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PubMed Central

Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae) plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28癈. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40癈). At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL) bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns. PMID:22247853

Pendyala, Vijetha; Baburao, Chandu; Chandrasekhar, K.B



Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala.  


Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), a leguminous shrub promising to cope with feed scarcity in the tropics, may help in mitigating ruminal methane (CH4) emission in the tropics as well. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena and major secondary compounds of this plant in ruminants. At first, effects of Leucaena tannins and mimosine on ruminal CH4 and nutrient degradability were tested in vitro. Incubations were made with Leucaena without or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to exclude the tannins effects, as well as with Bermuda grass (Tifton) and lucerne hays, both either untreated or supplemented with mimosine at the same concentration that has been provided by the tested Leucaena (6.52 mg/g DM). Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment a control diet (per kg DM 700 g Tifton hay) and Leucaena diets (per kg DM 350 g Tifton hay and 350 g Leucaena), either with or without 20 g PEG/d per head, were evaluated in six Santa In阺 sheep following a double Latin square design. In vitro, Leucaena resulted in the lowest (p < 0.05) gas and CH4 production and the highest (p < 0.05) partitioning factor, a measure for microbial efficiency, whereas the amount of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) was lowest (p < 0.05) with Tifton among the experimental forage plants. Mimosine addition to lucerne and Tifton as well as PEG addition to Leucaena had no effect on ruminal CH4 and TDOM. In vivo Leucaena, compared to the Tifton diet, enhanced (p < 0.05) intake, faecal nitrogen excretion, body nitrogen retention and the excretion of urinary purine derivatives as an indicator for microbial protein synthesis and availability. This was independent of PEG addition. Leucaena also decreased (p < 0.001) CH4 emission per unit of digested organic matter by 14.1% and 10.8%, without and with PEG, respectively. No significant diet differences were observed in total-tract nutrient digestibility. The study demonstrated efficiency of Leucaena to mitigate in vivo methane emission of sheep, but did not reveal which constituent of Leucaena was primarily responsible for that since no clear efficiency of either tannins or mimosine could be demonstrated. PMID:23742642

Soltan, Yosra A; Morsy, Amr S; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Lucas, Ronaldo C; Louvandini, Helder; Kreuzer, Michael; Abdalla, Adibe L



Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos  

PubMed Central

The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol. PMID:20041041

Jube, Sandro



Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves establishment of micropropagated Leucaena leucocephala plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to achieve cent per cent transplantation success of micropropagated Leucaena leucocephala\\u000a (a fast growing multipurpose leguminous tree species) plantlets using two vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus fasciculatum\\u000a and Glomus macrocarpum. Plantlets were obtained by rooting the shoots [obtained through; hypocotyl callus in presence of 10-5M BAP + 10-6M NAA; and axillary bud sprouting from cotyledonary and

Jos T. Puthur; K. V. S. K. Prasad; P. Pardha Saradhi



Polyphasic characterization of rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala from Panxi, China.  


Leucaena leucocephala was introduced into Panxi, Sichuan, China, in the 1980s and 1990s for afforestation and preventing water loss and soil erosion in this area. The co-introduction of rhizobial symbionts of introduced plants has drawn attention since they may influence local soil communities. We studied the phylogenetic position of the L. leucocephala isolates and assessed if the rhizobia were introduced together with the host to Panxi, Sichuan, China. The glnII and atpD genes of fifteen representative isolates were sequenced and analyzed, and applied multilocus sequence analyses in which the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD were included. Furthermore, we estimated the within species diversity directly with 23S rDNA and IGS RFLP and indirectly through phenotypic analysis of forty L. leucocephala isolates. The isolates represented seven species and 38 diversified strains in the genera Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The within species diversity of the Ensifer isolates was large, proposing a potential to occupy novel niches. There was not conclusive evidence to show that any of the strains would have been co-introduced with L. leucocephala. On the contrary, we came to a conclusion that the possible introduction should not be inferred from sequence data alone. PMID:23749221

Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Zou, Lan; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Hu, Chao; Liu, Fan



Allelopathic research of subtropical vegetation in Taiwan : III. Allelopathic exclusion of understory byLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.  


Leucaena leucocephala plantations in Kaoshu, southern Taiwan, exhibit, after several years of growth, a unique pattern of weed exclusion beneathLeucaena canopy. The pattern has been observed in manyLeucaena plantations in Taiwan and is particularly pronounced in the area where a substantial amount ofLeucaena litter has accumulated on the ground. Field data showed that the phenomenon was primarily not due to physical competition involving light, soil moisture, pH, and nutrients. Instead, aqueous extracts ofLeucaena fresh leaves, litter, soil, and seed exudate showed significantly phytotoxic effects on many test species, including rice, lettuce,Acacia confusa, Alnus formosana, Casuarina glauca, Liquidambar formosana, andMimosa pudica. However, the extracts were not toxic to the growth ofLeucaena seedlings. The decomposing leaves ofLeucaena also suppressed the growth of the aforementioned plants grown in pots but did not inhibit that ofLeucaena plants. By means of paper and thin-layer chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography, 10 phytotoxins were identified. They included mimosine, quercetin, and gallic, protocatechuic,p-hydroxybenzoic,p-hydroxyphenylacetic, vanillic, ferulic, caffeic, andp-coumaric acids. The mature leaves ofLeucaena possess about 5% dry weight of mimosine, the amount varying with varieties. The seed germination and radicle growth of lettuce, rice, and rye grass were significantly inhibited by aqueous mimosine solution at a concentration of 20 ppm, while that of the forest species mentioned was suppressed by the mimosine solution at 50 ppm or above. However, the growth ofMiscanthus floridulus andPinus taiwanensis was not suppressed by the mimosine solution at 200 ppm. The seedlings ofAgeratum conzoides died in mimosine solution at 50 ppm within seven days and wilted at 300 ppm within three days. It was concluded that the exclusion of understory plants was evidently due to the allelopathic effect of compounds produced byLeucaena. The allelopathic pattern was clearly shown in the area with a heavy accumulation ofLeucaena leaf litter, which was a result of drought and heavy wind influence. PMID:24307122

Chou, C H; Kuo, Y L



The effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus and drought stress on the growth of Acacia nilotica and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on growth and drought resistance of Acacia nilotica and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings was studied in a glasshouse experiment. The experimental design was a 2򈭾 factorial: mycorrhizal inoculation,\\u000a application of phosphorus fertilizer and repeated drought treatment.\\u000a \\u000a The growth promoting effect of VAM fungi equalled the effect of phosphorus fertilization after 12

A. Michelsen; S. Rosendahl



Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.  


Twenty Katahdin??Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24??0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P?

Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Mois閟; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel



Effects of supplementing rice straw with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliages on digestibility, microbial N supply and nitrogen balance of growing goats.  


A total of 12 crossbred (Boer Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a commercial farm on the basis of similar body weight (25.0 3.1 kg). The goats were housed in individual pens and allowed 3 weeks to adapt to experimental conditions. The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in a 3 3 Latin square experiment (replicated four times). Within each period, each goat was given rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diet. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses, urea and commercial mineral and vitamin mix. The experimental treatments were (i) soybean meal (SBM), (ii) partial substitution of SBM with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) foliage and (iii) partial substitution of SBM with Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliage. Nutrient intakes, ruminal characteristics (pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids), nitrogen balances, plasma urea nitrogen and microbial N supply were not significantly different among treatments. The results of this study indicate that protein foliages from locally grown shrubs and trees can substitute imported feedstuff concentrates (e.g. SBM) as protein supplement for goat production. PMID:20487095

Paengkoum, P; Paengkoum, S



Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.  


Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat



Effects of supplementing Leucaena leucocephala and conserved forages from natural pasture on the performance of grazing calves.  


Twelve white Fulani N'dama cross-bred calves weighing 83.79??1.16 kg were used in an 84-day experiment to investigate the utilization of forage resources from natural grazing land. The experimental diets were sole grazing, grazing + hay, grazing + silage and grazing + Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The calves were divided into four groups of three animals each and were randomly assigned to the four experimental diets. Crude protein (CP) contents of the forages ranged from 59 to 171 g/kg dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents of the forages ranged from 560 to 705 g/kg DM and 363 to 440 g/kg DM, respectively. Significantly (P?leucocephala leaves compared to other forage resources. Variations (P?leucocephala leaves diet had the highest (113 g/day) average daily gain, while those on sole grazing showed the least value (26.2 g/day). Packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein, urea and calcium concentration showed significant differences (P?leucocephala leaves without any deleterious effects on the haematological and serum parameters. PMID:24077958

Ojo, Victoria Olubunmi A; Aina, Ayobami B J; Fasae, Oladapo A; Oni, Adebayo O; Aderinboye, Ronke Y; Dele, Peter A; Idowu, Oluwaseun J; Adelusi, Oludotun O; Shittu, Olalekan O; Okeniyi, Funmilayo A; Jolaosho, Alaba O



Biorefinery process for production of paper and oligomers from Leucaena leucocephala K360 with or without prior autohydrolysis.  


Lignocellulosic material from Leucaena leucocephala was subjected to a two-stage fractionation process to obtain a valorized effluent containing hemicellulose derivatives and a solid phase for producing cellulose pulp by conventional soda-anthraquinone delignification. This solid phase allows the production of cellulose pulp, under less rigorous conditions from NaOH-AQ process (177 癈, 21%, 120 min) than without pretreatment delignification (185 癈, 25%, 150 min) and better or similar properties in the paper sheets obtained (yield 27.6 and 34.0%, brightness 39.3 and 31.6% ISO, tensile index 7.8 and 10.5 N m/g, burst index 0.43 and 0.29 MPa m(2)/kg with and without previous autohydrolysis) have be found. Also, the first autohydrolysis stage allows up to 46.6% of the initial hemicellulose in the raw material to be extracted as xylooligomers, xylose and furfural into the liquid phase. PMID:23073090

Feria, M J; Garc韆, J C; D韆z, M J; Fern醤dez, M; L髉ez, F



Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.  


Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm(-3) of As. PMID:22704769

Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimar鉫s



Productivity, nutrient cycling, and succession in single- and mixed-species plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia, Eucalyptus robusta, and Leucaena leucocephala in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree growth, biomass productivity, litterfall mass and nutrient content, changes in soil chemical properties and understory forest succession were evaluated over a 8.5-year period in single- and mixed-species (50:50) plantations of two N2-fixing species, Casuarina equisetifolia and Leucaena leucocephala, and a non-fixing species, Eucalyptus robusta. At the optimal harvest age for maximum biomass production (4 years), total aboveground biomass ranged

John A. Parrotta



The cloned 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene from Sinorhizobium sp. strain BL3 in Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 promotes nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of symbionts in nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala. The acdS genes encoding ACC deaminase were cloned from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 and Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 in multicopy plasmids, and transferred to TAL1145. The BL3-acdS gene greatly enhanced ACC deaminase activity in TAL1145 compared to the

Panlada Tittabutr; Jonathan D. Awaya; Qing X. Li; Dulal Borthakur



Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail



Within-country variation in the ability of ruminants to degrade DHP following the ingestion of Leucaena leucocephala--a Thailand experience.  


Goats fed Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) at an experimental site in Thailand were shown to be excreting DHP in their urine. This was unexpected as earlier results from another site had shown that goats and cattle fed leucaena did not excrete DHP and so possessed DHP-degrading bacteria. Goats sampled near the earlier sample site excreted no DHP in their urine. Rumen fluid taken from these goats was successfully used to transfer DHP--degrading ability to the goats at the Experimental site some 350 km away that did not show the presence of DHP-degrading bacteria. Degradation of mimosine in-vitro and excretion of DHP in the urine ceased 72 hr after addition of rumen fluid and infusion with rumen fluid from protected goats, respectively. The situation in Thailand may not be unique. Countries where leucaena is fed should check that animals are protected. Fortunately, the ferric chloride urine test is simple to use and effective in detecting the problem and also the recovery after transfer of rumen fluid from protected animals. PMID:19544003

Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak



Purification and characterization of a zinc-dependent cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume.  


A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) from the secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala has been purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity column chromatographies. CAD was purified to 514.2 folds with overall recovery of 13% and specific activity of 812. 5爊kat/mg. Native and subunit molecular masses of the purified enzyme were found to be ?76 and ?38爇Da, respectively, suggesting it to be a homodimer. The enzyme exhibited highest catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km 3.75?M(-1)爏(-1)) with cinnamyl aldehyde among all the substrates investigated. The pH and temperature optima of the purified CAD were pH8.8 and 40牥C, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of 2.0爉M Mg(2+), while Zn(2+) at the same concentration exerted an inhibitory effect. The inclusion of 2.0爉M EDTA in the assay system activated the enzyme. The enzyme was inhibited with caffeic acid and ferulic acid in a concentration-dependent manner, while no inhibition was observed with salicylic acid. Peptide mass analysis of the purified CAD by MALDI-TOF showed a significant homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of MDR superfamily. PMID:24532464

Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda P; Shasany, A K; Dwivedi, U N



Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.  


Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO()) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p?>?0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p?

Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid



Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.  


This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40%) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12爓eeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30% MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000爂 and 31.6 and 30.6爂/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30% MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40% LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40% improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40% without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits. PMID:24935404

Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio



The cloned 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene from Sinorhizobium sp. strain BL3 in Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 promotes nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala.  


The objective of this study was to determine the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of symbionts in nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala. The acdS genes encoding ACC deaminase were cloned from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 and Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 in multicopy plasmids, and transferred to TAL1145. The BL3-acdS gene greatly enhanced ACC deaminase activity in TAL1145 compared to the native acdS gene. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native or BL3 acdS gene could grow in minimal media containing 1.5mM ACC, whereas BL3 could tolerate up to 3mM ACC. The TAL1145 acdS gene was inducible by mimosine and not by ACC, while the BL3 acdS gene was highly inducible by ACC and not by mimosine. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native- and BL3-acdS genes formed nodules with greater number and sizes, and produced higher root mass on L. leucocephala than by TAL1145. This study shows that the introduction of multiple copies of the acdS gene increased ACC deaminase activities of TAL1145 and enhanced its symbiotic efficiency on L. leucocephala. PMID:18406559

Tittabutr, Panlada; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal



Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.  


Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz



High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 Bacteroids in Determinate Nodules of Vigna unguiculata and Indeterminate Nodules of Leucaena leucocephala  

PubMed Central

The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin



Phosphorus and Potassium Release Pattern from Leucaena Leaves in Three Environments of Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical ecosystems trees have the potential to supply nutrients essential to crops. Leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) De Wit] leaf decomposition experiments were established at three sites in Haiti representing diverse soil types to\\u000a assess the potential of leucaena leaves to supply P and K to crops and to determine their pattern of release. Mesh bags containing\\u000a 17.4爂 of air-dried

J. R. Bossa; J. F. Adams; D. A. Shannon; G. L. Mullins



Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.  


cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992燽p were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India. PMID:21847621

Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B



Effect of Fly-Ash on Metal Composition and Physiological Responses in Leucaena Leucocephala (Lamk.) de. Wit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of L. leucocephala were grown in 100%soil (as control), 100% fly-ash and fly-ash amendedwith 50% press mud for 80 days, and analysed withrespect to plant growth, elemental composition andphysiological changes in different parts of the plant.The results revealed that amending fly-ash with pressmud enhanced plant growth as well as otherphysiological responses such as chlorophyll, protein,in vivo nitrate reductase activity

Meetu Gupta; Avanish Kumar; M. Yunus



Pruning management effects on soil carbon and nitrogen in contour-hedgerow cropping with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit on sloping land in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of hedgerow prunings to the soil in alley cropping ispracticed to sustain crop yield but information is lacking on effects ofhedgerow management on soil C and N dynamics under continuous cropping.Cumulative effects of 3.5 years of leucaena [Leucaenaleucocephala (Lam.) De Wit] hedgerow management on soil organic CandN and potential C and N mineralization were determined in an alley croppingexperiment

L. Isaac; C. W. Wood; D. A. Shannon



Production, economic and environmental benefi ts of leucaena pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of adoption of leucaena (Leucaena leu- cocephala)-grass pastures is rising rapidly in northern Australia as graziers realise the extent of the triple-bottom-line benefi ts. Leucaena pastures are suited to >13 M ha of Queensland, with a cur- rent estimated 150 000 ha producing 37 500 kg of liveweight gain valued at >$69 M each year. Despite high costs




Characteristics of newly isolated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from acid sulfate soil and the rhizoplane of leucaena grown in that soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated four new ammonia-oxidizing bacterial strains from leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) grown in fields of an acid sulfate soil (ASS) in Thailand; 17SS from the surface soil and 17RS from the rhizoplane of a non-limed plot; 9SS from the surface soil and 9RS from the rhizoplane in a limed plot. The cells of all strains had the typical lobate shape

Kazuo Satoh; Chieko Itoh; Dong-Jin Kang; Hiroaki Sumida; Reiji Takahashi; Katsunori Isobe; Satohiko Sasaki; Tatsuaki Tokuyama



Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress  

SciTech Connect

Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.



Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress  

SciTech Connect

Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.



An economic assessment of a proposed dry land Leucaena development within the Brigalow Belt of Central Queensland: An operational case study perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This following case study focuses on beef production using dry land leucaena to increase production on a property of alluvial scrub flats south of Biloela, Queensland. The investment proposal is for development of the property through the growing of the fodder legume tree crop leucaena. The benefit of finishing cattle on leucaena is estimated using partial budgeting techniques. The case

Mark Best; Lindy Symes



Isolation of Insertion Sequence ISRLdTAL1145-1 from a Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) and Distribution of Homologous Sequences Identifying Cross-Inoculation Group Relationships.  


Insertion sequence (IS) element ISRLdTAL1145-1 from Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) strain TAL 1145 was entrapped in the sacB gene of the positive selection vector pUCD800 by insertional inactivation. A hybridization probe prepared from the whole 2.5-kb element was used to determine the distribution of homologous sequences in a diverse collection of 135 Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. The IS probe hybridized strongly to Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 10 rhizobial strains that nodulate both Phaseolus vulgaris (beans) and Leucaena leucocephala (leguminous trees), 1 Rhizobium sp. that nodulates Leucaena spp., 9 R. meliloti (alfalfa) strains, 4 Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Sophora chrysophylla (leguminous trees), and 1 nonnodulating bacterium associated with the nodules of Pithecellobium dulce from the Leucaena cross-inoculation group, producing distinguishing IS patterns for each strain. Hybridization analysis revealed that ISRLdTAL1145-1 was strongly homologous with and closely related to a previously isolated element, ISRm USDA1024-1 from R. meliloti, while restriction enzyme analysis found structural similarities and differences between the two IS homologs. Two internal segments of these IS elements were used to construct hybridization probes of 1.2 kb and 380 bp that delineate a structural similarity and a difference, respectively, of the two IS homologs. The internal segment probes were used to analyze the structures of homologous IS elements in other strains. Five types of structural variation in homolog IS elements were found. The predominate IS structural type naturally occurring in a strain can reasonably identify the strain's cross-inoculation group relationships. Three IS structural types were found in Rhizobium species that nodulate beans and Leucaena species, one of which included the designated type IIB strain of R. tropici (CIAT 899). Weak homology to the whole IS probe, but not with the internal segments, was found with two Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains. The taxonomic and ecological implications of the distribution of ISRLdTAL1145-1 are discussed. PMID:16349459

Rice, D J; Somasegaran, P; Macglashan, K; Bohlool, B B



Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats.  


Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on testicular histology. Within species, animals were blocked based on body weight and scrotal circumference and randomly assigned, within blocks, to five nutritional treatment groups in a complete randomised block design. All animals were provided with unchopped teff (Eragrostis tef) straw ad libitum and were supplemented with either 150g of wheat bran (control), leucaena (200 or 400g) or sesbania (200 or 400g) leaves for a period of 6 months. At the end of the experimental period, all animals were surgically castrated and testicular samples were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. In sheep 200g S. sesban induced relatively more necrosis of the seminiferous tubules than 200g L. pallida, but with similar degree of tubular degeneration. However, lesions in testis of goats fed on 200g S. sesban and 200g L. pallida did not differ. The effect of 400g S. sesban and 400g L. pallida in sheep indicated that the former hardly induced lesions except depressive effect on spermatogenesis. Similar results were observed in goats. About 400g S. sesban induced milder lesions in sheep and goats than were 200g S. sesban. The lesions were compared and discussed in relation to the phytochemical composition of the supplementary feeds. PMID:11530271

Woldemeskel, M; Tegegne, A; Umunna, N N; Kaitho, R J; Tamminga, S



Replacement of fishmeal by Leucaena leucocephala on the performance of local dairy calves of Bangladesh  

E-print Network

of Bangladesh MAS Khan Dept of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh In Bangladesh, locally produced fishmeal is available as a protein source for lactating cows and growing calves, and it responded very well Khan et al (1987, Bangladesh Vet J, 21, (3-4), 71-79). But some times it is scarce

Boyer, Edmond


Spectrophotometric determination of mimosine and 3-hydroxy-4-(1H)-pyridone--the toxic principles of Leucaena leucocephala.  


A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the estimation of the toxic factors mimosine and 3-hydroxy-4-(1H)-pyridone (DHP) has been developed based on the intense yellow-colored azodye formed with p-nitroaniline which showed a sharp absorption maximum at 400 nm. The method was optimized based on relative sensitivity of the reaction with various aromatic primary amino compounds and under different conditions of pH. Interference from a variety of structurally related compounds and phenols was tested and found insensitive to this method. The molar extinction coefficient at 400 nm for the azodye formed with mimosine was 5.31 x 10(4) M-1 cm-1 and that for DHP was 1.699 x 10(4) M-1 cm-1. The applicability of the method was tested using different plant extracts and recovery was found to be at 100 +/- 0.3%. The method is suitable for accurate estimation of both mimosine and DHP after paper chromatographic separation of extracts of different biological samples. PMID:8238882

Lalitha, K; Vargheese, C M; Balasubramanian, N



Mycorrhizae and phosphorus fertilization effects on survival, growth, total biomass and leaf nutrient levels of two-year old Leucaena leucocephala  

E-print Network

74 77 80 80 88 89 91 94 100 115 viii LIST OF TABLES Table Page Analysis of variance table for randomized block design used for biomass, basal diameter and height evaluation. . . 24 Armlysis of variance table for randomized block design... of age. . . . . . . . . . 66 36 Analysis of variance for leaf zinc at two months of age. . 67 37 Block mean squares for soil analysis for three sampling depths. 69 38 Available phosphorus content on the study area as determined by two extraction...

Mbugua, David Kahuria



Micronesica 41(2):263274, 2011 Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most  

E-print Network

hirta, Synedrella nodiflora, Mimosa pudica, Leucaena leucocephala, Pennisetum polystachion, Euphorbia paniculatum, Miscanthus floridulus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Chromolaena odorata, Mikania micrantha, Chamaesyce

Reddy, Gadi VP


[The virulence of L. leucocephala for goats in northeastern Mexico].  


When fed 100% Leucaena during a period of 45 days goats with experience in L.-fodder took significantly (P less than 0.05) more dry matter (50.01 g/kg0.75) than those without or only possible experience (44.40 g/kg0.75 and 45.63 g/kg0.75). The uptake of Mimosine from animals with Mimosine experience (1.14 g/kg0.75) has also been significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than from two other groups with non or only possible experience (0.93 g/kg0.75 and 0.92 g/kg0.75). The Serum-Thyroxin level (T4) of the control group (5.12 micrograms/100 ml) and of the group with Leucaena experience (4.65 micrograms/100 ml) has been significantly higher (P less than 0.05) during the entire trial period than that of the two other trial groups (3.9 micrograms/100 ml). Hair-loss, reduced fodder uptake, increased salivation, excitation, ataxia of hind legs, vomit of fodder and uncoordinated chewing of fodder have been observed in animals without or only possible Leucaena experience. Three animals of those died through direct or indirect influence of the poisoning. Swollen buccal papillae, ulceration and necrosis of the oesophagus and haemorrhagic lesions in the reticulum and rumen have been observed in two of the dead animals. PMID:1930109

Martinez, M A; Seifert, H S



Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.  


A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185癈), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor. PMID:22789829

Feria, M J; Garc韆, J C; D韆z, M J; Garrote, G; L髉ez, F



The relations of stomatal closure and reopening to xylem ABA concentration and leaf water potential during soil drying and rewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tropical tree species, Acacia confusa and Leucaena leucocephala, were used to study the relationships among stomatal conductance, xylem ABA concentration and leaf water potential during a soil drying and rewatering cycle. Stomatal conductance of both A. confusa and L. leucocephala steadily decreased with the decreases in soil water content and pre-dawn leaf water potential. Upon rewatering, soil water content

Jiansheng Liang; Jianhua Zhang



Land use effects on microbial biomass C, ?-glucosidase and ?-glucosaminidase activities, and availability, storage, and age of organic C in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial biomass, ?-glucosidase and ?-glucosaminidase activities, and availability, storage, and age of soil organic C were\\u000a investigated after 26爕ears of conversion from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) to forest (Eucaliptus robusta or Leucaena leucocephala), pasture (mixture of tropical grasses), and to vegetable cropping (agriculture) in a vertisol in Puerto Rico. Soil organic\\u000a C (SOC) at 0100燾m was similar under Leucaena (22.8爇g C\\/m2),

David Sotomayor-Ram韗ez; Yusmary Espinoza; Veronica Acosta-Mart韓ez



Influence of fly ash mixtures on early tree growth and physicochemical properties of soil in semi-arid tropical Alfisols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effects of planting mixtures comprising of fly ash at the rate of 66%, 33% and 17% by soil volume were assessed\\u000a for the early growth of two economic tree species, teak (Tectona grandis) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) in rainfed Semi-Arid Tropical (SAT) Alfisols in India. Measurements of tree growth were made at six monthly intervals over\\u000a a 3-year

V. Ramesh; G. R. Korwar; Uttam Kumar Mandal; Jasti V. N. S. Prasad; Kishori Lal Sharma; S. Ramakrishna Yezzu; Venkanna Kandula



Effect of agroforestry woody species on earthworm activity and physicochemical properties of worm casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of five agroforestry woody species (Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Senna siamea andTreculia africana) on the surface aasting activity ofHyperiodrilus africanus were studied in an Alfisol (Oxic Paleustalf) in southwestern Nigeria. Casting activity under the woody species decreased in the following order:Dactyladenia sp. (26.4 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Gliricidia sp. (24.4 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Treculia sp. (22.9 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Leucaena

B. T. Kang; F. K. Akinnifesi; J. L. Pleysier



The potential of alley cropping in improvement of cultivation systems in the high rainfall areas of Zambia. III. Effects on soil chemical and physical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of the soil chemical and physical properties in seven-year-old alley cropping trial containingLeucaena leucocephala andFlemingia congesta in Northern Zambia is described. There was a strong correlation between the maize yield and the total amount of nitrogen applied, both from prunings and fertiliser, suggesting that a major reason for the observed benefit from alley cropping, particularly withLeucaena, was

A. Dalland; P. I. V錴e; R. B. Matthews; B. R. Singh



The nitrogen mineralization rate of legume residues in soil as influenced by their polyphenol, lignin, and nitrogen contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the polyphenol, lignin and N contents of six legumes on their N mineralization rate in soil and to compare estimates of legume-N release by the difference and 15N-recovery methods. Mature tops of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), round leaf cassia (Cassia rotundifolia Pers., var. Wynn), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam., deWit),

R. H. Fox; R. J. K. Myers; I. Vallis



Soil properties and crop performance on a kaolinitic Alfisol after 15 years of fallow and continuous cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term field experiment was established on a kaolinitic Alfisol in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 1972. The land was cleared manually from secondary forest and used for (i) continuous no-till cropping with maize (Zea mays L.) and maize\\/cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) intercropping, (ii) planted fallow of guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan

Anthony S. R. Juo; Kathrin Franzluebbers; Adenike Dabiri; Benson Ikhile




Microsoft Academic Search

Leghemoglobin (Lb) is a hemeprotein that reversibly binds oxygen and that is abundant in nodules of nitrogen-fixi ng plants. Lb has been studied with detail in legumes of the Papilionoideae subfamily, but nothing is known about the properties of Lb in legumes of the Mimosoideae subfamily. In this work a Lb was purified and characterized from nodules of a mimosoid



Reforestation using Leucaena Luecocephala, Anacardium Occidentale and Tectona Grandis for Paquera, Costa Rica  

E-print Network

spacing depending on planting design chosen (Figure 6). In the early life of a plantation, it is recommended that the spacing be at higher densities (6m x 6m) because more 35 trees wiQ mean more production. As the trees become crowded, thin to a larger... spacing depending on planting design chosen (Figure 6). In the early life of a plantation, it is recommended that the spacing be at higher densities (6m x 6m) because more 35 trees wiQ mean more production. As the trees become crowded, thin to a larger...

Moore, Jane F



Effect of mulch quality on earthworm activity and nutrient supply in the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted in 1990 and 1991 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria to study the role of earthworms in the decomposition of plant residue mulches with different qualities. Five mulches of Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala prunings, maize (Zea mays) stover and rice (Oryza sativa) straw, which had a wide range of C-to-N

G. Tian; B. T. Kang; L. Brussaard



A study of the potential of hedgerow intercropping in semi-arid India using a two-way systematic design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of hedgerow intecrropping with Leucaena leucocephala was explored on vertic Inceptisols over 4 years at ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India. The study was conducted using a systematic layout involving different alley widths ranging from 1.35 to 4.95 m and with varying distances between hedge and crops. The alleys were cropped with alternate rows of sorghum and pigeonpea. Hedges composed

M. R. Rao; M. M. Sharma; C. K. Ong



Organic Manures for Increased Productivity and Sustained Supply of Micronutrients Zn and Cu in a Rice-Wheat Cropping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments for 3 years were carried out to assess the efficacy of organic manures (Sesbania aculeata, Leucaena leucocephala), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and mungbean (Vigna radiata) green manures, wheat straw and FYM (Farm Yard Manure) in enhancing the productivity of rice-wheat cropping system and for their capacity to supply Zn and Cu. Green manuring with Sesbania gave the highest rice

B. N. Mishra; R. Prasad; B. Gangaiah; B. G. Shivakumar



Nutritive evaluation of some nitrogen and non-nitrogen fixing multipurpose tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of leaf materials from five each of nitrogen (NFT), namely, Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Butea monosperma, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata and non-nitrogen fixing multipurpose tree (non-NFT) species, namely, Anogeissus pendula, Azadirachta indica, Ficus bengalensis, Terminalia arjuna and Syzygium cumini grown at National Research Centre for Agroforestry, were evaluated by chemical and in sacco methods. Mean organic matter

D. B. V Ramana; Sultan Singh; K. R Solanki; A. S Negi



Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: Antinutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leguminous tropical multipurpose tree Acacia angustissima is a potential source of protein for ruminants fed roughage diets. Proximate analysis and in vitro techniques were used to evaluate the nutritive value of 15 accessions of A. angustissima in comparison with the tanniniferous legumes (Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). Freeze- and oven-dried (50癈) leaf samples were used

C. S. McSweeney; J. Gough; L. L. Conlan; M. P. Hegarty; B. Palmer; D. O. Krause



Mineralization and microbial biomass formation in upland soil amended with some tropical plant residues at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model experiment was carried out at 15, 25, and 35癈 to investigate the changes in microbial biomass and the pattern of mineralization in upland soil during 8 weeks following the addition of 8 organic materials including 6 tropical plant residues, ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), azolla (Azolla pinnata), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sunhemp

Abul Kalam Mohammad Azmal; Takuya Marumoto; Haruo Shindo; Masaya Nishiyama



Ruminal digestion characteristics and effective degradability of cell wall of browse species from northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliage from 15 shrub species was used to estimate the extent and rate of cell wall (CW) degradation in the rumen of fistulated Pelibuey sheep. Branches from the browse species: Acacia berlandieri, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia greggii, Acacia rigidula, Celtis pallida, Cercidium macrum, Condalia obovata, Cordia boisieri, Desmanthus virgathus, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucophyllum texanum, Opuntia lindehimieri, Porlieria angustifolia, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ziziphus

R. G Ram??rez; R. R Neira-Morales; R. A Ledezma-Torres; C. A Garibaldi-Gonz醠ez



Seasonal variation of macro and trace mineral contents in 14 browse species that grow in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves and twigs from shrub species consumed by range goats: Acacia berlandieri, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia greggii, Acacia rigidula, Celtis pallida, Cercidium macrum, Condalia obovata, Cordia boissieri, Desmanthus virgathus, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucophyllum texanum, Opuntia lindehimieri, Porlieria angustifolia, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ziziphus obtusifolia were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Ca, P, Mg K, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe. Plants were collected

R. G Ramirez; G. F. W Haenlein; M. A Nez-Gonz醠ez



Establishment and growth potential of fuelwood species in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen multipurpose tree species native and introduced to the matorral (low dry shrubland and forest) of the Gulf Coastal Plain in north-eastern Mexico were planted in monoculture in four randomized blocks. Measurements of various growth parameters and volume of trees over the first five years were evaluated. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. microtheca, Leucaena leucocephala (exotic species) and Parkinsonia aculeata (native species)

R. Foroughbakhch



Acid朾ase reactions between an acidic soil and plant residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental composition of residues of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (S. bicolor), groundnuts (Arachis hypogea), soya beans (Glycine max), leucaena (L. leucocephala), gliricidia (G. sepium), and sesbania (S. sesban) was determined as a basis for examining their alkalinity when incorporated into an acidic Zambian Ferralsol. Potential (ash) alkalinity, available alkalinity by titration to pH 4 and soluble alkalinity (16 h

G. M. Sakala; D. L. Rowell; C. J. Pilbeam



Effects of ectomycorrhizal and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on drought tolerance of four leguminous woody seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings ofAcacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex. Benth.,Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.,Gliricidia sepium (Jac.) Walp andLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. were inoculated with an ectomycorrhizal (Boletus suillus (l. ex. Fr.) or indigenous vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in a low P soil. The plants were subjected to unstressed\\u000a (well-watered) and drought-stressed (water-stressed) conditions. InGliricidia andLeucaena, both mycorrhizal inoculations stimulated greater plant growth, P

O. Osonubi; K. Mulongoy; O. O. Awotoye; M. O. Atayese; D. U. U. Okali



Exploiting Unique Germplasm Resources of Leguminous Trees: Prosopis, Leucaena and Acacia. Final Report, August 31, 1982-August 30, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Haiti, and other semiarid regions of the world, the need for fuelwood and forage is critical. The report summarizes research conducted over a ten year period on developing replicable plantations of leguminous trees in semiarid lands, especially in area...

P. Felker



Exploiting unique germplasm resources of leguminous trees: Prosopis, leucaena and acacia. Final report, August 31, 1982August 30, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Haiti, and other semiarid regions of the world, the need for fuelwood and forage is critical. The report summarizes research conducted over a ten year period on developing replicable plantations of leguminous trees in semiarid lands, especially in areas near seawater salinity levels. Research included greenhouse and laboratory work followed by field trials in Haiti and focused on two




Changes in soil properties during long-term fallow and continuous cultivation after forest clearing in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in soil chemical properties under natural bush regrowth, planted fallows (i.e. Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Leucaena leucocephala, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)) and under continuous cropping with minimum tillage (i.e. maize (Zea mays L.)\\/cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) intercrop and maize monoculture with residue returned or removed), were monitored for 13 years after clearing of secondary forest on a kaolinitic

Anthony SR Juo; Kathrin Franzluebbers; Adenike Dabiri; Benson Ikhile



Application of the Faustmann principle to a short-rotation tree species: an analytical tool for economists, with reference to Kenya and leucaena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention has increasingly focussed on fast-growing trees as a potential means of slowing high rates of deforestation and as a source of renewable energy. Unfortunately, the analytical tools for determining economic tractability of tree-growing projects lags behind the popular support to implement them. This paper brings the methodology of the Faustmann Principle, which was established for use with longer growing

S. W. Stone; S. C. Kyle; J. M. Conrad



Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  


This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1爂/kg DM), while T.爂igantea leaves had the least (26.1爂/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable燦 fraction 'a' was highest in M.燼lba leaves (734.9爂/kg DM) and least in T.爂igantea leaves (139.5爂/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M.燼lba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M.燼lba (39%) and T.爂igantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M.燼lba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable燦 when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M.燼lba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V



Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.  


Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals. PMID:23670312

Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cl醬dio Roberto Fonseca; Guimar鉫s Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria



Threats to Burdur Lake ecosystem, Turkey and its waterbirds, particularly the white-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burdur Lake, a closed-basin saline lake in south-west Anatolia, Turkey, is internationally important for its wintering waterbirds. It is the most important wintering site in the world for the white-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala, a globally threatened species. It has also held internationally important numbers of 10 other waterbird species. The lake is threatened by the construction of an industrial complex

Tobias Salath



Seed and seedling persistence of two leguminous shrubs on a semi-arid site in southwest Texas  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION II SEED DORMANCY AND LONGEVITY OF TWO SEMI-ARID LEGUMINOUS SHRUBS . Introduction . Materials and Methods . Results . Discussion 5 7 12 20 III EFFECTS OF DEFOLIATION ON SEEDLINGS OF ACACIA BERLANDIERI AND LEUCAENA PULVERULENTA... Acacia and Leucuenu seeds and treated seeds exposed to various conditions in controlled environment (Leucaena only) and field experiments 13 2. 2. Hardness (impermeability) of Leucaena pulverulenta seed after exposure to different environmental...

Wallace, Robert Brittingham



Mutual reproductive dependence of distylic Cordia leucocephala (Cordiaceae) and oligolectic Ceblurgus longipalpis (Halictidae, Rophitinae) in the Caatinga  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The close relationship between distylic Cordia leucocephala and the bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, both endemic to the Caatinga, north-east Brazil, was investigated, emphasizing reproductive dependence, morphological adaptations of the partners, and pollen flow. Methods In the municipality of Pedra, in the Caatinga of Pernambuco, the breeding system and reproductive success of C. leucocephala, its interaction with flower visitors and inter- and intramorph pollen flow were determined. Key Results The bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, the unique flower visitor and effective pollinator of self-incompatible Cordia leucocephala, presents morphological features adapted to exploit hidden pollen and nectar in the long and narrow corolla tubes. Pollen of low-level anthers is collected with hairs on prolonged mouthparts and pollen of high-level anthers with clypeus, mandibles, and labrum, showing pollen removal from both levels with the same effectiveness. In both morphs, this results in similar legitimate, i.e. intermorph cross-pollen flow. Illegitimate pollen flow to stigmas of pin flowers, however, was much higher than to stigmas of thrum flowers. Moreover, more illegitimate pollen was transported to stigmas of pin and less to those of thrum flowers when compared with legitimate pollen flow. Conclusions The study reveals a one-to-one reproductive inter-dependence between both partners. Data indicate that this relationship between bee species and plant species is one of the rare cases of monolecty among bees. Monotypic Ceblurgus longipalpis, the only rophitine species of Brazil, evolved prolonged mouthparts rare among short-tongued bees that enable them to access pollen from flowers with short-level anthers hidden for bees of other species, and nectar at the base of the flower tube. PMID:20400457

Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Schlindwein, Clemens



Equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions by Acacia leucocephala bark.  


Biosorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous solution by biomass prepared from Acacia leucocephala bark, an agricultural solid waste has been investigated in the present study. All the experiments are carried out by batch mode technique. The resulting biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of experimental parameters such as contact time, effect of pH (2-10), initial concentration of adsorbate (50-200 mg L(-1)) and amount of biosorbent dosage was evaluated. The removal was found to be pH dependent, and maximum removal was found to be at pH 5.0. The equilibrium time was found to be 3h. The biosorbent dose was increased, and the percentage removal of 2,4,6-TCP was increased, while the adsorption capacity at equilibrium q(e) (mg g(-1)) (amount of 2,4,6-TCP loaded per unit weight of adsorbent) decreased. Biosorption kinetic and isotherm studies showed the pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.999), and both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were the best choices to describe the adsorption behaviors. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of A. leucocephala bark for 2,4,6-TCP was found to be 256.4 mg g(-1), at 301癈 according to Langmuir model. This study demonstrated for the first time that the A. leucocephala bark could be an alternative for more costly adsorbents used for removal of 2,4,6-TCP from aqueous media. PMID:22365378

Kumar, Nadavala Siva; Woo, Heung-Sik; Min, Kim



The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.  


The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

Cl閙ent, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M



Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.  


Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Th黰. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J



Preparative scale isolation, purification and derivatization of mimosine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid.  


Focusing on drug discovery non-proteinogenic amino acids have often been used as important building blocks for construction of compound libraries in the filed of combinatorial chemistry and chemical biology. Highly homogeneous L: -mimosine, ?-amino-?-(3-hydoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-propanoic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, has been successfully isolated and purified on an industrial scale from wild leaves of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit) which is a widely distributed legume in Okinawa, a sub-tropical island in Japan. Optical purity determinations used for quality control have been established through diastereomer formation. Physico-chemical properties and biological properties of purified mimosine have been clarified. Mimosine is sparingly soluble in water and organic solvents but can be dissolved in aqueous alkaline solution. The tyrosinase pathway is of particular interest in the cosmetic field, since mimosine is an analog of tyrosine. Thus the present purified mimosine have been tested in tyrosinase inhibitory assays. The IC50 for tyrosinase inhibitory activity of purified Mim was compared with kojic acid. Mimosine shows significant inhibition of melanin production in murine melanoma cells. The derivatization of mimosine has been investigated with a focus on its use in conventional peptide syntheses to generate mimosyl peptides. N-(9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyloxy)-mimosine and resin-bound mimosine for solid-phase syntheses have also been performed. Highly homogeneous Mim is a useful material for the development of functional cosmetics or active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:21993536

Nokihara, Kiyoshi; Hirata, Akiyoshi; Sogon, Tetsuya; Ohyama, Takafumi



Effects of Streblus asper Lour foliage on digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance of growing goats.  


Eighteen crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a Suranaree University of Technology's farm on the basis of similar bodyweight (15.5 3.5 kg). The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in randomized complete block design. Each goat was given urea-treated rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diets. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses, urea, and commercial mineral and vitamin mix. The experimental treatments were (1) soybean meal (SBM), (2) partial substitution of SBM with Streblus aspe Lour foliage, or (3) partial substitution of SBM with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) foliage. Nutrient intakes, ruminal characteristics (pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids), nitrogen balances, and plasma urea nitrogen were not significantly different among treatments. The present results indicate that protein foliages from locally grown shrubs and trees can substitute imported feedstuffs concentrate (e.g., SBM) as protein supplement for goat production. PMID:21088895

Paengkoum, Pramote



Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.  

PubMed Central

We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G



Voltammetric trace determination of mercury using plant refuse modified carbon paste electrodes.  


Citrus limon peel (kitchen waste) and Leucaena leucocephala seeds (agricultural waste) were used as a modifier for fabrication of modified carbon paste electrode for determination of mercury in aqueous sample using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Mercury was adsorbed on electrode surface at open circuit and anodic stripping voltammetric scan was run from -0.5 to 0.5 V. Various electrochemical parameters including amount of modifier, supporting electrolyte, accumulating solvent, pH of the accumulating solvent, and accumulation time were investigated. The effect of presence of other metal ions and surfactants was also studied. In comparison C. limon peel proved to be a better modifier than L. leucocephala seed biomass. This was justified by electrode characterization using cyclic voltammetry that indicated decrease in resistance of electrode when C. limon peel was used as modifier and increase when modifier was L. leucocephala seeds. Maximum current response was obtained using 5% C. limon peel biomass, hydrochloric acid as supporting electrolyte, acetate buffer of pH 6 as an accumulating solvent, 10-min accumulation time, and scan rate of 50 mV/s. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 100 to 1,000 ?g L(-1) of mercury for accumulation time of 10 min with limit of detection of 57.75 ?g L(-1) and limit of quantification of 192.48 ?g L(-1). This technique does not use mercury as electrode material and, therefore, has a positive environmental benefit. PMID:23709264

Devnani, Harsha; Satsangee, Soami Piara



Seasonal variation of macro and trace mineral contents in 14 browse species that grow in northeastern Mexico.  


Leaves and twigs from shrub species consumed by range goats: Acacia berlandieri, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia greggii, Acacia rigidula, Celtis pallida, Cercidium macrum, Condalia obovata, Cordia boissieri, Desmanthus virgathus, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucophyllum texanum, Opuntia lindehimieri, Porlieria angustifolia, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ziziphus obtusifolia were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Ca, P, Mg K, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe. Plants were collected in summer (September 12, 1992), fall (November 20, 1992), winter (February 20, 1993) and spring (May 22, 1993) in Mar韓, County, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. During spring and summer mineral concentrations were higher in general. Only Ca, Mg, K, and Fe were in substantial amounts in all seasons to meet adult goat requirements. With the exception of spring, shrubs had extremely low P concentrations. Manganese, Cu and Zn in most plants had low marginal levels to meet adult goat requirements. Moreover, potential intake of P, Mn, Cu and Zn in shrub species by goats weighing 50kg BW consuming 2.0kg per day DM was low. However, plants such as D. virgathus, L. texanum, P. glandulosa, L. leucocephala and C. macrum can be considered prominent components in diets of range goats because of their high mineral concentrations. It appears that ration formulations for range goats in northeastern Mexico should include P, Mn, Cu and Zn in all seasons of the year. PMID:11182308

Ramirez, R G.; Haenlein, G F.W.; Nez-Gonz醠ez, M A.



Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.  


The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop-roots) and L. leucocephala (pod seed) in C. gariepinus when supplemented in artificial feed. PMID:24120503

Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om



Breeding biology and habitat associations of the Altamira Oriole and Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas  

E-print Network

of the restored areas of huisache (Acacia minuata) and tepeguaje (Leucaena pulverulenta) have grown tall over the past 10 years. Few if any Tillandsia epiphytes are found at this site. 11 CHAPTER III NESTING SUCCESS AND NEST-SITE SELECTION OF THE ALTAMIRA..., cedar elm, sugar hackberry, anacua (Ehretia anacua), Texas ebony (Chloroleucon ebano), tepeguaje (Leucaena pulverulenta), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Common shrubs and small trees included Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), huisache (Acacia...

Werner, Scott Michael



The economic potential of leguminous tree crops in zero-tillage cropping in Nigeria: a linear programming model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic evaluation of zero-tillage farming system against the background of small-scale farmers in south west Nigeria was undertaken using the linear programming method to maximize yearly net return on Alfisols. Alternative crop rotation systems considered were maize-maize, maize-Stylo, maize-maize\\/Stylo, maize-pigeon pea, maize-maize\\/pigeon pea, and maize\\/Leucaena-maize\\/Leucaena.

I. Verinumbe; H. C. Knipscheer; E. E. Enabor



Characteristics of the rhizobia associated with Dalea spp. in the Ordway, Kellogg-Weaver Dunes, and Hayden prairies.  


Habitat fragmentation affects the biodiversity and function of aboveground organisms in natural ecosystems but has not been studied for effects on belowground species. In this paper, we consider the diversity of the rhizobia associated with the indigenous legume Dalea purpurea in 3 residual prairie areas in Minnesota and Iowa. Using Dalea purpurea as a trap host, 218 rhizobia were recovered from these soils then characterized using BOXA1R PCR. Three major and 13 minor groups were distinguished based on a similarity of greater than 75% in fingerprint patterns. Each major group consisted almost exclusively of rhizobia from a single prairie, with the diversity of Dalea rhizobia recovered from the Hayden Prairie less than that obtained with rhizobia from the other prairies. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, isolates from the Hayden, Ordway, and Kellogg-Weaver Dunes prairies were most similar to Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium gallicum, and Mesorhizobium amorphae and Mesorhizobium huakuii, respectively. This variation in the dominant microsymbiont species across the 3 prairies studied was unexpected but could have been influenced by the limited number of samples that we were allowed to take, by unanticipated cross-nodulation between native legumes, and by variation in the range of legume species present in each residual prairie area. While some of the rhizobia from Dalea nodulated Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Leucaena leucocephala, and Onobrychis viciifolia in addition to the Dalea species tested, others nodulated Astragalus canadensis or Amorpha canescens. PMID:15782230

Tlusty, B; van Berkum, P; Graham, P H



Distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal chemical fractions in artificial soil on rock cut slopes alongside railways.  


Artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes alongside railroad tracks to promote revegetation. This study evaluated the heavy metal content and the distribution of heavy metal chemical fractions in the soil, as well as the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The soil at four sites was determined to be considerably contaminated with Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increased with the length of time the railway had been in use and decreased further away from the railway tracks. Pb primarily existed in reducible form but as residual fractions, whereas Cd was predominantly in exchangeable form. A correlation analysis indicated that pH, organic matter, and total phosphorus levels were important factors affecting the distribution of the heavy metal chemical fractions. The amounts of exchangeable Pb and Cd in the soil were highly correlated with their amounts in the plants sampled, indicating that the exchangeable fraction is a better indication of heavy metal phytoavailability than the total amount of heavy metals in the soil. Bioaccumulation and translocation factors indicated that Indigofera amblyantha had moderate tolerance and bioaccumulation capability for Pb, as did Leucaena leucocephala for Cd. These two plant species can serve as ideal slope remediation plants. PMID:24727018

Chen, Zhaoqiong; Ai, Yingwei; Fang, Chen; Wang, Kexiu; Li, Wei; Liu, Shui; Li, Chunlin; Xiao, Jingyao; Huang, Zhiyu



Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics.  


The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart



Reclamation of tannery polluted soil through phytoremediation.  


The huge volume of sludge emanating from the tannery effluent treatment plants poses a serious environmental problem. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology in which the plants are employed to reclamate the contaminated soil strewn with heavy metals (metalloids) and toxic compounds. This work focuses the impact of application of tannery sludge on biochemical properties of 6 months old tree saplings of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Melia azedarach Linn. (Wild Neem) and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit (Subabool) raised over the tannery sludge in an attempt to use these plants for phytoremediation. The plants raised over the garden soil served as the control. The porosity and water holding capacity of the tannery sludge were higher. The plant growth supporting elements such as Ca, total N2, NO3 and Mg were higher in the sludge. The plants raised over the sludge were found to be dark green with increased morphometric parameters. Electrophoretic profile revealed amplification of a few polypeptides (100, 105, 49 and 55 KDa). The levels of biomolecules and the CO2 absorption increased in 6 months old plants. There was a significant uptake and transport of chromium in all the three tree species suggesting that these plants could be employed in phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:23572927

Sakthivel, V; Vivekanandan, M



Rhizobium yanglingense sp. nov., isolated from arid and semi-arid regions in China.  


A novel rhizobial group, cluster 9, defined in previous research [Tan, Z. Y., Wang, E. T., Peng, G. X., Zhu, M. E., Martinez-Romero, E. & Chen, W. X. (1999). Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1457-1469], was further characterized by determination of DNA base composition, whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and host specificity. These isolates were collected from the wild legumes Amphicarpaea trisperma, Coronilla varia and Gueldenstaedtia multiflora growing in arid and semi-arid regions in northwestern China. Isolates within cluster 9 grouped into a single cluster above a similarity level of 90.6% in a cluster analysis based on protein SDS-PAGE, and they were differentiated from defined rhizobial species. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolate CCBAU 71623T, representing cluster 9, was most related to Rhizobium gallicum and Rhizobium mongolense. The DNA-DNA homologies were lower than 42.4% among cluster 9 and defined species, including R. gallicum and R. mongolense. These data indicated that cluster 9 was a unique genomic species. Isolates within this cluster could share their host plants. They could not nodulate Galega orientalis and Leucaena leucocephala and formed ineffective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris. This group could also be differentiated from defined species by phenotypic characteristics. It is therefore proposed as a new species, Rhizobium yanglingense, with isolate CCBAU 71623 as the type strain. PMID:11411714

Tan, Z Y; Kan, F L; Peng, G X; Wang, E T; Reinhold-Hurek, B; Chen, W X



Ecological Indicators of Native Rhizobia in Tropical Soils  

PubMed Central

The relationship between environment and abundance of rhizobia was described by determining the populations of root nodule bacteria at 14 diverse sites on the island of Maui. Mean annual rainfall at the sites ranged from 320 to 1,875 mm, elevation from 37 to 1,650 m, and soil pH from 4.6 to 7.9. Four different soil orders were represented in this study: inceptisols, mollisols, ultisols, and an oxisol. The rhizobial populations were determined by plant infection counts of five legumes (Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa, Vicia sativa, Leucaena leucocephala, and Macroptilium atropurpureum). Populations varied from 1.1 to 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. The most frequently occurring rhizobia were Bradyrhizobium spp., which were present at 13 of 14 sites with a maximum of 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. Rhizobium trifolii and R. leguminosarum occurred only at higher elevations. The presence of a particular Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium sp. was correlated with the occurrence of its appropriate host legume. Total rhizobial populations were significantly correlated with mean annual rainfall, legume cover and shoot biomass, soil temperature, soil pH, and phosphorus retention. Regression models are presented which describe the relationship of legume hosts, soil climate, and soil fertility on native rhizobial populations. PMID:16347624

Woomer, Paul; Singleton, Paul W.; Bohlool, B. Ben



Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics  

PubMed Central

The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662



Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos  

PubMed Central

As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

Gu閦ou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher



Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.  


A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K



Fate of mimosine administered orally to sheep and its effectiveness as a defleecing agent.  


Mimosine was administered orally to Merino sheep once daily for periods of 1-3 days, either as the isolated compound or in the foliage of Leucaena leucocephala. A single daily dose of mimosine of 450 or 600 mg/kg body weight was effective for defleecing sheep. A daily dose rate of 300 mg/kg was effective for defleecing sheep if given on two successive days. The effectiveness of a treatment for defleecing sheep was related to the concentration of mimosine in plasma following dosing; defleecing ensued when the concentration of mimosine in plasma was maintained above 0-1 mmol/l for at least 30 h. The main products excreted in urine were mimosine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine (DHP); small amounts of mimosinamine were also excreted. During the first day following dosing, the major excretory product was mimosine; DHP was an important component during the second and third days. In the three days following the start of dosing, between 32 and 53% of the mimosine given was accounted for as mimosine in the urine. Following an intravenous infusion of mimosine, no DHP was detected in urine; most of the mimosine was excreted intact but a small amount (c. 9%) was excreted as mimosinamine. PMID:1225286

Reis, P J; Tunks, D A; Hegarty, M P



Heterologous exopolysaccharide production in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and consequences for nodule development.  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 produces large amounts of acidic exopolysaccharide. Mutants that fail to synthesize this exopolysaccharide are also unable to nodulate the host plant Leucaena leucocephala. A hybrid strain of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 containing exo genes from Rhizobium meliloti was constructed. The background genetics and nod genes of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 are retained, but the cluster of genes involved in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis was deleted. These exo genes were replaced with genes required for the synthesis of succinoglycan exopolysaccharide from R. meliloti. As a result of the genetic manipulation, the ability of these hybrids to synthesize exopolysaccharide was restored, but the structure was that of succinoglycan and not that of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234. The replacement genes were contained on a cosmid which encoded the entire known R. meliloti exo gene cluster, with the exception of exoB. Cosmids containing smaller portions of this exo gene cluster did not restore exopolysaccharide production. The presence of succinoglycan was indicated by staining with the fluorescent dye Calcofluor, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and monosaccharide analysis. Although an NGR234 exoY mutant containing the R. meliloti exo genes produced multimers of the succinoglycan repeat unit, as does the wild-type R. meliloti, the deletion mutant of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 containing the R. meliloti exo genes produced only the monomer. The deletion mutant therefore appeared to lack a function that affects the multiplicity of succinoglycan produced in the Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 background. Although these hybrid strains produced succinoglycan, they were still able to induce the development of an organized nodule structure on L. leucocephala. The resulting nodules did not fix nitrogen, but they did contain infection threads and bacteroids within plant cells. This clearly demonstrated that a heterologous acidic exopolysaccharide structure was sufficient to enable nodule development to proceed beyond the developmental barrier imposed on mutants of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 that are unable to synthesize any acidic exopolysaccharide. Images PMID:2022612

Gray, J X; Zhan, H J; Levery, S B; Battisti, L; Rolfe, B G; Leigh, J A



Rehabilitation of a debris-flow prone mountain stream in southwestern China - Strategies, effects and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRehabilitation of Shengou Creek, a small, steep mountain stream in southwestern China that is prone to debris flows, started more than 30 years ago through an integrated program of engineering applications (check dams and guiding dikes), biological measures (reforestation), and social measures (reducing human disturbance). Small and medium-sized check dams and guiding dikes were constructed on key upper and middle sections of the creek to stabilize hillslopes and channel bed. Meanwhile, Leucaena leucocephala, a drought-tolerant, fast-growing, and highly adaptive plant species, was introduced to promote vegetation recovery in the watershed. The collective community structure of tree, shrub, and herb assemblages in the artificial L. leucocephala forest, which developed after 7 years, enhanced soil structure and drastically reduced soil erosion on hillslopes. Cultivation of steep land was strictly controlled in the basin, and some inhabitants were encouraged to move from upstream areas to downstream towns to reduce disturbance. These integrated measures reduced sediment supply from both hillslopes and upstream channels, preventing sediment-related hazards. The development of natural streambed resistance structures (mainly step-pool systems) and luxuriant riparian vegetation aided channel stability, diversity of stream habitat, and ecological maintenance in the creek. These findings are compared with Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, two adjacent non-rehabilitated debris-flow streams which have climate and geomorphologic conditions similar to Shengou Creek. Habitat diversity indices, taxa richness, biodiversity, and bio-community indices are much higher in Shengou Creek relative to Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, attesting to the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures.

Yu, Guo-an; Huang, He Qing; Wang, Zhaoyin; Brierley, Gary; Zhang, Kang



Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.  


This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa In阺 sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88??2.85爇g body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6燿ays for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710爂/kg) and ground corn (290爂/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150爂/kg), ground corn (30爂/kg), and Leucaena hay (820爂/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160爂/kg), ground corn (150爂/kg), and Mucuna hay (690爂/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280爂/kg), ground corn (190爂/kg), and Mimosa hay (530爂/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40爂/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8爂 CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5爂 CH(4)/day), STA (10.4爂 CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3爂 CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35爂 CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, B醨bara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder



The effect of fallow and continuous cultivation on the chemical and physical properties of an alfisol in western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties under continuous cropping were compared with those under planted fallows and natural bush regrowth for three years after forest clearing. The cropping treatments consisted of continuous maize with and without stover returned as surface mulch, continuous soybean, and maize and cassava intercropped. The fallow treatments included pigeon pea, leucaena, Guinea grass and natural bush regrowth.

A. S. R. Juo; R. Lal



Original article Intercropping of sesbania (Sesbania sesban)  

E-print Network

, intercropping of leucaena and sesbania with some annual grasses (barley, pearl millet, and Rhodes-, rye in the presence of moderate N fertilization for winter barley and rye grass and of higher doses of 300 kg N路ha颅1 for summer pearl millet and sudan grass. Intercropping improved productivity of non-legumes, in particular

Boyer, Edmond


Mulching effect of plant residues of chemically contrasting compositions on soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of five types of plant residues [Acioa, presently Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, and Leucaena lecocephala prunings, maize (Zea mays) stover and rice (Oryza sativa) straw] applied as mulch on soil organic matter (SOM) content and effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) were studied on an Alfisol in the humid tropics. Plant residue mulch resulted in a decline in SOM and

G. Tian; L. Brussaard



Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.  


There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako



Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.  


Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84燿ays in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P?Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P?

Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy



Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.  


One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures. Our results suggest that the main photosensitisers from terrestrial plants are likely based on the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure and photosensitisers with other structures, if present, are present in minor amounts or are not as active as those with the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure. PMID:19647445

Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon



Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation.  


An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55癈 and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall's buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39癈 for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Baah, J; McAllister, T A



Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation  

PubMed Central

An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55癈 and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall抯 buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39癈 for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.



Allelopathic potential of Macaranga tanarius (L.) muell.-arg.  


Macaranga tanarius is widely distributed in the abandoned lowlands of Taiwan where substantial amounts of leaves accumulate on the ground. A unique pattern of weed exclusion underneath trees is often found and thought to result from allelopathic interactions. Density-dependent phytotoxicity analysis of Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) growing in soil mixed with the powder of M. tanarius leaves showed a significant deviation from the expected yield-density relationship. Lettuce growth was most suppressed in the low seed density experiment suggesting that the phytotoxins produced during leaf decomposition inhibit the growth of lettuce seedlings. Bidens pilosa and Leucaena leucocephala, growing in soil mixed with the leaf powder of M. tanarius were also suppressed. Aqueous leaf extracts were bioassayed against lettuce and B. pilosa, and exhibited a significant suppression in radicle growth. Compounds identified from leaves included nymphaeol-A (1), nymphaeol-B (2), nymphaeol-C (3), quercetin (4), abscisic acid (ABA) (5), blumenol A (6), blumenol B (7), roseoside II (8), tanariflavanone A (9), and tanariflavanone B (10), ABA was the major growth inhibitor. At concentrations of 20 ppm, ABA suppressed lettuce germination, while at 120 ppm it inhibited the growth of Miscanthus floridulus, Chloris barbata, and Bidens pilosa. At 600 ppm, quercetin, blumenol A, and blumenol B, caused 20-25% inhibition of radicle and shoot growth of M. floridulus. The amount of ABA in M. tanarius leaves was approximately 3-5 microg g(-1) dry weight, significantly higher than previously reported. We conclude that the pattern of weed exclusion underneath stands of M. tanarius and its invasion into its adjacent grassland vegetation results from allelopathic interactions. PMID:12857035

Tseng, Mei-Huims; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Yih-Ming; Chou, Chang-Hung



Characterization of Rhizobium grahamii extrachromosomal replicons and their transfer among rhizobia  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizobium grahamii belongs to a new phylogenetic group of rhizobia together with Rhizobium mesoamericanum and other species. R. grahamii has a broad-host-range that includes Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris, although it is a poor competitor for P. vulgaris nodulation in the presence of Rhizobium etli or Rhizobium phaseoli strains. This work analyzed the genome sequence and transfer properties of R. grahamii plasmids. Results Genome sequence was obtained from R. grahamii CCGE502 type strain isolated from Dalea leporina in Mexico. The CCGE502 genome comprises one chromosome and two extrachromosomal replicons (ERs), pRgrCCGE502a and pRgrCCGE502b. Additionally, a plasmid integrated in the CCGE502 chromosome was found. The genomic comparison of ERs from this group showed that gene content is more variable than average nucleotide identity (ANI). Well conserved nod and nif genes were found in R. grahamii and R. mesoamericanum with some differences. R. phaseoli Ch24-10 genes expressed in bacterial cells in roots were found to be conserved in pRgrCCGE502b. Regarding conjugative transfer we were unable to transfer the R. grahamii CCGE502 symbiotic plasmid and its megaplasmid to other rhizobial hosts but we could transfer the symbiotic plasmid to Agrobacterium tumefaciens with transfer dependent on homoserine lactones. Conclusion Variable degrees of nucleotide identity and gene content conservation were found among the different R. grahamii CCGE502 replicons in comparison to R. mesoamericanum genomes. The extrachromosomal replicons from R. grahamii were more similar to those found in phylogenetically related Rhizobium species. However, limited similarities of R. grahamii CCGE502 symbiotic plasmid and megaplasmid were observed in other more distant Rhizobium species. The set of conserved genes in R. grahamii comprises some of those that are highly expressed in R. phaseoli on plant roots, suggesting that they play an important role in root colonization. PMID:24397311



Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.



Phenotypic, molecular and symbiotic characterization of the rhizobial symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart that grow in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina.  


Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart belongs to the D. virgatus complex, subfamily Mimosoidae. The known potential as livestock fodder of several of these legumes prompted us to undertake a phenotypic, molecular, and symbiotic characterization of the D. paspalaceus symbionts in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The rhizobia collected--containing isolates with different abiotic-stress tolerances--showed a remarkable genetic diversity by PCR fingerprinting, with 11 different amplification profiles present among 20 isolates. In selected isolates 16S-rDNA sequencing detected mesorhizobia (60%) and rhizobia (40%) within the collection, in contrast to the genus of the original inoculant strain CB3126--previously isolated from Leucaena leucocephala--that we typified here through its 16S rDNA as Sinorhizobium terangae. The results revealed the establishment by diverse bacterial genera--rhizobia, sinorhizobia, and mesorhizobia--of full N2-fixing symbiotic associations with D. paspalaceus. This diversity was paralleled by the presence of at least two different nodC allelic variants. The identical nodC alleles of the Mesorhizobia sp. 10.L.4.2 and 10.L.5.3 notably failed to group within any of the currently described rhizo-/brady-/azorhizobial nodC clades. Interestingly, the nodC from S. terangae CB3126 clustered close to homologs from common bean nodulating rhizobia, but not with the nodC from S. terangae WSM1721 that nodulates Acacia. No previous data were available on nod-gene phylogeny for Desmanthus symbionts. A field assay indicated that inoculation of D. paspalaceus with the local Rhizobium sp. 10L.11.4 produced higher aerial-plant dry weights compared to S. teranga CB3126-inoculated plants. Neither the mesorhizobia 10.L.4.2 or 10.L.5.3 nor the rhizobium 10L.11.4 induced root nodules in L. leucocephala or P. vulgaris. The results show that some of the local isolates have remarkable tolerances to several abiotic stresses including acidity, salt, and temperature; while exhibiting prominent N2 fixation; thus indicating suitability as candidates for inoculation of D. paspalaceus. PMID:25153989

Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, Mar韆 Florencia; L髉ez, Jos Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, Mar韆 Antonieta; Pensiero, Jos Francisco; Lagares, Antonio



Radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass using a xenon flashtube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass materials, including lignin, redwood, corn cob, Calotropis Procera, Leucaena wood, Kraft paper, newsprint, cow manure, D-glucose, and D-cellobiose, were pyrolyzed in vacuum by the visible radiant flux emitted from a Xenon flashtube. The flux density exceeded 8 kW\\/cm虏 during the 1 ms flash. Sirup yields were low (avg 25%), while the gas yield was high (avg 32%). The gaseous

Mark Willard Hopkins; Michael Jerry Antal; Jack G. Kay



Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.66.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.09.0 days and a production of 1.70.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 44 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.



Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 5.0 ?g/mL and TPC of 5030 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 5.0 ?g/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 ?g/disc and 500 ?g/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C. pulcherrima, C. tergemina and P. pterocarpum. These preliminary results would be a guide in the selection of potential candidates for further pharmacological study and in search of new drug candidate in treating MRSA infections. PMID:21306653



Exo-Oligosaccharides of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234 Are Required for Symbiosis with Various Legumes  

PubMed Central

Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish endosymbiotic associations with legumes. Nodule formation depends on various bacterial carbohydrates, including lipopolysaccharides, K-antigens, and exopolysaccharides (EPS). An acidic EPS from Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 consists of glucosyl (Glc), galactosyl (Gal), glucuronosyl (GlcA), and 4,6-pyruvylated galactosyl (PvGal) residues with ?-1,3, ?-1,4, ?-1,6, ?-1,3, and ?-1,4 glycoside linkages. Here we examined the role of NGR234 genes in the synthesis of EPS. Deletions within the exoF, exoL, exoP, exoQ, and exoY genes suppressed accumulation of EPS in bacterial supernatants, a finding that was confirmed by chemical analyses. The data suggest that the repeating subunits of EPS are assembled by an ExoQ/ExoP/ExoF-dependent mechanism, which is related to the Wzy polymerization system of group 1 capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Mutation of exoK (NGR?exoK), which encodes a putative glycanase, resulted in the absence of low-molecular-weight forms of EPS. Analysis of the extracellular carbohydrates revealed that NGR?exoK is unable to accumulate exo-oligosaccharides (EOSs), which are O-acetylated nonasaccharide subunits of EPS having the formula Gal(Glc)5(GlcA)2PvGal. When used as inoculants, both the exo-deficient mutants and NGR?exoK were unable to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on some hosts (e.g., Albizia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala), but they were able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other hosts (e.g., Vigna unguiculata). EOSs of the parent strain were biologically active at very low levels (yield in culture supernatants, ?50 ?g per liter). Thus, NGR234 produces symbiotically active EOSs by enzymatic degradation of EPS, using the extracellular endo-?-1,4-glycanase encoded by exoK (glycoside hydrolase family 16). We propose that the derived EOSs (and not EPS) are bacterial components that play a crucial role in nodule formation in various legumes. PMID:16923883

Staehelin, Christian; Forsberg, Lennart S.; D'Haeze, Wim; Gao, Mu-Yun; Carlson, Russell W.; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Pellock, Brett J.; Jones, Kathryn M.; Walker, Graham C.; Streit, Wolfgang R.; Broughton, William J.



Exo-oligosaccharides of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 are required for symbiosis with various legumes.  


Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish endosymbiotic associations with legumes. Nodule formation depends on various bacterial carbohydrates, including lipopolysaccharides, K-antigens, and exopolysaccharides (EPS). An acidic EPS from Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 consists of glucosyl (Glc), galactosyl (Gal), glucuronosyl (GlcA), and 4,6-pyruvylated galactosyl (PvGal) residues with beta-1,3, beta-1,4, beta-1,6, alpha-1,3, and alpha-1,4 glycoside linkages. Here we examined the role of NGR234 genes in the synthesis of EPS. Deletions within the exoF, exoL, exoP, exoQ, and exoY genes suppressed accumulation of EPS in bacterial supernatants, a finding that was confirmed by chemical analyses. The data suggest that the repeating subunits of EPS are assembled by an ExoQ/ExoP/ExoF-dependent mechanism, which is related to the Wzy polymerization system of group 1 capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Mutation of exoK (NGROmegaexoK), which encodes a putative glycanase, resulted in the absence of low-molecular-weight forms of EPS. Analysis of the extracellular carbohydrates revealed that NGROmegaexoK is unable to accumulate exo-oligosaccharides (EOSs), which are O-acetylated nonasaccharide subunits of EPS having the formula Gal(Glc)5(GlcA)2PvGal. When used as inoculants, both the exo-deficient mutants and NGROmegaexoK were unable to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on some hosts (e.g., Albizia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala), but they were able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other hosts (e.g., Vigna unguiculata). EOSs of the parent strain were biologically active at very low levels (yield in culture supernatants, approximately 50 microg per liter). Thus, NGR234 produces symbiotically active EOSs by enzymatic degradation of EPS, using the extracellular endo-beta-1,4-glycanase encoded by exoK (glycoside hydrolase family 16). We propose that the derived EOSs (and not EPS) are bacterial components that play a crucial role in nodule formation in various legumes. PMID:16923883

Staehelin, Christian; Forsberg, Lennart S; D'Haeze, Wim; Gao, Mu-Yun; Carlson, Russell W; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Pellock, Brett J; Jones, Kathryn M; Walker, Graham C; Streit, Wolfgang R; Broughton, William J



Neotropical dry forests of the Caribbean: Secondary forest dynamics and restoration in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neotropical dry forests exist today mainly as secondary forests heavily influenced by exotic plants. This project analyzes land-cover change and secondary dry forest dynamics in three distinct phases (land cover change, secondary forest succession and forest rehabilitation), using St. Croix, US Virgin Islands as an example. Using Landsat satellite images and other data layers, I created classified land cover maps of St. Croix for 1992 and 2002. Forest was the dominant (56%) cover type on both dates, followed by development, grassland/pastures and water. A land cover change analysis comparing the two images revealed that 15% of the study area experienced a change either to (8%) or from (7%) forest. Grassland was the cover most likely to change and decreased from 16% to 11%, converted primarily to development. The overall result is a landscape trending toward younger forests, and increased forest fragmentation and development. In a second study, vegetation data from a chronosequence of secondary forests was analyzed for changes to forest structure, species composition and presence of exotic species. The leguminous exotic tree Leucaena leucocephala was by far the most frequently observed tree and dominated all stands, except those over 50 years old. Species diversity was significantly ( p<0.001) higher for forests in the two oldest age classes and there was a strong trend toward increasing canopy complexity with increased age. However, age class accounted for only a small portion of variability in species diversity, indicating other influencing factors. Slope, elevation, aspect and soil were not significant and sites with long histories of intensive agricultural land-use remained low in species diversity and dominated by exotics >50 years after abandonment. In a third experiment, a 'gap planting' method for establishing four rare native tree species was tested on a site experiencing arrested succession. All four species successfully established at >69% survival in 3m diameter gaps artificially created in exotic tree stands. A mulch treatment significantly (p<0.01) increased survival, but not growth. This study demonstrates on St. Croix forest is the primary land cover type and secondary forests are predominant forest type. The species composition of these forests is dynamic, but they tend to be dominated by exotic tree species and over 50 years of natural succession is insufficient time for secondary forest stands to advance beyond the earliest successional stages. These results can be applied to jump-start native forest succession and rehabilitate degraded secondary forests.

Daley, Brian F.


An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in-filled in a long process of base level lowering and landscape denudation. These valley processes are linked to hillslope "throughflow" lines and exfiltration points appear in gully walls from which secondary gullies develop, thus creating expanding erosional networks. After incision, channel widening and meandering are followed by gully wall declination and in duplex soils headwall retreat consumes the A horizon of the surrounding hillslope soils. Consequently, sediment from eroding headwalls on the slopes is deposited in the gullies and lower slopes. New vegetation establishes and completely masks the previous gully. This is a different kind of base level effect when compared with the traditional incision by trunk and regional catchment networks and needs to be understood when considering the effects of grazing management. Recent advances in knowledge about the Southern Oscillation Index and the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation are a two-edged sword for land managers because some parts of properties can be best rehabilitated during wet periods while other very productive parts can be damaged the most. Rehabilitation of some key areas on hillslopes, successful introduction of tropical legumes and buffel grass(Cenchus Celaris), choking of gullies where deposition is occurring with growth of Leucaena leucocephala shrubs, and rotational resting (Time Controlled Grazing) from grazing has been highly successful in changing hydrology and erosion.

Ciesiolka, Cyril



Mesorhizobium gobiense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium tarimense sp. nov., isolated from wild legumes growing in desert soils of Xinjiang, China.  


Twenty-four Mesorhizobium strains were isolated from desert soils in the Xinjiang region of China and were characterized by a polyphasic approach. These strains grouped into three clusters in IGS-RFLP, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins and BOX-PCR analysis, corresponding to genomic species V, VI and VII as found in a previous study. The results were supported by sequencing analyses of rrs, IGS, atpD and recA genes. Genospecies VII was most related to Mesorhizobium septentrionale, while genospecies V and VI were both most closely related to Mesorhizobium tianshanense, but were distinct from each other and from M. tianshanense. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between the representative strain CCBAU 83284 (genospecies VII) and the type strain of M. septentrionale was 90.1 %. Genospecies VII was thus defined as M. septentrionale. The DNA-DNA relatedness value for representative strains of genospecies V or VI with the related reference strains of recognized species were always lower than 60 %. Low values of DNA-DNA hybridization (32.79 %) between representative strains of genospecies V (CCBAU 83330(T)) and of VI (CCBAU 83306(T)) were also observed. Based upon these results, two novel species are proposed: Mesorhizobium gobiense sp. nov. represented by genospecies V (type strain, CCBAU 83330(T)=LMG 23949(T)=HAMBI 2974(T)) and Mesorhizobium tarimense sp. nov. represented by genospecies VI (type strain, CCBAU 83306(T)=LMG 24338(T)=HAMBI 2973(T)). Strain CCBAU 83278 grouped as the most peripheral member with genospecies VI in SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and BOX-PCR analysis and in the phylogenetic tree of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences. The results of analyses of rrs, atpD and recA gene sequences, as well as those of DNA-DNA hybridization studies, strongly supported the suggestion that this strain belonged to a species quite different from genospecies V and VI and from any other recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. As only one strain has been isolated to date, strain CCBAU 83278 was not proposed as a novel species in this study. Mesorhizobium gobiense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium tarimense sp. nov. could be differentiated from each other as well as from recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium on the basis of phenotypic characteristics. The symbiotic loci (nodC and nifH) of the two novel species formed two phylogenetic branches related to Mesorhizobium loti and M. tianshanense. The type strains of the two novel species were able to nodulate Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lotus corniculatus, Oxytropis glabra and Robinia pseudoacacia but not Astragalus membranaceus, Leucaena leucocephala, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum or Medicago sativa. PMID:18984702

Han, Tian Xu; Han, Li Li; Wu, Li Juan; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Gu, Jin Gang; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin



Linking Above- and Belowground Dynamics in Tropical Urban Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary forests that emerge after a long history of agriculture can have altered plant community composition and relative abundances of different species. These forests can look and behave differently compared to pre-agricultural forests due changes in primary productivity, resource allocation, and phenology, which can significantly affect processes such as carbon accumulation and nutrient availability. Our research explores how alternative successional trajectories following intensive agricultural use affect linkages among the establishment of novel plant communities, soil nutrient availability and turnover, and soil microbial community composition and function. We hypothesize that different plant species composition due to differing land use legacies and successional trajectories would drive changes in soil microbial community structure and function, affecting soil C and N chemistry and turnover. We conducted this research in the subtropical dry forest life zone of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands where island-wide abandonment of sugarcane resulted in a mosaic of sites in different stages of forest succession. We identified replicate sites with the following post-sugarcane trajectories: 1) natural forest regeneration, 2) low intensity pasture use, followed by reforestation with timber plantation, which are no longer being managed, 3) high intensity pasture use and recent natural forest regeneration, and 4) high intensity pasture use and current active grazing. During 2011-2013, we sampled soils seasonally (0-10 cm) and measured tree species composition. The successional trajectories showed distinct tree species composition. The first two trajectories yielded 40-year old mixed-species secondary forest, dominated by the dry forest tree species Melicoccus bijugatas, Guapira fragrans, Maniklara zapota, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum. The tree species Melicoccus bijugatas primarily drove differences between the first two trajectories (natural forest regeneration vs. timber plantation and subsequent forest regeneration) while the N-fixing species Leucaena leucocephala drove differences between these forests and younger forests (10-year old), which only recently regenerated. The 40-year old mixed-species forests, regardless of successional trajectory, both had higher soil organic C and N (40 6 Mg C/ha and 3.8 6 Mg N/ha) compared to younger forests (32 2 Mg C/ha and 2.9 0.2 Mg N/ha) and active pastures. Active pastures had the lowest soil organic C and N (22 6 Mg C/ha and 2.1 0.5 Mg N/ha). We found that each successional trajectory showed distinct soil microbial community composition. In addition, the recently regenerated younger forests, dominated by N-fixing tree species, had higher microbial biomass and higher rates of N-cycling enzyme activity (N-acetyl glucosaminidase) when compared with the older, mixed-species forest. Our next step is to link microbial community structure and function with distinct forms of soil organic matter (SOM), and thus determine whether changes in function create distinct SOM stabilization pathways. To do this we will compare SOM chemistry and turnover for the different successional trajectories and analyze data from long-term leaf litter and root transplant experiments between the young and old secondary forests.

Atkinson, E. E.; Marin-Spiotta, E.



Liquid fuels from the hydropyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect

A process designed to produce principally liquid fuel from Hawaiian biomass has been completed recently. This system consists of short residence-time pyrolysis of solids, entrained in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique, which has been extensively developed at IGT for conversion of lignite, is termed HYFLEX. Following reaction at about 1100/sup 0/F (595/sup 0/C) and 200 psig (1.4 MPa), char and liquids are separated from the reactor outlet gas. Since fuel gas is not a desirable product at the location contemplated, the remaining gas is reformed with steam for production of a high-hydrogen-content gas which is recycled to the HYFLEX reactor. Bench-scale experiments were conducted with eucalyptus wood and leucaena wood feeds to establish data for process design. This paper describes the results of the wood tests and their comparison with similar data on peat. (JMT)

Bodle, W.W.; Wright, K.A.



Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely facilitate and support a high-density Brown Tree Snake population, even as native species are reduced or extirpated. ?? 2009 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.



Comparing the genetics of wild and captive populations of White-headed Ducks Oxyura leucocephala : consequences for recovery programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The White-headed Duck is a globally threatened species historically recorded from Spain in the west to China in the east. It has suffered major population declines, local extinctions and range fragmentation. Several projects have attempted to reintroduce captive-bred birds into parts of the former range in Europe, but with little success. Two captive stocks currently exist, one originating from Pakistan




Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.



The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern India--Measurement and modelling  

SciTech Connect

The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in Karnataka, southern India. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested.

Harding, R.J.; Hall, R.L. [Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Swaminath, M.H. [Karnataka Forest Dept., Bangalore (India); Murthy, K.V. [Mysore Paper Mills, Shimoga (India)



Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.  


The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions. PMID:23764913

Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Orme駉-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela



Serological Relatedness of Rhizobium fredii to Other Rhizobia and to the Bradyrhizobia  

PubMed Central

Several isolates of Rhizobium fredii were examined for their serological relatedness to each other, to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and to other fast- and slow-growing rhizobia. Immunofluorescence, agglutination, and immunodiffusion analyses indicated that R. fredii contains at least three separate somatic serogroups, USDA 192, USDA 194, and USDA 205. There was no cross-reaction between any of the R. fredii isolates and 13 of the 14 B. japonicum somatic serogroups tested. Cross-reactions were obtained with antisera from R. fredii and serogroup 122 of B. japonicum, Rhizobium meliloti, and several fast-growing Rhizobium spp. for Leucaena, Sesbania, and Lablab species. The serological relationship between R. fredii and R. meliloti was examined in more detail, and of 23 R. meliloti strains examined, 8 shared somatic antigens with the type strains from all three R. fredii serogroups. The serological relatedness of R. fredii to B. japonicum and R. meliloti appears to be unique since the strains are known to be biochemically and genetically diverse. Images PMID:16347404

Sadowsky, Michael J.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Keyser, Harold H.



Microhabitat use and diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks (Oxyura leucocephala Scopoli, 1769) wintering at Burdur Lake, Turkey.  


Diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks were investigated with respect to sex and temporal environmental variables to document behavioral responses to winter conditions and nutritional requirements at Burdur Lake where the largest winter concentrations occur. Behaviors of males and females were recorded separately in randomly selected focal flocks during 1140 sessions. For the entire population a large proportion of time was spent resting. During the day they spent 61% of time resting, 22% feeding, 12% comfort and 5% in locomotion. Resting peaked in the middle of day while feeding was observed frequently in evening and morning. Time use did not differ significantly between sexes. However, it was detected that more time was spent feeding during windy days as wave-height increased. PMID:24506003

Nergiz, Humeyra; Tabur, Mehmet Ali; Ayvaz, Yusuf



Effect of Various Organic Matter stimulates Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Plantations on Eroded Slopes in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion resulting from landslides is a serious problem in mountainous countries such as Nepal. To restore such sites it is essential to establish plant cover that protects the soil and reduces erosion. Trees and shrubs on the lower hillsides in Nepal form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and these fungi are important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. In addition, the mycelia formed by these fungi have an important function in stabilizing the soil. The success of plantations of these eroded slopes is therefore highly dependent on the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants. Mycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiosis with plants are essential in this respect because they improve both plant and nutrient uptake and soil structure. We investigated the influence of organic matter and P amendment on recently produced biomass of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in eroded slopes in Nepal. Eroded soil mixed with different types of organic matter was placed in mesh bags which were buried around the trees of Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia .This experiment were done in two seasons ( (the wet and the dry season). Signature fatty acids were used to determine bacterial and AM fungal biomass after the six month intervals. The amount and composition of AM fungal spores were analyzed in the mesh bags from the wet and dry seasons. More microbial biomass was produced during wet season than during dry season. Further more, organic matter addition enhanced the production of AM fungal and bacterial biomass during both seasons. The positive influence of organic matter addition on AM fungi could be an important contribution to plant survival, growth and nutrient composition in the soil in plantations on eroded slopes. Different AM spore communities and bacterial profiles were obtained with different organic amendments and this suggests a possible way of selecting for specific microbial communities in the management of eroded sites.

Shrestha Vaidya, G.; Shrestha, K.; Wallander, H.



Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are ?-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean and other legume hosts. PMID:23270491



Selenium volatilization in vegetated agricultural drainage sediment from the San Luis Drain, Central California.  


The presence of large amounts of Se-laden agricultural drainage sediment in the San Luis Drain, Central California, poses a serious toxic threat to wildlife in the surrounding environment. Effective management of the drainage sediment becomes a practical challenge because the sediment is polluted with high levels of Se, B, and salts. This two-year field study was conducted to identify the best plant species that are salt and B tolerant and that have a superior ability of volatilizing Se from drainage sediment. The drainage sediment was mixed with clean soil, and vegetated with salado alfalfa (Medicago sativa 'salado'), salado grass (Sporobulus airoides 'salado'), saltgrass-turf (Distichlis spp. 'NYPA Turf'), saltgrass-forage (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene), cordgrass (Spartina patens 'Flageo'), Leucaenia (Leucaena leucocephola), elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum), or wild type-Brassica (Brassica spp.). Results show that elephant grass produced the greatest amount of biomass and accumulated highest concentrations of B. Highest concentrations of Se, S, and Cl were observed in wild-type Brassica. Biogenic volatilization of Se by plants and soil microbes was greater in summer. Among the treatments, the mean daily rates of Se volatilization (microg Se m(-2)d(-1)) were wild-type Brassica (39) > saltgrass-turf (31) > cordgrass (27) > saltgrass forage (24) > elephant grass (22) > salado grass (21) > leucaenia (19) > salado alfalfa (14) > irrigated bare soil (11) > non-irrigated bare soil (6). Overall, rates of Se volatilization in drainage sediment were relatively low due to high levels of sulfate. To manage Se in drainage sediment by phytoremediation, the biological volatilization process needs to be enhanced substantially under field conditions. PMID:16018890

Ba駏elos, G S; Lin, Z-Q; Arroyo, I; Terry, N



Ochrobactrum cytisi sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Cytisus scoparius in Spain.  


Two strains named ESC1(T) and ESC5 were isolated from nodules of Cytisus scoparius growing in a Spanish soil. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that these strains belong to the genus Ochrobactrum, their closest relatives being Ochrobactrum anthropi and Ochrobactrum lupini, with 100 and 99.9 % similarity to the respective type strains. Despite this high similarity, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic tests and fatty acid analyses showed that these strains represent a novel species of genus Ochrobactrum. The DNA-DNA hybridization values were respectively 70, 66 and 55 % with respect to O. lupini LUP21(T), O. anthropi DSM 6882(T) and Ochrobactrum tritici DSM 13340(T). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(18 : 1) 2-OH. Strains ESC1(T) and ESC5 were strictly aerobic and were able to reduce nitrate and to hydrolyse aesculin. They produced beta-galactosidase and beta-glucosidase and did not produce urease after 48 h incubation. The G+C content of strain ESC1(T) was 56.4 mol%. Both strains ESC1(T) and ESC5 contained nodD and nifH genes on megaplasmids that were related phylogenetically to those of rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus, Leucaena, Trifolium and Lupinus. From the results of this work, we propose that the strains isolated in this study be included in a novel species named Ochrobactrum cytisi sp. nov. The type strain is ESC1(T) (=LMG 22713(T)=CECT 7172(T)). PMID:17392207

Zurdo-Pi馿iro, Jos Luis; Rivas, Ra鷏; Trujillo, Martha E; Vizca韓o, Nieves; Carrasco, Jos Antonio; Chamber, Manuel; Palomares, Antonio; Mateos, Pedro F; Mart韓ez-Molina, Eustoquio; Vel醶quez, Encarna



In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. PMID:17652338

Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Perez-Negron, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso



Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.  


This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently. PMID:12179631

Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P



The Birds of The Indian Institute of Science Campus Changes in the avifauna  

E-print Network

Ardea alba x Smaller Egret Egretta intermedia x Little Egret Egretta garzetta x Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis x Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax r C Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala x Lesser Whistling

Kanade, Aditya


Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis , was introduced to Great Britain in the mid-20th century and has recently spread to other Western European countries. In Spain, ruddy ducks hybridize with the globally endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala . We assessed the effects of hybridization on the Spanish white-headed ducks, which constitute 25% of the global population of this species, using




A model for the management of the invasive ruddy duck to reduce interbreeding pressure on the white-headed duck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-native species are considered the second most important threat to global biodiversity after habitat loss and are a leading cause of animal extinctions. The North American ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis established a feral population in the UK over 40 years ago, and is now endangering the globally threatened white-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala through hybridisation. We utilised a simple Monte Carlo

Graham C. Smith; Iain Henderson



Ocells rars a Catalunya. Informe del Comit Avifaun韘tic de Catalunya. 2005, 2006, 2007 i 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare birds in Catalonia. Report of the Catalan Avifauna Committee. 2005, 2006, 2007 & 2008 .ThesecondreportofCatalanAvifaunaCommitteeincludesfirstaccep - tedrecordsbyourcommittee: Branta bernicla, Aythya marila, Bucephala clangula, Oxyu - ra leucocephala, Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Podiceps auritus, Elanus caeruleus, Aegypius mona- chus, Circus macrourus, Aquila adalberti, Otis tarda, Calidris melanotos, Phalaropus tricolor, Larus atricilla, Larus delawarensis, Larus cachinnans, Alle alle, Anthus richardi, Anthus petro -

Ferran L髉ez; Jordi Clavell


The white-crowned pigeon: A fruit-eating pigeon as a host for Trichomonas gallinae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trichomoniasis resulting from infection by Trichomonas gallinae was observed in 12 laboratory reared white-crowned pigeons (Columba leucocephala). A field survey of nestlings in the Florida Keys revealed a prevalence of 88% T. gallinae carriers but no evidence of trichomoniasis could be found among the wild birds.

Kocan, R.M.; Sprunt, A., IV



Molecular Ecology Notes (2005) doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.00904.x 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-print Network

-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala, and the ruddy duck, O. jamaicensis VIOLETA MU?OZ-FUENTES,* NICLAS ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), is a major problem for the conservation of the endangered white of the congeneric North American ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis. Hybridization and genetic introgression

Green, Andy J.


The ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in Europe: natural colonization or human introduction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native to North America, ruddy ducks Oxyura jamaicensis now occur in 21 countries in the western Palaearctic (including Iceland) and their expanding population threatens the native white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala , through hybridization and possibly competition for food and nest sites. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the European ruddy duck population is descended solely




Data Set Incongruence and Correlated Character Evolution: An Example of Functional Convergence in the Hind-Limbs of Stifftail Diving Ducks  

E-print Network

genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly sup- ported. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules

Afton, Alan D.


379Ann. For. Sci. 60 (2003) 379384 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2003  

E-print Network

greenhouse conditions Di茅gane DIOUFa, Sylvain FORESTIERb, Marc NEYRAc and Didier LESUEURb* a Universit茅 C and growth of the seedlings was studied in L. leucocephala after five months in a greenhouse. Our result show a茅riennes. L'effet de la taille de l'inoculum sur la nodulation et la croissance des plants de L

Paris-Sud XI, Universit茅 de


Arid Land Research and Management, 15:359 370, 2001 Copyright # 2001 Taylor & Francis  

E-print Network

-4982/01 $12.00 .00 Optimizing Solution P Concentration in a Peat-Based Medium for Producing Mycorrhizal concentration of the amended medium for mycorrhizal activity will enhance its usefulness for raising mycorrhizal concentration for mycorrhizal development on roots of our indicator plant L eucaena leucocephala grown

Bruns, Tom


Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management approaches that are culturally, politically, and economically sensitive to the region; and (3) providing and protecting habitat within suitably sized reserves.

Wiley, J. W.



Is homoplasy or lineage sorting the source of incongruent mtdna and nuclear gene trees in the stiff-tailed ducks (Nomonyx-Oxyura)?  


We evaluated the potential effects of homoplasy, ancestral polymorphism, and hybridization as obstacles to resolving phylogenetic relationships within Nomonyx-Oxyura stiff-tailed ducks (Oxyurinae; subtribe Oxyurina). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 94 individuals supported monophyly of mtDNA haplotypes for each of the six species and provided no evidence of extant incomplete lineage sorting or inter-specific hybridization. The ruddy ducks (O. j. jamaicensis,O. j. andina, O. j. ferruginea) are each others' closest relatives, but the lack of shared haplotypes between O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea suggests long-standing historical isolation. In contrast, O. j. andina shares haplotypes with O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea, which supports Todd's (1979) and Fjelds's (1986) hypothesis that O. j. andina is an intergrade or hybrid subspecies of O. j. jamaicensis and O. j. ferruginea. Control region data and a much larger data set composed of approximately 8800 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence for each species indicate that the two New World species, O. vittata and O. jamaicensis, branch basally within Oxyura. A clade of three Old World species (O. australis, O. maccoa, O. leucocephala) is well supported, but different loci and also different characters within the mtDNA data support three different resolutions of the Old World clade, yielding an essentially unresolved trichotomy. Fundamentally different factors limited the resolution of the mtDNA and nuclear gene trees. Gene trees for most nuclear loci were unresolved due to slow rates of mutation and a lack of informative variation, whereas uncertain resolution of the mtDNA gene tree was due to homoplasy. Within the mtDNA, approximately equal numbers of characters supported each of three possible resolutions. Parametric and nonparametric bootstrap analyses suggest that resolution of the mtDNA tree based on ~4300 bp per taxon is uncertain but that complete mtDNA sequences would yield a fully resolved gene tree. A short internode separating O. leucocephala from (O. australis, O. maccoa) in the best mtDNA tree combined with long terminal branches and substantial rate variation among nucleotide sites allowed the small number of changes occurring on the internode to be obscured by homoplasy in a significant portion of simulated data sets. Although most nuclear loci were uninformative, two loci supported a resolution of the Old World clade (O. maccoa, O. leucocephala) that is incongruent with the best mtDNA tree. Thus, incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA trees may be due to random sorting of ancestral lineages during the short internode, homoplasy in the mtDNA data, or both. The Oxyura trichotomy represents a difficult though likely common problem in molecular systematics. Given a short internode, the mtDNA tree has a greater chance of being congruent with the history of speciation because its effective population size (N(e)) is one-quarter that of any nuclear locus, but its resolution is more likely to be obscured by homoplasy. In contrast, gene trees for more slowly evolving nuclear loci will be difficult to resolve due to a lack of substitutions during the internode, and when resolved are more likely to be incongruent with the species history due to the stochastic effects of lineage sorting. We suggest that researchers consider first whether independent gene trees are adequately resolved and then whether those trees are congruent with the species history. In the case of Oxyura, the answer to both questions may be no. Complete mtDNA sequences combined with data from a very large number of nuclear loci may be the only way to resolve such trichotomies. PMID:15805009

McCracken, Kevin; Sorenson, Michael



Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.  


Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Br鋟, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne



Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain.  


The ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis, was introduced to Great Britain in the mid-20th century and has recently spread to other Western European countries. In Spain, ruddy ducks hybridize with the globally endangered white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala. We assessed the effects of hybridization on the Spanish white-headed ducks, which constitute 25% of the global population of this species, using a panel of eight nuclear intron markers, 10 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA control region sequences. These data allowed parental individuals, F(1) hybrids, and the progeny of backcrossing to be reliably distinguished. We show that hybrids between the two species are fertile and produce viable offspring in backcrosses with both parental species. To date, however, we found no extensive introgression of ruddy duck genes into the Spanish white-headed duck population, probably due to the early implementation of an effective ruddy duck and hybrid control programme. We also show that genetic diversity in the expanding European ruddy duck population, which was founded by just seven individuals, exceeds that of the native Spanish white-headed duck population, which recently recovered from a severe bottleneck. Unless effective control of ruddy ducks is continued, genetic introgression will compromise the unique behavioural and ecological adaptations of white-headed ducks and consequently their survival as a genetically and evolutionary distinct species. PMID:17257118

Mu駉z-Fuentes, V; Vil, C; Green, A J; Negro, J J; Sorenson, M D



The ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in Europe: natural colonization or human introduction?  


Native to North America, ruddy ducks Oxyura jamaicensis now occur in 21 countries in the western Palaearctic (including Iceland) and their expanding population threatens the native white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala, through hybridization and possibly competition for food and nest sites. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the European ruddy duck population is descended solely from the captive population in the UK, which traces to seven individuals imported from the USA in 1948, or, alternatively, has been augmented by natural dispersal of birds from North America. Limited genetic diversity in the European population is consistent with a founder population as small as seven birds. In addition, shifts in allele frequencies at several loci, presumably due to genetic drift in the founding population, result in significant differentiation between the European and North American populations. Despite the recent separation of these populations, almost all individuals could be unambiguously assigned based on their composite genotypes, to one of two distinct populations, one comprising all of the European ruddy ducks we sampled (including those from Iceland and captive birds in the UK) and the other comprising all North American samples. Our results confirm that the European ruddy duck population is likely to derive solely from the captive population in the UK and we find no evidence of recent arrivals from North America or of admixture between ruddy ducks from Europe and North America. PMID:16629802

Mu駉z-Fuentes, Violeta; Green, Andy J; Sorenson, Michael D; Negro, Juan J; Vil, Carles



The Nodulation of Alfalfa by the Acid-Tolerant Rhizobium sp. Strain LPU83 Does Not Require Sulfated Forms of Lipochitooligosaccharide Nodulation Signals?  

PubMed Central

The induction of root nodules by the majority of rhizobia has a strict requirement for the secretion of symbiosis-specific lipochitooligosaccharides (nodulation factors [NFs]). The nature of the chemical substitution on the NFs depends on the particular rhizobium and contributes to the host specificity imparted by the NFs. We present here a description of the genetic organization of the nod gene cluster and the characterization of the chemical structure of the NFs associated with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83, a bacterium capable of nodulating at least alfalfa, bean, and Leucena leucocephala. The nod gene cluster was located on the plasmid pLPU83b. The organization of the cluster showed synteny with those of the alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae. Interestingly, the strongest sequence similarity observed was between the partial nod sequences of Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844 and the corresponding LPU83 nod genes sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic region nodEG positions strain LPU83 and the type strain R. mongolense 1844 in the same branch, which indicates that Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 might represent an early alfalfa-nodulating genotype. The NF chemical structures obtained for the wild-type strain consist of a trimeric, tetrameric, and pentameric chitin backbone that shares some substitutions with both alfalfa- and bean-nodulating rhizobia. Remarkably, while in strain LPU83 most of the NFs were sulfated in their reducing terminal residue, none of the NFs isolated from the nodH mutant LPU83-H were sulfated. The evidence obtained supports the notion that the sulfate decoration of NFs in LPU83 is not necessary for alfalfa nodulation. PMID:20971905

Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, Maria Florencia; Soria-Diaz, M. Eugenia; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Giusti, Maria de los Angeles; Manyani, Hamid; Megias, Manuel; Gil Serrano, Antonio; Puhler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano



Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J. A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W. J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J. L.; Bracey, W.



Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.  


The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution based on patterns of codon-degeneracy and chemical dissimilarity indicate that the nucleotide and amino acid changes postulated by the molecular tree are more plausible than those postulated by the morphological tree. These findings teach general lessons about the utility of highly adaptive characters (in particular those related to foraging ecology) and underscore the problems that convergence can pose for attempts to recover phylogeny. They also demonstrate how the concept of natural data partitions and simple models of evolution (e.g., parsimony, likelihood, neutrality) can be used to test the accuracy of independent phylogenetic estimates and provide arguments in favor of one tree topology over another. PMID:12066296

McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D



N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These results agree with those reported by Jarvis (1993) and Cadish et al (1994). However, 40% of the excretions occurred in the shade buildings and milking parlours ant thus these nutrients did not recycle in the system. An important internal recycling mechanism, especially for nitrogen and potassium, is their remobilization by the rejected pasture to re-use them for the regrowth activity. This is of particular interest in CT-115 Bank, since stems of CT-115 plants left after grazing remobilize an important amount of these nutrients, guarantee a favourable pasture regrowth (Martinez 1996). The return of all the excretion to the grassland is recommended as well as increasing the area of legumes to attain a satisfactory balance of N, P and K in the system. Further studies must consider maintenance fertilization, nutrient losses due to leaching and denitrification, as well as variation of the stable OM in the soil and the influence of hydro physical properties in the recycling process. The "Recycling" software was effective to determine the balance of nutrients in the dairy farm. Cadish, G., Schunke, R.N & Giller, K.E. 1994. Nitrogen cycling in a pure grass pasture and a grass-legume mixture on a red latosol in Brazil. Tropical Grasslands 28:43. Crespo G. y Rodr韌uez, I. 2006. Contribuci髇 al conocimiento del reciclaje de los nutrientes en el sistema suelo-pasto-animal. Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Editorial EDICA, La Habana, Cuba, 94 pp. Hirata, M., Sugimoto, Y.G & Ueno, M.1991. Use of a mathematical model to evaluate the effects of dung from grazing animals on pasture production. J. Japan Grassld. Sci. 37:303.

Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.