Sample records for leucaena leucaena leucocephala

  1. A note on averting goats to a toxic but palatable plant, Leucaena leucocephala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditioned taste aversions are a useful tool to reduce livestock consumption of toxic plants. The forage legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is both toxic and palatable. The objective of this study was to determine if goats could be aversively conditioned to avoid leucaena. Adult and juvenil...

  2. Forest Disturbance Leads to the Rapid Spread of the Invasive Leucaena Leucocephala in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.; Jump, A. S.

    2012-07-01

    This study, based on different investigative documents and analytical methods, elucidates spatial distribution of habitats for major invasive exotic plants, Leucaena leucocephala, in Taiwan. Results show that Leucaena leucocephala is most harmful to broad-leaved trees and its invasion directly relates to changes in the physical environment. Leucaena leucocephala can bloom and bear fruits all year round and during the period of seeds sprouting and saplings, the invasion varies greatly among different soil types. Leucaena leucocephala prefers weakly acidic soil, though it grows well with other soil textures and nutrients as well. The average spreading rate of Leucaena leucocephala is 3.55 ha year-1 on abandoned farm land calculated from the aerial photographs taken in 1982, 1992, 2003, and 2007.

  3. Effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements to teff straw given to Ethiopian highland sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. Van Bruchem

    1998-01-01

    The effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements on intake, digestibility and live weight changes was evaluated using 102 male Ethiopian highland sheep in a 90-day trial. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or supplemented with graded levels (15, 30, 45, 60% of ration dry matter intake)

  4. Effect of liming and phosphorus application on performance of Leucaena leucocephala in acid soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Duguma; B. T. Kang; D. U. U. Okali

    1988-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to assess the lime and phosphorus requirements ofLeucaena leucocephala (LAM.) De Wit grown on three acid soils (Ultisols) from southeastern Nigeria. Liming and phosphorus application significantly enhanced growth ofL. leucocephala. Ammakama soil showed best effect to phosphorus application, while acidity problems were more pronounced on Onne and Isienu soils. High lime rate (2000 ppm) reduced plant

  5. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena leucocephala ( Lam.) De Wit Plantation in the Nigerian Derived Savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Oladoye; B. A. Ola-Adams; M. O. Adedire; D. A. Agboola

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rat e of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala . Fifty grams of oven-dried leaf litter of the spec ies was weighed into 0.2 mm mesh

  6. Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Yosra A; Morsy, Amr S; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Lucas, Ronaldo C; Louvandini, Helder; Kreuzer, Michael; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2013-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), a leguminous shrub promising to cope with feed scarcity in the tropics, may help in mitigating ruminal methane (CH4) emission in the tropics as well. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena and major secondary compounds of this plant in ruminants. At first, effects of Leucaena tannins and mimosine on ruminal CH4 and nutrient degradability were tested in vitro. Incubations were made with Leucaena without or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to exclude the tannins effects, as well as with Bermuda grass (Tifton) and lucerne hays, both either untreated or supplemented with mimosine at the same concentration that has been provided by the tested Leucaena (6.52 mg/g DM). Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment a control diet (per kg DM 700 g Tifton hay) and Leucaena diets (per kg DM 350 g Tifton hay and 350 g Leucaena), either with or without 20 g PEG/d per head, were evaluated in six Santa Inês sheep following a double Latin square design. In vitro, Leucaena resulted in the lowest (p < 0.05) gas and CH4 production and the highest (p < 0.05) partitioning factor, a measure for microbial efficiency, whereas the amount of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) was lowest (p < 0.05) with Tifton among the experimental forage plants. Mimosine addition to lucerne and Tifton as well as PEG addition to Leucaena had no effect on ruminal CH4 and TDOM. In vivo Leucaena, compared to the Tifton diet, enhanced (p < 0.05) intake, faecal nitrogen excretion, body nitrogen retention and the excretion of urinary purine derivatives as an indicator for microbial protein synthesis and availability. This was independent of PEG addition. Leucaena also decreased (p < 0.001) CH4 emission per unit of digested organic matter by 14.1% and 10.8%, without and with PEG, respectively. No significant diet differences were observed in total-tract nutrient digestibility. The study demonstrated efficiency of Leucaena to mitigate in vivo methane emission of sheep, but did not reveal which constituent of Leucaena was primarily responsible for that since no clear efficiency of either tannins or mimosine could be demonstrated. PMID:23742642

  7. Growth of mycorrhized seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. in a copper contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudia Elizabete Lima Lins; Uided Maaze T. Cavalcante; Everardo V. S. B. Sampaio; Arminda Sacconi Messias; Leonor Costa Maia

    2006-01-01

    Due to the low infectivity potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a mining area located at the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, the effect of mycorrhization on the seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala was investigated, in order to use this species for revegetation of the area. Caatinga soils from both, natural (control) and mining impacted areas, were used to maintain

  8. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves establishment of micropropagated Leucaena leucocephala plantlets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos T. Puthur; K. V. S. K. Prasad; P. Pardha Saradhi

    1998-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to achieve cent per cent transplantation success of micropropagated Leucaena leucocephala\\u000a (a fast growing multipurpose leguminous tree species) plantlets using two vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus fasciculatum\\u000a and Glomus macrocarpum. Plantlets were obtained by rooting the shoots [obtained through; hypocotyl callus in presence of 10-5M BAP + 10-6M NAA; and axillary bud sprouting from cotyledonary and

  9. Cloning, expression, functional validation and modeling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from xylem of Leucaena leucocephala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brijesh Pandey; Veda Prakash Pandey; Upendra Nath Dwivedi

    2011-01-01

    A cDNA encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzing conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to corresponding cinnamyl alcohols, was cloned from secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala. The cloned cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Temperature and Zn2+ ion played crucial role in expression and activity of enzyme, such that, at 18°C and at 2mM Zn2+ the CAD was

  10. Rumen function in vivo and in vitro in sheep fed Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 %?L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 %?L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3. Leucaena CP degradation was higher in T2 and T3 but for P. purpureum it was only significantly higher in T3. Leucaena aNDF and CP degradation rate (c) was 50 % higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3, but only higher in T3 for P. purpureum. Voluntary intake and rumen (N-NH3) was higher in T2 and T3 (P = 0.0001, P = 0.005, respectively). Molar VFA proportions were similar for all treatments (P > 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001). Estimated methane yield (mol CH4/day) was higher in sheep fed leucaena (P < 0.0001). However, CH4 yield relative to animal performance (mol CH4/g LW gain) was lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.0001). In summary, these results indicate that including L. leucocephala in sheep diets did not modify rumen fermentation pattern (same VFA ratios) nor reduce the amount of CH4 per unit of DMI (mol CH4/g DMI). However, leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake. PMID:25764346

  11. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  12. Characteristics and compositions of Carissa spinarum, Leucaena leucocephala and Physalis minima seeds and oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Chandrasekhara Rao; G. Lakshminarayana; N. B. L. Prasad; S. Jagan Mohan Rao; G. Azeemoddin; D. Atchyuta Ramayya; S. D. Thirumala Rao

    1984-01-01

    The seeds and extracted oils ofCarissa spinarum (Apocynaceae), (I),Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae) (II) andPhysalis minima (Solanaceae) (III) were analyzed for characteristics and compositions. The seeds of I, II and III contained 22.4, 6.4 and\\u000a 40.0% oil and 10.1, 27.6 and 17.9% protein, respectively. The oils of I, II and III had, respectively, iodine values 70.1,\\u000a 113.5 and 122.5; saponification values 186,

  13. The type 3 protein secretion system of Cupriavidus taiwanensis strain LMG19424 compromises symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Saad, Maged M; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Perret, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS. PMID:22865066

  14. Decomposition and nitrogen-mineralization patterns of Leucaena leucocephala and Cassia siamea mulch under tropical semiarid conditions in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Jama; P. K. R. Nair

    1996-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, loppings from trees and shrubs are commonly used, often as mulch, as sources of nutrients for interplanted crops. Therefore, it is important to understand the rates of mulch decomposition. This paper reports the results of a study on the decomposition and nitrogen (N)-mineralization patterns of the leaves, small twigs, and mulch (leaves plus twigs) of Leucaena leucocephala

  15. The Type 3 Protein Secretion System of Cupriavidus taiwanensis Strain LMG19424 Compromises Symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Maged M.; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS. PMID:22865066

  16. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    PubMed

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 ?M sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 ?M cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as ?-substituted alanine synthases. PMID:24777760

  17. Polyphasic characterization of rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala from Panxi, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Zou, Lan; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Hu, Chao; Liu, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Leucaena leucocephala was introduced into Panxi, Sichuan, China, in the 1980s and 1990s for afforestation and preventing water loss and soil erosion in this area. The co-introduction of rhizobial symbionts of introduced plants has drawn attention since they may influence local soil communities. We studied the phylogenetic position of the L. leucocephala isolates and assessed if the rhizobia were introduced together with the host to Panxi, Sichuan, China. The glnII and atpD genes of fifteen representative isolates were sequenced and analyzed, and applied multilocus sequence analyses in which the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD were included. Furthermore, we estimated the within species diversity directly with 23S rDNA and IGS RFLP and indirectly through phenotypic analysis of forty L. leucocephala isolates. The isolates represented seven species and 38 diversified strains in the genera Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The within species diversity of the Ensifer isolates was large, proposing a potential to occupy novel niches. There was not conclusive evidence to show that any of the strains would have been co-introduced with L. leucocephala. On the contrary, we came to a conclusion that the possible introduction should not be inferred from sequence data alone. PMID:23749221

  18. Allelopathic research of subtropical vegetation in Taiwan : III. Allelopathic exclusion of understory byLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.

    PubMed

    Chou, C H; Kuo, Y L

    1986-06-01

    Leucaena leucocephala plantations in Kaoshu, southern Taiwan, exhibit, after several years of growth, a unique pattern of weed exclusion beneathLeucaena canopy. The pattern has been observed in manyLeucaena plantations in Taiwan and is particularly pronounced in the area where a substantial amount ofLeucaena litter has accumulated on the ground. Field data showed that the phenomenon was primarily not due to physical competition involving light, soil moisture, pH, and nutrients. Instead, aqueous extracts ofLeucaena fresh leaves, litter, soil, and seed exudate showed significantly phytotoxic effects on many test species, including rice, lettuce,Acacia confusa, Alnus formosana, Casuarina glauca, Liquidambar formosana, andMimosa pudica. However, the extracts were not toxic to the growth ofLeucaena seedlings. The decomposing leaves ofLeucaena also suppressed the growth of the aforementioned plants grown in pots but did not inhibit that ofLeucaena plants. By means of paper and thin-layer chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography, 10 phytotoxins were identified. They included mimosine, quercetin, and gallic, protocatechuic,p-hydroxybenzoic,p-hydroxyphenylacetic, vanillic, ferulic, caffeic, andp-coumaric acids. The mature leaves ofLeucaena possess about 5% dry weight of mimosine, the amount varying with varieties. The seed germination and radicle growth of lettuce, rice, and rye grass were significantly inhibited by aqueous mimosine solution at a concentration of 20 ppm, while that of the forest species mentioned was suppressed by the mimosine solution at 50 ppm or above. However, the growth ofMiscanthus floridulus andPinus taiwanensis was not suppressed by the mimosine solution at 200 ppm. The seedlings ofAgeratum conzoides died in mimosine solution at 50 ppm within seven days and wilted at 300 ppm within three days. It was concluded that the exclusion of understory plants was evidently due to the allelopathic effect of compounds produced byLeucaena. The allelopathic pattern was clearly shown in the area with a heavy accumulation ofLeucaena leaf litter, which was a result of drought and heavy wind influence. PMID:24307122

  19. The effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus and drought stress on the growth of Acacia nilotica and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Michelsen; S. Rosendahl

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on growth and drought resistance of Acacia nilotica and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings was studied in a glasshouse experiment. The experimental design was a 2·2·2 factorial: ± mycorrhizal inoculation,\\u000a ± application of phosphorus fertilizer and ± repeated drought treatment.\\u000a \\u000a The growth promoting effect of VAM fungi equalled the effect of phosphorus fertilization after 12

  20. Prospective Application of Leucaena Leucocephala for Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and Nitrogen Fixation in Metal Polluted Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shweta Saraswat; J. P. N. Rai

    2011-01-01

    The study deals with phytoextraction of Zn and Cd by Leucaena leucocephala grown on effluent fed and low nitrogen soils collected from S1, S2, and S3 sites, representing decreasing metal content with increasing distance from the effluent drain. Plant nitrogen fixation potential and soil micro-biochemical attributes against metal stress were also assessed. Increasing soil metal content and plant growth enhanced

  1. Shading effects of alley cropped Leucaena leucocephala on weed biomass and maize yield at Mtwapa, Coast Province, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bashir Jama; Amare Getahun; D. N. Ngugi

    1991-01-01

    Reductions of up to 90% in weed biomass was observed under Leucaena leucocephala alley cropping with varying tree between (2,4 and 8 m) and within-row spacing combinations when compared to crop-only control. An increase of 24 to 76 % in maize yields of alley cropped plots compared to the crop-only control was also recorded. The 2m alley widths closed canopy

  2. Assessment of genetic variability for N 2 fixation between and within provenances of Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia albida estimated by 15 N labelling techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sanginga; G. D. Bowen; S. K. A. Danso

    1990-01-01

    Nitrogen fixed in 13 provenances of Acacia albida and 11 isolines of Leucaena leucocephala inoculated with effective Rhizobium strains was measured by 15N techniques and the total N difference method. In the test soil, on the average, L. leucocephala derived about 65% of its total N from atmospheric N2 fixation compared to about 20% by A. albida. Significant differences in

  3. Effects of supplementing rice straw with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliages on digestibility, microbial N supply and nitrogen balance of growing goats.

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Paengkoum, S

    2010-10-01

    A total of 12 crossbred (Boer × Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a commercial farm on the basis of similar body weight (25.0 ± 3.1 kg). The goats were housed in individual pens and allowed 3 weeks to adapt to experimental conditions. The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment (replicated four times). Within each period, each goat was given rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diet. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses, urea and commercial mineral and vitamin mix. The experimental treatments were (i) soybean meal (SBM), (ii) partial substitution of SBM with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) foliage and (iii) partial substitution of SBM with Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliage. Nutrient intakes, ruminal characteristics (pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids), nitrogen balances, plasma urea nitrogen and microbial N supply were not significantly different among treatments. The results of this study indicate that protein foliages from locally grown shrubs and trees can substitute imported feedstuff concentrates (e.g. SBM) as protein supplement for goat production. PMID:20487095

  4. Cloning, expression, functional validation and modeling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from xylem of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda Prakash; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2011-10-01

    A cDNA encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzing conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to corresponding cinnamyl alcohols, was cloned from secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala. The cloned cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Temperature and Zn(2+) ion played crucial role in expression and activity of enzyme, such that, at 18°C and at 2 mM Zn(2+) the CAD was maximally expressed as active enzyme in soluble fraction. The expressed protein was purified 14.78-folds to homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose column with specific activity of 346 nkat/mg protein. The purified enzyme exhibited lowest Km with cinnamyl alcohol (12.2 ?M) followed by coniferyl (18.1 ?M) and sinapyl alcohol (23.8 ?M). Enzyme exhibited high substrate inhibition with cinnamyl (beyond 20 ?M) and coniferyl (beyond 100 ?M) alcohols. The in silico analysis of CAD protein exhibited four characteristic consensus sequences, GHEXXGXXXXXGXXV; C(100), C(103), C(106), C(114); GXGXXG and C(47), S(49), H(69), L(95), C(163), I(300) involved in catalytic Zn(2+) binding, structural Zn(2+) binding, NADP(+) binding and substrate binding, respectively. Tertiary structure, generated using Modeller 9v5, exhibited a trilobed structure with bulged out structural Zn(2+) binding domain. The catalytic Zn(2+) binding, substrate binding and NADP(+) binding domains formed a pocket protected by two major lobes. The enzyme catalysis, sequence homology and 3-D model, all supported that the cloned CAD belongs to alcohol dehydrogenase family of plants. PMID:21708267

  5. Productivity of alley farming with leucaena ( Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit) and Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum) in coastal lowland Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Mureithi; R. S. Tayler; W. Thorpe

    1995-01-01

    Inadequate supply of fodder is a serious constraint to the potentially-promising small-holder-dairy production system in coastal Kenya. Alley farming could be an approach to addressing this problem. A study of forage production based on Napier grass and leucaena in an alley cropping system was conducted on an infertile sandy soil in lowland coastal Kenya. The effects of leucaena hedgerows,Clitoria ternatea

  6. Competition among rhizobium species for nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in two tropical soils

    SciTech Connect

    Moawad, H.; Bohlool, B.B.

    1984-07-01

    The successful nodulation of legumes by a Rhizobium strain is determined by the competitve ability of that strain against the mixture of other native and inoculant rhizobia. Competition among six Leucaena rhizobial strains in single and multistrain inoculants were studied. Field inoculation trials were conducted in an oxisol and a mollisol soil, both of which contained indigenous Leucaena-nodulating rhizobia. Strain-specific fluorescent antibodies were used for the identification of the strains in Leucaena nodules. Mixtures of three recommended inoculum strains for Leucaena species (TAL82, TAL582, and TAL1145) were used in peat-based inocula either alone or with one of the three other strains isolated from the sites, B213, B214, and B215. Each of these latter three strains was also used as single-strain inocula to study their competition with the native rhizobia in the two soil systems. In the oxisol soil, strains B213 and B215, when used as single-strain inocula, outcompeted the native rhizobia and formed 92 and 62% of the nodules, respectively. Strain B214 was the least competitive in oxisol soil, where it formed 30% of the nodules, and the best in mollisol soil, where it formed 70% of the nodules. The most successful competitor for nodulation in multistrain inocula was strain TAL1145, which outcompeted native and other inoculum Leucaena rhizobia is both soils. None of the strains in single or multistrain inoculants was capable of completely overcoming the resident rhizobia, which formed 4 to 70% of the total nodules in oxisol soil and 12 to 72% in mollisol soil. No strong relationship was detected between the size of the rhizosphere population of a strain and its successful occupation of nodules. 24 references.

  7. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  8. PEI modified Leucaena leucocephala seed powder, a potential biosorbent for the decontamination of arsenic species from water bodies: bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Kumar Rohit; Kardam, Abhishek; Srivastava, Shalini

    2013-03-01

    Environmental contamination due to anthropogenic and natural sources is increasing day by day because of increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Arsenic species released into the environment tend to persist indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain, thus becoming a serious threat to the environment. The present study explores the effectiveness of Leucaena leucocephala seed powder (agricultural waste) in removing arsenic ions from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out to characterize As (III) and As (V) removal capability of L. leucocephala seed powder. Maximum biosorption capacity for As (III) and As (V) was found to be 81.88 and 92.61 %, respectively. Amino acid-arsenic interaction has been highlighted on the basis of shifting of FTIR bands of native LLSP. Morphological changes and reduction in pore area have been observed in modified LLSP. Modification on the native LLSP results into the increase in percentage sorption of As (III) and As (V) up to 85 and 99 %, respectively. Enhancement in the percentage sorption is due the increase in the stability of the biosorbent due to increase in the final decomposition temperature of the modified LLSP. The findings showed that L. leucocephala seed powder can easily be envisaged as a new, vibrant, low-cost biosorbent for arsenic clean-up operations.

  9. Palatability and effect on dairy cow milk yield of dried fodder from the forage trees Acacia boliviana, Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V Maasdorp; V Muchenje; M Titterton

    1999-01-01

    Four groups of three Holstein–Friesian cows were supplemented with 1.5kg of air-dried tree fodder of Acacia boliviana, Calliandra calothyrsus or Leucaena leucocephala, or 1.5kg Rhodes grass hay as a control, mixed with 5g of a commercial polyethylene glycol (PEG)-containing digestive modifier (Browse Plus). Cows on all treatments were fed a basal diet of maize silage, cottonseed cake and crushed maize

  10. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  11. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06?±?1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

  12. Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40 %) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30 % LLM, 40 % LLM, 30 % MOLM, and 40 % MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30 % MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000 g and 31.6 and 30.6 g/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30 % MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40 % LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40 % improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40 % without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits. PMID:24935404

  13. Biomass estimation in a young stand of mesquite (Prosopis species), ironwood (Olneya tesota), pado verde (Cercidium floridium, and Parkinsonia aculeata), and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Simple methods for estimating standing biomass in a stand of tree legumes containing the genera Prosopis, Cercidium, Olneya, Leucaena, and Parkinsonia are reported. Fresh and dry biomass were related to height and stem diameter measurements for 212 leguminous trees ranging in biomass from 0.04 to 17.8 kg using linear regression. The dry matter content of the above-ground biomass of these genera ranged from 40-56% and the stem dry matter percentage ranged from 70 to 96%. The best functional form of the model was log 10 dry weight (kg) = 2.55 log basal diameter (cm)-1.25, which had an r2 of 0.956 for 212 samples.

  14. Functional characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of ?-glucosidase responsible for bioactivation of cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides from Leucaena leucocephala (subabul).

    PubMed

    Shaik, Noor M; Misra, Anurag; Singh, Somesh; Fatangare, Amol B; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 ?-glucosidases are important enzymes that serve many diverse functions in plants including defense, whereby hydrolyzing the defensive compounds such as hydroxynitrile glucosides. A hydroxynitrile glucoside cleaving ?-glucosidase gene (Llbglu1) was isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, cloned into pET-28a (+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for this ?-glucosidase were found to be 45 °C and 4.8, respectively. The purified Llbglu1 enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic glycosides, pNPGlucoside (pNPGlc) and pNPGalactoside (pNPGal). Also, the enzyme hydrolyzed amygdalin, a hydroxynitrile glycoside and a few of the tested flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides. The kinetic parameters K (m) and V (max) were found to be 38.59 ?M and 0.8237 ?M/mg/min for pNPGlc, whereas for pNPGal the values were observed as 1845 ?M and 0.1037 ?M/mg/min. In the present study, a three dimensional (3D) model of the Llbglu1 was built by MODELLER software to find out the substrate binding sites and the quality of the model was examined using the program PROCHEK. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues are Glu 199, Glu 413, His 153, Asn 198, Val 270, Asn 340, and Trp 462. Docking of rhodiocyanoside A with the modeled Llbglu1 resulted in a binding with free energy change (?G) of -5.52 kcal/mol on which basis rhodiocyanoside A could be considered as a potential substrate. PMID:23079707

  15. Manual harvesting of high population Leucaena stands

    SciTech Connect

    Pecson, R.D.; Van Den Beldt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Five-year-old giant Leucaena leucocephala, planted at spacing 1x0.5 m, were harvested using bolos (Filipino machetes) and chainsaws. For felling alone, chainsaws took 35% less time than bolos. For the total harvest including delimbing and hauling an average 20 m to the edge of the stand, chainsaws took 20% less time than bolos. Assuming chainsaws are economically viable, it may be advisable to fell with chainsaws in advance of bolo teams that buck and haul. 2 references.

  16. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

  17. High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 Bacteroids in Determinate Nodules of Vigna unguiculata and Indeterminate Nodules of Leucaena leucocephala

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

  18. LEUCAENA AS A SUPPLEMENT FOR GOATS GRAZING BAHIAGRASS IN SOUTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats require protein supplementation while grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum natatum Flugge) during summer in Florida. We measured weight gains of Boer x Spanish goats (6-7 mo old) in July- Novembver, 2003 (140 d) while grazing leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)de wit]with bahiagrass (LEUC), compare...

  19. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  20. Early growth and N 2 -fixation of leucaena and gliricidia at different levels of phosphorus application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sanginga; M. Larkin

    1992-01-01

    The phosphorus (P) uptake and use efficiency in relation to N2 fixation and growth of three provenances of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) two cultivars of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and one ofL. diversifolia, all inoculated withRhizobium, were determined at five levels of P application. Increasing the P application rate resulted in a 33% increase in dry matter and total N ofL. diversifolia

  1. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

  2. Effect of supplementing teff straw with different levels of leucaena or sesbania leaves on the degradabilities of teff straw, sesbania, leucaena, tagasaste and vernonia and on certain rumen and blood metabolites in Ethiopian Menz sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji; A. K. Tuah

    1995-01-01

    In vitro gas production, dry matter and nitrogen degradabilities of fresh and sun-dried foliages of four fodder trees (FTs) (Sesbania sesban, Leucaena leucocephala, Chamaecytisus palmensis (tagasaste), Vernonia amygdalina) and of teff straw were estimated. In Experiment 1, feed samples were incubated in three different rumen environments (ecologies) created by feeding sheep the following: teff straw, teff straw + 174 g

  3. Characteristics of newly isolated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from acid sulfate soil and the rhizoplane of leucaena grown in that soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Satoh; Chieko Itoh; Dong-Jin Kang; Hiroaki Sumida; Reiji Takahashi; Katsunori Isobe; Satohiko Sasaki; Tatsuaki Tokuyama

    2007-01-01

    We isolated four new ammonia-oxidizing bacterial strains from leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in fields of an acid sulfate soil (ASS) in Thailand; 17SS from the surface soil and 17RS from the rhizoplane of a non-limed plot; 9SS from the surface soil and 9RS from the rhizoplane in a limed plot. The cells of all strains had the typical lobate shape

  4. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and certain rumen characteristics of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw supplemented with cotton seed cake, dry sesbania, dry leucaena or fresh leucaena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji; A. K. Tuah; N. N. Umunna

    1995-01-01

    Twenty five rumen fistulated Ethiopian Menz sheep were used in a completely randomized block design to determine roughage utilization when different types of supplements (sesbania, leucaena, cotton seed cake (CSC)) and forms (fresh or dry leucaena) were fed. The chemical composition, intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumen degradability coefficients were determined. Rumen pH and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) levels were estimated in

  5. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  6. Bioevaluation of Subabul ( Leucaena leucocephala ) proteinase inhibitors on Helicoverpa armigera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bhavani; Chumki Bhattacherjee; D. Theertha Prasad

    2007-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera, a highly polyphagous pest, has a broad host spectrum, causes significant levels of yield loss in many agriculturally important\\u000a crops. Serine primarily responsible for most of the proteolytic activity in the larval gut of lepidopteron insects. Neonate\\u000a larvae were reared on artificial diet and chickpea seeds smeared with Subabul Trypsin Inhibitor. Larvae fed with artificial\\u000a diet showed reduction

  7. Isolation of Insertion Sequence ISRLdTAL1145-1 from a Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) and Distribution of Homologous Sequences Identifying Cross-Inoculation Group Relationships †

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Douglas J.; Somasegaran, Padma; MacGlashan, Kathryn; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1994-01-01

    Insertion sequence (IS) element ISRLdTAL1145-1 from Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) strain TAL 1145 was entrapped in the sacB gene of the positive selection vector pUCD800 by insertional inactivation. A hybridization probe prepared from the whole 2.5-kb element was used to determine the distribution of homologous sequences in a diverse collection of 135 Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. The IS probe hybridized strongly to Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 10 rhizobial strains that nodulate both Phaseolus vulgaris (beans) and Leucaena leucocephala (leguminous trees), 1 Rhizobium sp. that nodulates Leucaena spp., 9 R. meliloti (alfalfa) strains, 4 Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Sophora chrysophylla (leguminous trees), and 1 nonnodulating bacterium associated with the nodules of Pithecellobium dulce from the Leucaena cross-inoculation group, producing distinguishing IS patterns for each strain. Hybridization analysis revealed that ISRLdTAL1145-1 was strongly homologous with and closely related to a previously isolated element, ISRm USDA1024-1 from R. meliloti, while restriction enzyme analysis found structural similarities and differences between the two IS homologs. Two internal segments of these IS elements were used to construct hybridization probes of 1.2 kb and 380 bp that delineate a structural similarity and a difference, respectively, of the two IS homologs. The internal segment probes were used to analyze the structures of homologous IS elements in other strains. Five types of structural variation in homolog IS elements were found. The predominate IS structural type naturally occurring in a strain can reasonably identify the strain's cross-inoculation group relationships. Three IS structural types were found in Rhizobium species that nodulate beans and Leucaena species, one of which included the designated type IIB strain of R. tropici (CIAT 899). Weak homology to the whole IS probe, but not with the internal segments, was found with two Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains. The taxonomic and ecological implications of the distribution of ISRLdTAL1145-1 are discussed. Images PMID:16349459

  8. Role of Leucaena glauca Leaf litter on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworms Eisenia fetida Savigny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govindarajan Manimegala; Senguttuvan Sarojini; Govindarajan Gunasekaran; Mani Prakash; Kasi Parthasarathi; Sriramulu Ananthakrishnasamy

    The growth (biomass) and reproduction (cocoon production and hatch- lings) of earthworms Eisenia fetida Savigny were observed in leguminous tree Leucaena glauca leaf litter, clay loam soil and cowdung mixture (w\\/w) in dif- ferent proportions. They were T1 ferent proportions. They were T1 ferent proportions. They were T (cowdung alone), T2 (cowdung alone), T2 (cowdung alone), T (1 leaf litter:

  9. Rhizobium tropici, a Novel Species Nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L. Beans and Leucaena sp. Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ESPERANZA MARTINEZ-ROMERO; LORENZO SEGOVIA; FABIO MARTINS MERCANTE

    A new Rhizobium species that nodulates PhaseoZus vulgaris L. and Leucaena spp. is proposed on the basis of the results of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, DNA-DNA hybridization, an analysis of ribosomal DNA organization, a sequence analysis of 16s rDNA, and an analysis of phenotypic characteristics. This taxon, Rhizobium tropici sp. nov., was previously named Rhizobium Zeguminosarum biovar phaseoli (type I1 strains)

  10. Experimental analysis of shear strength of undisturbed soil in leucaena forest in Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Jiao; Daojie Wang; Hong Xie; Jinshan Zhang; Linghui Guo

    2010-01-01

    Five leucaena trees of similar age were chosen in Jiangjia Ravine of Dongchuan, Yunnan Province, China, near which the soil samples were\\u000a collected by digging profiles 2m in depth and 1m in width. In each section, soil samples at different depths were taken for\\u000a direct shear experiments to determine the root amount and mechanical composition. It is found that the

  11. Reforestation using Leucaena Luecocephala, Anacardium Occidentale and Tectona Grandis for Paquera, Costa Rica

    E-print Network

    Moore, Jane F

    1991-01-01

    . Currently, less than 35% of the land remains in forest cover (Figure 2) (15). Consequently, Costa Rica is now suffering the results of deforestation in the form of flood induced mud slides, erosion and an ever- dwindling supply of top soil (17). Another... reduce logging pressure on the forest and slow denuda- tion that continues. Although it is a potentially valuable forestry species itself, Leucaena can also pioneer the improvement of soil and growing conditions for other species. Replacing soil cover...

  12. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Kaitho; A. Tegegne; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J Van Bruchem; J. M. Arts

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150 g), Leucaena (200 or 400 g) or Sesbania (200 or 400 g). The animals

  13. Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, M; Tegegne, A; Umunna, N N; Kaitho, R J; Tamminga, S

    2001-09-15

    Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on testicular histology. Within species, animals were blocked based on body weight and scrotal circumference and randomly assigned, within blocks, to five nutritional treatment groups in a complete randomised block design. All animals were provided with unchopped teff (Eragrostis tef) straw ad libitum and were supplemented with either 150g of wheat bran (control), leucaena (200 or 400g) or sesbania (200 or 400g) leaves for a period of 6 months. At the end of the experimental period, all animals were surgically castrated and testicular samples were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. In sheep 200g S. sesban induced relatively more necrosis of the seminiferous tubules than 200g L. pallida, but with similar degree of tubular degeneration. However, lesions in testis of goats fed on 200g S. sesban and 200g L. pallida did not differ. The effect of 400g S. sesban and 400g L. pallida in sheep indicated that the former hardly induced lesions except depressive effect on spermatogenesis. Similar results were observed in goats. About 400g S. sesban induced milder lesions in sheep and goats than were 200g S. sesban. The lesions were compared and discussed in relation to the phytochemical composition of the supplementary feeds. PMID:11530271

  14. Exploiting unique germplasm resources of leguminous trees: Prosopis, leucaena and acacia. Final report, August 31, 1982-August 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Haiti, and other semiarid regions of the world, the need for fuelwood and forage is critical. The report summarizes research conducted over a ten year period on developing replicable plantations of leguminous trees in semiarid lands, especially in areas near seawater salinity levels. Research included greenhouse and laboratory work followed by field trials in Haiti and focused on two species: Prosopis and Leucaena. (Acacia is mentioned in the report's title but not in the report itself.) Results were as follows. (1) Greenhouse experiments identified leaf diagnostic criteria indicating mineral nutrient deficiencies in field trees. It also established the importance of micronutrients, especially zinc, in permitting growth in high pH (9.0) soils.

  15. Mycorrhizae and phosphorus fertilization effects on survival, growth, total biomass and leaf nutrient levels of two-year old Leucaena leucocephala

    E-print Network

    Mbugua, David Kahuria

    1985-01-01

    'a rar asians) (L. ) Wild. The understory is basically composed of amdium height shrubs, predominantly Celtis ~allida Torr. and Ericameria austrotenana (KC. Johnst. ). Grasses and forbs are scattered in the ground layer. Soil description The smjor...

  16. Micronesica 41(2):263274, 2011 Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    hirta, Synedrella nodiflora, Mimosa pudica, Leucaena leucocephala, Pennisetum polystachion, Euphorbia paniculatum, Miscanthus floridulus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Chromolaena odorata, Mikania micrantha, Chamaesyce

  17. 379Ann. For. Sci. 60 (2003) 379384 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2003

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    article Optimisation of inoculation of Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia mangium with rhizobium under of woody leguminous plants: Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia mangium with various strains of rhizobium in the large scale production of tree seedlings. Acacia mangium / Leucaena leucocephala / rhizobium / size

  18. Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

  19. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal effectiveness in an acid soil amended with fresh organic matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Soedarjo; M. Habte

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse investigation was undertaken to determine the influence of fresh organic matter on the formation and functioning of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an acid aluminum-rich ultisol. In soil not amended with fresh organic matter or lime, plants failed to grow. Mycorrhizal infection level, mycorrhizal effectiveness measured in terms of pinnule P content of L. leucocephala

  20. Spatial and temporal effects in drying biomass for energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Liang; M. A. Khan; Q. Meng

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of the moisture content of biomass on thermal efficiency and relative boiler size which directly represent the economic merits of biomass drying. A model for predicting the moisture content of bundled Leucaena (Leucocephala) trees under open environment was validated for tropical Hawaii. Cumulative precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) are the major factors affecting the biomass moisture

  1. IMPACT OF ALIEN PLANTS ON HAWAIfIfS NATIVE BIOTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford W. Smith

    Over 4,600 species of plants have been introduced into the Hawaiian Islands over the last 200 years. Only 86, less than 2% of the total, have become serious pests of native ecosystems. Of these, the most signi- ficant are Andropogon virginicus. Clidemia hirta, Lan- tana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis minuti- flora, Myrica faya, Passiflora mollissima, Pennisetum clandestinum, P. setaceum, Psidium

  2. Allelopathic effects of leaf litters of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on some forest and agricultural crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romel Ahmed; A. T. M. Rafiqul Hoque; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathic effects of different doses of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litters were investigated through an experiment in the green house of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences,\\u000a Chittagong, Bangladesh. Three popular agricultural crops: Falen (Vigna unguiculata), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), Arhor (Cajanus cajan) and two widely used plantation trees: Sada koroi (Albizia procera) and Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) were selected as bioassay

  3. PREFERENCIA DE ÁRBOLES FORRAJEROS POR CABRAS EN LA ZONA BAJA DE LOS ANDES VENEZOLANOS. Goats Preference of Fodder Tree in the Venezuelan Andes Low Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Eugenio García; María Gabriela Medina; Tyrone Clavero; Johny Humbría; Alfredo Baldizán; Carlos Domínguez

    2008-01-01

    In order to know the preference of twelve fodder species (Chlo- rophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliri- cidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gi- gantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman) a cafeteria trial was carried out in goats at Trujillo State, Venezuela. An ex- perimental square latin design with evaluation period of

  4. Alien Invasive Insect and Mite Pests and Weeds in India and Their Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. VIRAKTAMATH

    In the past ten years at least six species of insect and mite pests have invaded India affecting agricultural production. Some of the recent invasive pests in India are psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Witt; American serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) on a number of vegetables and orna- mental plants; coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

  5. Acid–base reactions between an acidic soil and plant residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Sakala; D. L. Rowell; C. J. Pilbeam

    2004-01-01

    The elemental composition of residues of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (S. bicolor), groundnuts (Arachis hypogea), soya beans (Glycine max), leucaena (L. leucocephala), gliricidia (G. sepium), and sesbania (S. sesban) was determined as a basis for examining their alkalinity when incorporated into an acidic Zambian Ferralsol. Potential (ash) alkalinity, available alkalinity by titration to pH 4 and soluble alkalinity (16 h

  6. Research note: The performance of forage germplasm in a screening trial at Shika, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. OMOKANYE; O. S. ONIFADE; J. T. AMODU; M. S. KALLAH

    Sixty-one forage species obtained from the Inter- national Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were screened to assess their adaptation to the subhumid zone of Nigeria. The control species were: Andropogon gayanus and Chloris gayana (grasses); Stylosanthes hamata (herbaceous legume); and Leucaena leucocephala (browse shrub). The highest mean yields over 3 years occurred in C. gayana ILCA 6627 (grass),

  7. Nitrogen release from leaves of leguminous and nonleguminous tree species in sandy loam soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Singh; V. S. Yadav; Y. P. Singh

    1996-01-01

    To decrease adverse environmental impacts of fertilizer N and to decrease input costs in agroecosystems, there is a renewed interest in using green manure to maintain soil fertility. Nitrogen mineralization from the leaves of two leguminous \\/Leucaena leucocephala (Lamb.) de Witt, and Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Del] and two nonleguminous (Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu and Melia azedarach L.) tree

  8. Determining vesicular?arbuscular mycorrh izal effectiveness by monitoring P status of subleaflets of an indicator plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Habte; R. L. Fox; R. S. Huang

    1987-01-01

    The development of rapid and reliable techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of vesicular?arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi is crucial in optimizing conditions for enhancing the benefits of the fungi in crop production. In this study we have proposed and tested such a technique. It is based on the monitoring of P status of subleaflets of indicator plant (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in

  9. Influence of cropping intensity on the production and properties of earthworm casts in a leucaena alley cropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O. Asawalam

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cropping intensity on surface cast production by earthworms was studied more than 4 years in an alley cropping system. The plots were cultivated to maize–cassava intercrop every year (100% cropping intensity), after 2 years of fallow (33% cropping intensity) and after 3 years of fallow (25% cropping intensity). Cast production was assessed by the continuous sampling technique

  10. Images, distribution maps and an online key constructed by Patrick Alexander for the identification of Leucaena species.

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    the impacts of nrDNA polymorphism and non-functional pseudogene sequences on phylogeny reconstruction by lack of informative variation in conventional DNA sequence loci and the occurrence of nrDNA pseudogenes (Hughes et al., 2002; Bailey et al., 2003, 2004) - issues that hinder reconstruction of robust, well

  11. The effect of feeding cottonseed cake, sesbania or leucaena with crushed maize as supplement to teff straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. K. Bonsi; P. O. Osuji

    1997-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effects of feeding an energy source on nitrogen utilization by Ethiopian Menzrams. Intake, digestibility, teff straw degradation, rumen pH and ammonia-nitrogen, nitrogen balance and purine derivatives were measured in the digestibility and nylon bag studies. All experimental sheep were offered teff straw basal diet ad libitum (unrestricted). With the exception of sheep fed

  12. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases. PMID:24502152

  13. Nodulation of Acacia Species by Fast- and Slow-Growing Tropical Strains of Rhizobium

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, B. L.; Dommergues, Y. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen Acacia species were classified into three groups according to effective nodulation response patterns with fast- and slow-growing tropical strains of Rhizobium. The first group nodulated effectively with slow-growing, cowpea-type Rhizobium strains; the second, with fast-growing Rhizobium strains; and the third, with both fast- and slow-growing Rhizobium strains. The Rhizobium requirements of the Acacia species of the second group were similar to those of Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:16345705

  14. Productivity of hedgerow shrubs and maize under alleycropping and block planting systems in semiarid Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Jama; P. K. R. Nair; M. R. Rao

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for eight cropping seasons from 1988 to 1991 in semiarid Machakos, Kenya, to compare the productivity of shrubs and crops in intercropping (alleycropping) versus block (sole) planting systems. The study, conducted in a split-plot experiment with three replications, consisted of two tree species (Leucaena leucocephala andSenna siamea syn.Cassia siamea) in the main-plots and combinations of

  15. Comparative growth performance of some multipurpose trees and shrubs grown at Machakos, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bashir Jama; P. K. R. Nair; P. W. Kurira

    1989-01-01

    Growth rates of 29 multipurpose trees grown in an agroforestry arboretum for six years at a sub-humid to semi-arid climatic\\u000a zone are presented. Exotic species such as Grevillea robusta, Sesbania grandiflora, Leucaena leucocephala, Cassia siamea and Sesbania sesban, some of which were outside their traditional climatic zones, had higher diameters, heights and bole volumes\\/tree (upto 130%\\u000a more in certain cases)

  16. Can stomatal closure caused by xylem ABA explain the inhibition of leaf photosynthesis under soil drying?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Liang; J. Zhang; M. H. Wong

    1997-01-01

    Effects of leaf water deficit and increase in endogenous ABA on photosynthesis of two tropical trees, t Acacia confusa and t Leucaena leucocephala, were investigated with two soil-drying methods, i.e. half or whole root system was subjected to soil drying. Half-root drying was achieved by allowing upper layer of soil column to dry and lower layer of soil column to

  17. The vertical distribution of fine roots of five tree species and maize in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jonsson; L. Fidjeland; J. A. Maghembe; P. Högberg

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the possibility of root competition in agroforestry, the vertical distribution of fine roots (Cassia siamea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Leucaena leucocephala andProsopis chilensis had a rooting pattern similar to that of maize, i.e. a slow decline in fine root mass from 0–100 cm soil depth.Eucalyptus camaldulensis had its roots evenly distributed down to 100 cm. On an average,

  18. Effects of chemical composition on N, Ca, and Mg release during incubation of leaves from selected agroforestry and fallow plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tian; B. T. Kang; L. Brussaard

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen, Ca and Mg release from leaves of ten selected plant residues with varying chemical compositions was studied under laboratory conditions. Three patterns of N-release were observed over a seven week incubation period: (a)Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens andCentrosema pubescens leaves showed rapid N release, (b)Acioa barteri andDialium guineense leaves immobilized N, and (c)Alchornea cordifolia, Anthonata macrophylla, Cassia siamea

  19. Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

  20. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules with Ensifer adhaerens Harboring Rhizobium tropici Symbiotic Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Rogel, M. Antonio; Hernández-Lucas, Ismael; Kuykendall, L. David; Balkwill, David L.; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

    2001-01-01

    Ensifer adhaerens is a soil bacterium that attaches to other bacteria and may cause lysis of these other bacteria. Based on the sequence of its small-subunit rRNA gene, E. adhaerens is related to Sinorhizobium spp. E. adhaerens ATCC 33499 did not nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) or Leucaena leucocephala, but with symbiotic plasmids from Rhizobium tropici CFN299 it formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on both hosts. The nodule isolates were identified as E. adhaerens isolates by growth on selective media. PMID:11425750

  1. Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma

    2011-01-01

    The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban. PMID:21888233

  2. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals. PMID:23670312

  3. Combining napier grass with leguminous shrubs in contour hedgerows controls soil erosion without competing with crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Mutegi; Daniel N. Mugendi; Louis V. Verchot; James B. Kung’u

    2008-01-01

    We established hedges\\/barriers of calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner), leucaena (Leucaena trichandra (Zucc.) Urban)) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) and combination hedges of either calliandra or leucaena with napier grass on slopes exceeding 5% to study the effect\\u000a of vegetative barriers on productivity of arable steep-lands in central Kenya. Hedges\\/barriers were pruned regularly and biomass\\u000a incorporated into the plots. Hedge

  4. Quantity and quality of organic inputs from coppicing leguminous trees influence abundance of soil macrofauna in maize crops in eastern Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sileshi; P. L. Mafongoya

    2007-01-01

    Soil invertebrates are the major determinants of soil processes such as organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling.\\u000a However, the effect of quantity and quality of organic inputs on soil biota has not been studied in agroforestry systems in\\u000a southern Africa. Variations in soil macrofauna abundance under maize grown in fallows of Gliricidia sepium, Acacia anguistissima, Leucaena collinsii, Leucaena diversifolia, Leucaena

  5. Observational Field Assessment of Invasiveness for

    E-print Network

    risk synthesis.................................................... 14 Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) observations.......................................... 15 Oil palm risk synthesis), Eucalyptus grandis, African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and arboreal Leucaenas found on Oahu, Maui, Hawai

  6. The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.

    PubMed

    Clément, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

  7. Multiple copies of nodD in Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 and BR816.

    PubMed Central

    van Rhijn, P J; Feys, B; Verreth, C; Vanderleyden, J

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium tropici strains are able to nodulate a wide range of host plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena spp., and Macroptilium atropurpureum. We studied the nodD regulatory gene for nodulation of two R. tropici strains: CIAT899, the reference R. tropici type IIb strain, and BR816, a heat-tolerant strain isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. A survey revealed several nodD-hybridizing DNA regions in both strains: five distinct regions in CIAT899 and four distinct regions in BR816. Induction experiments of a nodABC-uidA fusion in combination with different nodD-hybridizing fragments in the presence of root exudates of the different hosts indicate that one particular nodD copy contributes to nodulation gene induction far more than any other nodD copy present. The nucleotide sequences of both nodD genes are reported here and show significant homology to those of the nodD genes of other rhizobia and a Bradyrhizobium strain. A dendrogram based on the protein sequences of 15 different NodD proteins shows that the R. tropici NodD proteins are linked most closely to each other and then to the NodD of Rhizobium phaseoli 8002. Images PMID:8419293

  8. Lactational performance of Jersey cows given Napier fodder (Pennisetum purpureum) with and without protein concentrates in the semi-humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Muinga, R W; Thorpe, W; Topps, J H

    1993-05-01

    Two experiments with 12 and 18 lactating Jersey cows respectively were carried out in the coastal semi-humid zone of Kenya to assess the performance arising from the feeding of chopped Napier fodder (Pennisetum purpureum) given ad libitum with and without one of three sources of protein; fishmeal, copra cake and freshly cut Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). Each source supplied approximately 300 g crude protein daily. Dry matter intakes of Napier fodder fed alone averaged 7.1 and 5.5 kg in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Additional protein did not affect Napier fodder intake, but total intakes of dry matter were higher for the cows receiving the protein supplements, differences which were significant (P < 0.05) in Experiment 2. Average daily milk production from cows fed Napier fodder alone was 6.4 and 4.2 kg in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. The additional 300 g crude protein increased milk production by 1.0 to 1.6 kg/day, increases which, except that for fishmeal, were significant (P < 0.05). Weight losses of the cows were either reduced or changed to weight gains by the provision of protein. The results are assessed in relation to the energy and protein requirements for milk production. PMID:8236479

  9. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60?% similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4?% sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50?% DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) (?=?CNPSo 120(T)?=?LMG 27577(T)?=?IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24972614

  10. Methane emissions from grazing cattle using point-source dispersion.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Turner, D; Tomkins, N; Charmley, E; Bishop-Hurley, G; Chen, D

    2011-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential to gauge our ability to reduce these emissions. Enteric methane from ruminants is an important but often difficult source to quantify since it depends on the amount and type of feed intake. Unfortunately, many of the available measurement techniques for estimating enteric methane emissions can impose a change in feed intake. Our study evaluates a nonintrusive technique that uses a novel approach (point-source dispersion with multiple open-path concentrations) to calculate enteric methane emissions from grazing cattle, reported as the major source of GHG in many countries, particularly Australia. A scanner with a mounted open-path laser was used to measure methane concentration across five paths above a paddock containing 18 grazing cattle over 16 d. These data were used along with wind statistics in a dispersion model (WindTrax) to estimate an average herd methane emission rate over 10-mm intervals. Enteric methane emissions from the herd grazing a combination of Rhodes grass (Chlotis gayana Kunth) and Leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)] averaged (+/- SD) 141 (+/- 147) g animal(-1) d(-1). In a release-recovery experiment, the technique accounted for 77% of the released methane at a single point. Our study shows the technique generates more reliable methane emissions during daytime (unstable stratification). PMID:21488489

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

  12. The NodD proteins of Rhizobium sp. strain BR816 differ in their interactions with coinducers and in their activities for nodulation of different host plants.

    PubMed Central

    van Rhijn, P; Desair, J; Vlassak, K; Vanderleyden, J

    1994-01-01

    The early steps of symbiotic nodule formation by Rhizobium spp. on plants require coordinate expression of several nod gene operons, which is accomplished by the activating protein NodD. Rhizobium sp. strain BR816, isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, contains four nodD genes which differ in their interaction with flavonoids. Two of the four NodD proteins, namely, NodD1 and NodD2, obey the LysR rule regarding the need of a coinducer. NodD3 shows hardly any inducing activity, and NodD4 contains a high basal activity and no response to any of the flavonoids tested. Complementation experiments with the NGR234 nodD mutant by the different nodD genes of BR816, as well as the analysis of the nodulation phenotype of different nodD mutants of BR816, revealed that all the nodD genes of BR816 are functional, but differences can be noticed when different host plants are tested. Whereas the nodD2 and nodD4 genes of BR816 have a great impact on the nodulation of L. leucocephala, nodD3 and nodD4 appear to be important for the nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris. It appears that NodD1 of BR816 can function as a transcriptional activator in bean nodulation but not in nodulation of L. leucocephala. PMID:7986038

  13. Above and below ground interactions in alley-cropping in semi-arid India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Singh; N. Saharan; C. K. Ong

    1989-01-01

    The influence of micro-environment on the growth and yield of cowpea, castor and sorghum was investigated in a 10 m wide alley cropping system. The alleys were formed by Leucaena hedgerows pruned for both fodder and pole production. Below-ground interaction was examined by installing a polythene root barrier between the root systems of crops and Leucaena and by measurements of

  14. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium. PMID:25049496

  15. A comparative study on mimosine, 3,4-dihydroxy pyridone (3,4-DHP) and 2,3-dihydroxy pyridone (2,3-DHP), purine derivatives (PD) excretion in the urine, thyroid hormone and blood metabolites profiles of Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Thongruay, Sirima; Uswang, Sawong; Hengtrakulsin, Runchuan

    2012-04-01

    Four Thai swamp buffaloes (SB) and four Murrah buffaloes (MB) fed a based diet of fresh ruzi grass (Bachiaria ruziziensis) with an increased proportion of fresh leucaena leaves. Intake of nutrients in animals increased when ruzi grass was mixed with leucaena. Digestibility of nutrients were the highest in SB and MB fed diets containing 25% and 50% of leucaena, respectively, and nitrogen (N) balances in both animal breeds were varied among diets. The regression equation coefficient of mimosine + DHP in the urine was twice as high in SB than in MB. Urinary purine derivatives excretion rate in SB was higher than that in MB. Plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine declined in both animal breeds fed a diet containing >1 g mimosine intake/kg BW(0.75)/day. Plasma urea-N was the lowest in SB, but the highest in MB when fed a diet containing 84% of leucaena. Plasma ?-HBA in SB have declined when diets contained >50% of leucaena but that in MB was not affected by any diet. In conclusion, the effect of leucaena in diet upon buffalo breeds depends on the proportion of leucaena in the diet, mimosine contents and condensed tannins components. PMID:21928129

  16. In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (Hawaii strain).

    PubMed

    Ono, Lucy; Wollinger, Wagner; Rocco, Iray M; Coimbra, Terezinha L M; Gorin, Philip A J; Sierakowski, Maria-Rita

    2003-11-01

    Two galactomannans, one extracted from seeds of Mimosa scabrella, having a mannose to galactose ratio of 1.1, and another with a 1.4 ratio from seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, were sulfated. The products from M. scabrella (BRS) and L. leucocephala (LLS) had a degree of sulfation of 0.62 and 0.50, and an average molecular weight of 620x10(3) and 574x10(3) gmol(-1), respectively. Their activities against yellow fever virus (YFV; BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (DEN-1; Hawaii strain) were evaluated. This was carried out in young mice following intraperitoneal infection with YFV. At a dose of 49 mgkg(-1), BRS and LLS gave protection against death in 87.7 and 96.5% of the mice, respectively. When challenged with 37.5 LD50 of YFV, mice previously inoculated with BRS+virus or LLS+virus, showed 93.3 and 100% resistance, respectively, with neutralization titers similar to mice injected with 25 LD50 of formaldehyde-inactivated YFV. In vitro experiments with YFV and DEN-1 in C6/36 cell culture assays in 24-well microplates showed that concentrations that produced a 100-fold decrease in virus titer of YFV were 586 and 385 mgl(-1) for BRS and LLS, respectively. For DEN-1 they were 347 and 37 mgl(-1), respectively. Sulfated galactomannans, thus demonstrate in vitro and in vivo activity against flaviviruses. PMID:14638396

  17. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3?yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  18. A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orduño, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Díaz, M A

    2015-06-01

    Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg±1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (P<0.05). The preference in experiment 2 was A. gaumeri>H. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience. PMID:25843904

  19. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  20. Concentration of hinokinin, phenolic acids and flavonols in leaves and stems of Hydrocotyle leucocephala is differently influenced by PAR and ecologically relevant UV-B level.

    PubMed

    Müller, Viola; Lankes, Christa; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, J Barbro; Zimmermann, Benno F; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2014-09-22

    We examined the effects of ambient, non-stressing ultraviolet (UV)-B (280-315nm) level combined with different intensities of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, 400-700nm) on the accumulation of the lignan (-)-hinokinin, in leaves and stems of Hydrocotyle leucocephala. Plants were exposed in sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions to one of four light regimes, i.e. two PAR intensities (906 and 516?molm(-2)s(-1)) including or excluding UV-B radiation (0 and 0.4Wm(-2)). Besides hinokinin, we identified three chlorogenic acid isomers, one other phenolic acid, 12 quercetin, and five kaempferol derivatives in the H. leucocephala extracts. Hinokinin was most abundant in the stems, and its accumulation was slightly enhanced under UV-B exposure. We therefore assume that hinokinin contributes to cell wall stabilization and consequently to a higher resistance of the plant to environmental factors. Quercetin derivatives increasingly accumulated under UV-B and high PAR exposure at the expense of kaempferols and chlorogenic acids, which was apparently related to its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species. In general, the concentration of the constituents depended on the plant organ, the leaf age, the light regimes, and the duration of exposure. The distribution pattern of the compounds within the examined organs was not influenced by the treatments. Based on the chemical composition of the extracts a principal component analysis (PCA) enabled a clear separation of the plant organs and harvesting dates. Younger leaves mostly contained higher phenylpropanoid concentrations than older leaves. Nevertheless, more pronounced effects of the light regimes were detected in older leaves. As assessed, in many cases the individual compounds responded differently to the PAR/UV-B combinations, even within the same phenylpropanoid class. Since this is the first report on the influence of light conditions on the accumulation of lignans in herbaceous plants, it opens many perspectives for a more precise elucidation of all involved biochemical and molecular processes. PMID:25462084

  1. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth, indicating that it can be part of a long-term strategy to increase soil organic carbon in degraded soil from a desertification hotspot. PMID:25464939

  2. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  3. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  4. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10?kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26?kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45?nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor. PMID:24090421

  5. Rhizobium yanglingense sp. nov., isolated from arid and semi-arid regions in China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Z Y; Kan, F L; Peng, G X; Wang, E T; Reinhold-Hurek, B; Chen, W X

    2001-05-01

    A novel rhizobial group, cluster 9, defined in previous research [Tan, Z. Y., Wang, E. T., Peng, G. X., Zhu, M. E., Martinez-Romero, E. & Chen, W. X. (1999). Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1457-1469], was further characterized by determination of DNA base composition, whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and host specificity. These isolates were collected from the wild legumes Amphicarpaea trisperma, Coronilla varia and Gueldenstaedtia multiflora growing in arid and semi-arid regions in northwestern China. Isolates within cluster 9 grouped into a single cluster above a similarity level of 90.6% in a cluster analysis based on protein SDS-PAGE, and they were differentiated from defined rhizobial species. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolate CCBAU 71623T, representing cluster 9, was most related to Rhizobium gallicum and Rhizobium mongolense. The DNA-DNA homologies were lower than 42.4% among cluster 9 and defined species, including R. gallicum and R. mongolense. These data indicated that cluster 9 was a unique genomic species. Isolates within this cluster could share their host plants. They could not nodulate Galega orientalis and Leucaena leucocephala and formed ineffective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris. This group could also be differentiated from defined species by phenotypic characteristics. It is therefore proposed as a new species, Rhizobium yanglingense, with isolate CCBAU 71623 as the type strain. PMID:11411714

  6. Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.

    PubMed

    Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

  7. In vitro rumen fermentation of the tropical grass Pennisetum purpureum and mixtures with browse legumes: effects of tannin contents.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Mota, M; Castrillo, C; Fondevila, M

    2010-12-01

    The fermentation of Pennisetum purpureum, alone (PP) or substituted with 0.30 of the tanniferous legumes Acacia cornigera (AC), Albizia lebbekoides (AL), Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and the saponin-rich Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC) was studied in vitro, in presence or absence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as tannin binder. Inactivation of tannins with PEG increased (p < 0.05) gas production with AL and LL from 8 and 12 h to the end of the incubation period respectively. When PEG was added, LL and AC promoted a higher (p < 0.05) gas volume than PP in the first 12 h incubation, and there were not differences between PP and AL. Substrate mixtures reduced (p < 0.05) methane volume produced compared with PP, but this was not related to PEG inclusion (p > 0.10). There was a trend (p = 0.06) for a higher 48 h bacterial attachment to the substrate when incubated without PEG. The decrease in fermentation of EC from 12 h incubation onwards could be associated with a negative mid-term effect of saponins over cellulolytic bacterial activity. It is concluded that the effects of tannins on microbial fermentation of mixed forage substrates are variable, depending on their nature, but do not have a marked impact on bacterial adhesion or methane production. PMID:20579189

  8. Mesorhizobium albiziae sp. nov., a novel bacterium that nodulates Albizia kalkora in a subtropical region of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Qin; Wang, En Tao; Liu, Jie; Chen, Qiang; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Feng; Chen, Wen Xin

    2007-06-01

    A novel Mesorhizobium group associated with Albizia kalkora [Wang et al. (2006), Syst Appl Microbiol 29, 502-517] was further characterized. The seven strains in this group showed similar protein patterns and were different from defined Mesorhizobium species in SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins. The representative strain CCBAU 61158(T) formed a novel Mesorhizobium lineage in phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, atpD, glnII and nifH genes. However, its nodC gene sequence was more similar to that of Rhizobium gallicum R602sp(T) than to those of Mesorhizobium species. DNA-DNA relatedness between CCBAU 61158(T) and reference strains of defined Mesorhizobium species was lower than 34.1 %. These results indicated that this Mesorhizobium group was a unique genomic species. The subtropical distribution, host origin, PCR-RFLP patterns of 16S rRNA genes, fatty acid profile and a series of phenotypic characteristics could be used as distinctive features of this group. This group is therefore proposed as a novel species, Mesorhizobium albiziae sp. nov., with CCBAU 61158(T) (=LMG 23507(T)=USDA 4964(T)) as the type strain. Strain CCBAU 61158(T) could form effective nodules on Albizia julibrissin, Glycine max, Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris. PMID:17551028

  9. Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos

    PubMed Central

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

  10. in Silico mutagenesis and docking studies of active site residues suggest altered substrate specificity and possible physiological role of Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1)

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Prashant; Patel, Krunal; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Singh, Somesh; Khan, Bashir Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) carries out the first committed step in monolignol biosynthesis and acts as a first regulatory point in lignin formation. CCR shows multiple substrate specificity towards various cinnamoyl CoA esters. Here, in Silico mutagenesis studies of active site residues of Ll-CCRH1 were carried out. Homology modeling based modeled 3D structure of Ll-CCRH1 was used as template for in Silico mutant preparations. Docking simulations of Ll-CCRH1 mutants with CoA esters by AutoDock Vina tools showed altered substrate specificity as compared to wild type. The study evidences that conformational changes, and change in geometry or architecture of active site pocket occurred following mutations. The altered substrate specificity for active site mutants suggests the possible physiological role of CCR either in lignin formation or in defense system in plants. Abbreviations Ll-CCRH1 - Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1, OPLS - Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations, RMSD - Root Mean Square Deviation. PMID:23515358

  11. Distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal chemical fractions in artificial soil on rock cut slopes alongside railways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Ai, Yingwei; Fang, Chen; Wang, Kexiu; Li, Wei; Liu, Shui; Li, Chunlin; Xiao, Jingyao; Huang, Zhiyu

    2014-05-30

    Artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes alongside railroad tracks to promote revegetation. This study evaluated the heavy metal content and the distribution of heavy metal chemical fractions in the soil, as well as the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The soil at four sites was determined to be considerably contaminated with Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increased with the length of time the railway had been in use and decreased further away from the railway tracks. Pb primarily existed in reducible form but as residual fractions, whereas Cd was predominantly in exchangeable form. A correlation analysis indicated that pH, organic matter, and total phosphorus levels were important factors affecting the distribution of the heavy metal chemical fractions. The amounts of exchangeable Pb and Cd in the soil were highly correlated with their amounts in the plants sampled, indicating that the exchangeable fraction is a better indication of heavy metal phytoavailability than the total amount of heavy metals in the soil. Bioaccumulation and translocation factors indicated that Indigofera amblyantha had moderate tolerance and bioaccumulation capability for Pb, as did Leucaena leucocephala for Cd. These two plant species can serve as ideal slope remediation plants. PMID:24727018

  12. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes. PMID:18551378

  13. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P < 0.01) methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity. PMID:22205224

  14. Rehabilitation of a debris-flow prone mountain stream in southwestern China - Strategies, effects and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guo-an; Huang, He Qing; Wang, Zhaoyin; Brierley, Gary; Zhang, Kang

    2012-01-01

    SummaryRehabilitation of Shengou Creek, a small, steep mountain stream in southwestern China that is prone to debris flows, started more than 30 years ago through an integrated program of engineering applications (check dams and guiding dikes), biological measures (reforestation), and social measures (reducing human disturbance). Small and medium-sized check dams and guiding dikes were constructed on key upper and middle sections of the creek to stabilize hillslopes and channel bed. Meanwhile, Leucaena leucocephala, a drought-tolerant, fast-growing, and highly adaptive plant species, was introduced to promote vegetation recovery in the watershed. The collective community structure of tree, shrub, and herb assemblages in the artificial L. leucocephala forest, which developed after 7 years, enhanced soil structure and drastically reduced soil erosion on hillslopes. Cultivation of steep land was strictly controlled in the basin, and some inhabitants were encouraged to move from upstream areas to downstream towns to reduce disturbance. These integrated measures reduced sediment supply from both hillslopes and upstream channels, preventing sediment-related hazards. The development of natural streambed resistance structures (mainly step-pool systems) and luxuriant riparian vegetation aided channel stability, diversity of stream habitat, and ecological maintenance in the creek. These findings are compared with Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, two adjacent non-rehabilitated debris-flow streams which have climate and geomorphologic conditions similar to Shengou Creek. Habitat diversity indices, taxa richness, biodiversity, and bio-community indices are much higher in Shengou Creek relative to Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, attesting to the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures.

  15. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88?±?2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

  16. Reproductive Capacities and Development of a Seed Bruchid Beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a Potential Host for the Mass Rearing of the Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis

    PubMed Central

    TQ, Effowe; K, Amevoin; Y, Nuto; D, Mondedji; IA, Glitho

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive capacities and development of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), found in Togo, were determined under natural conditions in a Guinean zone for its use as a substitute host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalts Rond (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a biological agent for the control of beetles that are pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae). Population dynamics at the field level; and survival, fecundity and offspring production by A. macrophthalmus under laboratory conditions were measured when fed on its natural plant-host Leucaena leucocephala (Lamark) deWit (Fabales: Mimosaceae). The data resulting from the laboratory study were used to calculate the demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus by establishing its fertility and life tables. Contrary to cultivated leguminous food plants, L. leucocephala is a perennial sub-spontaneous leguminous plant whose pods are available year round. Although A. macrophthalmus was present in nature throughout the year, its infestation rate of the pods fluctuated according to the phenology of the plant. The maximum infestation of L. leucocephala pods was observed between August and December. Four larval stages and one pupal stage of A. macrophthalmus were identified in the laboratory. The total mean development time varied on average 33.75 ± 2.87 days on the mature pods and 33.39 ± 2.02 days on seeds. The adult female lived from one to two weeks. During its life time, the female laid an average of 62.3 ± 19 and 43.1 ± 13 eggs on the mature pods and seeds respectively and produced an average of 36.7 ± 11.3 offspring on the mature pods and 21.8 ± 8.4 offspring on seeds. On seeds, the net reproduction rate was 5.88 females per female and the intrinsic rate of population increase 0.051 per day. The generation time was 34.59 days and the doubling time 13.59 days. The demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus in this study are close to those of Callobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), the natural host of D. basalts in a previous study. A. macrophthalmus could therefore be used as substitute host for the mass rearing of D. basalts and subsequently its release in farmers' storage containers. The data presented in this study provide some baseline information regarding the reproductive capacities of A. macrophthalmus that may be useful for its promotion as a substitute host for mass rearing of D. basalts. PMID:20879923

  17. Reproductive capacities and development of a seed Bruchid beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a potential host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis.

    PubMed

    Effowe, T Q; Amevoin, K; Nuto, Y; Mondedji, D; Glitho, I A

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive capacities and development of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), found in Togo, were determined under natural conditions in a Guinean zone for its use as a substitute host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalts Rond (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a biological agent for the control of beetles that are pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae). Population dynamics at the field level; and survival, fecundity and offspring production by A. macrophthalmus under laboratory conditions were measured when fed on its natural plant-host Leucaena leucocephala (Lamark) deWit (Fabales: Mimosaceae). The data resulting from the laboratory study were used to calculate the demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus by establishing its fertility and life tables. Contrary to cultivated leguminous food plants, L. leucocephala is a perennial sub-spontaneous leguminous plant whose pods are available year round. Although A. macrophthalmus was present in nature throughout the year, its infestation rate of the pods fluctuated according to the phenology of the plant. The maximum infestation of L. leucocephala pods was observed between August and December. Four larval stages and one pupal stage of A. macrophthalmus were identified in the laboratory. The total mean development time varied on average 33.75 ± 2.87 days on the mature pods and 33.39 ± 2.02 days on seeds. The adult female lived from one to two weeks. During its life time, the female laid an average of 62.3 ± 19 and 43.1 ± 13 eggs on the mature pods and seeds respectively and produced an average of 36.7 ± 11.3 offspring on the mature pods and 21.8 ± 8.4 offspring on seeds. On seeds, the net reproduction rate was 5.88 females per female and the intrinsic rate of population increase 0.051 per day. The generation time was 34.59 days and the doubling time 13.59 days. The demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus in this study are close to those of Callobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), the natural host of D. basalts in a previous study. A. macrophthalmus could therefore be used as substitute host for the mass rearing of D. basalts and subsequently its release in farmers' storage containers. The data presented in this study provide some baseline information regarding the reproductive capacities of A. macrophthalmus that may be useful for its promotion as a substitute host for mass rearing of D. basalts. PMID:20879923

  18. Journal ofArid Environments(1995) 29:15-23 Seed dormancy and persistence of Acacia berlandieri and

    E-print Network

    Archer, Steven R.

    Journal ofArid Environments(1995) 29:15-23 Seed dormancy and persistence of Acacia berlandieri, accepted 9June 1993) Seed longevity of the leguminous shrubs Acacia berlandieri and Leucaena pulverulenta fluctuating day/night temperatures (40°C/20°C vs. 50°C/30°C) under dry and moist conditions. Acacia seed

  19. Re-marriage of crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, P.K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

  20. Economic development through biomass systems integration in central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, J.A.; Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    A biomass to energy system for central Florida was conceptualized with sugarcane as the main feedstock. Additional feedstocks include elephantgrass, leucaena (woody tropical legume), and Eucalyptus. Juice will be pressed from sugarcane and sugars fermented into ethanol with conventional technology. Enough sugarcane will be grown to supply a conventional ethanol plant with juice for a 330 day operating period each yr. Juice will be condensed to 24 degrees Brix for direct conversion during the approximately 100 day harvest season and to 70 degrees Brix for storage and use the remaining 230 days. Residues (mainly lignin), from converting lignocellulosic materials to ethanol, will fuel the plant including evaporators for sugarcane juice. Sugarcane presscake, elephantgrass, leucaena, and Eucalyptus will be feedstocks for the lignocellulose conversion processes. The lignocellulose plant will be sized to convert all sugarcane presscake as it is produced to reduce storage costs. Elephantgrass, leucaena and Eucalyptus will feed the plant outside sugarcane harvest season. The biomass/energy system will produce 123,230,000 L (32,830,000 gal) of ethanol per year with 90% conversion of sugars from juice, hemicellulose, and cellulose to ethanol. Estimated cost of producing ethanol form various feedstocks include: sugarcane $0.25/L ($0.94/gal), elephantgrass $0.30/L ($1.13/gal), 1 leucaena $0.28/L ($1.06/gal), and Eucalyptus $0.28/L (1.07/gal). Future opportunities exist for development of a chemical industry based on lignocellulose materials from biomass.

  1. Reserve carbohydrate levels in the boles and structural roots of five multipurpose tree species in a seasonally dry tropical climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R Latt; P. K. R Nair; B. T Kang

    2001-01-01

    It is important to know the seasonal cycles of reserve carbohydrates in agroforestry trees because their ability to sprout after cutting may depend on reserve carbohydrate levels. Such information is lacking for tropical agroforestry trees. Reserve carbohydrate trends were examined in uncut, 12-year-old multipurpose trees in the seasonally dry climate of Ibadan, Nigeria. Species included Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena

  2. Landscape and microsite influences on shrub recruitment in a disturbed semi-arid Quercus-Juniperus woodland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Owens; R. B. Wallace; S. R. Archer

    1995-01-01

    Seedling demography of the leguminous shrubs Leucaena pulverulenta and Acacia berlandieri was monitored to determine the functional role of microsites in the resto- ration of disturbed semiarid woodlands. Seeds were sown on replicated landscapes during 1989 and again in 1990 into four microsites after brush clearing: 1) Rocky, with shallow soils (<10 cm) and low vegetative cover (<<50%), 2) Herbaceous,

  3. HAWAII NATURAL ENERGY INSTITUTEwww.hnei.hawaii.edu Bioenergy Research

    E-print Network

    cell · Biocarbon yield improvement for Si production · Biocarbon soil amendment to enhance plant growth Leucaena Jatropha Kukui MicroAlgae Soybean Peanut Sunflower Oil Palm Cassava FermentationHydrolysis Sugars Starch Fiber Oil Hydrolysis Transesterification Combustion Gasification Pyrolysis Ethanol Biodiesel

  4. Anim. Res. 54 (2005) 173178 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2005

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ), gliricidia (GLM) leaf meals both included at 20% of dry matter, or a control diet (CTL). Semen volume forthe meals at 20% in rations for mature rabbit bucks could cause mild depressive effects on semen production and quality. rabbit / semen / forage tree legume Résumé ­ Effet de l'incorporation de feuilles de leucaena ou

  5. Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Colin E.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Robertson, Ashley; Filer, Denis L.; Harris, Stephen A.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2007-01-01

    Backyard gardens, dump heaps, and kitchen middens are thought to have provided important venues for early crop domestication via generation of hybrids between otherwise isolated plant species. However, this process has rarely been demonstrated empirically. For the majority of polyploid crops, it remains uncertain to what extent hybridization and polyploidization preceded domestication or were precipitated by human activities. Using archaeological, ethnobotanical, geographical, and genetic data, we investigate the extent and significance of predomestication cultivation, backyard sympatry, and spontaneous hybridization for the Mimosoid legume tree Leucaena, which is used as a food crop throughout south-central Mexico. We show that predomestication cultivation was widespread, involved numerous independent transitions from the wild to cultivation, and resulted in extensive artificial sympatry of 2–6 species locally and 13 species in total. Using chloroplast and rapidly evolving nuclear-encoded DNA sequences, we demonstrate that hybridization in Leucaena has been extensive and complex, spawning a diverse set of novel hybrids as a result of juxtaposition of species in cultivation. The scale and complexity of hybridization in Leucaena is significantly greater than that documented for any other Mexican plant domesticates so far. However, there are striking parallels between Leucaena and the other major Mexican perennial domesticates Agave and Opuntia, which show very similar domestication via backyard hybridization pathways. Our results suggest that backyard hybridization has played a central role in Mesoamerican crop domestication and demonstrate that the simple step of bringing species together in cultivation can provide a potent trigger for domestication. PMID:17704256

  6. The effect of protein supplement source or supply pattern on the intake, digestibility, rumen kinetics, nitrogen utilisation and growth of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. K. Bonsi; A. K. Tuah; P. O. Osuji; V. I. Nsahlai; N. N. Umunna

    1996-01-01

    A series of trials were conducted to study the effect of either nitrogen source or supply pattern on the growth, rumen fermentation pattern and utilisation of straw by Ethiopian Menz sheep. All experimental sheep were given teff straw basal diet (CON). Irrespective of the trial, treatment sheep were offered either cottonseed cake (CSC), leucaena (LEU) and sesbania (SESM) in the

  7. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P?Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P?

  8. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  9. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Baah, J; McAllister, T A

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall's buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  10. Determination of tropical forage preferences using two offering methods in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D

    2014-04-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1(st) method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  11. Foliar Chlorosis in Symbiotic Host and Nonhost Plants Induced by Rhizobium tropici Type B Strains

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Kevin P.; Handelsman, Jo

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 induced chlorosis in the leaves of its symbiotic hosts, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb.), and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Chlorosis induction by strains CIAT899 and CT9005, an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of CIAT899, required carbon substrate. When the bacteria were added at planting in a solution of mannitol (50 g/liter), as few as 103 cells of CIAT899 were sufficient to induce chlorosis in bean plants. All carbon sources tested, including organic acids and mono- and disaccharides, supported chlorosis induction. The addition of a carbon source did not affect the growth rate or the population density of CT9005 in the bean plant rhizosphere. Cell-free filtrates of cultures of CT9005 did not induce detectable chlorosis. All type B strains of R. tropici tested also induced chlorosis in common bean. Type A strains of R. tropici and all other species of bacteria tested did not induce chlorosis. Several lines of evidence indicated that nodulation was not required for chlorosis induction. Strain RSP900, a pSym-cured derivative of CIAT899, induced chlorosis in wild-type P. vulgaris. In addition, NOD125, a nodulation-defective line of common bean, developed chlorosis when inoculated with CIAT899, but did not develop nodules. CIAT899 consistently induced severe chlorosis in the leaves of the nonhost legumes alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), and induced chlorosis in 29 to 58% of the plants tested of sunflower, cucumber, and tomato seedlings, but it did not induce chlorosis in the leaves of corn or wheat. Chlorosis induction in nonhost plants also required carbon substrate. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that R. tropici type B strains produce a chlorosis-inducing factor that affects a wide range of plant species. PMID:16348994

  12. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  13. Phenotypic, Molecular and Symbiotic Characterization of the Rhizobial Symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart That Grow in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, María Florencia; López, José Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, María Antonieta; Pensiero, José Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart belongs to the D. virgatus complex, subfamily Mimosoidae. The known potential as livestock fodder of several of these legumes prompted us to undertake a phenotypic, molecular, and symbiotic characterization of the D. paspalaceus symbionts in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The rhizobia collected—containing isolates with different abiotic-stress tolerances—showed a remarkable genetic diversity by PCR fingerprinting, with 11 different amplification profiles present among 20 isolates. In selected isolates 16S-rDNA sequencing detected mesorhizobia (60%) and rhizobia (40%) within the collection, in contrast to the genus of the original inoculant strain CB3126—previously isolated from Leucaena leucocephala—that we typified here through its 16S rDNA as Sinorhizobium terangae. The results revealed the establishment by diverse bacterial genera -rhizobia, sinorhizobia, and mesorhizobia- of full N2-fixing symbiotic associations with D. paspalaceus. This diversity was paralleled by the presence of at least two different nodC allelic variants. The identical nodC alleles of the Mesorhizobia sp. 10.L.4.2 and 10.L.5.3 notably failed to group within any of the currently described rhizo-/brady-/azorhizobial nodC clades. Interestingly, the nodC from S. terangae CB3126 clustered close to homologs from common bean nodulating rhizobia, but not with the nodC from S. terangae WSM1721 that nodulates Acacia. No previous data were available on nod-gene phylogeny for Desmanthus symbionts. A field assay indicated that inoculation of D. paspalaceus with the local Rhizobium sp. 10L.11.4 produced higher aerial-plant dry weights compared to S. teranga CB3126–inoculated plants. Neither the mesorhizobia 10.L.4.2 or 10.L.5.3 nor the rhizobium 10L.11.4 induced root nodules in L. leucocephala or P. vulgaris. The results show that some of the local isolates have remarkable tolerances to several abiotic stresses including acidity, salt, and temperature; while exhibiting prominent N2 fixation; thus indicating suitability as candidates for inoculation of D. paspalaceus. PMID:25153989

  14. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest that TRP fed as pellets could be used to decrease methane production. PMID:25568379

  15. Nutritional Evaluation of non Forage High Fibrous Tropical Feeds for Ruminant Using in vitro Gas Production Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    Six non forage high fibrous tropical feedstuffs were used to evaluate their nutritive value using an in vitro gas production technique. The rumen mixed microbe inoculums were taken from 2 fistulated Brahman-Thai native crossbred steers. The treatments were 1) palm meal (mech-extd), 2) palm meal (solv-extd), 3) leucaena meal (leaf and stem), 4) coconut meal (mech-extd), 5) mung bean meal

  16. Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland

    SciTech Connect

    Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Rural Development and Technology

    1996-10-01

    The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

  17. The effect of feeding system on carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and retail cut percentages of lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E Moron-Fuenmayor; T Clavero

    1999-01-01

    Thirty crossbred West African lambs were assigned randomly to three different feeding systems: T1: grass pasture grazing (Cenchrus ciliaris) +2h\\/day of grazing leucaena; T2: grazing pasture +300g of feed concentrate and T3: grazing only on grass pasture in order to determine the effect of feed supplementation on carcass characteristics, non-carcass components, retail cut percentages and quality of lambs carcasses. Full

  18. Biological nitrogen fixation to maximize productivity of intercropped legumes and non?legumes: Ten years of field experimentations in semi?arid deserts of egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Hegazi; M. Fayez

    2001-01-01

    A number of field trials was executed in semi?arid deserts of Ismailia, Egypt, to experiment growth and productivity of sole or mixed canopies of legumes (soybean, leucaena, sesbania, berseem and grasspea) and non?legumes (corn, Rhodes grass, elephant grass, ryegrass and barley) when inoculated with N2?fixing bacteria (diazotrophs) in presence or absence of N fertilizers. An average estimate of > 20

  19. Seed and seedling persistence of two leguminous shrubs on a semi-arid site in southwest Texas

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Robert Brittingham

    1991-01-01

    . In the field, survival of controls and repeatedly defoliated seedlings was 100 and & 3%, respectively. Seedling emergence on four microsites (HE ? herbaceous sod, JU ? duff layer remaining after tree removal, RO ? rock and soil with little vegetative cover..., and TR ? intact tree with underlying duff layer) varied by only 9% (Acacia) and 13% (Leucaena) between sites. Maximum first season establishment occurred on JU and TR (& 80%) for Acacia and, when natural precipitation was not supplemented, TR...

  20. Technical Note: Tissue Residues of Mimosine and 2,3-Dihydroxypyridine After Intravenous Infusion in Goats1r2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sahlu; R. Puchala; P. J. Reis; J. J. Davis; K. Tesfai; J. M. Fernandez; A. A. Millamenat

    Sixteen growing Alpine wethers of MIM and 2,3-DHP were found in plasma, kidney, (average BW 35 2 2 kg) were assigned to one of four and liver samples. Kidney MIM content was greater treatments to evaluate tissue retention of the leucaena (P < .01) than that of liver, although liver tended to toxins mimosine (MIM) and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine retain slightly more

  1. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  2. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-04-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P<0.05; 10.4±0.06 kg/cow per day) in the SPS than in the OP (9.5±0.06 kg/cow per day) during the 1st year, but did not significantly differ (P>0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P<0.05) values for herbage mass and milk yield were observed during the 3rd year. In the SPS, with moderate shade (19% shade relative to a full-sun condition), the grass CP was higher (P<0.05) than in the OP, although the NDF content and digestibility coefficient were not modified. The animals spent more time (P<0.05) idling in the SPS than in OP. The higher legume proportion in the SPS was associated with the higher CP level in B. decumbens relative to the OP, which could explain the better (P<0.05) performance of the cows in silvopastoral areas during the 1st year. However, during the 2nd and 3rd years, similarities in the legume percentages of both systems resulted in similar (P>0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production. PMID:24703358

  3. Neotropical dry forests of the Caribbean: Secondary forest dynamics and restoration in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Brian F.

    Neotropical dry forests exist today mainly as secondary forests heavily influenced by exotic plants. This project analyzes land-cover change and secondary dry forest dynamics in three distinct phases (land cover change, secondary forest succession and forest rehabilitation), using St. Croix, US Virgin Islands as an example. Using Landsat satellite images and other data layers, I created classified land cover maps of St. Croix for 1992 and 2002. Forest was the dominant (56%) cover type on both dates, followed by development, grassland/pastures and water. A land cover change analysis comparing the two images revealed that 15% of the study area experienced a change either to (8%) or from (7%) forest. Grassland was the cover most likely to change and decreased from 16% to 11%, converted primarily to development. The overall result is a landscape trending toward younger forests, and increased forest fragmentation and development. In a second study, vegetation data from a chronosequence of secondary forests was analyzed for changes to forest structure, species composition and presence of exotic species. The leguminous exotic tree Leucaena leucocephala was by far the most frequently observed tree and dominated all stands, except those over 50 years old. Species diversity was significantly ( p<0.001) higher for forests in the two oldest age classes and there was a strong trend toward increasing canopy complexity with increased age. However, age class accounted for only a small portion of variability in species diversity, indicating other influencing factors. Slope, elevation, aspect and soil were not significant and sites with long histories of intensive agricultural land-use remained low in species diversity and dominated by exotics >50 years after abandonment. In a third experiment, a 'gap planting' method for establishing four rare native tree species was tested on a site experiencing arrested succession. All four species successfully established at >69% survival in 3m diameter gaps artificially created in exotic tree stands. A mulch treatment significantly (p<0.01) increased survival, but not growth. This study demonstrates on St. Croix forest is the primary land cover type and secondary forests are predominant forest type. The species composition of these forests is dynamic, but they tend to be dominated by exotic tree species and over 50 years of natural succession is insufficient time for secondary forest stands to advance beyond the earliest successional stages. These results can be applied to jump-start native forest succession and rehabilitate degraded secondary forests.

  4. Vegetational, edaphic and topographic relationships of a 25-year exclosure on the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Terry Warren

    1973-01-01

    include vasey shin oak, live oak, Texas persimmon (Diospyros temana), Texas kidneywood (Eysenhardtia tezana), Texas sophora (Sophoza affinis), ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), elbowbush Forestiera pubescens), and little leaf leadtree (Leucaena zetusd... to the nearest tenth. Category Number of stands Species Woody 1 2 AC F 3 4 'AC F AC F Eorestiera pubescens Juniperus ashei prosopis glandulosa @ ercus pungens Rhus cromatica 1. 7 5 1. 1 24 0. 3 3 2. 3 9 9. 4 25 1. 0 10 2. 5 21 2. 2 12 0. 2...

  5. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  6. Linking Above- and Belowground Dynamics in Tropical Urban Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, E. E.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary forests that emerge after a long history of agriculture can have altered plant community composition and relative abundances of different species. These forests can look and behave differently compared to pre-agricultural forests due changes in primary productivity, resource allocation, and phenology, which can significantly affect processes such as carbon accumulation and nutrient availability. Our research explores how alternative successional trajectories following intensive agricultural use affect linkages among the establishment of novel plant communities, soil nutrient availability and turnover, and soil microbial community composition and function. We hypothesize that different plant species composition due to differing land use legacies and successional trajectories would drive changes in soil microbial community structure and function, affecting soil C and N chemistry and turnover. We conducted this research in the subtropical dry forest life zone of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands where island-wide abandonment of sugarcane resulted in a mosaic of sites in different stages of forest succession. We identified replicate sites with the following post-sugarcane trajectories: 1) natural forest regeneration, 2) low intensity pasture use, followed by reforestation with timber plantation, which are no longer being managed, 3) high intensity pasture use and recent natural forest regeneration, and 4) high intensity pasture use and current active grazing. During 2011-2013, we sampled soils seasonally (0-10 cm) and measured tree species composition. The successional trajectories showed distinct tree species composition. The first two trajectories yielded 40-year old mixed-species secondary forest, dominated by the dry forest tree species Melicoccus bijugatas, Guapira fragrans, Maniklara zapota, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum. The tree species Melicoccus bijugatas primarily drove differences between the first two trajectories (natural forest regeneration vs. timber plantation and subsequent forest regeneration) while the N-fixing species Leucaena leucocephala drove differences between these forests and younger forests (10-year old), which only recently regenerated. The 40-year old mixed-species forests, regardless of successional trajectory, both had higher soil organic C and N (40 × 6 Mg C/ha and 3.8 × 6 Mg N/ha) compared to younger forests (32 × 2 Mg C/ha and 2.9 × 0.2 Mg N/ha) and active pastures. Active pastures had the lowest soil organic C and N (22 × 6 Mg C/ha and 2.1 × 0.5 Mg N/ha). We found that each successional trajectory showed distinct soil microbial community composition. In addition, the recently regenerated younger forests, dominated by N-fixing tree species, had higher microbial biomass and higher rates of N-cycling enzyme activity (N-acetyl glucosaminidase) when compared with the older, mixed-species forest. Our next step is to link microbial community structure and function with distinct forms of soil organic matter (SOM), and thus determine whether changes in function create distinct SOM stabilization pathways. To do this we will compare SOM chemistry and turnover for the different successional trajectories and analyze data from long-term leaf litter and root transplant experiments between the young and old secondary forests.

  7. Biomass energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes strategies to develop biomass energy; capture and use waste when possible; select and improve plant species as energy crops adaptable to both terrestrial and aquatic environments; advance both biological and thermochemical conversion technologies to produce needed fuel forms (solids, liquids, or gases); and adapt these to compatible utilization options. More specifically, some topics include: characteristics of industrial wood energy users; research on short-rotation woody crops in the South; biomass production and nutrient removal by leucaena in colder subtropics; biomass programs of the Southern Agricultural Energy Center; biomass production from herbaceous plants; marine biomass production; harvesting systems for aquatic biomass; thermochemical processes for bioenergy production; utilization of biomass fuel for production of electric power; gas cleaning systems for small scale gasifiers; prediction of methane yields from biomass; methane production and utilization at fuel alcohol production facilities; ethanol fermentations; production of ethanol from wood by acid hydrolysis and fermentation; and material and energy balances for processing high fiber sugarcane.

  8. Genetic diversity of Rhizobium from nodulating beans grown in a variety of Mediterranean climate soils of Chile.

    PubMed

    Baginsky, Cecilia; Brito, Belén; Scherson, Rosita; Pertuzé, Ricardo; Seguel, Oscar; Cañete, Alejandro; Araneda, Cristian; Johnson, Warren E

    2015-04-01

    In spite of potentially being an important source of rhizobial diversity and a key determinant of common bean productivity, there is a paucity of data on Rhizobium genetic variation and species composition in the important bean producing area of Chile and only one species has been documented (Rhizobium leguminosarum). In this study, 240 Rhizobium isolates from Torcaza bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nodules established in the highest bean producing area in Chile (33°34'S-70°38'W and 37°36'S-71°47'W) were characterized by PCR-RFLP markers for nodC gene, revealing eight banding patterns with the polymorphic enzyme Hinf I. The locality of San Agustín de Aurora in Central Chile (35°32'S-71°29'W) had the highest level of diversity. Isolates were classified by species using PCR-RFLP markers for 16S rDNA gene and were confirmed by sequencing an internal fragment of the 16S rDNA gene. The results confirmed the presence of R. leguminosarum and three other species of rhizobia nodulating beans in South Central Chile (R. etli, R. tropici and R. leucaenae). R. tropici and R. leucaenae showed the least genetic variation and were most commonly identified in acid soils, while R. etli was the most common species in slightly acidic to moderately alkaline soils, with higher levels of organic matter content. R. leguminosarum was identified in almost all soils, was the most genetically diverse, and was the most common, being documented in soils with pH that ranged between 5.3 and 8.2, and with organic matter content between 2.1 and 4 %. PMID:25533847

  9. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in Mycteria leucocephala Pennant 1769: molted feathers as successful DNA source.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Mustafa, Mohd; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2014-10-01

    DNA from molted feathers is being increasingly used for genetic studies on birds. However, the DNA obtained from such non-invasive sources is often not of enough quantity and quality for isolation of new microsatellite markers. The present study examined the potential of shed feathers of near threatened Painted Stork as a source of its DNA for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. Thirty-one shed feathers of varying conditions ('good' and 'deteriorated') and sizes ('large', 'intermediate' and 'small') collected in a north Indian population were used to isolate DNA by a standard isopropanol method and 11 microsatellite markers already developed in the Wood Stork were screened for amplification. Nine plucked feathers from two dead Painted Storks were also used to compare the DNA yield and amplification success. The DNA yield of feathers varied significantly in relation to the calamus size and condition. Among molted feathers, 'good' and 'large' samples provided more DNA than 'deteriorated' and 'small' ones, respectively. 'Large' plucked feathers yielded more DNA than 'large' molted feathers. DNA was almost degraded in all the samples and ratio of absorbance at 260/280 nm varied from 1.0 to 1.8, indicating impurity in many samples. Independent of DNA yields, all microsatellites were cross-amplified in all kinds of feathers, with > 80% success in different feather categories. It is concluded that the shed feathers can be successfully used to isolate DNA in the Painted Stork and for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. PMID:25345251

  10. Microsatellite markers for two stifftail ducks: the white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala, and the ruddy duck, O. jamaicensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIOLETA MUÑOZ-FUENTES; NICLAS GYLLENSTRAND; JUAN J. NEGRO; ANDY J. GREEN; CARLES VILÀ

    Hybridization with a close relative, the North American ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), is a major problem for the conservation of the endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leu- cocephala). We report the development of 11 microsatellite markers that can facilitate the identification of hybrids as well as the study of the population structure of both species across their distributions. These markers were

  11. Comparing the genetics of wild and captive populations of White-headed Ducks Oxyura leucocephala : consequences for recovery programmes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIOLETA MUÑOZ-FUENTES; ANDY J. GREEN; MICHAEL D. SORENSON

    2008-01-01

    The White-headed Duck is a globally threatened species historically recorded from Spain in the west to China in the east. It has suffered major population declines, local extinctions and range fragmentation. Several projects have attempted to reintroduce captive-bred birds into parts of the former range in Europe, but with little success. Two captive stocks currently exist, one originating from Pakistan

  12. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 ?M. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 ?M, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 ?M, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  13. Phytochrome Effects in the Nyctinastic Leaf Movements of Albizzia julibrissin and Some Other Legumes.

    PubMed

    Hillman, W S; Koukkari, W L

    1967-10-01

    Participation of phytochrome is evident in the nyctinastic response of leaves of Albizzia julibrissin (silk-tree), Albizzia lophantha, Leucaena glauca, Poinciana gilliesi and Calliandra inequilatera; closure of excised pairs of pinnules upon darkening is rapid following red illumination and slow following far-red. Under good conditions the difference is obvious within 10 minutes. These observations confirm a report by Fondeville, Borthwick, and Hendricks on the sensitive plant, Mimosa pudica, but indicate that the effect bears no necessary relationship to the anomalous sensitivity of Mimosa. In A. julibrissin, phytochrome control is marked in experiments conducted early in the daily 12-hour light period and appears absent, or nearly so, toward the end of the light period, perhaps due to interaction with an endogenous circadian rhythm. Effects of leaf maturity and of the position of a pinnule-pair within a leaf are also evident.These results are not easily reconciled with hypotheses of phytochrome action through gene activation and nucleic acid synthesis, but are consistent with hypotheses based on permeability changes and membrane properties. The magnitude and reproducibility of the response in A. julibrissin suggest its use as a laboratory exercise; this and related systems should prove valuable for eventual identification of the mechanism of phytochrome action. PMID:16656671

  14. Homestead tree planting in two rural Swazi communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Tree planting practices were investigated on a total of 95 homesteads in two communities in rural Swaziland. Information was also collected on socioeconomic characteristics of the homesteads. In both the study areas, Sigombeni and Bhekinkosi, there was considerable variation amongst individual homesteads in size, relative wealth (as indicated by cattle and motor vehicle ownership), and amount and types of trees planted. Eighty-five percent of all homesteads in Sigombeni and 73% in Bhekinkosi had planted at least one tree. Common forms of planting included small woodlots, fruit trees, and ornamentals. Virtually all the woodlots consisted of two introduced wattle species (Acacia mearnsii and A. decurrens). The most commonly planted fruit trees were avocados, bananas, and peaches. No complex or labor-intensive agroforestry practices (such as maize/leucaena intercropping) were observed. There was some evidence that the poorest and newest homesteads were the least likely to have planted any trees and that the richest homesteads were the most likely to have planted woodlots. The results indicate that forestry research and extension efforts should take into account homestead characteristics, and strive to offer a range of tree planting options that vary in input requirements, labor needs, and complexity.

  15. Hawaii integrated biofuels research program, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Patrick K.

    1989-10-01

    Hawaii provides a unique environment for production of biomass resources that can be converted into renewable energy products. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of several biomass resources, including sugarcane, eucalyptus, and leucaena, particularly for utilization in thermochemical conversion processes to produce liquid or gaseous transportation fuels. This research program supports ongoing efforts of the Biofuels and Municipal Solid Waste Technology (BMWT) Program of the Department of Energy (DOE) and has goals that are consistent with BMWT. The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) work completed here consists of research activities that support two of the five renewable fuel cycles being pursued by DOE researchers. The results are directly applicable in the American territories throughout the Pacific Basin and the Caribbean, and also to many parts of the United States and worldwide. The Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program is organized into the following six research tasks, which are presented as appendices in report form: Biomass Resource Assessment and System Modeling (Task 1); Bioenergy Tree Research (Task 2); Breeding, Culture, and Selection of Tropical Grasses for Increased Energy Potential (Task 3); Study of Eucalyptus Plantations for Energy Production in Hawaii (Task 4); Fundamental Solvolysis Research (Task 5); and Effects of Feedstock Composition on Pyrolysis Products (Task 6).

  16. Studies on in vitro degradation and in vivo digestion of a slow ammonia releasing urea product.

    PubMed

    Virk, A S; Steingass, H; Menke, K H

    1989-01-01

    a slow ammonia releasing urea product (Uromalt) has been produced by autoclaving and drying of germinated barley and urea. In vitro degradability of nitrogen (IVDN, Raab et al., 1983) was in average 62 +/- 9% in 4 hours, compared to 76 +/- 8% with an autoclaved and dried mixture of urea and not-germinated barley. Mixtures of urea with Leucaena l. or Azadarichta indica (Neem cake) showed degradabilities of about 80 and 93%, respectively, when dried at 39 degrees C, but of 65% when dried at 100 degrees C. For comparison, degradabilities of proteins of ground nut, guar, sunflower, mustard, rape and sesame cake/meal have been determined. When growing lambs were fed a ration containing 15% Uromalt, faecal N-excretion was significantly higher on the expense of urinary N-excretion, compared with groups fed isonitrogenous rations containing soya bean meal with or without urea and molasses. N-retention was not significantly affected. It is concluded that this slow ammonia releasing urea product can be used in cases where molasses or other feedingstuffs rich in rapidly fermentable carbohydrates are not available. PMID:2735818

  17. Microhabitat use and diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks (Oxyura leucocephala Scopoli, 1769) wintering at Burdur Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nergiz, Humeyra; Tabur, Mehmet Ali; Ayvaz, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    Diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks were investigated with respect to sex and temporal environmental variables to document behavioral responses to winter conditions and nutritional requirements at Burdur Lake where the largest winter concentrations occur. Behaviors of males and females were recorded separately in randomly selected focal flocks during 1140 sessions. For the entire population a large proportion of time was spent resting. During the day they spent 61% of time resting, 22% feeding, 12% comfort and 5% in locomotion. Resting peaked in the middle of day while feeding was observed frequently in evening and morning. Time use did not differ significantly between sexes. However, it was detected that more time was spent feeding during windy days as wave-height increased. PMID:24506003

  18. Phylogeny and genetic diversity of native rhizobia nodulating common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Räsänen, Leena A; Assefa, Fassil; Hailemariam, Asfaw; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-03-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of 32 rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of common bean plants grown on 30 sites in Ethiopia were examined using AFLP fingerprinting and MLSA. Based on cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints, test strains were grouped into six genomic clusters and six single positions. In a tree built from concatenated sequences of recA, glnII, rpoB and partial 16S rRNA genes, the strains were distributed into seven monophyletic groups. The strains in the groups B, D, E, G1 and G2 could be classified as Rhizobium phaseoli, R. etli, R. giardinii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens complex and A. radiobacter, respectively, whereas the strains in group C appeared to represent a novel species. R. phaseoli, R. etli, and the novel group were the major bean nodulating rhizobia in Ethiopia. The strains in group A were linked to R. leguminosarum species lineages but not resolved. Based on recA, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes sequences analysis, a single test strain was assigned as R. leucaenae. In the nodC tree the strains belonging to the major nodulating groups were clustered into two closely linked clades. They also had almost identical nifH gene sequences. The phylogenies of nodC and nifH genes of the strains belonging to R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. etli and the putative new species (collectively called R. leguminosarum species complex) were not consistent with the housekeeping genes, suggesting symbiotic genes have a common origin which is different from the core genome of the species and indicative of horizontal gene transfer among these rhizobia. PMID:22265597

  19. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of legume condensed tannins on in vitro larval migration inhibition of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Armstrong, S A; Lambert, B D; Muir, J P; Tedeschi, L O; Kothmann, M M

    2014-01-17

    The effect of molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) from a variety of warm-season perennial legumes commonly consumed by sheep and goats on anthelmintic activity has not been previously explored. The objectives of this study were to determine if molecular weight of CT from warm-season perennial legumes could predict the biological activity of CT relative to anthelmintic activity against ivermectin resistant L3 stage Haemonchus contortus (HC) using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. A second objective was to determine if CT from warm-season perennial legumes possess anthelmintic properties against L3 stage (HC). Lespedeza stuevei had the greatest concentration of total condensed tannin (TCT; 11.7%), whereas, with the exception of Arachis glabrata, a CT-free negative control, Leucaena retusa had the least TCT (3.3%). Weight-average molecular weight of CT ranged from 552 Da for L. stuevei to 1483 Da for Lespedeza cuneata. The treatments demonstrating the greatest percent LMI were L. retusa, L. stuevei and Acacia angustissima var. hirta (65.4%, 63.1% and 42.2%, respectively). The ivermectin treatment had the smallest percent LMI (12.5%) against ivermectin resistant L3 HC. There was a weak correlation (R(2)=0.34; P=0.05) between CT MW and percent LMI, suggesting that molecular weight of CT is a weak contributing factor to CT biological activity as it relates to LMI of L3 stage HC. L. stuevei, L. retusa and A. angustissima var. hirta STP5 warrant further evaluation of anthelmintic properties in vivo. PMID:24126088

  20. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

    1982-06-01

    This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently. PMID:12179631

  1. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of rainfed agroecosystems. PMID:24210647

  2. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600–700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. PMID:17652338

  3. The Birds of The Indian Institute of Science Campus Changes in the avifauna

    E-print Network

    Kanade, Aditya

    Ardea alba x Smaller Egret Egretta intermedia x Little Egret Egretta garzetta x Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis x Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax r C Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala x Lesser Whistling

  4. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...leucocephala, and Neonotonia wightii (glycine) (HBMP 2008). Nonnative canopy species...Chapter 68). Neonotonia wightii (glycine), a twining herb native to Central and...America, is widely naturalized in Hawaii. Glycine forms dense clumps, and can cover...

  5. Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. MUÑOZ-FUENTES; C. VILÀ; A. J. G REEN; J. J. N EGRO; M. D. SORENSON

    2007-01-01

    The ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis , was introduced to Great Britain in the mid-20th century and has recently spread to other Western European countries. In Spain, ruddy ducks hybridize with the globally endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala . We assessed the effects of hybridization on the Spanish white-headed ducks, which constitute 25% of the global population of this species, using

  6. The white-crowned pigeon: A fruit-eating pigeon as a host for Trichomonas gallinae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Sprunt, A., IV

    1971-01-01

    Trichomoniasis resulting from infection by Trichomonas gallinae was observed in 12 laboratory reared white-crowned pigeons (Columba leucocephala). A field survey of nestlings in the Florida Keys revealed a prevalence of 88% T. gallinae carriers but no evidence of trichomoniasis could be found among the wild birds.

  7. A model for the management of the invasive ruddy duck to reduce interbreeding pressure on the white-headed duck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham C. Smith; Iain Henderson

    2007-01-01

    Non-native species are considered the second most important threat to global biodiversity after habitat loss and are a leading cause of animal extinctions. The North American ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis established a feral population in the UK over 40 years ago, and is now endangering the globally threatened white-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala through hybridisation. We utilised a simple Monte Carlo

  8. Ocells rars a Catalunya. Informe del Comitè Avifaunístic de Catalunya. 2005, 2006, 2007 i 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferran López; Jordi Clavell

    Rare birds in Catalonia. Report of the Catalan Avifauna Committee. 2005, 2006, 2007 & 2008 .ThesecondreportofCatalanAvifaunaCommitteeincludesfirstaccep - tedrecordsbyourcommittee: Branta bernicla, Aythya marila, Bucephala clangula, Oxyu - ra leucocephala, Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Podiceps auritus, Elanus caeruleus, Aegypius mona- chus, Circus macrourus, Aquila adalberti, Otis tarda, Calidris melanotos, Phalaropus tricolor, Larus atricilla, Larus delawarensis, Larus cachinnans, Alle alle, Anthus richardi, Anthus petro -

  9. Data Set Incongruence and Correlated Character Evolution: An Example of Functional Convergence in the Hind-Limbs of Stifftail Diving Ducks

    E-print Network

    Afton, Alan D.

    genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly sup- ported. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules

  10. The ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in Europe: natural colonization or human introduction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIOLETA MUÑOZ-FUENTES; ANDY J. G REEN; MICHAEL D. S ORENSON; JUAN J. N EGRO; CARLES VILÀ

    2006-01-01

    Native to North America, ruddy ducks Oxyura jamaicensis now occur in 21 countries in the western Palaearctic (including Iceland) and their expanding population threatens the native white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala , through hybridization and possibly competition for food and nest sites. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the European ruddy duck population is descended solely

  11. Arid Land Research and Management, 15:359 370, 2001 Copyright # 2001 Taylor & Francis

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    -4982/01 $12.00 .00 Optimizing Solution P Concentration in a Peat-Based Medium for Producing Mycorrhizal concentration of the amended medium for mycorrhizal activity will enhance its usefulness for raising mycorrhizal concentration for mycorrhizal development on roots of our indicator plant L eucaena leucocephala grown

  12. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management approaches that are culturally, politically, and economically sensitive to the region; and (3) providing and protecting habitat within suitably sized reserves.

  13. Is homoplasy or lineage sorting the source of incongruent mtdna and nuclear gene trees in the stiff-tailed ducks (Nomonyx-Oxyura)?

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kevin; Sorenson, Michael

    2005-02-01

    We evaluated the potential effects of homoplasy, ancestral polymorphism, and hybridization as obstacles to resolving phylogenetic relationships within Nomonyx-Oxyura stiff-tailed ducks (Oxyurinae; subtribe Oxyurina). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 94 individuals supported monophyly of mtDNA haplotypes for each of the six species and provided no evidence of extant incomplete lineage sorting or inter-specific hybridization. The ruddy ducks (O. j. jamaicensis,O. j. andina, O. j. ferruginea) are each others' closest relatives, but the lack of shared haplotypes between O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea suggests long-standing historical isolation. In contrast, O. j. andina shares haplotypes with O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea, which supports Todd's (1979) and Fjeldså's (1986) hypothesis that O. j. andina is an intergrade or hybrid subspecies of O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea. Control region data and a much larger data set composed of approximately 8800 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence for each species indicate that the two New World species, O. vittata and O. jamaicensis, branch basally within Oxyura. A clade of three Old World species (O. australis, O. maccoa, O. leucocephala) is well supported, but different loci and also different characters within the mtDNA data support three different resolutions of the Old World clade, yielding an essentially unresolved trichotomy. Fundamentally different factors limited the resolution of the mtDNA and nuclear gene trees. Gene trees for most nuclear loci were unresolved due to slow rates of mutation and a lack of informative variation, whereas uncertain resolution of the mtDNA gene tree was due to homoplasy. Within the mtDNA, approximately equal numbers of characters supported each of three possible resolutions. Parametric and nonparametric bootstrap analyses suggest that resolution of the mtDNA tree based on ~4300 bp per taxon is uncertain but that complete mtDNA sequences would yield a fully resolved gene tree. A short internode separating O. leucocephala from (O. australis, O. maccoa) in the best mtDNA tree combined with long terminal branches and substantial rate variation among nucleotide sites allowed the small number of changes occurring on the internode to be obscured by homoplasy in a significant portion of simulated data sets. Although most nuclear loci were uninformative, two loci supported a resolution of the Old World clade (O. maccoa, O. leucocephala) that is incongruent with the best mtDNA tree. Thus, incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA trees may be due to random sorting of ancestral lineages during the short internode, homoplasy in the mtDNA data, or both. The Oxyura trichotomy represents a difficult though likely common problem in molecular systematics. Given a short internode, the mtDNA tree has a greater chance of being congruent with the history of speciation because its effective population size (N(e)) is one-quarter that of any nuclear locus, but its resolution is more likely to be obscured by homoplasy. In contrast, gene trees for more slowly evolving nuclear loci will be difficult to resolve due to a lack of substitutions during the internode, and when resolved are more likely to be incongruent with the species history due to the stochastic effects of lineage sorting. We suggest that researchers consider first whether independent gene trees are adequately resolved and then whether those trees are congruent with the species history. In the case of Oxyura, the answer to both questions may be no. Complete mtDNA sequences combined with data from a very large number of nuclear loci may be the only way to resolve such trichotomies. PMID:15805009

  14. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species. PMID:20571760

  15. Bacterial Rhizosphere and Endosphere Populations Associated with Grasses and Trees to be Used for Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Afzal, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser M

    2015-03-01

    Different grasses and trees were tested for their growth in a crude oil contaminated soil. Three grasses, Lolium perenne, Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica, and two trees, Lecucaena leucocephala and Acacia ampliceps, were selected to investigate the diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. We found a higher number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria associated with grasses than trees and that the endophytic bacteria were taxonomically different from rhizosphere associated bacteria showing their spatial distribution with reference to plant compartment as well as genotype. The rhizospheric soil yielded 22 (59.45 %), root interior yielded 9 (24.32 %) and shoot interior yielded 6 (16.21 %) hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These bacteria possessed genes encoding alkane hydroxylase and showed multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Bacillus (48.64 %) and Acinetobacter (18.91 %) were dominant genera found in this study. At 2 % crude oil concentration, all bacterial isolates exhibited 25 %-78 % oil degradation and Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 degraded maximum. Our study suggests that for practical application, support of potential bacteria combined with the grasses is more effective approach than trees to remediate oil contaminated soils. PMID:25661008

  16. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  17. Characterization of extrachromosomal replicons present in the extended host range Rhizobium sp. LPU83.

    PubMed

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, María Florencia; de los Angeles Giusti, María; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano

    2010-11-01

    In several rhizobia, bacteria that inhabit the soil in free-living conditions and associate in symbiosis with the root of legumes as nitrogen-fixing organisms, plasmid DNA can constitute a high percentage of the genome. We have characterized acid-tolerant isolates of rhizobia-here represented by the strain Rhizobium sp. LPU83-that have an extended nodulation-host range including alfalfa, the common bean, and Leucena leucocephala. In this study we analyzed the plasmids of R. sp. LPU83 in order to characterize their role in the evolution of Medicago symbionts and their involvement in symbiotic behavior. The pLPU83a plasmid was found to be transmissible with no associated phenotypic traits. The symbiotic plasmid pLPU83b could be transferred at very low frequencies under laboratory conditions only when pLPU83a was present; could restore nodulation to a strain cured of its symbiotic plasmid, S. meliloti A818; but could not restore the full nitrogen fixation associated with alfalfa. PMID:20621118

  18. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  19. Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fuentes, V; Vilà, C; Green, A J; Negro, J J; Sorenson, M D

    2007-02-01

    The ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis, was introduced to Great Britain in the mid-20th century and has recently spread to other Western European countries. In Spain, ruddy ducks hybridize with the globally endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala. We assessed the effects of hybridization on the Spanish white-headed ducks, which constitute 25% of the global population of this species, using a panel of eight nuclear intron markers, 10 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA control region sequences. These data allowed parental individuals, F(1) hybrids, and the progeny of backcrossing to be reliably distinguished. We show that hybrids between the two species are fertile and produce viable offspring in backcrosses with both parental species. To date, however, we found no extensive introgression of ruddy duck genes into the Spanish white-headed duck population, probably due to the early implementation of an effective ruddy duck and hybrid control programme. We also show that genetic diversity in the expanding European ruddy duck population, which was founded by just seven individuals, exceeds that of the native Spanish white-headed duck population, which recently recovered from a severe bottleneck. Unless effective control of ruddy ducks is continued, genetic introgression will compromise the unique behavioural and ecological adaptations of white-headed ducks and consequently their survival as a genetically and evolutionary distinct species. PMID:17257118

  20. The ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in Europe: natural colonization or human introduction?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Green, Andy J; Sorenson, Michael D; Negro, Juan J; Vilà, Carles

    2006-05-01

    Native to North America, ruddy ducks Oxyura jamaicensis now occur in 21 countries in the western Palaearctic (including Iceland) and their expanding population threatens the native white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala, through hybridization and possibly competition for food and nest sites. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the European ruddy duck population is descended solely from the captive population in the UK, which traces to seven individuals imported from the USA in 1948, or, alternatively, has been augmented by natural dispersal of birds from North America. Limited genetic diversity in the European population is consistent with a founder population as small as seven birds. In addition, shifts in allele frequencies at several loci, presumably due to genetic drift in the founding population, result in significant differentiation between the European and North American populations. Despite the recent separation of these populations, almost all individuals could be unambiguously assigned based on their composite genotypes, to one of two distinct populations, one comprising all of the European ruddy ducks we sampled (including those from Iceland and captive birds in the UK) and the other comprising all North American samples. Our results confirm that the European ruddy duck population is likely to derive solely from the captive population in the UK and we find no evidence of recent arrivals from North America or of admixture between ruddy ducks from Europe and North America. PMID:16629802

  1. Dynamic remediation test of polluted river water by Eco-tank system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jibo; Wang, Huiming; Chu, Shuyi; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic remediation of river water polluted by domestic sewage using an aquatic plants bed-based Eco-tank system was investigated. Over a period of 18 days, the test demonstrated that average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were as low as 17.28, 0.23 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively, under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8.7 d. The average removal efficiencies in terms of COD, NH4(+)-N and TP could reach 71.95, 97.96 and 97.84%, respectively. The loss of both NH4(+)-N and TP was mainly ascribed to the uptake by plants. Hydrocotyle leucocephala was effective in promoting the dissolved oxygen (DO) level, while Pistia stratiotes with numerous fibrous roots was significantly effective for the removal of organic compounds. The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and biomass accumulation rate of Myriophyllum aquaticum were the highest among all tested plants. Thus, the Eco-tank system could be considered as an alternative approach for the in situ remediation of polluted river water, especially nutrient-laden river water. PMID:23530371

  2. Unravelling lignin formation and structure. Final report, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry

    1991-12-31

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  3. Unravelling lignin formation and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  4. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  5. The nodulation of alfalfa by the acid-tolerant Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 does not require sulfated forms of lipochitooligosaccharide nodulation signals.

    PubMed

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, María Florencia; Soria-Diaz, M Eugenia; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Giusti, María de los Ángeles; Manyani, Hamid; Megías, Manuel; Gil Serrano, Antonio; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The induction of root nodules by the majority of rhizobia has a strict requirement for the secretion of symbiosis-specific lipochitooligosaccharides (nodulation factors [NFs]). The nature of the chemical substitution on the NFs depends on the particular rhizobium and contributes to the host specificity imparted by the NFs. We present here a description of the genetic organization of the nod gene cluster and the characterization of the chemical structure of the NFs associated with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83, a bacterium capable of nodulating at least alfalfa, bean, and Leucena leucocephala. The nod gene cluster was located on the plasmid pLPU83b. The organization of the cluster showed synteny with those of the alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae. Interestingly, the strongest sequence similarity observed was between the partial nod sequences of Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844 and the corresponding LPU83 nod genes sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic region nodEG positions strain LPU83 and the type strain R. mongolense 1844 in the same branch, which indicates that Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 might represent an early alfalfa-nodulating genotype. The NF chemical structures obtained for the wild-type strain consist of a trimeric, tetrameric, and pentameric chitin backbone that shares some substitutions with both alfalfa- and bean-nodulating rhizobia. Remarkably, while in strain LPU83 most of the NFs were sulfated in their reducing terminal residue, none of the NFs isolated from the nodH mutant LPU83-H were sulfated. The evidence obtained supports the notion that the sulfate decoration of NFs in LPU83 is not necessary for alfalfa nodulation. PMID:20971905

  6. The Nodulation of Alfalfa by the Acid-Tolerant Rhizobium sp. Strain LPU83 Does Not Require Sulfated Forms of Lipochitooligosaccharide Nodulation Signals?

    PubMed Central

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, María Florencia; Soria-Diaz, M. Eugenia; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Giusti, María de los Ángeles; Manyani, Hamid; Megías, Manuel; Gil Serrano, Antonio; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The induction of root nodules by the majority of rhizobia has a strict requirement for the secretion of symbiosis-specific lipochitooligosaccharides (nodulation factors [NFs]). The nature of the chemical substitution on the NFs depends on the particular rhizobium and contributes to the host specificity imparted by the NFs. We present here a description of the genetic organization of the nod gene cluster and the characterization of the chemical structure of the NFs associated with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83, a bacterium capable of nodulating at least alfalfa, bean, and Leucena leucocephala. The nod gene cluster was located on the plasmid pLPU83b. The organization of the cluster showed synteny with those of the alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae. Interestingly, the strongest sequence similarity observed was between the partial nod sequences of Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844 and the corresponding LPU83 nod genes sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic region nodEG positions strain LPU83 and the type strain R. mongolense 1844 in the same branch, which indicates that Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 might represent an early alfalfa-nodulating genotype. The NF chemical structures obtained for the wild-type strain consist of a trimeric, tetrameric, and pentameric chitin backbone that shares some substitutions with both alfalfa- and bean-nodulating rhizobia. Remarkably, while in strain LPU83 most of the NFs were sulfated in their reducing terminal residue, none of the NFs isolated from the nodH mutant LPU83-H were sulfated. The evidence obtained supports the notion that the sulfate decoration of NFs in LPU83 is not necessary for alfalfa nodulation. PMID:20971905

  7. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.

    PubMed

    McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D

    1999-12-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution based on patterns of codon-degeneracy and chemical dissimilarity indicate that the nucleotide and amino acid changes postulated by the molecular tree are more plausible than those postulated by the morphological tree. These findings teach general lessons about the utility of highly adaptive characters (in particular those related to foraging ecology) and underscore the problems that convergence can pose for attempts to recover phylogeny. They also demonstrate how the concept of natural data partitions and simple models of evolution (e.g., parsimony, likelihood, neutrality) can be used to test the accuracy of independent phylogenetic estimates and provide arguments in favor of one tree topology over another. PMID:12066296

  8. N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

    2009-04-01

    In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These results agree with those reported by Jarvis (1993) and Cadish et al (1994). However, 40% of the excretions occurred in the shade buildings and milking parlours ant thus these nutrients did not recycle in the system. An important internal recycling mechanism, especially for nitrogen and potassium, is their remobilization by the rejected pasture to re-use them for the regrowth activity. This is of particular interest in CT-115 Bank, since stems of CT-115 plants left after grazing remobilize an important amount of these nutrients, guarantee a favourable pasture regrowth (Martinez 1996). The return of all the excretion to the grassland is recommended as well as increasing the area of legumes to attain a satisfactory balance of N, P and K in the system. Further studies must consider maintenance fertilization, nutrient losses due to leaching and denitrification, as well as variation of the stable OM in the soil and the influence of hydro physical properties in the recycling process. The "Recycling" software was effective to determine the balance of nutrients in the dairy farm. Cadish, G., Schunke, R.N & Giller, K.E. 1994. Nitrogen cycling in a pure grass pasture and a grass-legume mixture on a red latosol in Brazil. Tropical Grasslands 28:43. Crespo G. y Rodríguez, I. 2006. Contribución al conocimiento del reciclaje de los nutrientes en el sistema suelo-pasto-animal. Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Editorial EDICA, La Habana, Cuba, 94 pp. Hirata, M., Sugimoto, Y.G & Ueno, M.1991. Use of a mathematical model to evaluate the effects of dung from grazing animals on pasture production. J. Japan Grassld. Sci. 37:303.