; Hernndez Triana, M; Porrata Maury, C; Ponce de Len Boloy, I

    1988-12-01

    Chemical composition, antinutritional factors and biological protein quality of raw and autoclaved (120 degrees C for 10 min) ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), casco de vaca (Bauhinia monandra) ard algarrobo de olor (Albizia lebbeck) seeds were determined. The trypsin inhibitor activity was 29, 120, and 150 TIU/mg of sample respectively. Autoclaving eliminated 59, 33 and 100% of the activity. Bauhinia monandra seed depicted a high hemagglutinating activity which was eliminated by autoclaving. Net protein utilization of raw and autoclaved seeds was 31 and 30, 21 and 55 and 29 and 49%, respectively. All seeds were free from cyanide and alkaloids. It is concluded that the relative low protein quality of the seeds would limit their use for human consumption. PMID:3154303

  1. The cloned 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene from Sinorhizobium sp. strain BL3 in Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 promotes nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of symbionts in nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala. The acdS genes encoding ACC deaminase were cloned from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 and Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 in multicopy plasmids, and transferred to TAL1145. The BL3-acdS gene greatly enhanced ACC deaminase activity in TAL1145 compared to the native acdS gene. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native or BL3 acdS gene could grow in minimal media containing 1.5mM ACC, whereas BL3 could tolerate up to 3mM ACC. The TAL1145 acdS gene was inducible by mimosine and not by ACC, while the BL3 acdS gene was highly inducible by ACC and not by mimosine. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native- and BL3-acdS genes formed nodules with greater number and sizes, and produced higher root mass on L. leucocephala than by TAL1145. This study shows that the introduction of multiple copies of the acdS gene increased ACC deaminase activities of TAL1145 and enhanced its symbiotic efficiency on L. leucocephala. PMID:18406559

  2. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Wesley Melo; Thijs, Sofie; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Rineau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. PMID:26966214

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Sofie; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Rineau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. PMID:26966214

  5. High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 Bacteroids in Determinate Nodules of Vigna unguiculata and Indeterminate Nodules of Leucaena leucocephala

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

  6. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  7. LEUCAENA AS A SUPPLEMENT FOR GOATS GRAZING BAHIAGRASS IN SOUTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats require protein supplementation while grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum natatum Flugge) during summer in Florida. We measured weight gains of Boer x Spanish goats (6-7 mo old) in July- Novembver, 2003 (140 d) while grazing leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)de wit]with bahiagrass (LEUC), compare...

  8. The Effect of NaCl on growth, N2 fixation (acetylene reduction), and percentage total nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae) var. K-8.

    PubMed

    Anthraper, Annie; Dubois, John D

    2003-05-01

    Leucaena leucocephala var. K-8 is a fast-growing, tropical leguminous tree that has multiple economic uses. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect(s) of varying NaCl concentrations on growth, N(2) fixation, and percentage of total tissue nitrogen in different organs in L. leucocephala. Seeds were germinated and grown for 10 wk with a nitrogen-free fertilizer applied every 2 wk. At 10 wk, plants were treated for either 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 wk with either deionized water (control), 0.00625 mol/L, 0.0125 mol/L, 0.025 mol/L, 0.05 mol/L, or 0.1 mol/L NaCl in addition to the fertilizer every 2 wk. Growth was measured as plant height, nodule number and mass, and dry tissue mass. N(2) fixation was measured by the acetylene reduction assay. Percentage of tissue nitrogen was determined using Kjeldahl analysis. In younger plants (7-wk treatment), major fluctuations in NaCl tolerance were observed in the different plant organs. As plants matured (14- and 21-wk treatment) NaCl concentrations of 0.025 mol/L and higher caused the greatest reduction in growth and tissue nitrogen. We conclude that NaCl concentrations of 0.025 mol/L and greater caused a major decrease in growth, N(2) fixation, and percentage of tissue nitrogen in L. leucocephala plants that were less than 1 yr old. PMID:21659163

  9. Functional characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of β-glucosidase responsible for bioactivation of cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides from Leucaena leucocephala (subabul).

    PubMed

    Shaik, Noor M; Misra, Anurag; Singh, Somesh; Fatangare, Amol B; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidases are important enzymes that serve many diverse functions in plants including defense, whereby hydrolyzing the defensive compounds such as hydroxynitrile glucosides. A hydroxynitrile glucoside cleaving β-glucosidase gene (Llbglu1) was isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, cloned into pET-28a (+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for this β-glucosidase were found to be 45 °C and 4.8, respectively. The purified Llbglu1 enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic glycosides, pNPGlucoside (pNPGlc) and pNPGalactoside (pNPGal). Also, the enzyme hydrolyzed amygdalin, a hydroxynitrile glycoside and a few of the tested flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides. The kinetic parameters K (m) and V (max) were found to be 38.59 μM and 0.8237 μM/mg/min for pNPGlc, whereas for pNPGal the values were observed as 1845 μM and 0.1037 μM/mg/min. In the present study, a three dimensional (3D) model of the Llbglu1 was built by MODELLER software to find out the substrate binding sites and the quality of the model was examined using the program PROCHEK. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues are Glu 199, Glu 413, His 153, Asn 198, Val 270, Asn 340, and Trp 462. Docking of rhodiocyanoside A with the modeled Llbglu1 resulted in a binding with free energy change (ΔG) of -5.52 kcal/mol on which basis rhodiocyanoside A could be considered as a potential substrate. PMID:23079707

  10. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Lpez-Lpez, Aline; Rogel-Hernndez, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martnez, Julio; Ormeo-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martnez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

  11. Giant leucaena (koa haole) energy tree farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brewbaker, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    Giant leucaena is a tall arboreal form of the common koa haole of the tropics that is known for its wide adaptability, hardiness, and rapid growth. Wood yields of the giant leucaena equal or exceed those of other tropical trees and can be the equivalent annually of 30 barrels of oil per acre. In addition, the tree is a legume that produces a marketable co-product, a nutritious, high-nitrogen leaf meal. A thorough assessment is provided of the known yield capability of giant leucaena, its soil and fertilizer needs, its impact on the environment, its water and irrigation needs, its handling from nursery through establishment, its wood properties and combustion characteristics, and methods of harvesting suitable for the comparatively small trees to be grown. Analyses are also given of capital equipment and operating expenses, labor needs, effects of tax incentives, and economic considerations of application to various scenarios and market conditions in Hawaii. This study suggests that giant leucaena could be grown profitably in Molokai as a source of fuel wood and co-product animal feed.

  12. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  13. Coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar: II. Coat and tail alopecia associated with Leucaena leucocepahala, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Alison

    2009-03-01

    Fur condition in wild ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, was recorded during September-November birth seasons 2001-2006 at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Body coat condition was scored on a scale from BS 0: full, smooth coat with guard hairs, to BS5: half or more of back and limbs hairless. Tail condition was scored from TS 0: full, to TS 5: half or more hairless. Where troop core areas included stands of Leucaena leucocephala, alopecia was dramatically more frequent than in similar areas without leucaena, including many animals with score BS5 or TS5, "bald lemur syndrome." Females' coats were worse than males', possibly related to female dominance and access to this preferred food. Tails in non-leucaena-feeding females tend to remain full, even if coats deteriorate, but with leucaena-feeding female tails are highly correlated with coat condition and equally bare. Coat and tail condition in L. catta reflected not only the dietary toxin but individual differences as well as differences between adjacent troops that may result from territorially mediated access to the environment. Leucaena contains the non-protein amino acid mimosine, a known cause of alopecia, wasting, and organ damage in livestock, although the effects are usually reversible. This is the first case of its effect in wildlife. Leucaena is an agroforestry tree introduced throughout the tropics. In high dietary concentrations leucaena might potentially affect any browsing mammal. PMID:19051314

  14. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-01-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

  15. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  16. Biomass resource potential for selected crops in Hawaii. [Koa haole (giant leucaena); napier and guinea grass

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, A.

    1982-06-01

    The biomass crops selected for review were koa haole (giant leucaena), napier and guinea grass, and eucalyptus (saligna, grandis, and globulus). The islands examined were Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Molokai. The potential land acreage for growing these crops was estimated grossly. As anticipated, the island of Hawaii had the largest land potential with eucalyptus having the greatest potential land acreage.

  17. Isolation of Insertion Sequence ISRLdTAL1145-1 from a Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) and Distribution of Homologous Sequences Identifying Cross-Inoculation Group Relationships.

    PubMed

    Rice, D J; Somasegaran, P; Macglashan, K; Bohlool, B B

    1994-12-01

    Insertion sequence (IS) element ISRLdTAL1145-1 from Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) strain TAL 1145 was entrapped in the sacB gene of the positive selection vector pUCD800 by insertional inactivation. A hybridization probe prepared from the whole 2.5-kb element was used to determine the distribution of homologous sequences in a diverse collection of 135 Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. The IS probe hybridized strongly to Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 10 rhizobial strains that nodulate both Phaseolus vulgaris (beans) and Leucaena leucocephala (leguminous trees), 1 Rhizobium sp. that nodulates Leucaena spp., 9 R. meliloti (alfalfa) strains, 4 Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Sophora chrysophylla (leguminous trees), and 1 nonnodulating bacterium associated with the nodules of Pithecellobium dulce from the Leucaena cross-inoculation group, producing distinguishing IS patterns for each strain. Hybridization analysis revealed that ISRLdTAL1145-1 was strongly homologous with and closely related to a previously isolated element, ISRm USDA1024-1 from R. meliloti, while restriction enzyme analysis found structural similarities and differences between the two IS homologs. Two internal segments of these IS elements were used to construct hybridization probes of 1.2 kb and 380 bp that delineate a structural similarity and a difference, respectively, of the two IS homologs. The internal segment probes were used to analyze the structures of homologous IS elements in other strains. Five types of structural variation in homolog IS elements were found. The predominate IS structural type naturally occurring in a strain can reasonably identify the strain's cross-inoculation group relationships. Three IS structural types were found in Rhizobium species that nodulate beans and Leucaena species, one of which included the designated type IIB strain of R. tropici (CIAT 899). Weak homology to the whole IS probe, but not with the internal segments, was found with two Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains. The taxonomic and ecological implications of the distribution of ISRLdTAL1145-1 are discussed. PMID:16349459

  18. Isolation of Insertion Sequence ISRLdTAL1145-1 from a Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) and Distribution of Homologous Sequences Identifying Cross-Inoculation Group Relationships †

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Douglas J.; Somasegaran, Padma; MacGlashan, Kathryn; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1994-01-01

    Insertion sequence (IS) element ISRLdTAL1145-1 from Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) strain TAL 1145 was entrapped in the sacB gene of the positive selection vector pUCD800 by insertional inactivation. A hybridization probe prepared from the whole 2.5-kb element was used to determine the distribution of homologous sequences in a diverse collection of 135 Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. The IS probe hybridized strongly to Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 10 rhizobial strains that nodulate both Phaseolus vulgaris (beans) and Leucaena leucocephala (leguminous trees), 1 Rhizobium sp. that nodulates Leucaena spp., 9 R. meliloti (alfalfa) strains, 4 Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Sophora chrysophylla (leguminous trees), and 1 nonnodulating bacterium associated with the nodules of Pithecellobium dulce from the Leucaena cross-inoculation group, producing distinguishing IS patterns for each strain. Hybridization analysis revealed that ISRLdTAL1145-1 was strongly homologous with and closely related to a previously isolated element, ISRm USDA1024-1 from R. meliloti, while restriction enzyme analysis found structural similarities and differences between the two IS homologs. Two internal segments of these IS elements were used to construct hybridization probes of 1.2 kb and 380 bp that delineate a structural similarity and a difference, respectively, of the two IS homologs. The internal segment probes were used to analyze the structures of homologous IS elements in other strains. Five types of structural variation in homolog IS elements were found. The predominate IS structural type naturally occurring in a strain can reasonably identify the strain's cross-inoculation group relationships. Three IS structural types were found in Rhizobium species that nodulate beans and Leucaena species, one of which included the designated type IIB strain of R. tropici (CIAT 899). Weak homology to the whole IS probe, but not with the internal segments, was found with two Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains. The taxonomic and ecological implications of the distribution of ISRLdTAL1145-1 are discussed. Images PMID:16349459

  19. Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, M; Tegegne, A; Umunna, N N; Kaitho, R J; Tamminga, S

    2001-09-15

    Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on testicular histology. Within species, animals were blocked based on body weight and scrotal circumference and randomly assigned, within blocks, to five nutritional treatment groups in a complete randomised block design. All animals were provided with unchopped teff (Eragrostis tef) straw ad libitum and were supplemented with either 150g of wheat bran (control), leucaena (200 or 400g) or sesbania (200 or 400g) leaves for a period of 6 months. At the end of the experimental period, all animals were surgically castrated and testicular samples were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. In sheep 200g S. sesban induced relatively more necrosis of the seminiferous tubules than 200g L. pallida, but with similar degree of tubular degeneration. However, lesions in testis of goats fed on 200g S. sesban and 200g L. pallida did not differ. The effect of 400g S. sesban and 400g L. pallida in sheep indicated that the former hardly induced lesions except depressive effect on spermatogenesis. Similar results were observed in goats. About 400g S. sesban induced milder lesions in sheep and goats than were 200g S. sesban. The lesions were compared and discussed in relation to the phytochemical composition of the supplementary feeds. PMID:11530271

  20. Exploiting unique germplasm resources of leguminous trees: Prosopis, leucaena and acacia. Final report, August 31, 1982-August 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Haiti, and other semiarid regions of the world, the need for fuelwood and forage is critical. The report summarizes research conducted over a ten year period on developing replicable plantations of leguminous trees in semiarid lands, especially in areas near seawater salinity levels. Research included greenhouse and laboratory work followed by field trials in Haiti and focused on two species: Prosopis and Leucaena. (Acacia is mentioned in the report's title but not in the report itself.) Results were as follows. (1) Greenhouse experiments identified leaf diagnostic criteria indicating mineral nutrient deficiencies in field trees. It also established the importance of micronutrients, especially zinc, in permitting growth in high pH (9.0) soils.

  1. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  2. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  3. Economic analysis of a simulated alley cropping system for semi-arid conditions, using micro computers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Returns were simulated for the semi-arid areas in Mackakos District, Kenya (bimodal rainfall distribution, 600 mm/yr) comparing the present system (maize and beans intercropped twice a year) with a Leucaena leucocephala hedgerow system. Although some of the assumptions contain a large element of uncertainty, the results were promising enough for the system to be considered further. 4 references.

  4. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases. PMID:24502152

  5. Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris that is very effective at fixing nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeo-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Maron; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martnez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-11-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains at fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81(T) is a very effective strain, usually referred to as Rhizobium tropici and used successfully in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here, we present results that indicate that PRF 81(T), although it belongs to the 'R. tropici group', which includes 10 Rhizobium species, R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes, represents a novel species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81(T) from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45?% similarity with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81(T) (?=?CNPSo 122(T)?=?SEMIA 4080(T)?=?IPR-Pv81(T)?=?WDCM 440(T)). PMID:23771622

  6. [Vegetation biomass allocation and its spatial distribution after 20 years ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Li, Kun; Gao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Fang-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2013-06-01

    By using layering harvest method, a comparative study was conducted on the biomass allocation and its spatial distribution of 20-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation, Leucaena leucocephala plantation, and E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation in Yuanmou dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The stand biomass in the mixed E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation (82.99 t x hm(-2)) was between that of monoculture E. camaldulensis plantation (60.64 t x hm(-2)) and L. leucocephala plantation (127.79 t x hm(-2)). The individual tree biomass of E. camaldulensis in the mixed plantation (44.32 kg) was 49.8% higher than that in monoculture plantation (29.58 kg). The branch and leaf biomass of L. leucocephala (25.4%) in monoculture plantation was larger than that of E. camaldulensis (8.9%) in monoculture plantation, and the aboveground biomass distribution ratio (78.0%) of L. leucocephala (25.4%) was also higher than that of E. camaldulensis (73.4%). The roots of L. leucocephala in both monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer, while those of E. camaldulensis in monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly found in 0-80 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. The proportion of biomass allocated to roots including medium roots, small roots, and fine roots of L. leucocephala in mixed plantation was higher than that in monoculture plantation, but it was contrary for E. camaldulensis. It was suggested that introducing L. leucocephala in E. camaldulensis plantation promoted the growth of E. camaldulensis, especially for its aboveground biomass, and increased the amount of lateral roots in 0-20 cm soil layer, which had significance in soil and water conservation in the study area. PMID:24066529

  7. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cludio Roberto Fonseca; Guimares Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals. PMID:23670312

  8. The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.

    PubMed

    Clment, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

  9. Regulation of exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 involves an alternative sigma factor gene, rpoH2.

    PubMed

    Kaufusi, Pakieli H; Forsberg, L Scott; Tittabutr, Panlada; Borthakur, Dulal

    2004-10-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 has been shown to be essential for effective nodulation on Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). This paper reports the isolation and characterization of an alternative sigma factor gene, rpoH2, involved in the regulation of EPS synthesis in TAL1145. Disruption of this gene in TAL1145 resulted in a Calcofluor-dim mutant RUH102 that produced approximately 18 % of the amount of EPS made by TAL1145. This mutation did not affect the normal growth of RUH102 in free-living state. RUH102 induced few nitrogen-fixing nodules, resulting in a significant reduction in total nitrogen content in leucaena. It was complemented for EPS production and nodulation by a 2.0 kb HindIII fragment of TAL1145. Sequence analysis of this fragment revealed the rpoH2 ORF of 870 bp that encoded a protein of 32 kDa. Expression of the rpoH2 ORF in Escherichia coli also revealed a 32 kDa protein. A PCR-constructed clone of 1263 bp, containing the rpoH2 ORF and its upstream putative regulatory region, complemented RUH102 for EPS defects. Comparison of the RpoH2 sequence to proteins in the databases showed significant similarity to RpoH-like sigma factors of other Gram-negative bacteria. By constructing several exo : : Tn3Hogus fusions and transferring them to the backgrounds of TAL1145 and RUH102, it was demonstrated that RpoH2 positively regulates the transcription of some exo genes. PMID:15470124

  10. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

  11. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Maron; Ormeo-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martnez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60?% similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4?% sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50?% DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) (?=?CNPSo 120(T)?=?LMG 27577(T)?=?IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24972614

  12. Lactational performance of Jersey cows given Napier fodder (Pennisetum purpureum) with and without protein concentrates in the semi-humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Muinga, R W; Thorpe, W; Topps, J H

    1993-05-01

    Two experiments with 12 and 18 lactating Jersey cows respectively were carried out in the coastal semi-humid zone of Kenya to assess the performance arising from the feeding of chopped Napier fodder (Pennisetum purpureum) given ad libitum with and without one of three sources of protein; fishmeal, copra cake and freshly cut Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). Each source supplied approximately 300 g crude protein daily. Dry matter intakes of Napier fodder fed alone averaged 7.1 and 5.5 kg in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Additional protein did not affect Napier fodder intake, but total intakes of dry matter were higher for the cows receiving the protein supplements, differences which were significant (P < 0.05) in Experiment 2. Average daily milk production from cows fed Napier fodder alone was 6.4 and 4.2 kg in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. The additional 300 g crude protein increased milk production by 1.0 to 1.6 kg/day, increases which, except that for fishmeal, were significant (P < 0.05). Weight losses of the cows were either reduced or changed to weight gains by the provision of protein. The results are assessed in relation to the energy and protein requirements for milk production. PMID:8236479

  13. Nitrogen fixation ability of exopolysaccharide synthesis mutants of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and Rhizobium trifolii is restored by the addition of homologous exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, S P; Chen, H; Batley, M; Redmond, J W; Rolfe, B G

    1987-01-01

    Several transposon Tn5-induced mutants of the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 produce little or no detectable acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) and are unable to induce nitrogen-fixing nodules on Leucaena leucocephala var. Peru or siratro plants. The ability of these Exo- mutants to induce functioning nodules on Leucaena plants was restored by coinoculation with a Sym plasmid-cured (Nod- Exo+) derivative of parent strain NGR234, purified EPS from the parent strain, or the oligosaccharide from the EPS. Coinoculation with EPS or related oligosaccharide also resulted in formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on siratro plants. In addition, an Exo- mutant (ANU437) of Rhizobium trifolii ANU794 was able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on white clover in the presence of added EPS or related oligosaccharide from R. trifolii ANU843. These results demonstrate that the absence of Rhizobium EPSs can result in failure of effective symbiosis with both temperate and subtropical legumes. Images PMID:3025187

  14. Preparative scale isolation, purification and derivatization of mimosine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid.

    PubMed

    Nokihara, Kiyoshi; Hirata, Akiyoshi; Sogon, Tetsuya; Ohyama, Takafumi

    2012-07-01

    Focusing on drug discovery non-proteinogenic amino acids have often been used as important building blocks for construction of compound libraries in the filed of combinatorial chemistry and chemical biology. Highly homogeneous L: -mimosine, α-amino-β-(3-hydoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-propanoic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, has been successfully isolated and purified on an industrial scale from wild leaves of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit) which is a widely distributed legume in Okinawa, a sub-tropical island in Japan. Optical purity determinations used for quality control have been established through diastereomer formation. Physico-chemical properties and biological properties of purified mimosine have been clarified. Mimosine is sparingly soluble in water and organic solvents but can be dissolved in aqueous alkaline solution. The tyrosinase pathway is of particular interest in the cosmetic field, since mimosine is an analog of tyrosine. Thus the present purified mimosine have been tested in tyrosinase inhibitory assays. The IC50 for tyrosinase inhibitory activity of purified Mim was compared with kojic acid. Mimosine shows significant inhibition of melanin production in murine melanoma cells. The derivatization of mimosine has been investigated with a focus on its use in conventional peptide syntheses to generate mimosyl peptides. N-(9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyloxy)-mimosine and resin-bound mimosine for solid-phase syntheses have also been performed. Highly homogeneous Mim is a useful material for the development of functional cosmetics or active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:21993536

  15. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Milin-Garca, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; lvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodrguez, Aryamne; Espinosa Lpez, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. PMID:26245792

  16. [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Xing; He, Bing-Hui; Mei, Xue-Mei; Liang, Yan-Ling; Xiong, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Taking bare land as the control, this paper studied the effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area. For the test six planting modes, the soil permeability was in the order of Eriobotrya japonica > Citrus limon > Vetiveria zizanioides hedgerows +corn >Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows + corn> Hemerocallis fulva > corn> bare land, and decreased with increasing depth. The eigenvalues of soil infiltration were in the order of initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate> stable infiltration rate. The soil permeability had significant positive linear correlations with soil total porosity, non-capillary porosity, initial moisture content, water holding capacity, and organic matter content, and significant negative linear correlation with soil bulk density. The common empirical infiltration model could well fit the soil moisture infiltration processes under the six planting modes, while the Kostiakov equation could not. PMID:23755487

  17. Cyclic-?-glucans of Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) sp. strain NGR234 are required for hypo-osmotic adaptation, motility, and efficient symbiosis with host plants.

    PubMed

    Gay-Fraret, Jrmie; Ardissone, Silvia; Kambara, Kumiko; Broughton, William J; Deakin, William J; Le Qur, Antoine

    2012-08-01

    Cyclic-?-glucans (C?G) consist of cyclic homo-polymers of glucose that are present in the periplasmic space of many Gram-negative bacteria. A number of studies have demonstrated their importance for bacterial infection of plant and animal cells. In this study, a mutant of Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) sp. strain NGR234 (NGR234) was generated in the cyclic glucan synthase (ndvB)-encoding gene. The great majority of C?G produced by wild-type NGR234 are negatively charged and substituted. The ndvB mutation abolished C?G biosynthesis. We found that, in NGR234, a functional ndvB gene is essential for hypo-osmotic adaptation and swimming, attachment to the roots, and efficient infection of Vigna unguiculata and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:22583376

  18. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  19. The NodD proteins of Rhizobium sp. strain BR816 differ in their interactions with coinducers and in their activities for nodulation of different host plants.

    PubMed Central

    van Rhijn, P; Desair, J; Vlassak, K; Vanderleyden, J

    1994-01-01

    The early steps of symbiotic nodule formation by Rhizobium spp. on plants require coordinate expression of several nod gene operons, which is accomplished by the activating protein NodD. Rhizobium sp. strain BR816, isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, contains four nodD genes which differ in their interaction with flavonoids. Two of the four NodD proteins, namely, NodD1 and NodD2, obey the LysR rule regarding the need of a coinducer. NodD3 shows hardly any inducing activity, and NodD4 contains a high basal activity and no response to any of the flavonoids tested. Complementation experiments with the NGR234 nodD mutant by the different nodD genes of BR816, as well as the analysis of the nodulation phenotype of different nodD mutants of BR816, revealed that all the nodD genes of BR816 are functional, but differences can be noticed when different host plants are tested. Whereas the nodD2 and nodD4 genes of BR816 have a great impact on the nodulation of L. leucocephala, nodD3 and nodD4 appear to be important for the nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris. It appears that NodD1 of BR816 can function as a transcriptional activator in bean nodulation but not in nodulation of L. leucocephala. PMID:7986038

  20. Macaria mirthae Vargas et al (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): Confirmation of the Use of an Invasive Host Plant in the Northern Atacama Desert of Chile Based on DNA Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Cabello, D; Huanca-Mamani, W; Vargas, H A

    2015-08-01

    Macaria mirthae Vargas et al (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a geometrid moth native to the northern Atacama Desert of Chile. Its oligophagous larvae are associated with native hosts of the plant family Fabaceae, the most important of which is Acacia macracantha. The invasive tree Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae) was recently recorded as a host plant for M. mirthae based on morphology. The taxonomic status of larvae collected on A. macracantha and L. leucocephala was assessed using sequences of the DNA barcode fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Genetic divergence between samples from the host plants was found to be 0%-0.8% (Kimura 2-parameter model). Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses were also performed, including additional barcode sequences of Neotropical geometrid moths from GenBank and BOLD databases. Sequences of the larvae from both host plants clustered in a single clade with high statistical support in both analyses. Based on these results, it is concluded that M. mirthae has effectively expanded its host range and its larvae are currently feeding on the exotic tree L. leucocephala. Additionally, the importance of this new host association in a highly disturbed habitat is briefly discussed in terms of the field biology of this native geometrid moth. PMID:26174961

  1. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with erosion in an oxisol.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Fox, R L; Aziz, T; El-Swaify, S A

    1988-04-01

    The development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis was monitored in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an Oxisol subjected to incremental simulated erosion. The density of VAM infective propagules in the soil diminished as the level of simulated erosion (removal of surface soil) was increased from 0 to 50 cm. The level of infection on L. leucocephala roots observed at harvest was not significantly influenced by simulated erosion unless removal of surface soil exceeded 25 cm. Inoculation of this soil and the uneroded soil with Glomus aggregatum enhanced the early onset of infection but did not significantly influence the level of infection observed at the time of harvest. Simulated erosion in excess of 7.5 cm of surface soil removal significantly delayed the development of VAM effectiveness monitored in terms of the P status of L. leucocephala subleaflets and also curtailed the level of maximum effectiveness observed. Decreases in VAM effectiveness were significantly correlated with decreases in soil chemical constituents. However, VAM effectiveness in a soil subjected to 30 cm of surface soil removal was not restored to a significant extent unless the soil was amended with P, even though other nutrients were restored to sufficiency levels. Our results demonstrate that the development of VAM effectiveness is the phase of the VAM symbiosis that is most adversely influenced by simulated erosion and that this effect appears to be caused primarily by insufficient P in the soil solution. PMID:16347615

  2. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrimaLeucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrimaGliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyanaLL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyanaGS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandraLL (Trt 5), C. perntandraGS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllusLL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllusGS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandraG. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllusL. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllusG. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllusG. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandraG. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium. PMID:25049496

  3. Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

    PubMed Central

    Seresinhe, T.; Madushika, S. A. C.; Seresinhe, Y.; Lal, P. K.; rskov, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrimaLeucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrimaGliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyanaLL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyanaGS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandraLL (Trt 5), C. perntandraGS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllusLL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllusGS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandraG. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllusL. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllusG. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllusG. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with its highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandraG. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium. PMID:25049496

  4. Comparing the sensitivity of two in vitro assays to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tropical tannin rich plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Daz, M A; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H

    2011-09-27

    The present trial aimed at comparing the sensitivity of two in vitro methods, i.e. the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and the larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA), to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) properties of tannin-rich plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae. The two assays were applied on the same batch of H. contortus infective larvae exposed to water/acetonic extracts obtained from four tropical plants with different tannin contents: Acacia gaumeri, Brosimum alicastrum, Havardia albicans and Leucaena leucocephala. Increasing concentrations (0, 75, 150, 300, 600, 1200 ?g/ml PBS) of lyophilized extracts were used in both in vitro assays. A general lineal model test was used to determine the dose-effect in the LMIA or the difference in the percentage of exsheathed larvae between the respective control and treated groups. The LMIA showed a dose-dependent AH effect for H. albicans (P<0.001) and A. gaumeri (P<0.05), but not for L. leucocephala and B. alicastrum. In contrast, the exsheathment process was significantly affected by all doses of H. albicans and A. gaumeri extracts and a significant dose-dependent effect was found for B. alicastrum and L. leucocephala. Calculation of lethal dose (LD) was possible with LEIA using B. alicastrum and L. leucocephala but not with H. albicans and A. gaumeri as the lowest tested concentration was achieving more than 50% inhibition. Calculation of LD with the LMIA results was not feasible. These results suggest that tannin-rich plant extracts are more potent inhibitors of the exsheathment of H. contortus L(3) larvae than their motility. This information underlines the difference of sensitivity between methodological procedures to evaluate the AH properties of plant extracts on the same nematode stage. PMID:21530082

  5. A comparative study on mimosine, 3,4-dihydroxy pyridone (3,4-DHP) and 2,3-dihydroxy pyridone (2,3-DHP), purine derivatives (PD) excretion in the urine, thyroid hormone and blood metabolites profiles of Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Thongruay, Sirima; Uswang, Sawong; Hengtrakulsin, Runchuan

    2012-04-01

    Four Thai swamp buffaloes (SB) and four Murrah buffaloes (MB) fed a based diet of fresh ruzi grass (Bachiaria ruziziensis) with an increased proportion of fresh leucaena leaves. Intake of nutrients in animals increased when ruzi grass was mixed with leucaena. Digestibility of nutrients were the highest in SB and MB fed diets containing 25% and 50% of leucaena, respectively, and nitrogen (N) balances in both animal breeds were varied among diets. The regression equation coefficient of mimosine + DHP in the urine was twice as high in SB than in MB. Urinary purine derivatives excretion rate in SB was higher than that in MB. Plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine declined in both animal breeds fed a diet containing >1 g mimosine intake/kg BW(0.75)/day. Plasma urea-N was the lowest in SB, but the highest in MB when fed a diet containing 84% of leucaena. Plasma β-HBA in SB have declined when diets contained >50% of leucaena but that in MB was not affected by any diet. In conclusion, the effect of leucaena in diet upon buffalo breeds depends on the proportion of leucaena in the diet, mimosine contents and condensed tannins components. PMID:21928129

  6. Seasonal variation of macro and trace mineral contents in 14 browse species that grow in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, R G.; Haenlein, G F.W.; Nez-Gonzlez, M A.

    2001-02-01

    Leaves and twigs from shrub species consumed by range goats: Acacia berlandieri, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia greggii, Acacia rigidula, Celtis pallida, Cercidium macrum, Condalia obovata, Cordia boissieri, Desmanthus virgathus, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucophyllum texanum, Opuntia lindehimieri, Porlieria angustifolia, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ziziphus obtusifolia were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Ca, P, Mg K, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe. Plants were collected in summer (September 12, 1992), fall (November 20, 1992), winter (February 20, 1993) and spring (May 22, 1993) in Marn, County, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. During spring and summer mineral concentrations were higher in general. Only Ca, Mg, K, and Fe were in substantial amounts in all seasons to meet adult goat requirements. With the exception of spring, shrubs had extremely low P concentrations. Manganese, Cu and Zn in most plants had low marginal levels to meet adult goat requirements. Moreover, potential intake of P, Mn, Cu and Zn in shrub species by goats weighing 50kg BW consuming 2.0kg per day DM was low. However, plants such as D. virgathus, L. texanum, P. glandulosa, L. leucocephala and C. macrum can be considered prominent components in diets of range goats because of their high mineral concentrations. It appears that ration formulations for range goats in northeastern Mexico should include P, Mn, Cu and Zn in all seasons of the year. PMID:11182308

  7. In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (Hawaii strain).

    PubMed

    Ono, Lucy; Wollinger, Wagner; Rocco, Iray M; Coimbra, Terezinha L M; Gorin, Philip A J; Sierakowski, Maria-Rita

    2003-11-01

    Two galactomannans, one extracted from seeds of Mimosa scabrella, having a mannose to galactose ratio of 1.1, and another with a 1.4 ratio from seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, were sulfated. The products from M. scabrella (BRS) and L. leucocephala (LLS) had a degree of sulfation of 0.62 and 0.50, and an average molecular weight of 620x10(3) and 574x10(3) gmol(-1), respectively. Their activities against yellow fever virus (YFV; BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (DEN-1; Hawaii strain) were evaluated. This was carried out in young mice following intraperitoneal infection with YFV. At a dose of 49 mgkg(-1), BRS and LLS gave protection against death in 87.7 and 96.5% of the mice, respectively. When challenged with 37.5 LD50 of YFV, mice previously inoculated with BRS+virus or LLS+virus, showed 93.3 and 100% resistance, respectively, with neutralization titers similar to mice injected with 25 LD50 of formaldehyde-inactivated YFV. In vitro experiments with YFV and DEN-1 in C6/36 cell culture assays in 24-well microplates showed that concentrations that produced a 100-fold decrease in virus titer of YFV were 586 and 385 mgl(-1) for BRS and LLS, respectively. For DEN-1 they were 347 and 37 mgl(-1), respectively. Sulfated galactomannans, thus demonstrate in vitro and in vivo activity against flaviviruses. PMID:14638396

  8. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Beltrn, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3?yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  9. Temporal Dynamics of Arthropods on Six Tree Species in Dry Woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable.

  10. A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Orduo, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Daz, M A

    2015-06-01

    Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (P<0.05). The preference in experiment 2 was A. gaumeri>H. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience. PMID:25843904

  11. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  12. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth, indicating that it can be part of a long-term strategy to increase soil organic carbon in degraded soil from a desertification hotspot. PMID:25464939

  13. Novel and complex chromosomal arrangement of Rhizobium loti nodulation genes.

    PubMed

    Scott, D B; Young, C A; Collins-Emerson, J M; Terzaghi, E A; Rockman, E S; Lewis, P E; Pankhurst, C E

    1996-04-01

    A mutational and structural analysis of Rhizobium loti nodulation genes in strains NZP2037 and NZP2213 was carried out. Unlike the case with other Rhizobium strains examined to date, nodB was found on an operon separate from nodACIJ. Sequence analysis of the nodACIJ and nodB operon regions confirm that R. loti common nod genes have a gene organization different from that of other Rhizobium spp. At least 4 copies of nodD-like sequences were identified in R. loti. The complete nucleotide sequence of one of these, nodD3, was determined. A new host-specific nod gene, nolL, was identified adjacent to nodD3. NolL shares homology with NodX and other O-acetyl transferases. Mutational analysis of the nod regions of strains NZP2037 and NZP2213 showed that nodD3, nodI, nodJ, and nolL were all essential for R. loti strains to effectively nodulate the extended host Lotus pedunculatus, but were not necessary for effective nodulation of the less restrictive host, Lotus corniculatus. Both nodD3 and nolL were essential for R. loti strains to nodulate Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:8850088

  14. Ecological Indicators of Native Rhizobia in Tropical Soils

    PubMed Central

    Woomer, Paul; Singleton, Paul W.; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between environment and abundance of rhizobia was described by determining the populations of root nodule bacteria at 14 diverse sites on the island of Maui. Mean annual rainfall at the sites ranged from 320 to 1,875 mm, elevation from 37 to 1,650 m, and soil pH from 4.6 to 7.9. Four different soil orders were represented in this study: inceptisols, mollisols, ultisols, and an oxisol. The rhizobial populations were determined by plant infection counts of five legumes (Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa, Vicia sativa, Leucaena leucocephala, and Macroptilium atropurpureum). Populations varied from 1.1 to 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. The most frequently occurring rhizobia were Bradyrhizobium spp., which were present at 13 of 14 sites with a maximum of 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. Rhizobium trifolii and R. leguminosarum occurred only at higher elevations. The presence of a particular Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium sp. was correlated with the occurrence of its appropriate host legume. Total rhizobial populations were significantly correlated with mean annual rainfall, legume cover and shoot biomass, soil temperature, soil pH, and phosphorus retention. Regression models are presented which describe the relationship of legume hosts, soil climate, and soil fertility on native rhizobial populations. PMID:16347624

  15. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  16. Impact of weed control on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical agroecosystem: a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Marrufo-Zapata, Denis; Guadarrama, Patricia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Lilia; Hernández-Cuevas, Laura; Caamal-Maldonado, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    Cover crop species represent an affordable and effective weed control method in agroecosystems; nonetheless, the effect of its use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been scantily studied. The goal of this study was to determine root colonization levels and AMF species richness in the rhizosphere of maize plants and weed species growing under different cover crop and weed control regimes in a long-term experiment. The treatment levels used were (1) cover of Mucuna deeringian (Muc), (2) "mulch" of Leucaena leucocephala (Leu), (3) "mulch" of Lysiloma latisiliquum (Lys), (4) herbicide (Her), (5) manual weeding (CD), (6) no weeding (SD), and (7) no maize and no weeding (B). A total of 18 species of AMF belonging to eight genera (Acaulospora, Ambispora, Claroideoglomus, Funneliformis, Glomus, Rhizophagus, Sclerocystis, and Scutellospora) were identified from trap cultures. Muc and Lys treatments had a positive impact on AMF species richness (11 and seven species, respectively), while Leu and B treatments on the other hand gave the lowest richness values (six species each). AMF colonization levels in roots of maize and weeds differed significantly between treatment levels. Overall, the use of cover crop species had a positive impact on AMF species richness as well as on the percentage of root colonized by AMF. These findings have important implications for the management of traditional agroecosystems and show that the use of cover crop species for weed control can result in a more diverse AMF community which should potentially increase crop production in the long run. PMID:22584877

  17. In vitro rumen fermentation of the tropical grass Pennisetum purpureum and mixtures with browse legumes: effects of tannin contents.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Mota, M; Castrillo, C; Fondevila, M

    2010-12-01

    The fermentation of Pennisetum purpureum, alone (PP) or substituted with 0.30 of the tanniferous legumes Acacia cornigera (AC), Albizia lebbekoides (AL), Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and the saponin-rich Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC) was studied in vitro, in presence or absence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as tannin binder. Inactivation of tannins with PEG increased (p < 0.05) gas production with AL and LL from 8 and 12 h to the end of the incubation period respectively. When PEG was added, LL and AC promoted a higher (p < 0.05) gas volume than PP in the first 12 h incubation, and there were not differences between PP and AL. Substrate mixtures reduced (p < 0.05) methane volume produced compared with PP, but this was not related to PEG inclusion (p > 0.10). There was a trend (p = 0.06) for a higher 48 h bacterial attachment to the substrate when incubated without PEG. The decrease in fermentation of EC from 12 h incubation onwards could be associated with a negative mid-term effect of saponins over cellulolytic bacterial activity. It is concluded that the effects of tannins on microbial fermentation of mixed forage substrates are variable, depending on their nature, but do not have a marked impact on bacterial adhesion or methane production. PMID:20579189

  18. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes. PMID:18551378

  19. Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos

    PubMed Central

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

  20. Effects of species and season on chemical composition and ruminal crude protein and organic matter degradability of some multi-purpose tree species by West African dwarf rams.

    PubMed

    Arigbede, O M; Anele, U Y; Sdekum, K-H; Hummel, J; Oni, A O; Olanite, J A; Isah, A O

    2012-04-01

    Seasonal chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities were determined in four tropical multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) namely; Pterocarpus santalinoides, Grewia pubescens, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Leucaena leucocephala. Three West African dwarf (WAD) rams fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used for the degradability trials. Foliage samples were collected four times to represent seasonal variations as follows: January--mid dry; April--late dry; July--mid rainy and October--late rainy seasons. Leaf samples were randomly collected from the trees for estimation of dry matter (DM) and chemical composition. Ruminal in sacco OM and CP degradabilities were estimated from residues in nylon bags. All samples had high CP (161-259 g/kg DM) and moderate fibre concentrations [neutral detergent fibre (without residual ash], 300-501 g/kg DM; acid detergent fibre (without residual ash), 225-409 g/kg DM and acid detergent lignin, 87-179 g/kg DM across seasons. Interaction effects of species and season on chemical composition were highly significant (p = 0.001) except for trypsin inhibitor (p = 0.614). The MPTS recorded more than 60% OM and CP degradability at 24 h, which implied that they were all highly degradable in the rumen. Their incorporation into ruminant feeding systems as dry season forage supplements is therefore recommended. PMID:21535229

  1. Distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal chemical fractions in artificial soil on rock cut slopes alongside railways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Ai, Yingwei; Fang, Chen; Wang, Kexiu; Li, Wei; Liu, Shui; Li, Chunlin; Xiao, Jingyao; Huang, Zhiyu

    2014-05-30

    Artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes alongside railroad tracks to promote revegetation. This study evaluated the heavy metal content and the distribution of heavy metal chemical fractions in the soil, as well as the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The soil at four sites was determined to be considerably contaminated with Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increased with the length of time the railway had been in use and decreased further away from the railway tracks. Pb primarily existed in reducible form but as residual fractions, whereas Cd was predominantly in exchangeable form. A correlation analysis indicated that pH, organic matter, and total phosphorus levels were important factors affecting the distribution of the heavy metal chemical fractions. The amounts of exchangeable Pb and Cd in the soil were highly correlated with their amounts in the plants sampled, indicating that the exchangeable fraction is a better indication of heavy metal phytoavailability than the total amount of heavy metals in the soil. Bioaccumulation and translocation factors indicated that Indigofera amblyantha had moderate tolerance and bioaccumulation capability for Pb, as did Leucaena leucocephala for Cd. These two plant species can serve as ideal slope remediation plants. PMID:24727018

  2. Exopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium loti are fully effective on a determinate nodulating host but are ineffective on an indeterminate nodulating host.

    PubMed Central

    Hotter, G S; Scott, D B

    1991-01-01

    By Tn5 mutagenesis of Rhizobium loti PN184 (NZP2037 str-1) and selection for nonfluorescence of colonies on Calcofluor agar, eight independently generated expolysaccharide (EPS) mutants (three smooth and five rough) were isolated. The parent strain, PN184, was found to produce an acidic EPS. This EPS was produced. with reduced O acetylation, by the smooth EPS mutants but not by the rough EPS mutants. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from all mutants and was identical to that of PN184 as defined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All mutants were resistant to lysis by R. loti bacteriophage phi 2037/1. Cosmids that complemented the mutations in the rough EPS mutants were isolated from a pLAFR1 gene library of NZP2037 by complementation of the nonfluorescent phenotype. The genes identified were shown to be unlinked and located on the chromosome. All mutants were fully effective when inoculated onto Lotus pedunculatus, a determinate nodulating host, but were ineffective, inducing the formation of very small nodules or tumorlike growths, when inoculated onto Leucaena leucocephala, an indeterminate nodulating host. These results, obtained in an isogenic Rhizobium background, support suggestions that acidic EPS is required for effective nodulation of indeterminate nodulating legumes but is not required for effective nodulation of determinate nodulating legumes. Images PMID:1987168

  3. Phenotypic and biochemical characterization of root nodule bacteria naturally associated with woody tree legumes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshaharani, Thobayet Safar; Shetta, Nader Desouky

    2015-03-01

    Thirty root-nodulating bacteria isolates were obtained from the roots of Acacia ampliceps (Maslin), A. ehrenbergiana (Hayne.), A. saligna (Labill.), A. seyal (Del.), A. tortilis (Forssk.), A. tortilis subsp. raddiana (Savi.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Vicia faba (L.) trees growing in the Riyadh region. The isolates' phenotypic and biochemical properties were characterized by assessing colony appearance, growth rate, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, and tolerance to salinity, elevated temperature and pH. All isolates had same colony morphology and grew on yeast extract mannitol and tryptone yeast agar, but not MGS media. The results also revealed considerable diversity among the isolates, which exhibited different patterns of resistance to abiotic stresses. Most isolates tolerated temperatures up to 37 degrees C and could grow from pH 5.5-8.5 and at a high NaCl concentration (2% w/v). The majority of isolates could utilize a variety of carbohydrates. Most of the isolates displayed resistance to antibiotics in the 75 microg ml(-1) range, with approximately 100 pg ml(-1) the maximum concentration at which growth was observed. All isolates were sensitive to aluminum and resistant to other heavy metals tested, and they were able to reduce nitrate and hydrolyze urea. PMID:25895257

  4. Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailing by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments.

    PubMed

    Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2012-10-01

    The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb >9850 mg kg(-1)) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer attained the highest total biomass (15.3 g plant(-1)) followed by P. pterocarpum (12.6 g plant(-1)) and A. mangium (10.8 g plant(-1)) both treated with cow manure. Cow manure application resulted in the highest root Pb accumulation (>10000 mg kg(-1)) in L. floribunda and P. macrocarpus. These two species also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (85-88 mg plant(-1)). Results from field trial also showed that Osmocote promoted the best growth performance in E. camaldulensis (biomass 385.7 g plant(-1), height 141.7 cm) followed by A. mangium (biomass 215.9 g plant(-1), height 102.7 cm), and they also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (600-800 microg plant(-1)). A. mangium with the addition of organic fertilizer was the best option for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated mine tailing because it retained higher Pb concentration in the roots. PMID:22908655

  5. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  6. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurcio, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of HolsteinZebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.31.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.230.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production. PMID:24703358

  7. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure - amended soils of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Escobar, M E; Hue, N V

    2008-12-01

    Soil amendment with organic materials (crop residues animal manure, and green manure) reportedly has positive effects on soil properties, from acidity to plant-nutrient availability. To examine that hypothesis, an incubation study was conducted to assess the changes in some chemical properties of three different tropical soils (Andisol, Ultisol, and Oxisol) amended with chicken manure and green manure (Leucaena leucocephala) at the rate of 10tha(-1). The results showed that organic amendments raised soil pH and EC, regardless of the type of manure used. Manuring lowered the concentrations of Mehlich-3 extractable Ca, P, Mn and Si in all soils and decreased the concentration of Mg in the Ultisol and Oxisol. However, manure amendment led to increases in the concentrations of Mg and K in the Andisol. Organic amendments caused a decrease in KCl extractable Al. Initial soluble C levels were highest in the Oxisol (60micromolg(-1)) and lowest in the Andisol (20micromolg(-1)). The concentration of soluble C decreased exponentially with duration of incubation. Three low molecular weight organic molecules (acetic acid, catechol and oxalic acid) out of the eight tested were found in all manure-amended soils. This study quantified the release of some Al chelating organic acids, the reduction of exchangeable Al, and the changes in major plant-nutrients when organic materials were added to nutrient poor, tropical acid soils. PMID:18550367

  8. Ecological indicators of native rhizobia in tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Woomer, P; Singleton, P W; Bohlool, B B

    1988-05-01

    The relationship between environment and abundance of rhizobia was described by determining the populations of root nodule bacteria at 14 diverse sites on the island of Maui. Mean annual rainfall at the sites ranged from 320 to 1,875 mm, elevation from 37 to 1,650 m, and soil pH from 4.6 to 7.9. Four different soil orders were represented in this study: inceptisols, mollisols, ultisols, and an oxisol. The rhizobial populations were determined by plant infection counts of five legumes (Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa, Vicia sativa, Leucaena leucocephala, and Macroptilium atropurpureum). Populations varied from 1.1 to 4.8 log(10) cells per g of soil. The most frequently occurring rhizobia were Bradyrhizobium spp., which were present at 13 of 14 sites with a maximum of 4.8 log(10) cells per g of soil. Rhizobium trifolii and R. leguminosarum occurred only at higher elevations. The presence of a particular Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium sp. was correlated with the occurrence of its appropriate host legume. Total rhizobial populations were significantly correlated with mean annual rainfall, legume cover and shoot biomass, soil temperature, soil pH, and phosphorus retention. Regression models are presented which describe the relationship of legume hosts, soil climate, and soil fertility on native rhizobial populations. PMID:16347624

  9. An assessment of Hawaii's biomass enrgy options: Economics and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kasturi, P.

    1980-12-01

    The technology for converting agricultural biomass to generate electrical power by the direct combustion method has long been established on sugarcane plantations in the state of Hawaii. Increasing uncertainty over energy supplies and pyramidal escalation of energy prices in recent years have served to refocus both state and national attention on the operational feasibility and economic viability of alternate Biomass Energy Systems. This study scrutinizes the key parameters affecting the overall productivity and the cost of electricity from such systems. The conditions for obtaining net energy productivity and associated costs are examined for electrical power generation from wood yields of the giant koa haole (Leucaena leucocephala) as a reference point. Current technology involving direct combustion of biomass generates substantial net electrical energy though from a cost perspective it would appear that conditions for biomass production and harvest as a replacement for diesel fuel in utilities having conventional generator units are only now being met. Some potentials and constraints for three other candidate plant species using similar conversion system are also explored.

  10. Heterologous exopolysaccharide production in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and consequences for nodule development.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J X; Zhan, H J; Levery, S B; Battisti, L; Rolfe, B G; Leigh, J A

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 produces large amounts of acidic exopolysaccharide. Mutants that fail to synthesize this exopolysaccharide are also unable to nodulate the host plant Leucaena leucocephala. A hybrid strain of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 containing exo genes from Rhizobium meliloti was constructed. The background genetics and nod genes of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 are retained, but the cluster of genes involved in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis was deleted. These exo genes were replaced with genes required for the synthesis of succinoglycan exopolysaccharide from R. meliloti. As a result of the genetic manipulation, the ability of these hybrids to synthesize exopolysaccharide was restored, but the structure was that of succinoglycan and not that of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234. The replacement genes were contained on a cosmid which encoded the entire known R. meliloti exo gene cluster, with the exception of exoB. Cosmids containing smaller portions of this exo gene cluster did not restore exopolysaccharide production. The presence of succinoglycan was indicated by staining with the fluorescent dye Calcofluor, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and monosaccharide analysis. Although an NGR234 exoY mutant containing the R. meliloti exo genes produced multimers of the succinoglycan repeat unit, as does the wild-type R. meliloti, the deletion mutant of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 containing the R. meliloti exo genes produced only the monomer. The deletion mutant therefore appeared to lack a function that affects the multiplicity of succinoglycan produced in the Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 background. Although these hybrid strains produced succinoglycan, they were still able to induce the development of an organized nodule structure on L. leucocephala. The resulting nodules did not fix nitrogen, but they did contain infection threads and bacteroids within plant cells. This clearly demonstrated that a heterologous acidic exopolysaccharide structure was sufficient to enable nodule development to proceed beyond the developmental barrier imposed on mutants of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 that are unable to synthesize any acidic exopolysaccharide. Images PMID:2022612

  11. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P < 0.01) methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity. PMID:22205224

  12. Rehabilitation of a debris-flow prone mountain stream in southwestern China - Strategies, effects and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guo-an; Huang, He Qing; Wang, Zhaoyin; Brierley, Gary; Zhang, Kang

    2012-01-01

    SummaryRehabilitation of Shengou Creek, a small, steep mountain stream in southwestern China that is prone to debris flows, started more than 30 years ago through an integrated program of engineering applications (check dams and guiding dikes), biological measures (reforestation), and social measures (reducing human disturbance). Small and medium-sized check dams and guiding dikes were constructed on key upper and middle sections of the creek to stabilize hillslopes and channel bed. Meanwhile, Leucaena leucocephala, a drought-tolerant, fast-growing, and highly adaptive plant species, was introduced to promote vegetation recovery in the watershed. The collective community structure of tree, shrub, and herb assemblages in the artificial L. leucocephala forest, which developed after 7 years, enhanced soil structure and drastically reduced soil erosion on hillslopes. Cultivation of steep land was strictly controlled in the basin, and some inhabitants were encouraged to move from upstream areas to downstream towns to reduce disturbance. These integrated measures reduced sediment supply from both hillslopes and upstream channels, preventing sediment-related hazards. The development of natural streambed resistance structures (mainly step-pool systems) and luxuriant riparian vegetation aided channel stability, diversity of stream habitat, and ecological maintenance in the creek. These findings are compared with Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, two adjacent non-rehabilitated debris-flow streams which have climate and geomorphologic conditions similar to Shengou Creek. Habitat diversity indices, taxa richness, biodiversity, and bio-community indices are much higher in Shengou Creek relative to Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, attesting to the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures.

  13. Evidence of an American Origin for Symbiosis-Related Genes in Rhizobium lusitanum ?

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Angel; Velzquez, Encarna; Cervantes, Emilio; Igual, Jos M.; van Berkum, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of 179 bean isolates recovered from six field sites in the Arcos de Valdevez region of northwestern Portugal. The isolates were divided into 6 groups based on the fingerprint patterns that were obtained. Representatives for each group were selected for sequence analysis of 4 chromosomal DNA regions. Five of the groups were placed within Rhizobium lusitanum, and the other group was placed within R. tropici type IIA. Therefore, the collection of Portuguese bean isolates was shown to include the two species R. lusitanum and R. tropici. In plant tests, the strains P1-7, P1-1, P1-2, and P1-16 of R. lusitanum nodulated and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses both with Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene identical with the R. tropici locus that confers wide host range was detected in the strain P1-7 as well as 24 others identified as R. lusitanum. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene also was detected in the remaining isolates of R. lusitanum, but in this case the locus was that identified with the narrow-host-range R. etli. Representatives of isolates with the nodS of R. etli formed effective nitrogen-fixing symbioses with P. vulgaris and did not nodulate L. leucocephala. From sequence data of nodS, the R. lusitanum genes for symbiosis were placed within those of either R. tropici or R. etli. These results would support the suggestion that R. lusitanum was the recipient of the genes for symbiosis with beans from both R. tropici and R. etli. PMID:21705533

  14. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Brbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Ins sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88??2.85kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710g/kg) and ground corn (290g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150g/kg), ground corn (30g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160g/kg), ground corn (150g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280g/kg), ground corn (190g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

  15. midD-encoded 'rhizomimosinase' from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2013-06-01

    Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 catabolizes mimosine, which is a toxic non-protein amino acid present in Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). The objective of this investigation was to study the biochemical and catalytic properties of the enzyme encoded by midD, one of the TAL1145 genes involved in mimosine degradation. The midD-encoded enzyme, MidD, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for biochemical and catalytic studies using mimosine as the substrate. The reaction products in the enzyme assay were analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. MidD has a molecular mass of ~45 kDa and its catalytic activity was found to be optimal at 37 °C and pH 8.5. The major product formed in the reaction had the same retention time as that of synthetic 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P). It was confirmed to be 3H4P by MS/MS analysis of the HPLC-purified product. The K m, V max and K cat of MidD were 1.27 × 10(-4) mol, 4.96 × 10(-5) mol s(-1) mg(-1), and 2,256.05 s(-1), respectively. Although MidD has sequence similarities with aminotransferases, it is not an aminotransferase because it does not require a keto acid as the co-substrate in the degradation reaction. It is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and the addition of 50 μM hydroxylamine completely inhibited the reaction. However, the supplementation of the reaction with 0.1 μM PLP restored the catalytic activity of MidD in the reaction containing 50 μM hydroxylamine. The catalytic activity of MidD was found to be specific to mimosine, and the presence of its structural analogs including L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine did not show any competitive inhibition. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products in equimolar quantities of the substrate used. The degradation of mimosine into a ring compound, 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicates that MidD of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase. PMID:23462928

  16. Reproductive Capacities and Development of a Seed Bruchid Beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a Potential Host for the Mass Rearing of the Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis

    PubMed Central

    TQ, Effowe; K, Amevoin; Y, Nuto; D, Mondedji; IA, Glitho

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive capacities and development of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), found in Togo, were determined under natural conditions in a Guinean zone for its use as a substitute host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalts Rond (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a biological agent for the control of beetles that are pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae). Population dynamics at the field level; and survival, fecundity and offspring production by A. macrophthalmus under laboratory conditions were measured when fed on its natural plant-host Leucaena leucocephala (Lamark) deWit (Fabales: Mimosaceae). The data resulting from the laboratory study were used to calculate the demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus by establishing its fertility and life tables. Contrary to cultivated leguminous food plants, L. leucocephala is a perennial sub-spontaneous leguminous plant whose pods are available year round. Although A. macrophthalmus was present in nature throughout the year, its infestation rate of the pods fluctuated according to the phenology of the plant. The maximum infestation of L. leucocephala pods was observed between August and December. Four larval stages and one pupal stage of A. macrophthalmus were identified in the laboratory. The total mean development time varied on average 33.75 ± 2.87 days on the mature pods and 33.39 ± 2.02 days on seeds. The adult female lived from one to two weeks. During its life time, the female laid an average of 62.3 ± 19 and 43.1 ± 13 eggs on the mature pods and seeds respectively and produced an average of 36.7 ± 11.3 offspring on the mature pods and 21.8 ± 8.4 offspring on seeds. On seeds, the net reproduction rate was 5.88 females per female and the intrinsic rate of population increase 0.051 per day. The generation time was 34.59 days and the doubling time 13.59 days. The demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus in this study are close to those of Callobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), the natural host of D. basalts in a previous study. A. macrophthalmus could therefore be used as substitute host for the mass rearing of D. basalts and subsequently its release in farmers' storage containers. The data presented in this study provide some baseline information regarding the reproductive capacities of A. macrophthalmus that may be useful for its promotion as a substitute host for mass rearing of D. basalts. PMID:20879923

  17. Economic development through biomass systems integration in central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, J.A.; Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.

    1995-11-01

    A biomass to energy system for central Florida was conceptualized with sugarcane as the main feedstock. Additional feedstocks include elephantgrass, leucaena (woody tropical legume), and Eucalyptus. Juice will be pressed from sugarcane and sugars fermented into ethanol with conventional technology. Enough sugarcane will be grown to supply a conventional ethanol plant with juice for a 330 day operating period each yr. Juice will be condensed to 24 degrees Brix for direct conversion during the approximately 100 day harvest season and to 70 degrees Brix for storage and use the remaining 230 days. Residues (mainly lignin), from converting lignocellulosic materials to ethanol, will fuel the plant including evaporators for sugarcane juice. Sugarcane presscake, elephantgrass, leucaena, and Eucalyptus will be feedstocks for the lignocellulose conversion processes. The lignocellulose plant will be sized to convert all sugarcane presscake as it is produced to reduce storage costs. Elephantgrass, leucaena and Eucalyptus will feed the plant outside sugarcane harvest season. The biomass/energy system will produce 123,230,000 L (32,830,000 gal) of ethanol per year with 90% conversion of sugars from juice, hemicellulose, and cellulose to ethanol. Estimated cost of producing ethanol form various feedstocks include: sugarcane $0.25/L ($0.94/gal), elephantgrass $0.30/L ($1.13/gal), 1 leucaena $0.28/L ($1.06/gal), and Eucalyptus $0.28/L (1.07/gal). Future opportunities exist for development of a chemical industry based on lignocellulose materials from biomass.

  18. Re-marriage of crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, P.K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

  19. Hydropyrolysis of biomass and related materials for the production of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodle, W. W.; Wright, K. A.

    Test data for the pyrolytic conversion of eucalyptus wood, leucaena wood, and peat to liquid fuel was analyzed. Charts were developed to facilitate prediction of the quantity and composition of the various end products as a function of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, and carrier gas composition.

  20. Hydropyrolysis of biomass and related materials for the production of liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bodle, W.W.; Wright, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Test data for the pyrolytic conversion of eucalyptus wood, leucaena wood, and peat to liquid fuel have been analyzed. Charts have been developed to facilitate prediction of the quantity and composition of the various end products as a function of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, and carrier gas composition.

  1. NolL of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234 Is Required for O-Acetyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Berck, S.; Perret, X.; Quesada-Vincens, D.; Prom, J.-C.; Broughton, W. J.; Jabbouri, S.

    1999-01-01

    Following (iso)flavonoid induction, nodulation genes of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 elaborate a large family of lipooligosaccharidic Nod factors (NodNGR factors). When secreted into the rhizosphere of compatible legumes, these signal molecules initiate root hair deformation and nodule development. The nonreducing glucosamine residue of NodNGR factors are N acylated, N methylated, and mono- or biscarbamoylated, while position C-6 of the reducing extremity is fucosylated. This fucose residue is normally 2-O methylated and either sulfated or acetylated. Here we present an analysis of all acetylated NodNGR factors, which clearly shows that the acetate group may occupy position C-3 or C-4 of the fucose moiety. Disruption of the flavonoid-inducible nolL gene, which is preceded by a nod box, results in the synthesis of NodNGR factors that lack the 3-O- or 4-O-acetate groups. Interestingly, the nodulation capacity of the mutant NGR?nolL is not impaired, whereas introduction of the nod box::nolL construct into the related strain Rhizobium fredii USDA257 extends the host range of this bacterium to Calopogonium caeruleum, Leucaena leucocephala, and Lotus halophilus. Nod factors produced by a USDA257(pnolL) transconjugant were also acetylated. The nod box::nolL construct was also introduced into ANU265 (NGR234 cured of its symbiotic plasmid), along with extra copies of the nodD1 gene. When permeabilized, these cells possessed acetyltransferase activity, although crude extracts did not. PMID:9922261

  2. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  3. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Baah, J; McAllister, T A

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall's buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  4. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P < 0.05) among treatments. Kids that were supplemented with cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P < 0.05) initially but gained weight slightly towards the end of the study. Significantly higher weight gains (P < 0.05) were observed in animals in CLLM and CAAM treatment. It was concluded that fresh cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector. PMID:25023231

  5. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Kun, Jun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Kang, Li Hua

    2015-10-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0?%) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73?% DNADNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T (?=?CCBAU 101090T?=?JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1?mol% (T m). PMID:26296667

  6. Galactomannan thin films as supports for the immobilization of Concanavalin A and/or dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Valenga, Francine; Petri, Denise F S; Lucyszyn, Neoli; J, Tatiane A; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2012-01-01

    The immobilization of the glucose/mannose-binding lectin from Concanavalia ensiformis seeds (ConA) onto a monolayer made of a galactomannan extracted from Leucaena leucocephala seeds (GML), which was adsorbed onto - amino-terminated surfaces, was investigated by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The mean thickness of GML monolayer, which polysaccharide consists of linear 1?4-linked ?-D-mannopyranosil units partially substituted at C-6 by ?-D-galactopyranosyl units, amounted to (1.50.2) nm. ConA molecules adsorbed onto GML surfaces forming (2.00.5) nm thick layers. However, in the presence of mannose the adsorption failed, indicating that ConA binding sites were blocked by mannose and were no longer available for mannose units present in the GML backbone. The GML film was also used as support for the adsorption of three serotypes of dengue virus particles (DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3), where DENV-2 formed the thickest film (42) nm. The adsorbed layer of DENV-2 onto ConA-covered GML surfaces presented mean thickness values similar to that determined for DENV-2 onto bare GML surfaces. The addition of free mannose units prevented DENV-2 adsorption onto ConA-covered GML films by ~50%, suggesting competition between virus and mannose for ConA binding sites. This finding suggests that if ConA is also adsorbed to GML surface and its binding site is blocked by free mannose, virus particles are able to recognized GML mannose unities substituted by galactose. Interactions between polysaccharides thin films, proteins, and viruses are of great relevance since they can provide basis for the development of biotechnological devices. These results indicate that GML is a potential polysaccharide for biomaterials development, as those could involve interactions between ConA in immune system and viruses. PMID:22020153

  7. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%). PMID:26524272

  8. Genotypic Characterization of Bradyrhizobium Strains Nodulating Endemic Woody Legumes of the Canary Islands by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) and 16S-23S rDNA Intergenic Spacers, Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Genomic Fingerprinting, and Partial 16S rDNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vinuesa, Pablo; Rademaker, Jan L. W.; de Bruijn, Frans J.; Werner, Dietrich

    1998-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic analysis of nine strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus) and other endemic woody legumes of the Canary Islands, Spain. These and several reference strains were characterized genotypically at different levels of taxonomic resolution by computer-assisted analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs), 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) RFLPs, and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprints with BOX, ERIC, and REP primers. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA restriction patterns with four tetrameric endonucleases grouped the Canarian isolates with the two reference strains, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110spc4 and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain (Centrosema) CIAT 3101, resolving three genotypes within these bradyrhizobia. In the analysis of IGS RFLPs with three enzymes, six groups were found, whereas rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed an even greater genotypic diversity, with only two of the Canarian strains having similar fingerprints. Furthermore, we show that IGS RFLPs and even very dissimilar rep-PCR fingerprints can be clustered into phylogenetically sound groupings by combining them with 16S rDNA RFLPs in computer-assisted cluster analysis of electrophoretic patterns. The DNA sequence analysis of a highly variable 264-bp segment of the 16S rRNA genes of these strains was found to be consistent with the fingerprint-based classification. Three different DNA sequences were obtained, one of which was not previously described, and all belonged to the B. japonicum/Rhodopseudomonas rDNA cluster. Nodulation assays revealed that none of the Canarian isolates nodulated Glycine max or Leucaena leucocephala, but all nodulated Acacia pendula, C. proliferus, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Vigna unguiculata. PMID:9603820

  9. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Lu, Jun Kun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26296667

  10. Gut microbiology - broad genetic diversity, yet specific metabolic niches.

    PubMed

    John Wallace, R

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences from gut microbial ecosystems reveals bewildering genetic diversity. Some metabolic functions, such as glucose utilisation, are fairly widespread throughout the genetic spectrum. Others, however, are not. Despite so many phylotypes being present, single species or perhaps only two or three species often carry out key functions. Among ruminal bacteria, only three species can break down highly structured cellulose, despite the prevalence and importance of cellulose in ruminant diets, and one of those species, Fibrobacter succinogenes, is distantly related to the most abundant ruminal species. Fatty acid biohydrogenation in the rumen, particularly the final step of biohydrogenation of C18 fatty acids, stearate formation, is achieved only by a small sub-group of bacteria related to Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Individuals who lack Oxalobacter formigenes fail to metabolise oxalate and suffer kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate. Perhaps the most celebrated example of the difference a single species can make is the 'mimosine story' in ruminants. Mimosine is a toxic amino acid found in the leguminous plant, Leucaena leucocephala. Mimosine can cause thyroid problems by being converted to the goitrogen, 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridone, in the rumen. Observations that mimosine-containing plants were toxic to ruminants in some countries but not others led to the discovery of Synergistes jonesii, which metabolises 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridone and protects animals from toxicity. Thus, despite the complexities indicated by molecular microbial ecology and genomics, it should never be forgotten that gut communities contain important metabolic niches inhabited by species with highly specific metabolic capability. PMID:22443591

  11. Characterization of Rhizobium grahamii extrachromosomal replicons and their transfer among rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhizobium grahamii belongs to a new phylogenetic group of rhizobia together with Rhizobium mesoamericanum and other species. R. grahamii has a broad-host-range that includes Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris, although it is a poor competitor for P. vulgaris nodulation in the presence of Rhizobium etli or Rhizobium phaseoli strains. This work analyzed the genome sequence and transfer properties of R. grahamii plasmids. Results Genome sequence was obtained from R. grahamii CCGE502 type strain isolated from Dalea leporina in Mexico. The CCGE502 genome comprises one chromosome and two extrachromosomal replicons (ERs), pRgrCCGE502a and pRgrCCGE502b. Additionally, a plasmid integrated in the CCGE502 chromosome was found. The genomic comparison of ERs from this group showed that gene content is more variable than average nucleotide identity (ANI). Well conserved nod and nif genes were found in R. grahamii and R. mesoamericanum with some differences. R. phaseoli Ch24-10 genes expressed in bacterial cells in roots were found to be conserved in pRgrCCGE502b. Regarding conjugative transfer we were unable to transfer the R. grahamii CCGE502 symbiotic plasmid and its megaplasmid to other rhizobial hosts but we could transfer the symbiotic plasmid to Agrobacterium tumefaciens with transfer dependent on homoserine lactones. Conclusion Variable degrees of nucleotide identity and gene content conservation were found among the different R. grahamii CCGE502 replicons in comparison to R. mesoamericanum genomes. The extrachromosomal replicons from R. grahamii were more similar to those found in phylogenetically related Rhizobium species. However, limited similarities of R. grahamii CCGE502 symbiotic plasmid and megaplasmid were observed in other more distant Rhizobium species. The set of conserved genes in R. grahamii comprises some of those that are highly expressed in R. phaseoli on plant roots, suggesting that they play an important role in root colonization. PMID:24397311

  12. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

  13. Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K.; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Though irrigation with sewage water has potential benefits of meeting the water requirements, the sewage irrigation may mess up to harm the soil health. To assess the potential impacts of long-term sewage irrigation on soil health and to identify sensitive soil indicators, soil samples were collected from crop fields that have been irrigated with sewage water for more than 20 years. An adjacent rain-fed Leucaena leucocephala plantation system was used as a reference to compare the impact of sewage irrigation on soil qualities. Soils were analyzed for different physical, chemical, biological and biochemical parameters. Results have shown that use of sewage for irrigation improved the clay content to 18-22.7%, organic carbon to 0.51-0.86% and fertility status of soils. Build up in total N was up to 2,713 kg ha-1, available N (397 kg ha-1), available P (128 kg ha-1), available K (524 kg ha-1) and available S (65.5 kg ha-1) in the surface (0.15 m) soil. Long-term sewage irrigation has also resulted a significant build-up of DTPA extractable Zn (314%), Cu (102%), Fe (715%), Mn (197.2), Cd (203%), Ni (1358%) and Pb (15.2%) when compared with the adjacent rain-fed reference soil. Soils irrigated with sewage exhibited a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon (-78.2%), soil respiration (-82.3%), phosphatase activity (-59.12%) and dehydrogenase activity (-59.4%). An attempt was also made to identify the sensitive soil indicators under sewage irrigation, where microbial biomass carbon was singled out as the most sensitive indicator.

  14. Determination of tropical forage preferences using two offering methods in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D

    2014-04-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1(st) method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  15. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  16. Phenotypic, molecular and symbiotic characterization of the rhizobial symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart that grow in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, Mara Florencia; Lpez, Jos Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, Mara Antonieta; Pensiero, Jos Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart belongs to the D. virgatus complex, subfamily Mimosoidae. The known potential as livestock fodder of several of these legumes prompted us to undertake a phenotypic, molecular, and symbiotic characterization of the D. paspalaceus symbionts in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The rhizobia collected--containing isolates with different abiotic-stress tolerances--showed a remarkable genetic diversity by PCR fingerprinting, with 11 different amplification profiles present among 20 isolates. In selected isolates 16S-rDNA sequencing detected mesorhizobia (60%) and rhizobia (40%) within the collection, in contrast to the genus of the original inoculant strain CB3126--previously isolated from Leucaena leucocephala--that we typified here through its 16S rDNA as Sinorhizobium terangae. The results revealed the establishment by diverse bacterial genera--rhizobia, sinorhizobia, and mesorhizobia--of full N2-fixing symbiotic associations with D. paspalaceus. This diversity was paralleled by the presence of at least two different nodC allelic variants. The identical nodC alleles of the Mesorhizobia sp. 10.L.4.2 and 10.L.5.3 notably failed to group within any of the currently described rhizo-/brady-/azorhizobial nodC clades. Interestingly, the nodC from S. terangae CB3126 clustered close to homologs from common bean nodulating rhizobia, but not with the nodC from S. terangae WSM1721 that nodulates Acacia. No previous data were available on nod-gene phylogeny for Desmanthus symbionts. A field assay indicated that inoculation of D. paspalaceus with the local Rhizobium sp. 10L.11.4 produced higher aerial-plant dry weights compared to S. teranga CB3126-inoculated plants. Neither the mesorhizobia 10.L.4.2 or 10.L.5.3 nor the rhizobium 10L.11.4 induced root nodules in L. leucocephala or P. vulgaris. The results show that some of the local isolates have remarkable tolerances to several abiotic stresses including acidity, salt, and temperature; while exhibiting prominent N2 fixation; thus indicating suitability as candidates for inoculation of D. paspalaceus. PMID:25153989

  17. In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.

    PubMed

    Ros-de lvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F

    2012-05-25

    Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.31.2, 8.31.4 and 4.31.7 ?g/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.132.4, 58.711.9 and 8.17.0 ?g/ml for Con A and 78.911.2, 69.48.1 and 28.014.1 ?g/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated a dose-dependent effect on larval feeding with respective IC50 estimates (means.e.) of 0.015 mg/ml 0.001 and 3.465 mg/ml 0.144, effects which were partly reversed by the inclusion of either the tannin inhibitor polyethylene glycol or the lectin inhibitor Fetuin. These studies demonstrate that plant lectins can have an inhibitory effect on the feeding behaviour of first stage larvae of ovine GIN in vitro. Moreover they also provide novel evidence that lectins may contribute to the anthelmintic properties of some tropical forage plant extracts, such as G. sepium and L. leucocephala. PMID:22130336

  18. Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland

    SciTech Connect

    Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M.

    1996-10-01

    The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

  19. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  20. Exo-Oligosaccharides of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234 Are Required for Symbiosis with Various Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Staehelin, Christian; Forsberg, Lennart S.; D'Haeze, Wim; Gao, Mu-Yun; Carlson, Russell W.; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Pellock, Brett J.; Jones, Kathryn M.; Walker, Graham C.; Streit, Wolfgang R.; Broughton, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish endosymbiotic associations with legumes. Nodule formation depends on various bacterial carbohydrates, including lipopolysaccharides, K-antigens, and exopolysaccharides (EPS). An acidic EPS from Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 consists of glucosyl (Glc), galactosyl (Gal), glucuronosyl (GlcA), and 4,6-pyruvylated galactosyl (PvGal) residues with ?-1,3, ?-1,4, ?-1,6, ?-1,3, and ?-1,4 glycoside linkages. Here we examined the role of NGR234 genes in the synthesis of EPS. Deletions within the exoF, exoL, exoP, exoQ, and exoY genes suppressed accumulation of EPS in bacterial supernatants, a finding that was confirmed by chemical analyses. The data suggest that the repeating subunits of EPS are assembled by an ExoQ/ExoP/ExoF-dependent mechanism, which is related to the Wzy polymerization system of group 1 capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Mutation of exoK (NGR?exoK), which encodes a putative glycanase, resulted in the absence of low-molecular-weight forms of EPS. Analysis of the extracellular carbohydrates revealed that NGR?exoK is unable to accumulate exo-oligosaccharides (EOSs), which are O-acetylated nonasaccharide subunits of EPS having the formula Gal(Glc)5(GlcA)2PvGal. When used as inoculants, both the exo-deficient mutants and NGR?exoK were unable to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on some hosts (e.g., Albizia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala), but they were able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other hosts (e.g., Vigna unguiculata). EOSs of the parent strain were biologically active at very low levels (yield in culture supernatants, ?50 ?g per liter). Thus, NGR234 produces symbiotically active EOSs by enzymatic degradation of EPS, using the extracellular endo-?-1,4-glycanase encoded by exoK (glycoside hydrolase family 16). We propose that the derived EOSs (and not EPS) are bacterial components that play a crucial role in nodule formation in various legumes. PMID:16923883

  1. Rhizobium multihospitium sp. nov., isolated from multiple legume species native of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Tian Xu; Wang, En Tao; Wu, Li Juan; Chen, Wen Feng; Gu, Jin Gang; Gu, Chun Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

    2008-07-01

    Thirty-one rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of legumes native of Xinjiang, China, were characterized. These strains were classified as belonging to the genus Rhizobium based on amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The strains were distinguished from recognized Rhizobium species using analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (IGS-RFLP), SDS-PAGE analysis of whole proteins and BOX-PCR; the test strains always formed a distinct cluster with patterns that were quite different from those of the reference rhizobial strains used. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, the test strains belonged to the genus Rhizobium, with Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium rhizogenes and Rhizobium lusitanum as the closest related species, with 99.6, 99.2 and 99.4 % sequence similarities, respectively, between the type strains of the three Rhizobium species and strain CCBAU 83401(T). Phylogenetic analyses of the representative strains using IGS and atpD, recA and glnII genes all confirmed the phylogenetic arrangements obtained using the 16S rRNA gene. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain CCBAU 83401(T) and strains CCBAU 83364, CCBAU 83345 and CCBAU 83523 ranged from 80.8 to 100 %, showing that they belong to the same species. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CCBAU 83401(T) and R. tropici IIB CIAT 899(T), R. tropici IIA CFN 299, R. rhizogenes LMG 150(T) and R. lusitanum P1-7(T) were 26.9, 27.7, 38.2 and 22.6 %, respectively, clearly indicating that strain CCBAU 83401(T) represents a novel species. Phenotypic characterization of four representative strains, CCBAU 83401(T), CCBAU 83364, CCBAU 83345 and CCBAU 83523, showed several distinctive features that differentiated them from closely related species. The 31 strains had identical nodD and nifH genes, which were very similar to those of the bean-nodulating R. lusitanum, Devosia neptuniae and R. tropici IIB. Based upon these results, the strains from this study are considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium multihospitium sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content ranged from 65.3 to 66.0 mol% (T(m)). The type strain is CCBAU 83401(T) (=LMG 23946(T)=HAMBI 2975(T)), which nodulates Robinia pseudoacacia, but not Leucaena leucocephala, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum or Medicago sativa. PMID:18599718

  2. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 5.0 ?g/mL and TPC of 5030 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 5.0 ?g/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 ?g/disc and 500 ?g/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C. pulcherrima, C. tergemina and P. pterocarpum. These preliminary results would be a guide in the selection of potential candidates for further pharmacological study and in search of new drug candidate in treating MRSA infections. PMID:21306653

  3. Neotropical dry forests of the Caribbean: Secondary forest dynamics and restoration in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Brian F.

    Neotropical dry forests exist today mainly as secondary forests heavily influenced by exotic plants. This project analyzes land-cover change and secondary dry forest dynamics in three distinct phases (land cover change, secondary forest succession and forest rehabilitation), using St. Croix, US Virgin Islands as an example. Using Landsat satellite images and other data layers, I created classified land cover maps of St. Croix for 1992 and 2002. Forest was the dominant (56%) cover type on both dates, followed by development, grassland/pastures and water. A land cover change analysis comparing the two images revealed that 15% of the study area experienced a change either to (8%) or from (7%) forest. Grassland was the cover most likely to change and decreased from 16% to 11%, converted primarily to development. The overall result is a landscape trending toward younger forests, and increased forest fragmentation and development. In a second study, vegetation data from a chronosequence of secondary forests was analyzed for changes to forest structure, species composition and presence of exotic species. The leguminous exotic tree Leucaena leucocephala was by far the most frequently observed tree and dominated all stands, except those over 50 years old. Species diversity was significantly ( p<0.001) higher for forests in the two oldest age classes and there was a strong trend toward increasing canopy complexity with increased age. However, age class accounted for only a small portion of variability in species diversity, indicating other influencing factors. Slope, elevation, aspect and soil were not significant and sites with long histories of intensive agricultural land-use remained low in species diversity and dominated by exotics >50 years after abandonment. In a third experiment, a 'gap planting' method for establishing four rare native tree species was tested on a site experiencing arrested succession. All four species successfully established at >69% survival in 3m diameter gaps artificially created in exotic tree stands. A mulch treatment significantly (p<0.01) increased survival, but not growth. This study demonstrates on St. Croix forest is the primary land cover type and secondary forests are predominant forest type. The species composition of these forests is dynamic, but they tend to be dominated by exotic tree species and over 50 years of natural succession is insufficient time for secondary forest stands to advance beyond the earliest successional stages. These results can be applied to jump-start native forest succession and rehabilitate degraded secondary forests.

  4. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Report on Energy Tree Farm Workshop No. 2, Hilo, Hawaii, June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Troy, M.

    1982-11-01

    Results of the workshop show that a eucalyptus tree plantation, including a small nursery to produce the seedlings not available from the Waimea State Tree Nursery, could be established on 12,000 acres of Puna Sugar Company land. At approximately six years of age, the trees could be harvested, chipped, and burned in the renovated Puna Sugar Company's bagasse boiler to generate electricity. The cost of a bone dry ton of chips would be $37 if a real money rate of 3% is assumed, and $50 at a real money rate of 8%. Electricity could be produced at 7.7 cents per kWh assuming a 3% real money rate, and at 9.8 cents per kWh at an 8% rate. This workshop included an evaluation of soils at the selected Keeau site. Tree crop requirements were matched with soil and other environmental characteristics such as rainfall, altitude, and temperature. Leucaena Leucocephala, L. diversifolia, Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, and E. robusta were among the primary species considered, and based upon known environmental requirements and previous experience, E. grandis was selected. A conservative yield estimate for E. grandis at the specified site is 10 bone dry tons (20 green tons)/acre/year of total biomass. The 12,000 acre area would be planted continuously over period of six years at an annual production rate of 2000 acres per year. Spacing would be 6x6, or 1210 trees per acre, which, including a 10% seedling discard rate, would bring the total number of seedlings required to 2.7 million/year. Harvesting operations would begin in the 7th year, and three coppice crops would be harvested before replanting became necessary again. For the production of 120,000 bone dry tons (240,000 green tons) per year, four separate harvesting systems would be needed. Each would consist of 1 mobile whole tree chipper, 2 tracked feller-bunchers, 3 rubber-tired and tracked grapple skidders, 2 truck trailers, 3 chip vans, and 1 D-4 dozer. 10 figures, 31 tables.

  5. Phenotypic, Molecular and Symbiotic Characterization of the Rhizobial Symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart That Grow in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, María Florencia; López, José Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, María Antonieta; Pensiero, José Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart belongs to the D. virgatus complex, subfamily Mimosoidae. The known potential as livestock fodder of several of these legumes prompted us to undertake a phenotypic, molecular, and symbiotic characterization of the D. paspalaceus symbionts in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The rhizobia collected—containing isolates with different abiotic-stress tolerances—showed a remarkable genetic diversity by PCR fingerprinting, with 11 different amplification profiles present among 20 isolates. In selected isolates 16S-rDNA sequencing detected mesorhizobia (60%) and rhizobia (40%) within the collection, in contrast to the genus of the original inoculant strain CB3126—previously isolated from Leucaena leucocephala—that we typified here through its 16S rDNA as Sinorhizobium terangae. The results revealed the establishment by diverse bacterial genera -rhizobia, sinorhizobia, and mesorhizobia- of full N2-fixing symbiotic associations with D. paspalaceus. This diversity was paralleled by the presence of at least two different nodC allelic variants. The identical nodC alleles of the Mesorhizobia sp. 10.L.4.2 and 10.L.5.3 notably failed to group within any of the currently described rhizo-/brady-/azorhizobial nodC clades. Interestingly, the nodC from S. terangae CB3126 clustered close to homologs from common bean nodulating rhizobia, but not with the nodC from S. terangae WSM1721 that nodulates Acacia. No previous data were available on nod-gene phylogeny for Desmanthus symbionts. A field assay indicated that inoculation of D. paspalaceus with the local Rhizobium sp. 10L.11.4 produced higher aerial-plant dry weights compared to S. teranga CB3126–inoculated plants. Neither the mesorhizobia 10.L.4.2 or 10.L.5.3 nor the rhizobium 10L.11.4 induced root nodules in L. leucocephala or P. vulgaris. The results show that some of the local isolates have remarkable tolerances to several abiotic stresses including acidity, salt, and temperature; while exhibiting prominent N2 fixation; thus indicating suitability as candidates for inoculation of D. paspalaceus. PMID:25153989

  6. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  7. Linking Above- and Belowground Dynamics in Tropical Urban Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, E. E.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary forests that emerge after a long history of agriculture can have altered plant community composition and relative abundances of different species. These forests can look and behave differently compared to pre-agricultural forests due changes in primary productivity, resource allocation, and phenology, which can significantly affect processes such as carbon accumulation and nutrient availability. Our research explores how alternative successional trajectories following intensive agricultural use affect linkages among the establishment of novel plant communities, soil nutrient availability and turnover, and soil microbial community composition and function. We hypothesize that different plant species composition due to differing land use legacies and successional trajectories would drive changes in soil microbial community structure and function, affecting soil C and N chemistry and turnover. We conducted this research in the subtropical dry forest life zone of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands where island-wide abandonment of sugarcane resulted in a mosaic of sites in different stages of forest succession. We identified replicate sites with the following post-sugarcane trajectories: 1) natural forest regeneration, 2) low intensity pasture use, followed by reforestation with timber plantation, which are no longer being managed, 3) high intensity pasture use and recent natural forest regeneration, and 4) high intensity pasture use and current active grazing. During 2011-2013, we sampled soils seasonally (0-10 cm) and measured tree species composition. The successional trajectories showed distinct tree species composition. The first two trajectories yielded 40-year old mixed-species secondary forest, dominated by the dry forest tree species Melicoccus bijugatas, Guapira fragrans, Maniklara zapota, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum. The tree species Melicoccus bijugatas primarily drove differences between the first two trajectories (natural forest regeneration vs. timber plantation and subsequent forest regeneration) while the N-fixing species Leucaena leucocephala drove differences between these forests and younger forests (10-year old), which only recently regenerated. The 40-year old mixed-species forests, regardless of successional trajectory, both had higher soil organic C and N (40 × 6 Mg C/ha and 3.8 × 6 Mg N/ha) compared to younger forests (32 × 2 Mg C/ha and 2.9 × 0.2 Mg N/ha) and active pastures. Active pastures had the lowest soil organic C and N (22 × 6 Mg C/ha and 2.1 × 0.5 Mg N/ha). We found that each successional trajectory showed distinct soil microbial community composition. In addition, the recently regenerated younger forests, dominated by N-fixing tree species, had higher microbial biomass and higher rates of N-cycling enzyme activity (N-acetyl glucosaminidase) when compared with the older, mixed-species forest. Our next step is to link microbial community structure and function with distinct forms of soil organic matter (SOM), and thus determine whether changes in function create distinct SOM stabilization pathways. To do this we will compare SOM chemistry and turnover for the different successional trajectories and analyze data from long-term leaf litter and root transplant experiments between the young and old secondary forests.

  8. Mesorhizobium gobiense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium tarimense sp. nov., isolated from wild legumes growing in desert soils of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Tian Xu; Han, Li Li; Wu, Li Juan; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Gu, Jin Gang; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-four Mesorhizobium strains were isolated from desert soils in the Xinjiang region of China and were characterized by a polyphasic approach. These strains grouped into three clusters in IGS-RFLP, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins and BOX-PCR analysis, corresponding to genomic species V, VI and VII as found in a previous study. The results were supported by sequencing analyses of rrs, IGS, atpD and recA genes. Genospecies VII was most related to Mesorhizobium septentrionale, while genospecies V and VI were both most closely related to Mesorhizobium tianshanense, but were distinct from each other and from M. tianshanense. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between the representative strain CCBAU 83284 (genospecies VII) and the type strain of M. septentrionale was 90.1 %. Genospecies VII was thus defined as M. septentrionale. The DNA-DNA relatedness value for representative strains of genospecies V or VI with the related reference strains of recognized species were always lower than 60 %. Low values of DNA-DNA hybridization (32.79 %) between representative strains of genospecies V (CCBAU 83330(T)) and of VI (CCBAU 83306(T)) were also observed. Based upon these results, two novel species are proposed: Mesorhizobium gobiense sp. nov. represented by genospecies V (type strain, CCBAU 83330(T)=LMG 23949(T)=HAMBI 2974(T)) and Mesorhizobium tarimense sp. nov. represented by genospecies VI (type strain, CCBAU 83306(T)=LMG 24338(T)=HAMBI 2973(T)). Strain CCBAU 83278 grouped as the most peripheral member with genospecies VI in SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and BOX-PCR analysis and in the phylogenetic tree of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences. The results of analyses of rrs, atpD and recA gene sequences, as well as those of DNA-DNA hybridization studies, strongly supported the suggestion that this strain belonged to a species quite different from genospecies V and VI and from any other recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. As only one strain has been isolated to date, strain CCBAU 83278 was not proposed as a novel species in this study. Mesorhizobium gobiense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium tarimense sp. nov. could be differentiated from each other as well as from recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium on the basis of phenotypic characteristics. The symbiotic loci (nodC and nifH) of the two novel species formed two phylogenetic branches related to Mesorhizobium loti and M. tianshanense. The type strains of the two novel species were able to nodulate Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lotus corniculatus, Oxytropis glabra and Robinia pseudoacacia but not Astragalus membranaceus, Leucaena leucocephala, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum or Medicago sativa. PMID:18984702

  9. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in-filled in a long process of base level lowering and landscape denudation. These valley processes are linked to hillslope "throughflow" lines and exfiltration points appear in gully walls from which secondary gullies develop, thus creating expanding erosional networks. After incision, channel widening and meandering are followed by gully wall declination and in duplex soils headwall retreat consumes the A horizon of the surrounding hillslope soils. Consequently, sediment from eroding headwalls on the slopes is deposited in the gullies and lower slopes. New vegetation establishes and completely masks the previous gully. This is a different kind of base level effect when compared with the traditional incision by trunk and regional catchment networks and needs to be understood when considering the effects of grazing management. Recent advances in knowledge about the Southern Oscillation Index and the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation are a two-edged sword for land managers because some parts of properties can be best rehabilitated during wet periods while other very productive parts can be damaged the most. Rehabilitation of some key areas on hillslopes, successful introduction of tropical legumes and buffel grass(Cenchus Celaris), choking of gullies where deposition is occurring with growth of Leucaena leucocephala shrubs, and rotational resting (Time Controlled Grazing) from grazing has been highly successful in changing hydrology and erosion.

  10. Liquid fuels from the hydropyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Bodle, W.W.; Wright, K.A.

    1982-09-01

    A process designed to produce principally liquid fuel from Hawaiian biomass has been completed recently. This system consists of short residence-time pyrolysis of solids, entrained in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique, which has been extensively developed at IGT for conversion of lignite, is termed HYFLEX. Following reaction at about 1100/sup 0/F (595/sup 0/C) and 200 psig (1.4 MPa), char and liquids are separated from the reactor outlet gas. Since fuel gas is not a desirable product at the location contemplated, the remaining gas is reformed with steam for production of a high-hydrogen-content gas which is recycled to the HYFLEX reactor. Bench-scale experiments were conducted with eucalyptus wood and leucaena wood feeds to establish data for process design. This paper describes the results of the wood tests and their comparison with similar data on peat. (JMT)

  11. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely facilitate and support a high-density Brown Tree Snake population, even as native species are reduced or extirpated. ?? 2009 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  12. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena. PMID:26978265

  13. Genetic diversity of Rhizobium from nodulating beans grown in a variety of Mediterranean climate soils of Chile.

    PubMed

    Baginsky, Cecilia; Brito, Beln; Scherson, Rosita; Pertuz, Ricardo; Seguel, Oscar; Caete, Alejandro; Araneda, Cristian; Johnson, Warren E

    2015-04-01

    In spite of potentially being an important source of rhizobial diversity and a key determinant of common bean productivity, there is a paucity of data on Rhizobium genetic variation and species composition in the important bean producing area of Chile and only one species has been documented (Rhizobium leguminosarum). In this study, 240 Rhizobium isolates from Torcaza bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nodules established in the highest bean producing area in Chile (3334'S-7038'W and 3736'S-7147'W) were characterized by PCR-RFLP markers for nodC gene, revealing eight banding patterns with the polymorphic enzyme Hinf I. The locality of San Agustn de Aurora in Central Chile (3532'S-7129'W) had the highest level of diversity. Isolates were classified by species using PCR-RFLP markers for 16S rDNA gene and were confirmed by sequencing an internal fragment of the 16S rDNA gene. The results confirmed the presence of R. leguminosarum and three other species of rhizobia nodulating beans in South Central Chile (R. etli, R. tropici and R. leucaenae). R. tropici and R. leucaenae showed the least genetic variation and were most commonly identified in acid soils, while R. etli was the most common species in slightly acidic to moderately alkaline soils, with higher levels of organic matter content. R. leguminosarum was identified in almost all soils, was the most genetically diverse, and was the most common, being documented in soils with pH that ranged between 5.3 and 8.2, and with organic matter content between 2.1 and 4%. PMID:25533847

  14. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in Mycteria leucocephala Pennant 1769: molted feathers as successful DNA source.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Mustafa, Mohd; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2014-10-01

    DNA from molted feathers is being increasingly used for genetic studies on birds. However, the DNA obtained from such non-invasive sources is often not of enough quantity and quality for isolation of new microsatellite markers. The present study examined the potential of shed feathers of near threatened Painted Stork as a source of its DNA for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. Thirty-one shed feathers of varying conditions ('good' and 'deteriorated') and sizes ('large', 'intermediate' and 'small') collected in a north Indian population were used to isolate DNA by a standard isopropanol method and 11 microsatellite markers already developed in the Wood Stork were screened for amplification. Nine plucked feathers from two dead Painted Storks were also used to compare the DNA yield and amplification success. The DNA yield of feathers varied significantly in relation to the calamus size and condition. Among molted feathers, 'good' and 'large' samples provided more DNA than 'deteriorated' and 'small' ones, respectively. 'Large' plucked feathers yielded more DNA than 'large' molted feathers. DNA was almost degraded in all the samples and ratio of absorbance at 260/280 nm varied from 1.0 to 1.8, indicating impurity in many samples. Independent of DNA yields, all microsatellites were cross-amplified in all kinds of feathers, with > 80% success in different feather categories. It is concluded that the shed feathers can be successfully used to isolate DNA in the Painted Stork and for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. PMID:25345251

  15. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L).

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Phonmun, T; Liang, J B; Huang, X D; Tan, H Y; Jahromi, M F

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  16. Homestead tree planting in two rural Swazi communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Tree planting practices were investigated on a total of 95 homesteads in two communities in rural Swaziland. Information was also collected on socioeconomic characteristics of the homesteads. In both the study areas, Sigombeni and Bhekinkosi, there was considerable variation amongst individual homesteads in size, relative wealth (as indicated by cattle and motor vehicle ownership), and amount and types of trees planted. Eighty-five percent of all homesteads in Sigombeni and 73% in Bhekinkosi had planted at least one tree. Common forms of planting included small woodlots, fruit trees, and ornamentals. Virtually all the woodlots consisted of two introduced wattle species (Acacia mearnsii and A. decurrens). The most commonly planted fruit trees were avocados, bananas, and peaches. No complex or labor-intensive agroforestry practices (such as maize/leucaena intercropping) were observed. There was some evidence that the poorest and newest homesteads were the least likely to have planted any trees and that the richest homesteads were the most likely to have planted woodlots. The results indicate that forestry research and extension efforts should take into account homestead characteristics, and strive to offer a range of tree planting options that vary in input requirements, labor needs, and complexity.

  17. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13?kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  18. Feed inventory and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage for dairy cattle in Gisagara District, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Kamanzi, Moses; Mapiye, Cletos

    2012-10-01

    A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized. PMID:22278082

  19. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velzquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the ? nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the ? nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume. PMID:26832644

  1. Hawaii integrated biofuels research program, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Patrick K.

    1989-10-01

    Hawaii provides a unique environment for production of biomass resources that can be converted into renewable energy products. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of several biomass resources, including sugarcane, eucalyptus, and leucaena, particularly for utilization in thermochemical conversion processes to produce liquid or gaseous transportation fuels. This research program supports ongoing efforts of the Biofuels and Municipal Solid Waste Technology (BMWT) Program of the Department of Energy (DOE) and has goals that are consistent with BMWT. The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) work completed here consists of research activities that support two of the five renewable fuel cycles being pursued by DOE researchers. The results are directly applicable in the American territories throughout the Pacific Basin and the Caribbean, and also to many parts of the United States and worldwide. The Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program is organized into the following six research tasks, which are presented as appendices in report form: Biomass Resource Assessment and System Modeling (Task 1); Bioenergy Tree Research (Task 2); Breeding, Culture, and Selection of Tropical Grasses for Increased Energy Potential (Task 3); Study of Eucalyptus Plantations for Energy Production in Hawaii (Task 4); Fundamental Solvolysis Research (Task 5); and Effects of Feedstock Composition on Pyrolysis Products (Task 6).

  2. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 μM. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 μM, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 μM, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  3. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Diana V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E.; Jansen, Robert K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Alharbi, Njud S.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  4. The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern India--Measurement and modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, R.J.; Hall, R.L.; Swaminath, M.H.; Murthy, K.V.

    1992-12-31

    The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in Karnataka, southern India. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested.

  5. Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.K.

    1989-10-01

    Hawaii provides a unique environment for production of biomass resources that can be converted into renewable energy products. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of several biomass resources, including sugarcane, eucalyptus, and leucaena, particularly for utilization in thermochemical conversion processes to produce liquid or gaseous transportation fuels. This research program supports ongoing efforts of the Biofuels and Municipal Solid Waste Technology (BMWT) Program of the Department of Energy (DOE) and has goals that are consistent with BMWT. The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) work completed here consists of research activities that support two of the five renewable fuel cycles being pursued by DOE researchers. The results are directly applicable in the American territories throughout the Pacific Basin and the Caribbean, and also to many parts of the United States and worldwide. The Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program is organized into the following six research tasks, which are presented as appendices in report form: Biomass Resource Assessment and System Modeling (Task 1); Bioenergy Tree Research (Task 2); Breeding, Culture, and Selection of Tropical Grasses for Increased Energy Potential (Task 3); Study of Eucalyptus Plantations for Energy Production in Hawaii (Task 4); Fundamental Solvolysis Research (Task 5); and Effects of Feedstock Composition on Pyrolysis Products (Task 6). 54 refs., 35 figs., 55 tabs.

  6. Coburning in institutional incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Prine, G.; Yost, R.; Green, B.; Williams, D.; Schwartz, J.; Wagner, J.; Clauson, D.; Proctor, B.; Feinberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our program, initiated in 1980, originally sought to replace imported oil by coburning coal and natural gas in oil designed boilers. Success came in 1986 with the co-combustion of coal water slurries (CWS) and natural gas (G) in a 20 MMBtu/hr watertube oil designed boiler. We achieved stable flames over broad load levels, good boiler efficiencies, low emissions, benign ash and--by increasing the G/CWS ratio--full power rating. Our biomass-waste co-combustion experiments will utilize a two chamber ram fed incinerator. Advanced analytical techniques will be used to measure available energy and stack emissions from various waste-biomass-fossil fuel combinations. Heating values, H/C ratios, percent moisture, emissions, prices and tipping fees are discussed. Locally grown annual dry biomass yields of napiergrass and leucaena, energetically equivalent to 30-50 barrels of oil per acre, are reported. Abundant local sources of waste biomass are identified. Together community waste and cultivated and waste biomass constitute a substantial source of renewable energy of use in forested and agricultural regions. Modular waste to energy systems are available in the 10-100 ton per day range. With aggressive recycling and hazardous waste reduction measures and good combustion management and emission controls, emissions should be maintained at low levels. The results from our system, a small modular waste-biomass to energy system, should be applicable to many institutions and small communities. 41 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  8. Agriculture and nutrition at village level, Underexploited village resources.

    PubMed

    Vietmeyer, N D

    1980-07-28

    Developing country villages contain plants, animals and technologies whose extraordinary potentials are poorly appreciated by scientists. Examples of nutritious village crops that are still largely undeveloped and unappreciated outside their traditional villages are the winged bean, amaranths and the tepary bean. Tropical tree legumes, such as leucaena, grow fast and fix nitrogen and--although barely studied by foresters--are promising sources for village firewood and lumber. There are several animals with great promise for use in villages. The water buffalo is a gentle, productive village resource, neglected by the cow used by Indonesian villagers and unknown elsewhere in the tropics. And Papua New Guinea's new village farms for crocodiles and butterflies graphically demonstrate that wildlife husbandry can be valuable for remote rural areas, despite its neglect by animal science. Among exceptionally useful village technologies, an example is the amazingly efficient cooking system used on the small Indonesian islands of Roti and Sumba, which has so far been described only in Captain Cook's journals. PMID:6106942

  9. Lead isotopes and lead shot ingestion in the globally threatened marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Fredrik; Mateo, Rafael; Hillström, Lars; Green, Andy J; Taggart, Mark A; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andy A

    2006-11-01

    Lead isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) and concentrations in the livers and bones of marbled teal and white-headed duck found dead or moribund were determined in order to establish the main lead source in these waterfowl species. Lead concentrations in bone (dry weight) and liver (wet weight) were found to be very high in many of the white-headed ducks (bone: geometric mean=88.9 ppm, maximum=419 ppm; liver: geometric mean=16.8 ppm, maximum=57.0 ppm). Some of the marbled teal had high lead levels in the bones but liver lead levels were all low (bone: geometric mean=6.13 ppm, maximum=112 ppm; liver: geometric mean=0.581 ppm, maximum=4.77 ppm). Ingested lead shot were found in 71% of the white-headed duck and 20% of the marbled teal. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in livers and bones of white-headed ducks and marbled teals showed no significant differences compared to the ratios obtained from lead shot. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in bones of marbled teal ducklings with the highest lead concentrations tended to resemble the ratios of lead shot, which supports our hypothesis that the lead was derived from the hens. We also found that the lead ratios of lead shot and lead ratios described for soils in the area overlapped, but also that the isotopic ratio (206)Pb/(207)Pb in lead shot used in Spain has a narrow range compared with those used in North America. The principal source of lead in many of these birds was, however, most likely lead shot, as supported by the similar isotopic ratios, high lead concentrations in tissues and evidence of ingested shot. PMID:16914183

  10. Microhabitat use and diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks (Oxyura leucocephala Scopoli, 1769) wintering at Burdur Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nergiz, Humeyra; Tabur, Mehmet Ali; Ayvaz, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    Diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks were investigated with respect to sex and temporal environmental variables to document behavioral responses to winter conditions and nutritional requirements at Burdur Lake where the largest winter concentrations occur. Behaviors of males and females were recorded separately in randomly selected focal flocks during 1140 sessions. For the entire population a large proportion of time was spent resting. During the day they spent 61% of time resting, 22% feeding, 12% comfort and 5% in locomotion. Resting peaked in the middle of day while feeding was observed frequently in evening and morning. Time use did not differ significantly between sexes. However, it was detected that more time was spent feeding during windy days as wave-height increased. PMID:24506003

  11. Using heronry birds to monitor urbanization impacts: a case study of painted stork Mycteria leucocephala nesting in the Delhi Zoo, India.

    PubMed

    Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2010-03-01

    Although urbanization is a frequently cited cause of biodiversity loss (Czech and Krausman 1997) our understanding about urban ecology is severely limited (Marzluff et al. 2001). Birds are popular bio-indicators of environmental change because they are ecologically versatile, their populations as well as select fitness parameters can be conveniently monitored, often with the voluntary involvement of local nature enthusiasts across large geographical scales, and their presence/absence in a particular area is consequential (Bibby et al. 1992; Urfi 2004). In India, while several studies have focused on changes in bird populations and distributions in natural habitats (Urfi et al. 2005), very few have actually attempted to study either the impacts of urbanization on birds or how different species have adjusted to environmental change. However, many Indian cities offer foraging and nesting habitat for birds, especially colonial waterbirds such as stork, ibis, spoonbill, heron, egret, cormorant, and spoonbill. Some notable examples in this regard are Piele Gardens in Bhavnagar city (Parasharya and Naik 1990), Karanji Tank in Mysore (Jamgaonkar et al. 1994) and the National Zoological Park (hence forth Delhi Zoo) in India's capital city New Delhi (Urfi 1997). In this article, I focus on the opportunities for meaningful ecological research offered by the wild waterbirds nesting in the Delhi Zoo premises and discuss the significance for initiating novel, long term conservation monitoring programs, involving volunteers and bird watchers, to create data bases that will be useful for understanding urbanization and climate change impacts on biodiversity. PMID:20653281

  12. Selenium volatilization in vegetated agricultural drainage sediment from the San Luis Drain, Central California.

    PubMed

    Bauelos, G S; Lin, Z-Q; Arroyo, I; Terry, N

    2005-09-01

    The presence of large amounts of Se-laden agricultural drainage sediment in the San Luis Drain, Central California, poses a serious toxic threat to wildlife in the surrounding environment. Effective management of the drainage sediment becomes a practical challenge because the sediment is polluted with high levels of Se, B, and salts. This two-year field study was conducted to identify the best plant species that are salt and B tolerant and that have a superior ability of volatilizing Se from drainage sediment. The drainage sediment was mixed with clean soil, and vegetated with salado alfalfa (Medicago sativa 'salado'), salado grass (Sporobulus airoides 'salado'), saltgrass-turf (Distichlis spp. 'NYPA Turf'), saltgrass-forage (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene), cordgrass (Spartina patens 'Flageo'), Leucaenia (Leucaena leucocephola), elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum), or wild type-Brassica (Brassica spp.). Results show that elephant grass produced the greatest amount of biomass and accumulated highest concentrations of B. Highest concentrations of Se, S, and Cl were observed in wild-type Brassica. Biogenic volatilization of Se by plants and soil microbes was greater in summer. Among the treatments, the mean daily rates of Se volatilization (microg Se m(-2)d(-1)) were wild-type Brassica (39) > saltgrass-turf (31) > cordgrass (27) > saltgrass forage (24) > elephant grass (22) > salado grass (21) > leucaenia (19) > salado alfalfa (14) > irrigated bare soil (11) > non-irrigated bare soil (6). Overall, rates of Se volatilization in drainage sediment were relatively low due to high levels of sulfate. To manage Se in drainage sediment by phytoremediation, the biological volatilization process needs to be enhanced substantially under field conditions. PMID:16018890

  13. Density and microhabitat use of Bengal slow loris in primary forest and non-native plantation forest.

    PubMed

    Pliosungnoen, Manoon; Gale, George; Savini, Tommaso

    2010-12-01

    The extent of planted forests has greatly increased in the tropics, but their conservation value while assumed to be low, is largely unknown. We compared the density and microhabitat selection of a nocturnal arboreal primate, the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), in mostly undisturbed, evergreen tropical forest to those in 15-18 year old Acacia/Leucaena plantations with significant secondary regrowth, and <15 year old plantations with little regrowth. Based on estimates derived from distance sampling, loris densities in older plantations were nearly identical to primary forest (4.26 vs. 4.00 lorises per square kilometer), although encounter rates were three times higher in the older plantations probably owing to the lower detection probability in the more complex vegetation of the primary forest. The mean density estimate for the younger plantation was one-third of the above habitats (1.27 lorises per square kilometer), although not statistically different. Lorises tended to use larger diameter and taller trees, with a greater crown depth than randomly sampled trees, and tended to avoid habitats with sparsely crowned trees. The older plantations had trees with lower basal area and shorter stems than the primary forest; however, the older plantations contained higher densities of Bauhinia lianas, a commonly eaten food source and did not contain the red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), a potential competitor. Although it is unknown whether the Bengal slow loris would persist without the presence of primary forest in the landscape, we suggest that older plantations have conservation value for at least selected species and as such, could be better managed to increase this value. PMID:20938966

  14. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of legume condensed tannins on in vitro larval migration inhibition of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Armstrong, S A; Lambert, B D; Muir, J P; Tedeschi, L O; Kothmann, M M

    2014-01-17

    The effect of molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) from a variety of warm-season perennial legumes commonly consumed by sheep and goats on anthelmintic activity has not been previously explored. The objectives of this study were to determine if molecular weight of CT from warm-season perennial legumes could predict the biological activity of CT relative to anthelmintic activity against ivermectin resistant L3 stage Haemonchus contortus (HC) using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. A second objective was to determine if CT from warm-season perennial legumes possess anthelmintic properties against L3 stage (HC). Lespedeza stuevei had the greatest concentration of total condensed tannin (TCT; 11.7%), whereas, with the exception of Arachis glabrata, a CT-free negative control, Leucaena retusa had the least TCT (3.3%). Weight-average molecular weight of CT ranged from 552 Da for L. stuevei to 1483 Da for Lespedeza cuneata. The treatments demonstrating the greatest percent LMI were L. retusa, L. stuevei and Acacia angustissima var. hirta (65.4%, 63.1% and 42.2%, respectively). The ivermectin treatment had the smallest percent LMI (12.5%) against ivermectin resistant L3 HC. There was a weak correlation (R(2)=0.34; P=0.05) between CT MW and percent LMI, suggesting that molecular weight of CT is a weak contributing factor to CT biological activity as it relates to LMI of L3 stage HC. L. stuevei, L. retusa and A. angustissima var. hirta STP5 warrant further evaluation of anthelmintic properties in vivo. PMID:24126088

  15. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of rainfed agroecosystems. PMID:24210647

  16. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Prez-Negrn, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. PMID:17652338

  17. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean and other legume hosts. PMID:23270491

  18. 77 FR 6139 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... CFR 17.21(g) for the Cuban amazon (Amazona leucocephala) to enhance their propagation or...

  19. The white-crowned pigeon: A fruit-eating pigeon as a host for Trichomonas gallinae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Sprunt, A., IV

    1971-01-01

    Trichomoniasis resulting from infection by Trichomonas gallinae was observed in 12 laboratory reared white-crowned pigeons (Columba leucocephala). A field survey of nestlings in the Florida Keys revealed a prevalence of 88% T. gallinae carriers but no evidence of trichomoniasis could be found among the wild birds.

  20. 77 FR 49453 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... renewal of their captive-bred wildlife registration ] under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for the Cuban Amazon (Amazona leucocephala), vinaceous Amazon (Amazona vinacea), and golden parakeet (Aratinga guarouba) to enhance...

  1. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management approaches that are culturally, politically, and economically sensitive to the region; and (3) providing and protecting habitat within suitably sized reserves.

  2. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P

    2001-12-01

    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided. PMID:11911083

  3. Serotypes in Saccharomyces telluris: Their relation to source of isolation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasenclever, H.F.; Kocan, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    Three serotypes have been characterized with three reference strains of Saccharomyces telluris and designated as A, B, and C. One reference strain of Torpulopsis bovina, the imperfect form of S. telluris, belonged to serotype B. Strains of S. telluris isolated from four columbid species were serotyped. All 98 strains of this yeast isolated from Columba livia belonged to serotype B. Three other columbid species, C. leucocephala, C. fasciata, and Zenaidura macroura harbored strains of serotype C only. Serotype A was not isolated from any of the avian species.

  4. Is homoplasy or lineage sorting the source of incongruent mtdna and nuclear gene trees in the stiff-tailed ducks (Nomonyx-Oxyura)?

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kevin; Sorenson, Michael

    2005-02-01

    We evaluated the potential effects of homoplasy, ancestral polymorphism, and hybridization as obstacles to resolving phylogenetic relationships within Nomonyx-Oxyura stiff-tailed ducks (Oxyurinae; subtribe Oxyurina). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 94 individuals supported monophyly of mtDNA haplotypes for each of the six species and provided no evidence of extant incomplete lineage sorting or inter-specific hybridization. The ruddy ducks (O. j. jamaicensis,O. j. andina, O. j. ferruginea) are each others' closest relatives, but the lack of shared haplotypes between O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea suggests long-standing historical isolation. In contrast, O. j. andina shares haplotypes with O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea, which supports Todd's (1979) and Fjeldså's (1986) hypothesis that O. j. andina is an intergrade or hybrid subspecies of O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea. Control region data and a much larger data set composed of approximately 8800 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence for each species indicate that the two New World species, O. vittata and O. jamaicensis, branch basally within Oxyura. A clade of three Old World species (O. australis, O. maccoa, O. leucocephala) is well supported, but different loci and also different characters within the mtDNA data support three different resolutions of the Old World clade, yielding an essentially unresolved trichotomy. Fundamentally different factors limited the resolution of the mtDNA and nuclear gene trees. Gene trees for most nuclear loci were unresolved due to slow rates of mutation and a lack of informative variation, whereas uncertain resolution of the mtDNA gene tree was due to homoplasy. Within the mtDNA, approximately equal numbers of characters supported each of three possible resolutions. Parametric and nonparametric bootstrap analyses suggest that resolution of the mtDNA tree based on ~4300 bp per taxon is uncertain but that complete mtDNA sequences would yield a fully resolved gene tree. A short internode separating O. leucocephala from (O. australis, O. maccoa) in the best mtDNA tree combined with long terminal branches and substantial rate variation among nucleotide sites allowed the small number of changes occurring on the internode to be obscured by homoplasy in a significant portion of simulated data sets. Although most nuclear loci were uninformative, two loci supported a resolution of the Old World clade (O. maccoa, O. leucocephala) that is incongruent with the best mtDNA tree. Thus, incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA trees may be due to random sorting of ancestral lineages during the short internode, homoplasy in the mtDNA data, or both. The Oxyura trichotomy represents a difficult though likely common problem in molecular systematics. Given a short internode, the mtDNA tree has a greater chance of being congruent with the history of speciation because its effective population size (N(e)) is one-quarter that of any nuclear locus, but its resolution is more likely to be obscured by homoplasy. In contrast, gene trees for more slowly evolving nuclear loci will be difficult to resolve due to a lack of substitutions during the internode, and when resolved are more likely to be incongruent with the species history due to the stochastic effects of lineage sorting. We suggest that researchers consider first whether independent gene trees are adequately resolved and then whether those trees are congruent with the species history. In the case of Oxyura, the answer to both questions may be no. Complete mtDNA sequences combined with data from a very large number of nuclear loci may be the only way to resolve such trichotomies. PMID:15805009

  5. Bacterial rhizosphere and endosphere populations associated with grasses and trees to be used for phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Afzal, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser M

    2015-03-01

    Different grasses and trees were tested for their growth in a crude oil contaminated soil. Three grasses, Lolium perenne, Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica, and two trees, Lecucaena leucocephala and Acacia ampliceps, were selected to investigate the diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. We found a higher number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria associated with grasses than trees and that the endophytic bacteria were taxonomically different from rhizosphere associated bacteria showing their spatial distribution with reference to plant compartment as well as genotype. The rhizospheric soil yielded 22 (59.45 %), root interior yielded 9 (24.32 %) and shoot interior yielded 6 (16.21 %) hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These bacteria possessed genes encoding alkane hydroxylase and showed multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Bacillus (48.64 %) and Acinetobacter (18.91 %) were dominant genera found in this study. At 2 % crude oil concentration, all bacterial isolates exhibited 25 %-78 % oil degradation and Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 degraded maximum. Our study suggests that for practical application, support of potential bacteria combined with the grasses is more effective approach than trees to remediate oil contaminated soils. PMID:25661008

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species. PMID:20571760

  7. The ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in Europe: natural colonization or human introduction?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Green, Andy J; Sorenson, Michael D; Negro, Juan J; Vilà, Carles

    2006-05-01

    Native to North America, ruddy ducks Oxyura jamaicensis now occur in 21 countries in the western Palaearctic (including Iceland) and their expanding population threatens the native white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala, through hybridization and possibly competition for food and nest sites. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the European ruddy duck population is descended solely from the captive population in the UK, which traces to seven individuals imported from the USA in 1948, or, alternatively, has been augmented by natural dispersal of birds from North America. Limited genetic diversity in the European population is consistent with a founder population as small as seven birds. In addition, shifts in allele frequencies at several loci, presumably due to genetic drift in the founding population, result in significant differentiation between the European and North American populations. Despite the recent separation of these populations, almost all individuals could be unambiguously assigned based on their composite genotypes, to one of two distinct populations, one comprising all of the European ruddy ducks we sampled (including those from Iceland and captive birds in the UK) and the other comprising all North American samples. Our results confirm that the European ruddy duck population is likely to derive solely from the captive population in the UK and we find no evidence of recent arrivals from North America or of admixture between ruddy ducks from Europe and North America. PMID:16629802

  8. Lead poisoning in the globally threatened marbled teal and white-headed duck in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mateo, R; Green, A J; Jeske, C W; Urios, V; Gerique, C

    2001-12-01

    Marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) are the two European ducks threatened with global extinction. We investigated lead (Pb) poisoning in stifftails (Oxyura spp., n = 83) and marbled teal (n = 80) shot or found dead or moribund in Spanish wetlands via gizzard examination and liver, bone, and blood Pb analysis. Ingested Pb shot was present in 32% of shot stifftails and 70 and 43% of dead or moribund stifftails and marbled teal, respectively. Lead-shot ingestion was more frequent in Valencia (eastern Spain), where Pb-shot densities were higher and grit scarcer. Selection of larger grit similar in size to Pb shot may explain the higher rate of Pb-shot ingestion observed in stifftails. Ingested shot was found more frequently in juvenile stifftails than in adults. Lead bone concentrations were higher in ducklings < 9 d old than in fully grown teal and were also higher in adult than in juvenile teal. Our results show the need for a ban of Pb shot for waterfowl hunting in Spain and the cleanup of spent shot at major wetlands. PMID:11764172

  9. Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fuentes, V; Vilà, C; Green, A J; Negro, J J; Sorenson, M D

    2007-02-01

    The ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis, was introduced to Great Britain in the mid-20th century and has recently spread to other Western European countries. In Spain, ruddy ducks hybridize with the globally endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala. We assessed the effects of hybridization on the Spanish white-headed ducks, which constitute 25% of the global population of this species, using a panel of eight nuclear intron markers, 10 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA control region sequences. These data allowed parental individuals, F(1) hybrids, and the progeny of backcrossing to be reliably distinguished. We show that hybrids between the two species are fertile and produce viable offspring in backcrosses with both parental species. To date, however, we found no extensive introgression of ruddy duck genes into the Spanish white-headed duck population, probably due to the early implementation of an effective ruddy duck and hybrid control programme. We also show that genetic diversity in the expanding European ruddy duck population, which was founded by just seven individuals, exceeds that of the native Spanish white-headed duck population, which recently recovered from a severe bottleneck. Unless effective control of ruddy ducks is continued, genetic introgression will compromise the unique behavioural and ecological adaptations of white-headed ducks and consequently their survival as a genetically and evolutionary distinct species. PMID:17257118

  10. Unravelling lignin formation and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  11. Unravelling lignin formation and structure. Final report, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G.

    1991-12-31

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  12. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bru, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  13. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Graffis, Andrea M.; Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26307042

  14. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  15. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  16. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.

    PubMed

    McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D

    1999-12-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution based on patterns of codon-degeneracy and chemical dissimilarity indicate that the nucleotide and amino acid changes postulated by the molecular tree are more plausible than those postulated by the morphological tree. These findings teach general lessons about the utility of highly adaptive characters (in particular those related to foraging ecology) and underscore the problems that convergence can pose for attempts to recover phylogeny. They also demonstrate how the concept of natural data partitions and simple models of evolution (e.g., parsimony, likelihood, neutrality) can be used to test the accuracy of independent phylogenetic estimates and provide arguments in favor of one tree topology over another. PMID:12066296

  17. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution based on patterns of codon-degeneracy and chemical dissimilarity indicate that the nucleotide and amino acid changes postulated by the molecular tree are more plausible than those postulated by the morphological tree. These findings teach general lessons about the utility of highly adaptive characters (in particular those related to foraging ecology) and underscore the problems that convergence can pose for attempts to recover phylogeny. They also demonstrate how the concept of natural data partitions and simple models of evolution (e.g., parsimony, likelihood, neutrality) can be used to test the accuracy of independent phylogenetic estimates and provide arguments in favor of one tree topology over another.

  18. N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

    2009-04-01

    In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These results agree with those reported by Jarvis (1993) and Cadish et al (1994). However, 40% of the excretions occurred in the shade buildings and milking parlours ant thus these nutrients did not recycle in the system. An important internal recycling mechanism, especially for nitrogen and potassium, is their remobilization by the rejected pasture to re-use them for the regrowth activity. This is of particular interest in CT-115 Bank, since stems of CT-115 plants left after grazing remobilize an important amount of these nutrients, guarantee a favourable pasture regrowth (Martinez 1996). The return of all the excretion to the grassland is recommended as well as increasing the area of legumes to attain a satisfactory balance of N, P and K in the system. Further studies must consider maintenance fertilization, nutrient losses due to leaching and denitrification, as well as variation of the stable OM in the soil and the influence of hydro physical properties in the recycling process. The "Recycling" software was effective to determine the balance of nutrients in the dairy farm. Cadish, G., Schunke, R.N & Giller, K.E. 1994. Nitrogen cycling in a pure grass pasture and a grass-legume mixture on a red latosol in Brazil. Tropical Grasslands 28:43. Crespo G. y Rodríguez, I. 2006. Contribución al conocimiento del reciclaje de los nutrientes en el sistema suelo-pasto-animal. Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Editorial EDICA, La Habana, Cuba, 94 pp. Hirata, M., Sugimoto, Y.G & Ueno, M.1991. Use of a mathematical model to evaluate the effects of dung from grazing animals on pasture production. J. Japan Grassld. Sci. 37:303.