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Sample records for levator anguli oris

  1. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  2. Anguli Parimana in Ayurveda and its association with adiposity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Jyoti A.; Sayyad, Mehmood G.; Nanal, Vilas M.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown the association of disproportionate body size measurements with noncommunicable diseases like diabetes. This concept is described in Ayurveda (1500 BC), which uses Anguli Parimana (the breadth of one's own finger as 1 unit) to measure the body proportions. Excessive tallness or shortness (deviation from the reference value of Anguli Parimana) indicated deranged meda dhaatu (mainly adipose tissue). Deranged meda dhatu was associated with Prameha (diabetes). Objectives: To find association of Anguli Parimana with modern parameters of adiposity and diabetes. Materials and Methods: We studied 192 village residents representing the whole population (94 men and 98 women) to measure height, arm span, facial structures and limbs and expressed them in Anguli pariman (ratio of each measure as: Length or height of the body part [cm]/anguli, i.e. average finger breadth [cm]). The Anguli measurements were associated with body mass index, body fat percentage by DEXA, glucose and fasting insulin levels. Results: The volunteers were adults between 20 and 40 years age. Their mean fasting and 2 h plasma glucose concentrations were 91.6 mg% and 102.8 mg%, respectively. Of all, only 6 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance, while 3 were diabetic (WHO 1999). When compared with reference Anguli measurements mentioned by Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, the participants had smaller height, facial structures, and lower limbs. Those, who had proportionately smaller facial, neck and limb structures, had higher obesity, adiposity, plasma glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]-R) indicating higher metabolic risk. In contrast, those who had proportionately larger forehead and face had higher beta cell function measured as HOMA-B indicating lower risk for diabetes (r = 0.20 both P < 0.05 all, adjusted for age and gender). Conclusion: Compared with ancient Indian Anguli reference, our subjects were proportionately

  3. Blepharoptosis correction: repositioning the levator aponeurosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il Jae; Park, Myong Chul; Lim, Hyoseob; Kim, Joo Hyoung; Lee, Seung Hun

    2011-11-01

    Blepharoplasty remains one of the most popular surgical procedures in Asia. The most common patient complaint leading to a blepharoplasty is limited eye opening causing a narrowing of the palpebral fissure. The typical Asian eye is characterized by puffiness, lack of a supratarsal fold in the upper eyelid, and a narrow palpebral fissure, exhibiting a tired and sleepy appearance. Almost all such patients believe that a simple double-eyelid operation is able to make the eye look bigger with eversion of the eyelashes into a more charming configuration. Some of these patients actually have mild to moderate blepharoptosis, which can present both functional and aesthetic problems. Numerous surgical procedures have been developed to correct ptosis because proper correction can be difficult to achieve. The authors found abnormal lateral deviation of the levator aponeurosis in patients with blepharoptosis and suggest that this abnormality is a major cause of blepharoptosis, particularly in Asians. The authors assessed the effectiveness of a levator aponeurosis medial repositioning technique rather than levator resection or levator plication for mild or moderate ptosis. No disadvantage was attributed to this technique when it was used to correct 87 patients with mild ptosis. Eighty of the 87 patients achieved a good result with the first operation. Undercorrection was observed in 6 patients, and a hematoma was corrected in 1 patient. However, no other major complications related to the technique were encountered. Herein the authors describe their operative technique and present the long-term follow-up results. The authors propose that anatomic repositioning of a laterally deviated levator aponeurosis using the described repositioning technique is highly effective for correcting mild ptosis and can be applied during most surgical blepharoptosis procedures in Asian patients. PMID:22075834

  4. [Postpartum levator ani muscle injuries. Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, Michał; Borowski, Dariusz; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Węgrzyn, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Levator ani muscle (LAM) injuries are much more frequent than trauma to sphincter ani muscles, but so far they have been omitted in obstetric handbooks. Levator ani avulsion is observed only after vaginal delivery. Forceps delivery second stage of labor ≥ 110 min., fetal head circumference ≥ 35 cm, episiotomy and coincidence of anal sphincter trauma are risk factors for levator ani avulsion. The most vital issue in that type of trauma is pelvic organ prolapse and 2-4-fold higher risk of recurrence after prolapse surgery. The current level of evidence does not allow to conclusively determine the of role of levator avulsion in urinary incontinence. Levator injuries are occult, what constitutes the main diagnostic problem. Until recently magnetic resonance imaging has been the only diagnostic method until the development of 3-dimensional ultrasound. Nowadays, 3-D ultrasound is an essential technique in static and functional diagnosis of the levator ani. There are no effective methods of levator trauma prevention. Except the risk factors reduction, there are some pilot data about positive role of antepartal perineal muscle training. Physiotherapy plays the main role in reducing the effects of levator trauma. Mesh techniques are the most effective operative methods in coincident pelvic organ prolapse with levator avulsion, but there is still a 2-fold higher risk of recurrence. PMID:25775878

  5. Prevalence of Levator Ani Defects in Urogynecological Patients

    PubMed Central

    Albrich, S.; Rommens, K.; Steetskamp, J.; Weyer, V.; Hoffmann, G.; Skala, C.; Zahn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Defects of the levator ani muscle complex could represent a pathophysiological link between vaginal birth trauma and urogynecological symptoms many years later. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of levator ani muscle defects using 3D or 4D ultrasound and palpation in urogynecological patients. Material and Methods: Urogynecological patients were retrospectively investigated using 3D or 4D ultrasound. Clinical examination consisted of palpation and 3D or 4D imaging of the levator ani muscle. Results: A total of 319 women were included in the analysis. Mean age was 64.9 years, average parity was 2.1. Stress incontinence was present in 50.8 %, overactive bladder symptoms in 69.3 % and pelvic organ prolapse in 42.3 % of patients. A levator ani defect was found on ultrasound in 76 patients (23.8 %) and on palpation in 64 women (20.0 %). In the group of patients with pelvic organ prolapse, levator ani defects were found in 32.6 % of patients using ultrasound and in 26.7 % of patients using palpation. The odds ratio (OR) for levator ani defects in women with pelvic organ prolapse was 2.3 (95 % CI [CI: confidence interval]: 1.36–3.88], p = 0.002). Conclusion: In a cohort of urogynecological patients seen at a tertiary urogynecological unit, the prevalence of levator ani defects was significantly higher in women with pelvic organ prolapse compared to women with stress incontinence or urge symptoms.

  6. Minimal incision posterior approach levator plication for aponeurotic ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Chan, E; Ko, S T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and predictability of a minimal incision posterior approach levator plication technique for correction of involutional ptosis. Method Retrospective chart review of patients with involutional aponeurotic ptosis underwent minimal incision posterior approach levator plication technique between August 2013 and June 2014 by a single surgeon. The upper lid was double everted, and the conjunctiva and Muller's muscle layers were incised vertically until the levator aponeurosis could be identified. The incision(s) was similar to performing incision and curettage of chalazion, except that the site was above the tarsal plate and extended towards the fornix. Then insertion of aponeurosis was dissected away from the anterior tarsal surface, and the more superiorly located levator was plicated on it with double arm suture(s). No tissue was excised in this procedure. Surgical success was defined as a postoperative margin reflex distance (MRD)>2 mm and<4.5 mm, interlid height<1 mm and satisfactory contour. Results Forty-four lids of 27 patients were included. Preoperative mean MRD was 0.48 +/− 0.56 mm. Severe ptosis of MRD<1 mm was present in 34/44 patients (77.3%). The postoperative mean MRD was 2.49 +/− 0.53 mm, and mean improvement was 2.02 +/− 0.61 mm, which was statistically significant (P<0.001). The overall success rate was 38/44 (86.4%). Conclusions Minimal incision posterior approach to levator plication was effective for the correction of aponeurotic ptosis with moderate to good levator function. PMID:25613849

  7. The Levator Claviculae Muscle Presenting as a Neck Mass.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Haley C; Williams, Daniel W; Schlarb, Alexander C; Judhan, Rudy; Schlarb, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    The levator claviculae muscle is an uncommonly encountered muscle variant, occurring in 1% to 2% of the human population. Most accounts of the levator claviculae muscle have been reported in association with routine cadaveric examination and as an incidental finding by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We report a case of this variant muscle presenting as a soft-tissue mass within the neck of a young male. Furthermore, we discuss the embryologic origin, imaging features and clinical implication. PMID:27025118

  8. Levator Ani Muscle Stretch Induced by Simulated Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Kuo-Cheng; Mooney, Brian; DeLancey, John O. L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a three-dimensional computer model to predict levator ani muscle stretch during vaginal birth. METHODS: Serial magnetic resonance images from a healthy nulliparous 34-year-old woman, published anatomic data, and engineering graphics software were used to construct a structural model of the levator ani muscles along with related passive tissues. The model was used to quantify pelvic floor muscle stretch induced during the second stage of labor as a model fetal head progressively engaged and then stretched the iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles. RESULTS: The largest tissue strain reached a stretch ratio (tissue length under stretch/original tissue length) of 3.26 in medial pubococcygeus muscle, the shortest, most medial and ventral levator ani muscle. Regions of the ileococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles reached maximal stretch ratios of 2.73, 2.50, and 2.28, respectively. Tissue stretch ratios were proportional to fetal head size: For example, increasing fetal head diameter by 9% increased medial pubococcygeus stretch by the same amount. CONCLUSION: The medial pubococcygeus muscles undergo the largest stretch of any levator ani muscles during vaginal birth. They are therefore at the greatest risk for stretch-related injury. PMID:14704241

  9. Modified levator aponeurotic advancement with delayed postoperative office revision.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, J A; Abdelsalam, A

    1998-07-01

    The results of a "modified" levator aponeurotic advancement were reviewed to determine the appropriate indications and optimum timing for office revision after blepharoptosis repair. The levator advancement was modified as follows: 1) elimination of epinephrine from the local anesthetic so as not to stimulate the Müller muscle, 2) use of a 6-0 silk rather than a monofilament nonabsorbable suture to secure the advanced levator to avoid possible cheese-wiring and late recurrence, and 3) excision of a strip of preseptal orbicularis muscle just above the tarsal border to create surgically apposed "raw" surfaces for a firm attachment of the "advanced" levator. Office adjustments were delayed for at least 8 days after surgery and were performed as late as 14 days after surgery. Of the 122 consecutive aponeurotic advancements in 110 patients (12 bilateral cases), five (4.1%) patients were candidates for revision in that the operated eyelid was greater than 1 mm from desired height. All such eyelids were undercorrected by 2.0 mm to 2.5 mm. Four of the five underwent revision at 8, 11, and 14 days (two patients) after surgery. The fifth patient did not undergo revision. Four patients with overcorrections from 2.0 mm to 2.5 mm resolved with eyelid massage. It is concluded that the number of office revisions may be reduced if delayed for at least 8 days after surgery. This delay allows for resolution of postoperative edema and objective prediction of final eyelid position. The advantages of this "modified" levator advancement procedure are discussed. PMID:9700735

  10. Unusual origin of the levator scapulae muscle from mastoid process.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Pranit N; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-12-01

    Anatomic variations of the neck musculature are uncommon and incidentally found during cadaveric dissection. The levator scapulae muscle is found in the floor of the posterior cervical triangle. It connects the axial skeleton with the superior appendicular skeleton and acts as a scapular elevator. Normally, it originates from the transverse processes of first four cervical vertebrae and inserts into the superomedial border of the scapula. During a routine cadaveric dissection, we encountered an additional slip of the left levator scapulae originating from the left mastoid process. This muscle is frequently implicated in the etiopathology of neck and shoulder pain. Knowledge of this variation is not only interesting to anatomists, but also to surgeons operating on the posterior neck and physicians managing patients with cervical or shoulder pain. PMID:26074045

  11. Levator ani deformation during the second stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Mario; Martinez-Romero, Oscar; Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Rodríguez, Mauricio; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Fiorentino, Antonio; Donzella, Giorgio; Avanzini, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A very important medical problem for females is urinary incontinence, sometimes associated with faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. One of the most common reasons these issues are increasing is clearly the muscle damage during childbirth. This article focusses on understanding the complex behaviour of the levator ani muscles involved in the second stage of labour. A geometrical model obtained from a 23-year-old nulliparous woman was used to simulate childbirth. Several assumptions were introduced in order to simplify the problem without significantly affecting the global response of the system. An anisotropic hyperelastic model was used to characterize the material behaviour; the muscle fibres were assumed to be mostly orientated circumferentially. In addition, particular attention was also put to the boundary conditions of the model. The introduction of the constraints imposed by the coccyx bone in the central area of the levator ani group represents one the most important improvement compared to previous computational models. The maximum deformation and stress were found in the pubococcygeus muscle of the levator ani group. A stretch value close to 2.2 was determined by considering different material parameters. The results seem convincing with respect to medical observation and previous analysis. However, there are still some limitations concerning the material definition and the geometry and trajectory of the head that can be further improved. PMID:24793220

  12. Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery: Bone and Levator Ani Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janis M.; Low, Lisa Kane; Zielinski, Ruth; Smith, Ms. Abigail R.; DeLancey, John O.L.; Brandon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe occurrence, recovery, and consequences of musculoskeletal injuries in women at-risk for childbirth-related pelvic floor injury at first vaginal birth. Study Design Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery (EMRLD) is a longitudinal cohort design study of women recruited early post-birth and followed over time. We report here on 68 women who had birth-related risk factors for levator ani muscle injury, including long second stage, anal tears, and/or older maternal age, and who were evaluated by musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging at both 7-weeks and 8-months postpartum. We categorized magnitude of injury by extent of bone marrow edema, pubic bone fracture, levator ani muscle edema, and levator ani muscle tear. We also measured the force of levator ani muscle contraction, urethral pressure, pelvic organ prolapse, and incontinence. Results In this higher-risk sample, 66% (39/59) had pubic bone marrow edema, 29% (17/59) had subcortical fracture, 90% (53/59) levator ani muscle edema, and 41% (28/68) low-grade or greater levator ani tear 7-weeks postpartum. The magnitude of levator ani muscle tear did not substantially change by 8-months postpartum (p=0.86), but levator ani muscle edema and bone injuries showed total or near total resolution (p<.05). The magnitude of unresolved musculoskeletal injuries correlated with magnitude of reduced levator ani muscle strength and posterior vaginal wall descent (p<.05) but not with urethral pressure, volume of demonstrable stress incontinence, nor self-report of incontinence severity (p>.05). Conclusion Pubic bone edema and subcortical fracture and levator ani muscle injury are common when studied in women with certain risk factors. The bony abnormalities resolve, but levator tear does not, and is associated with levator weakness and posterior-vaginal wall descent. PMID:25957022

  13. Relationship between levator ani and bony pelvis morphology and clinical grade of prolapse in women.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Song, Yanfeng; Ma, Ming

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the morphological features of the levator ani and bony pelvis in women with different grades of prolapse. Ninety Chinese women with different grades of uterine prolapse were studied, 18 in each stage of prolapse from I to IV, and 18 asymptomatic nulliparous volunteers as normal controls. Three-dimensional (3D) models that included the pelvic bones, levator ani, pubic symphysis, sacrum, and coccyx were generated from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The width and length of the levator hiatus and levator symphysis gap, the width of the iliococcygeus, and the iliococcygeal angle were measured to quantify levator ani morphology; the intertuberous diameter, interspinous diameter, subpubic angle, and pubococcygeal line were measured to characterize the morphology of the bony pelvis. Four patterns of levator ani morphology among women with and without prolapse were distinguished. Among the bony pelvis parameters, no measurement differed significantly between the subjects with prolapse and normal controls, or among subjects with different grades of prolapse. There were significant differences in the width and length of the levator hiatus and levator symphysis gap between women with prolapse and normal controls. Our pilot data help to elucidate bony pelvis and levator ani morphology in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. In contrast to the iliococcygeus muscle, changes in the morphological features of the pubovisceral muscle are more likely to accompany prolapse. PMID:25864568

  14. Management of Senile Ptosis with Levator Muscle Resection Using the Putterman Clamp

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Putterman clamp, a muscle clamp, is commonly used in conjunctival müllerectomies. We report 3 cases of senile ptosis repaired with levator muscle resection using the Putterman clamp. The redundant levator aponeurosis was removed with electrocautery after clamping with the Putterman clamp. The levator muscle was refixed to the tarsus with three 4-0 Vicryl stitches after adjusting the height of the eyelid fissure. No intraoperative difficulties were encountered. Ecchymosis and edema were limited in the immediate postoperative period. No complications were noted during the follow-up. The benefits of using the Putterman clamp in levator muscle resection are illustrated in these cases. PMID:27482474

  15. Management of Senile Ptosis with Levator Muscle Resection Using the Putterman Clamp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ju-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Putterman clamp, a muscle clamp, is commonly used in conjunctival müllerectomies. We report 3 cases of senile ptosis repaired with levator muscle resection using the Putterman clamp. The redundant levator aponeurosis was removed with electrocautery after clamping with the Putterman clamp. The levator muscle was refixed to the tarsus with three 4-0 Vicryl stitches after adjusting the height of the eyelid fissure. No intraoperative difficulties were encountered. Ecchymosis and edema were limited in the immediate postoperative period. No complications were noted during the follow-up. The benefits of using the Putterman clamp in levator muscle resection are illustrated in these cases. PMID:27482474

  16. Evaluation of levator ani with no defect on elastography in women with POP

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Meng; Zhang, Xuyin; Liu, Jia; Ding, Jingxin; Ren, Yunyun; Hua, Keqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is difficult to evaluate the function of levator ani with no defect encountered in routine practice. Elastography is a new adjunct to real-time ultrasound imaging that overlays traditional B-mode imaging with a color graphic representation of tissue elasticity. The aim of this study is to specifically evaluate the function of levator ani with no defect by ES (elastography). Methods: This was a prospective, observational study. All patients were examined by MRI and the cases with levator ani defect were excluded. The included cases underwent conventional translabial ultrasound, and then ultrasound ES. A little levator ani were biopsied for immunohistochemistry check in the patients who underwent surgery. Results: Of the 52 cases with no levator ani defects, 22 had an elastography score of 1, 20 had a score of 2, 8 had a score of 3 and 2 had a score of 4 in levator ani. Cases of ES1 and ES2 were more than ES3 and ES4 (P = 0.004). The immunohistochemistry check indicated that 12 patients who underwent surgery showed weak expression and the other 4 patients showed moderate expression of collagen type I in levator ani, compared with 2 controls showing strong expressions. Conclusions: Elastography can assess the change of elasticity function of levator ani though the structure has no defect which was detected by MRI and conventional ultrasound. And probably the change of function of levator ani was earlier than structure abnormity in POP. PMID:26309719

  17. Prolonged Second Stage of Labor and Levator Ani Muscle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Marsoosi, Vajihe; Jamal, Ashraf; Eslamian, Laleh; Oveisi, Sonia; Abotorabi, Shokohossadat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of pregnancy and vaginal delivery on the pelvic floor and levatorani morphology and function. Methods: Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Tertiary care teaching hospital. Population. 75 primigravid women were recruited for assessment at 6 weeks postpartum compared with 25 nulliparous women. Hiatal morphology and levator ani muscle avulsion were assessed by 4-dimensional translabial ultrasound examination. The volume achievement obtained by ultrasound was performed in supine position with empty bladder at rest, on maximum Valsalva maneuver, and on maximum pelvic floor muscle contraction. Main Outcome Measures. Hiatal diameter and area were measured at the plane of minimal hiatal dimension as defined in the midsagittal plane and Levator avulsion was assessed. Results: There were significant differences in hiatal area morphology at rest, on Valsalva maneuver and during contraction of muscles among the study groups, but there was no difference in pelvic diameter at rest, on Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction. There were 21 cases of puborectalis avulsion (42%) with no significant difference between non-progressive labor (8 cases) and Normal Vaginal Delivery (NVD) (13 cases) groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that non-progressive labor is the main risk factor for pelvic muscle injuries, indicating the necessity of a better management and timely cesareans in women with prolonged second stage of labor. PMID:25560352

  18. Double-eyelid operation: orbicularis oculi-levator aponeurosis fixation technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung I; Park, Min S

    2007-08-01

    Incision techniques in the past focused on fixing the pretarsal skin to either the tarsal plate or to the levator aponeurosis. High relapse rate remains one of the main concerns in double-eyelid surgery. To address these issues, the author developed a pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle-levator aponeurosis fixation technique. This technique results in better fixation between the skin and the levator aponeurosis by recruiting a bulky, pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle in the fixation mechanism. This technique provides for a solidly fixed, tightly stretched pretarsal skin when the eyes are open with significantly reduced chances of relapse. PMID:17658427

  19. Androgen-estrogen synergy in rat levator ani muscle Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of castration and hormone administration on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat levator ani muscle were studied. Castration caused a decrease in enzyme activity and in wet weight of the levator ani muscle. Chronic administration of testosterone propionate increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle of castrated rats; the magnitude of the recovery of enzyme activity was related to the length of time of exposure to testosterone propionate after castration as well as to the length of time the animals were castrated. The longer the period of castration before exposure to testosterone propionate, the greater the effect. This result may be related to previously reported castration-mediated increases in androgen receptor binding in muscle. Dihydrotestosterone was less effective than testosterone propionate in enhancing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle from castrated rats; estradiol-17-beta alone was ineffective. Combined treatment with estradiol-17-beta and dihydrotestosterone, however, was as effective as testosterone alone. Thus, androgens and estrogens may exert synergistic effects on levator ani muscle.

  20. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA. This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry. Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of

  1. [Biometry and assessment of the levator hiatus by three-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, R

    2013-01-01

    Images of the levator hiatus in 40 nulliparous, 40 asymptomatic parous women and 40 women with pelvic organ prolapse were obtained by transperineal/translabial three-dimentional ultrasonography of the pelvic floor. Volumes were taken at rest and during squeezing. Recontructed images of the levator hiatus at the plane of minimal dimentions were obtained by off-line processing of the stored volumes. The transverse, the longitudinal diameter and the area of the levator hiatus were measured at rest and during squeezing in the three groups. Qualitative assessment of the shape and the symmetry of the levator hiatus at rest was made, too. The average hiatal dimentions (transverse, longitudinal diameter and hiatal area) measured at rest in the three groups were: 35.8 mm, 43.1 mm and 11.84 cm2 in the nulliparous; 43.6 mm, 47.1 mm and 15.1 cm2 in the asymptomatic parous women and 50.5 mm, 57.2 mm and 25.8 cm2 in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Nulliparous women achieved the greatest reduction of hiatal area during squeezing (by 21% average). In asymptomatic parous women the hiatal area reduction averaged 12% while in women with pelvic organ prolapse the average reduction was by 4% only. Levator injury was detected in 7.5% of the asymptomatic parous women and in 22.5% of the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Left-sided injuries predominated. Three-dimentional ultrasound provides easy and high-quality imaging of the pubovisceral miscles for the objective assessment of the levator hiatus in static and dynamic conditions. PMID:23807973

  2. [Anatomy of the levator ani muscle and implications for obstetrics and gynaecology].

    PubMed

    Nyangoh Timoh, K; Bessede, T; Zaitouna, M; Peschaud, F; Chevallier, J-M; Fauconnier, A; Benoit, G; Moszkowicz, D

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders include urogenital and anorectal prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence. These diseases affect 25% of patients. Most of time, treatment is primarily surgical with a high post-operative risk of recurrence, especially for pelvic organ prolapse. Vaginal delivery is the major risk factor for pelvic floor disorders through levator ani muscle injury or nerve damage. After vaginal delivery, 20% of patients experiment elevator ani trauma. These injuries are more common in case of instrumental delivery by forceps, prolonged second phase labor, increased neonatal head circumference and associated anal sphincter injuries. Moreover, 25% of patients have temporary perineal neuropathy. Recently, pelvic three-dimensional reconstructions from RMI data allowed a better understanding of detailed levator ani muscle morphology and gave birth to a clear new nomenclature describing this muscle complex to be developed. Radiologic and anatomic studies have allowed exploring levator ani innervation leading to speculate on the muscle and nerve damage mechanisms during delivery. We then reviewed the levator ani muscle anatomy and innervation to better understand pelvic floor dysfunction observed after vaginal delivery. PMID:25544728

  3. Pelvic Floor Ultrasound Imaging: Are Physiotherapists Interchangeable in the Assessment of Levator Hiatal Biometry?

    PubMed Central

    Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; Auchincloss, Cindy; McLean, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate inter-examiner reliability in the ultrasound (US) assessment of levator hiatal dimensions when different physiotherapists perform independent data acquisition and analysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 14 asymptomatic nulliparous women were imaged at rest, during pelvic floor muscle contraction, and during Valsalva manoeuvre by two physiotherapists using three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) transperineal US. Examiners each measured the dimensions of the levator hiatus (area and antero-posterior and transverse diameters) from the US volumes they respectively acquired. Inter-examiner reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), and inter-examiner agreement was determined using Bland–Altman analyses. Results: The ICC results demonstrated very good inter-examiner reliability (ICC=0.84–0.98); Bland–Altman results showed high inter-examiner agreement across all measurements. Conclusions: Trained examiners may be considered interchangeable in the US assessment of levator hiatal biometry. Overall, trained physiotherapists using transperineal US imaging to assess levator hiatal biometry can be confident when comparing their own clinical findings to those of their colleagues and to findings published in the literature. PMID:25922555

  4. The magnetic field of ζ Ori A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Bouret, J.-C.; Tkachenko, A.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a significant role in the evolution of massive stars. About 7% of massive stars are found to be magnetic at a level detectable with current instrumentation (Wade et al. 2013) and only a few magnetic O stars are known. Detecting magnetic field in O stars is particularly challenging because they only have few, often broad, lines to measure the field, which leads to a deficit in the knowledge of the basic magnetic properties of O stars. We present new spectropolarimetric Narval observations of ζ Ori A. We also provide a new analysis of both the new and older data taking binarity into account. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A. We identify that it belongs to ζ Ori Aa and characterize it.

  5. Comparison of Upper Cervical Flexion and Cervical Flexion Angle of Computer Workers with Upper Trapezius and Levator Scapular Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually. PMID:24648646

  6. Selective extra levator versus conventional abdomino perineal resection: experience from a tertiary-care center

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Vishwas D.; Engineer, Reena; Patil, Prachi S.; Arya, Supreeta; Desouza, Ashwin L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare extra levator abdomino perineal resection (ELAPER) with conventional abdominoperineal resection (APER) in terms of short-term oncological and clinical outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database including all the patients of rectal cancer who underwent APER at Tata Memorial Center between July 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015. Short-term oncological parameters evaluated included circumferential resection margin involvement (CRM), tumor site perforation, and number of nodes harvested. Peri operative outcomes included blood loss, length of hospital stay, postoperative perineal wound complications, and 30-day mortality. The χ2-test was used to compare the results between the two groups. Results Forty-two cases of ELAPER and 78 cases of conventional APER were included in the study. Levator involvement was significantly higher in the ELAPER compared with the conventional group; otherwise, the two groups were comparable in all the aspects. CRM involvement was seen in seven patients (8.9%) in the conventional group compared with three patients (7.14%) in the ELAPER group. Median hospital stay was significantly longer with ELAPER. The univariate analysis of the factors influencing CRM positivity did not show any significance. Conclusions ELAPER should be the preferred approach for low rectal tumors with involvement of levators. For those cases in which levators are not involved, as shown in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the current evidence is insufficient to recommend ELAPER over conventional APER. This stresses the importance of preoperative MRI in determining the best approach for an individual patient. PMID:27284466

  7. A Geometric Capacity-Demand Analysis of Maternal Levator Muscle Stretch Required for Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Paige V; DeLancey, John O; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2016-02-01

    Because levator ani (LA) muscle injuries occur in approximately 13% of all vaginal births, insights are needed to better prevent them. In Part I of this paper, we conducted an analysis of the bony and soft tissue factors contributing to the geometric "capacity" of the maternal pelvis and pelvic floor to deliver a fetal head without incurring stretch injury of the maternal soft tissue. In Part II, we quantified the range in demand, represented by the variation in fetal head size and shape, placed on the maternal pelvic floor. In Part III, we analyzed the capacity-to-demand geometric ratio, g, in order to determine whether a mother can deliver a head of given size without stretch injury. The results of a Part I sensitivity analysis showed that initial soft tissue loop length (SL) had the greatest effect on maternal capacity, followed by the length of the soft tissue loop above the inferior pubic rami at ultimate crowning, then subpubic arch angle (SPAA) and head size, and finally the levator origin separation distance. We found the more caudal origin of the puborectal portion of the levator muscle helps to protect it from the stretch injuries commonly observed in the pubovisceral portion. Part II fetal head molding index (MI) and fetal head size revealed fetal head circumference values ranging from 253 to 351 mm, which would increase up to 11 mm upon face presentation. The Part III capacity-demand analysis of g revealed that, based on geometry alone, the 10th percentile maternal capacity predicted injury for all head sizes, the 25th percentile maternal capacity could deliver half of all head sizes, while the 50th percentile maternal capacity could deliver a head of any size without injury. If ultrasound imaging could be operationalized to make measurements of ratio g, it might be used to usefully inform women on their level of risk for levator injury during vaginal birth. PMID:26746116

  8. Evidence of ancillary trigeminal innervation of levator palpebrae in the general population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, A M; Dong, C C; Harries, A M; Patel, A; Honey, C R; Patel, M S

    2014-02-01

    The cranial synkineses are a group of disorders encompassing a variety of involuntary co-contractions of the facial, masticatory, or extraocular muscles that occur during a particular volitional movement. The neuroanatomical pathways for synkineses largely remain undefined. Our studies explored a normal synkinesis long observed in the general population - that of jaw opening during efforts to open the eyelids widely. To document this phenomenon, we observed 186 consecutive participants inserting or removing contact lenses to identify jaw opening. Seeking electrophysiological evidence, in a second study we enrolled individuals undergoing vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, without a history of jaw-winking, ptosis, or strabismus, to record any motor responses in levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) upon stimulation of the trigeminal motor root. Stimulus was applied to the trigeminal motor root while an electrode in levator recorded the response. We found that 37 participants (20%) opened their mouth partially or fully during contact lens manipulation. In the second study, contraction of LPS with trigeminal motor stimulation was documented in two of six patients, both undergoing surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We speculate these results might provide evidence of an endogenous synkinesis, indicating that trigeminal-derived innervation of levator could exist in a significant minority of the general population. Our observations demonstrate plasticity in the human cranial nerve innervation pattern and may have implications for treating Marcus Gunn jaw-winking. PMID:24120706

  9. Modified lip repositioning: A surgical approach to treat the gummy smile.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aditya Gopinath; Koganti, Vijay Prasad; Prabhakar, Ashok Kodangala; Soni, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Gummy smile has been an esthetic concern for many patients. This clinical report describes a successful surgical coverage obtained by modified lip repositioning, thus surgically treating the gummy smile. The technique was performed to limit the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oris, leviator anguli oris and levator labi oris.) The technique is fulfilled by removing two strips of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule on both the sides leaving the frenum untouched and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upper lip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display. This technique is different from the conventional surgical lip repositioning as labial frenum is left untouched over here as it helps in maintain Litton the midline for lip repositioning and reduces the morbidity associated with it. PMID:26229285

  10. A possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in orchiectomy-induced atrophy of the rat levator ani muscle - Studies with RU 38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Max, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    RU38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid, was employed to study a possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in atrophy of the levator ani muscle secondary to castration of male rats. RU38486 was shown to block (3H) triamcinolone acetonide binding to cytosol from levator ani muscle. Daily oral administration of RU38486 to castrated rats partially prevented atrophy of the levator ani muscle, as well as a decrease in RNA concentration. In a control group receiving RU38486 alone, the levator ani underwent significant 20 percent hypertrophy. Administration of exogenous dexamethasone also caused pronounced atrophy of the levator ani muscle. This atrophy was prevented, to a significant degree, by simultaneous oral administration of Ru38486. It is concluded that endogenous glucocorticoids, the actions of which are blocked by RU38486, may be involved in regulation of the mass of the levator ani muscle in intact rats.

  11. A possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in orchiectomy-induced atrophy of the rat levator ani muscle: Studies with RU38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konagaya, M.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    RU38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid, was employed to study a possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in atrophy of the levator ani muscle secondary to castration of male rats. RU38486 was shown to block (3H) triamcinolone acetonide binding to cytosol from levator ani muscle. Daily oral administration of RU38486 to castrated rats partially prevented atrophy of the levator ani muscle, as well as a decrease in RNA concentration. In a control group receiving RU38486 alone, the levator ani underwent significant (20%) hypertrophy. Administration of exogenous dexamethasone also caused pronounced atrophy of the levator ani muscle. This atrophy was prevented, to a significant degree, by simultaneous oral administration of RU38486. It is concluded that endogenous glucocorticoids, the actions of which are blocked by RU38486, may be involved in regulation of the mass of the levator ani muscle in intact rats.

  12. [Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].

    PubMed

    Wawrzycki, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate. PMID:25033525

  13. Management of morderate-to-severe Marcus-Gunn syndrome by anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Nan; Hu, Wei-Kun; Li, Bin; Liu, Rong

    2010-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of clinical management of moderate-to-severe Marcus-Gunn syndrome (MGS) by anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles. METHODS The medical records of 13 patients with moderate-to-severe MGS who underwent surgeries in our institute between 2000 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. They underwent unilateral anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles under local anesthesia. RESULTS Postoperative follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 36 months, with an average of 12 months. All eyelids (100%) showed complete resolution of jaw-winking, ten eyelids (76.9%) had good correction of ptosis, with equal plapebral apertures and symmetrical contours, three (23.1%) showed residual mild ptosis (<2mm). CONCLUSION For moderate-to-severe MGS, unilateral anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles provides satisfied correction of jaw-winking and ptosis. PMID:22553588

  14. ori identity signatures: A latent profile analysis of the types of Māori identity.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Lara M; Houkamau, Carla; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    ori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. However, the term 'Māori' can refer to a wide range of people of varying ethnic compositions and cultural identity. We present a statistical model identifying 6 distinct types, or 'Māori Identity Signatures,' and estimate their proportion in the Māori population. The model is tested using a Latent Profile Analysis of a national probability sample of 686 Māori drawn from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We identify 6 distinct signatures: Traditional Essentialists (22.6%), Traditional Inclusives (16%), High Moderates (31.7%), Low Moderates (18.7%), Spiritually Orientated (4.1%), and Disassociated (6.9%). These distinct Identity Signatures predicted variation in deprivation, age, mixed-ethnic affiliation, and religion. This research presents the first formal statistical model assessing how people's identity as Māori is psychologically structured, documents the relative proportion of these different patterns of structures, and shows that these patterns reliably predict differences in core demographics. We identify a range of patterns of Māori identity far more diverse than has been previously proposed based on qualitative data, and also show that the majority of Māori fit a moderate or traditional identity pattern. The application of our model for studying Māori health and identity development is discussed. PMID:25774895

  15. The continuum spectrum of V1016 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitrichenko, E. A.

    1999-03-01

    New photoelectric JHKLM observations were obtained for the star V1016 Ori. Infrared variability of the system was detected. UBVRIJHKLM observations are used to analyze the brightness of V1016 Ori outside eclipse. Its flux is shown to consist of the following components: (1) the flux from a primary B0 V star, (2) the flux from a secondary A0 V star, (3) the flux from an infrared object (an infrared component), and (4) the flux from a dust envelope around the A0 secondary with the temperature T_d = 1600 K and the equivalent radius R_d = 30 R_solar. The magnitudes of the B0 and A0 stars corrected for interstellar reddening are V_1 = (6.03 +/- 0.05) mag and V_2 = (8.4 +/- 0.2) mag, respectively. The effective temperature and bolometric luminosity of the infrared component were estimated to be T ~ 3000 K and L_3 = 150 L_solar. The infrared component may be in the Hayashi stage.

  16. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.402 ORI allegation assessments. (a) When ORI receives an allegation of research misconduct directly or becomes aware of an allegation or apparent instance of research misconduct, it...

  17. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.402 ORI allegation assessments. (a) When ORI receives an allegation of research misconduct directly or becomes aware of an allegation or apparent instance of research misconduct, it...

  18. Levator Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by low back or prostate disorders. Treatment Pain relievers and sitz baths Physical therapy of the pelvis The doctor explains that this ... bowel movement, by a sitz bath (see Hemorrhoids : Treatment ), or by a mild pain reliever (such as aspirin ). When the symptoms are more ...

  19. Submucous cleft palate: outcomes after primary repair with repositioning of the levator muscle in 51 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Smyth, A G

    2016-06-01

    I report the incidence of hypernasal resonance, nasal emission, and fistula after intravelar surgery with retropositioning of the levator muscle by a single surgeon in a consecutive series of 51 patients who presented with symptomatic submucous cleft palate. Intravelar veloplasty with repositioning of the levator muscle was highly effective in that 37/51 patients (73%) achieved either normal or mild and inconsistent resonance (p<0.0001), and 39 (77%) normal or mild and inconsistent nasal emissions (p<0.0001). The fistula rate was 6% (n=3). Both the clinical grade of submucous cleft palate and the presence of a syndrome correlated directly with changes in hypernasality, whereas the age of the patient and the degree of hypernasality at presentation did not. Non-syndromic patients with clinical grade III and II submucous cleft palates responded well to intravelar surgery with repositioning of the levator muscle, and routine preoperative videofluoroscopy is not recommended. I recommend intravelar surgery with repositioning of the levator muscle routinely for all non-syndromic patients who present with grade III or II submucous cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency. PMID:26992275

  20. A cohort study comparing cardiovascular risk factors in rural Māori, urban Māori and non-Māori communities in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Faatoese, Allamanda F; Gillies, Matea W; Robertson, Paul J; Huria, Tania M; Doughty, Rob N; Whalley, Gillian A; Richards, Mark A; Troughton, Richard W; Tikao-Mason, Karen N; Wells, Elisabeth J; Sheerin, Ian G; Pitama, Suzanne G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the indigenous Māori of New Zealand, diagnosed and undiagnosed CVD risk factors were compared in rural Māori in an area remote from health services with urban Māori and non-Māori in a city well served with health services. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Hauora Manawa is a cohort study of diagnosed and previously undiagnosed CVD, diabetes and risk factors, based on random selection from electoral rolls of the rural Wairoa District and Christchurch City, New Zealand. Participants Screening clinics were attended by 252 rural Māori, 243 urban Māori and 256 urban non-Māori, aged 20–64 years. Main outcome measures The study documented personal and family medical history, blood pressure, anthropometrics, fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, HbA1c and urate to identify risk factors in common and those that differ among the three communities. Results Mean age (SD) was 45.7 (11.5) versus 42.6 (11.2) versus 43.6 (11.5) years in rural Māori, urban Māori and non-Māori, respectively. Age-adjusted rates of diagnosed cardiac disease were not significantly different across the cohorts (7.5% vs 5.8% vs 2.8%, p=0.073). However, rural Māori had significantly higher levels of type-2 diabetes (10.7% vs 3.7% vs 2.4%, p<0.001), diagnosed hypertension (25.0% vs 14.9% vs 10.7%, p<0.001), treated dyslipidaemia (15.7% vs 7.1% vs 2.8%, p<0.001), current smoking (42.8% vs 30.5% vs 15.2%, p<0.001) and age-adjusted body mass index (30.7 (7.3) vs 29.1 (6.4) vs 26.1 (4.5) kg/m2, p<0.001). Similarly high rates of previously undocumented elevated blood pressure (22.2% vs 23.5% vs 17.6%, p=0.235) and high cholesterol (42.1% vs 54.3% vs 42.2%, p=0.008) were observed across all cohorts. Conclusions Supporting integrated rural healthcare to provide screening and management of CVD risk factors would reduce health disparities in this indigenous population. PMID:22685219

  1. Possible Reasons for the Slow Rotation of BF Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Possible reasons for the very low projected rotation velocity of BF Ori compared to other UX Ori stars are discussed. The hypothesis of a close companion that slows down the star's rotation by a tidal interaction is examined. Based on a theory of synchronization and modern models of evolution, the interaction is calculated numerically for different masses of the companion and values of the semi-major axis. It is shown that in order to obtain the projected velocity observed for BF Ori, the companion must have a mass greater than 0.5M⊙ . Such a large companion should have been discovered observationally. It is suggested that the low rotation velocity of BF Ori is more likely to be related to the distribution of the angular momentum of a protostellar cloud between the angular momentum of the star and the orbital angular momentum of a low-mass companion.

  2. The Urethral Rhabdosphincter, Levator Ani Muscle, and Perineal Membrane: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Gen

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the rhabdosphincter and adjacent tissues is mandatory during urologic surgery to ensure reliable oncologic and functional outcomes. To characterize the levator ani (LA) function for the urethral sphincter, we described connective tissue morphology between the LA and urethral rhabdosphincter. The interface tissue between the LA and rhabdosphincter area in males contained abundant irregularly arrayed elastic fibers and smooth muscles. The male rhabdosphincter was positioned alongside the LA to divide the elevation force and not in-series along the axis of LA contraction. The male perineal membrane was thin but solid and extends along the inferior margin or bottom of the rhabdosphincter area. In contrast, the female rhabdosphincter, including the compressor urethrae and urethrovaginal sphincter muscles, was embedded in the elastic fiber mesh that is continuous with the thick, multilaminar perineal membrane. The inferomedial edge of the female LA was attached to the upper surface of the perineal membrane and not directly attached to the rhabdosphincter. We presented new diagrams showing the gender differences in topographical anatomy of the LA and rhabdosphincter. PMID:24877147

  3. THE GRADED LEVATOR HINGE PROCEDURE FOR THE CORRECTION OF UPPER EYELID RETRACTION (AN AMERICAN OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY THESIS)

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Many surgical techniques have been developed to address eyelid retraction with varying results. Identifying and evaluating the anatomical and pathophysiological factors involved will assist in its surgical treatment. This prospective study evaluated the graded levator hinge procedure, in combination with a Müllerectomy and/or lateral canthoplasty when indicated, in an attempt to precisely and selectively target the pathophysiology responsible for the various causes of eyelid retraction in only one surgical session. Methods This is a clinical, prospective study of patients with moderate to severe eyelid retraction due to various causes who underwent the graded levator hinge procedure, in combination with a Müllerectomy and/or lateral canthoplasty when indicated. The exact amount of hinging of the levator aponeurosis, and combination with a Müllerectomy and/or lateral canthoplasty, was determined by the clinical operative findings with active cooperation from the conscious patient. Results Thirty-two consecutive patients (48 eyelids) with varying degrees of upper eyelid retraction underwent the graded levator hinge procedure in combination with a Müllerectomy and or lateral canthoplasty when indicated. The mean (± standard deviation) preoperative palpebral vertical fissure height was 12.4 mm (± 0.45 mm), and the mean postoperative palpebral fissure height was 9.0 mm (±0.20 mm). The mean preoperative asymmetry in the palpebral fissure height was 2.41 (± 0.29) mm, and the mean postoperative asymmetry was 0.59 mm (± 0.09), and this difference was statistically significant (P <.001). The mean reduction in the palpebral fissure height was 4.6 mm (± 0.29 mm) (range, 1–10 mm). The graded levator hinge procedure in combination with a Müllerectomy and or lateral canthoplasty when indicated, led to a statistically significant (P <.001) reduction in mean palpebral fissure height for all patients, the bilateral subset of patients, the unilateral subset of

  4. oRis: multiagents approach for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Vincent; Harrouet, Fabrice; Ballet, Pascal; Tisseau, Jacques

    1998-09-01

    In this article, we present a parallel image processing system based on the concept of reactive agents. This means that, in our system, each agent has a very simple behavior which allows it to take a decision (find out an edge, a region, ...) according to its position in the image and to the information enclosed in it. Our system lies in the oRis language, which allows to describe very finely and simply the agents' behaviors. In fact, oRis is an interpreted and dynamic multiagent language. First of all, oRis is an object language with the use of classes regrouping attributes and methods. The syntax is close to the C++ language and includes notions of multiple inheritance, oRis is also an agent language: every object with a method `main()' becomes an agent. This method is cyclically executed by the system scheduler and corresponds to the agent behavior. We also present an application made with oRis. This application allows to detect concentric striae located on different natural `objects' (age-rings of tree, fish otolith growth rings, striae of some minerals, ...). The stopping of the multiagent system is implemented through a technique issued from immunology: the apoptosis.

  5. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binaries: FT Ori and MZ Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, A.; Bulut, I.; ćiçek, C.; Erdem, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the apsidal motion analysis of two eccentric eclipsing binaries, FT Ori (P = 3.150 days, e = 0.397) and MZ Lac (P = 3.158 days, e = 0.399), have been presented. Their O - C diagrams were studied using all reliable times of minima found in the literature and new values for the elements of the apsidal motion for two systems have been computed. We found long periods of apsidal motion of 538 ± 12 years and 424 ± 6 years for FT Ori and MZ Lac, respectively.

  6. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.217 Office of Research Integrity or ORI. Office of Research Integrity or ORI means the office to which the HHS Secretary has delegated responsibility...

  7. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.403 ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. ORI may conduct...

  8. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.217 Office of Research Integrity or ORI. Office of Research Integrity or ORI means the office to which the HHS Secretary has delegated responsibility...

  9. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.403 ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. ORI may conduct...

  10. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.403 ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. ORI may conduct...

  11. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.403 ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. ORI may conduct...

  12. Cellular transcription factors enhance herpes simplex virus type 1 oriS-dependent DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Huynh, A T; Schaffer, P A

    1998-05-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin of DNA replication, oriS, contains three binding sites for the viral origin binding protein (OBP) flanked by transcriptional regulatory elements of the immediate-early genes encoding ICP4 and ICP22/47. To assess the role of flanking sequences in oriS function, plasmids containing oriS and either wild-type or mutant flanking sequences were tested in transient DNA replication assays. Although the ICP4 and ICP22/47 regulatory regions were shown to enhance oriS function, most individual elements in these regions, including the VP16-responsive TAATGARAT elements, were found to be dispensable for oriS function. In contrast, two oriS core-adjacent regulatory (Oscar) elements, OscarL and OscarR, at the base of the oriS palindrome were shown to enhance oriS function significantly and additively. Specifically, mutational disruption of either element reduced oriS-dependent DNA replication by 60 to 70%, and disruption of both elements reduced replication by 90%. The properties of protein-DNA complexes formed in gel mobility shift assays using uninfected and HSV-1-infected Vero cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that both OscarL and OscarR are binding sites for cellular proteins. Whereas OscarR does not correspond to the consensus binding site of any known transcription factor, OscarL contains a consensus binding site for the transcription factor Sp1. Gel mobility shift and supershift experiments using antibodies directed against members of the Sp1 family of transcription factors demonstrated the presence of Sp1 and Sp3, but not Sp2 or Sp4, in the protein-DNA complexes formed at OscarL. The abilities of OscarL and OscarR to bind their respective cellular proteins correlated directly with the efficiency of oriS-dependent DNA replication. Cooperative interactions between the Oscar-binding factors and proteins binding to adjacent OBP binding sites were not observed. Notably, Oscar element mutations that impaired oriS-dependent DNA

  13. Rapid variability of the EXor star NY Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a rapid brightness variability of the classical EXor star NY Ori observed with the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of our program EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056).

  14. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of...

  15. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  16. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  17. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication oriS influences origin-dependent DNA replication and flanking gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Sommer, Marvin H; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T; Arvin, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    The VZV genome has two origins of DNA replication (oriS), each of which consists of an AT-rich sequence and three origin binding protein (OBP) sites called Box A, C and B. In these experiments, the mutation in the core sequence CGC of the Box A and C not only inhibited DNA replication but also inhibited both ORF62 and ORF63 expression in reporter gene assays. In contrast the Box B mutation did not influence DNA replication or flanking gene transcription. These results suggest that efficient DNA replication enhances ORF62 and ORF63 transcription. Recombinant viruses carrying these mutations in both sites and one with a deletion of the whole oriS were constructed. Surprisingly, the recombinant virus lacking both copies of oriS retained the capacity to replicate in melanoma and HELF cells suggesting that VZV has another origin of DNA replication. PMID:25795313

  18. Iron-dependent gene expression in Actinomyces oris

    PubMed Central

    Mulé, Matthew P.; Giacalone, David; Lawlor, Kayla; Golden, Alexa; Cook, Caroline; Lott, Thomas; Aksten, Elizabeth; O'Toole, George A.; Bergeron, Lori J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Actinomyces oris is a Gram-positive bacterium that has been associated with healthy and diseased sites in the human oral cavity. Most pathogenic bacteria require iron to survive, and in order to acquire iron in the relatively iron-scarce oral cavity A. oris has been shown to produce iron-binding molecules known as siderophores. The genes encoding these siderophores and transporters are thought to be regulated by the amount of iron in the growth medium and by the metal-dependent repressor, AmdR, which we showed previously binds to the promoter of proposed iron-regulated genes. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize siderophore and associated iron transport systems in A. oris. Design We examined gene expression of the putative iron transport genes fetA and sidD in response to low- and high-iron environments. One of these genes, sidD, encoding a putative Fe ABC transporter protein, was insertionally inactivated and was examined for causing growth defects. To gain a further understanding of the role of iron metabolism in oral diseases, clinical isolates of Actinomyces spp. were examined for the presence of the gene encoding AmdR, a proposed global regulator of iron-dependent gene expression in A. oris. Results When A. oris was grown under iron-limiting conditions, the genes encoding iron/siderophore transporters fetA and sidD showed increased expression. One of these genes (sidD) was mutated, and the sidD::Km strain exhibited a 50% reduction in growth in late log and stationary phase cells in media that contained iron. This growth defect was restored when the sidD gene was provided in a complemented strain. We were able to isolate the AmdR-encoding gene in seven clinical isolates of Actinomyces. When these protein sequences were aligned to the laboratory strain, there was a high degree of sequence similarity. Conclusions The growth of the sidD::Km mutant in iron-replete medium mirrored the growth of the wild-type strain grown in iron

  19. Cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator muscle are located in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kawagishi, Kyutaro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2012-12-01

    Since the levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles despite being antigravity mixed muscles to involuntarily sustain eyelid opening and eyebrow lifting, this study has proposed a hypothetical mechanism to compensate for this anatomical defect. The voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the levator muscle stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study confirmed the presence of cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles. After confirming that severing the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induced ipsilateral eyelid ptosis, Fluorogold was applied as a tracer to the proximal stump of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve in rats. Fluorogold labelled the cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons, not in any regions of the rat brain including the trigeminal ganglion, but in the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neighbouring the locus ceruleus. Some Fluorogold particles accumulated in the area of the locus ceruleus. The trigeminal proprioceptive neurons could be considered centrally displaced ganglion cells to transmit afferent signal from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the mesencephalon, where they may be able to make excitatory synaptic connections with both the oculomotor neurons and the frontalis muscle motoneurons for the involuntary coordination of the eyelid and eyebrow activities, and potentially to the locus ceruleus. PMID:23157498

  20. Intra-eyebrow frontalis suspension using inverted Y-shaped short autogenous fascia lata for blepharoptosis with poor levator function.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shido, Hirokazu; Fujii, Takako; Kato, Tatsuya; Aoki, Marie; Takada, Keiko; Kishi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Frontalis suspension using autogenous fascia lata is a common procedure for blepharoptosis with poor levator function. However, donor-site morbidity associated with fascia lata harvest cannot be ignored. In conventional procedures, the required length of the fascia lata is usually >5-12 cm with a lateral thigh skin incision of approximately 5 cm or more. The present study introduces a new frontalis suspension procedure in which the required size (length and width) of the fascia lata and length of lateral thigh incision is much smaller. The harvested fascia lata is tailored to an inverted Y shape and the separated caudal legs are fixed to the tarsus while the cephalic end is grafted inside the eyebrow through a suborbital septum tunnel. In the present study, 11 patients who underwent the new procedure with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up were evaluated. The average length and width of the harvested fascia lata in unilateral ptosis cases were 2.85 and 0.89 cm, respectively. The average length of the lateral thigh incision was 1.25 cm. The margin reflex distance improved in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in most of the patients. Trichiasis, widened donor scar, and eyebrow notch were noted as complications. The present method is a good alternative for the treatment of blepharoptosis with poor levator function. It potentially reduces donor-site morbidity as compared with conventional frontalis muscle suspension procedures using autogenous fascia lata. PMID:25260853

  1. Intragenomic linear amplification of human herpesvirus 6B oriLyt suggests acquisition of oriLyt by transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Stamey, F R; Dominguez, G; Black, J B; Dambaugh, T R; Pellett, P E

    1995-01-01

    We identified some passage lineages of human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) strain Z29 that contain as many as 12 tandem copies of a genomic segment that corresponds almost precisely to a previously identified minimal efficient origin of lytic replication (oriLyt). Analysis of nucleotide sequences in the vicinity of the amplified segment suggests that the amplification occurred as a two-step process, with the first step being a rare sequence duplication mediated through directly repeated sequences located near the termini of the amplified segment and the second step occurring via homologous recombination through the duplicated sequence. These results demonstrate that oriLyt has been amplified in some virus stocks and indicate that (i) origin amplification confers a growth advantage on the virus in cell culture and (ii) laboratory-passaged HHV-6B genomes can accommodate additional nucleotide sequences and thus may be useful gene transfer vectors. The structures of the amplified segment and its adjacent sequences together suggest that HHV-6B or a progenitor virus acquired oriLyt by transposition from an unknown source. PMID:7983761

  2. A review of Māori astronomy in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Pauline; Matamua, Rangi; Smith, Takirirangi; Kerr, Hoturoa; Waaka, Toa

    2013-11-01

    Across the world indigenous people are seeking to reclaim their traditional knowledge. Within the last fifty years the Māori of Aotearoa-New Zealand have made significant efforts to reclaim their language, arts and science. Part of this renaissance includes a growing Māori movement to reclaim their astronomical knowledge. Māori astronomical understanding was infused throughout much of pre-colonial Māori life, culture and belief. The Sun, Moon and stars were an integral part of practices pertaining to agriculture, architecture, fishing, calendrical systems and exploration. Although early ethnographers attempted to record this knowledge, their works seem to only reflect a somewhat superficial level of understanding. Thus this paper highlights some of the current research being conducted on Māori astronomy, which seeks a greater understanding of how the ancestors of the Māori perceived the heavens.

  3. IMAPS Observations Of Atomic Deuterium Toward Delta ORI A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Tripp, T. M.; Wozniak, P. R.; Sofia, U. J.; Sonneborn, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS) recorded the Ldelta and Lepsilon D and H absorption features in the spectrum of delta Ori A during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission in late 1996. The resolution of 4 km s(-1) provides a substantial improvement over previous spectra recorded by the Copernicus satellite. Our 90% confidence interval for the deuterium column density toward delta Ori A is 0.96 < N(D I) < 1.45x 10(15) cm(-2) . To derive the ratio of atomic D to H, we evaluated the damped Lalpha profile recorded in many high-dispersion spectra of delta Ori A in the IUE archive and used the dispersion of the results to help us estimate the probable systematic errors. From this exercise, we conclude that N(H I)=1.54 +/- 0.08 x 10(20) cm(-2) . Combining the D and H results gives D/H=7.5(+1.9}_{-1.4) x 10(-6) , a finding that is lower than 1.5x 10(-5) reported for lines of sight to cool stars within the local region and also IMAPS results for gamma (2) Vel and zeta Pup reported by Sonneborn, et al (another abstract in this session). Our conclusion that D/H could vary in the interstellar medium in the local region of our Galaxy is consistent with independent findings by Vidal-Madjar, et al. (1998: Astr. Ap. 338, 694) for the line of sight to G191-B2B.

  4. The effect of middle and lower trapezius strength exercises and levator scapulae and upper trapezius stretching exercises in upper crossed syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Won-Sik; Lee, Hyun-Ok; Shin, Jae-Wook; Lee, Keon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of strength and stretching exercises on upper crossed syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] After measuring cervical alignment using the Global Posture System, 30 students with forward head posture were selected and divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=15) participated in strength and stretching exercises, three times per week for 4 weeks. The control group (n=15) did not participate in the exercises. The exercise program comprised middle and lower trapezius strength exercises and levator scapulae and upper trapezius stretching exercises. The temperature of the posterior neck was then measured using digital infrared thermographic imaging. [Results] There was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest results in the experimental group, and a significant difference in posterior neck temperature between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study showed that middle and lower trapezius strength exercises and levator scapulae and upper trapezius stretching exercises are more effective for upper crossed syndrome. PMID:27313388

  5. Mid-IR Photometry and Near-IR Spectroscopy of the FU Ori Protostar V2775 Ori (HOPS 223)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Safron, Emily J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Terebey, Susan; Soto, Edith; Wilson, Thomas L.; Adams, Joseph D.

    2016-02-01

    On 2015 November 20.39, we obtained mid-IR photometry of V2775 Ori (HOPS 223) with the FORCAST instrument aboard SOFIA. This is a low-mass embedded young stellar object that was reported to have undergone a luminosity outburst by Caratti o Garatti et al. (2011, A & A, 526, L1). Fischer et al. (2012, ApJ, 756, 99) dated the beginning of the outburst to between 2005 April and 2007 March and discussed the similarity of its near-IR spectrum to that of FU Orionis.

  6. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.217 Office of Research Integrity or ORI. Office of... addressing research integrity and misconduct issues related to PHS supported activities. ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217...

  7. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.217 Office of Research Integrity or ORI. Office of... addressing research integrity and misconduct issues related to PHS supported activities. ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217...

  8. 42 CFR 93.309 - Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Inquiry § 93.309 Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation. (a) Within 30 days...

  9. The complexities of designing therapy for Māori living with stroke-related communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Stroke-related communication disorders can have a substantial impact on Māori whānau (extended family). Timely and appropriate speech-language therapy is required, but there are many challenges in providing this. In this article we discuss the need for a kaupapa Māori approach to speech-language therapy that is designed by Māori for Māori, and undertaken in a Māori way. We report the results of a literature review that revealed a small but significant body of literature describing Māori experiences of stroke, aphasia and speech-language therapy, and evidence that a Māori-specific therapy programme can improve outcomes for people with stroke. We then consider the social and political context that impacts the design and delivery of such an approach. Informed by the literature, we propose a hierarchy of skill and resource acquisition for speech-language therapists, in which they learn why to be culturally safe, how to be culturally safe, and how to interact before creating resources to build relationships, resources for education and for therapy. The creation of a kaupapa Māori speech-language therapy approach should bring together people with stroke, whānau members and service providers to create therapy that crosses sectors and disciplines and acknowledges the wider social and political context. PMID:27355171

  10. Ori-Finder 2, an integrated tool to predict replication origins in the archaeal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is one of the most basic processes in all three domains of cellular life. With the advent of the post-genomic era, the increasing number of complete archaeal genomes has created an opportunity for exploration of the molecular mechanisms for initiating cellular DNA replication by in vivo experiments as well as in silico analysis. However, the location of replication origins (oriCs) in many sequenced archaeal genomes remains unknown. We present a web-based tool Ori-Finder 2 to predict oriCs in the archaeal genomes automatically, based on the integrated method comprising the analysis of base composition asymmetry using the Z-curve method, the distribution of origin recognition boxes identified by FIMO tool, and the occurrence of genes frequently close to oriCs. The web server is also able to analyze the unannotated genome sequences by integrating with gene prediction pipelines and BLAST software for gene identification and function annotation. The result of the predicted oriCs is displayed as an HTML table, which offers an intuitive way to browse the result in graphical and tabular form. The software presented here is accurate for the genomes with single oriC, but it does not necessarily find all the origins of replication for the genomes with multiple oriCs. Ori-Finder 2 aims to become a useful platform for the identification and analysis of oriCs in the archaeal genomes, which would provide insight into the replication mechanisms in archaea. The web server is freely available at http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/Ori-Finder2/. PMID:25309521

  11. Innervation of the levator ani muscles: description of the nerve branches to the pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, Bogdan A; Lazarou, George; Olson, Todd R; Downie, Sherry A; Powers, Kenneth; Greston, Wilma Markus; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2008-01-01

    We described the innervation of the levator ani muscles (LAM) in human female cadavers. Detailed pelvic dissections of the pubococcygeus (PCM), iliococcygeus (ICM), and puborectalis muscles (PRM) were performed on 17 formaldehyde-fixed cadavers. The pudendal nerve and the sacral nerves entering the pelvis were traced thoroughly, and nerve branches innervating the LAM were documented. Histological analysis of nerve branches entering the LAM confirmed myelinated nerve tissue. LAM were innervated by the pudendal nerve branches, perineal nerve, and inferior rectal nerve (IRN) in 15 (88.2%) and 6 (35.3%) cadavers, respectively, and by the direct sacral nerves S3 and/or S4 in 12 cadavers (70.6%). A variant IRN, independent of the pudendal nerve, was found to innervate the LAM in seven (41.2%) cadavers. The PCM and the PRM were both primarily innervated by the pudendal nerve branches in 13 cadavers (76.5%) each. The ICM was primarily innervated by the direct sacral nerves S3 and/or S4 in 11 cadavers (64.7%). PMID:17565421

  12. The Early ALMA View of the FU Ori Outburst System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, A. S.; Corder, S. A.; Dent, W. R. D.; Andrews, S. M.; Eisner, J. A.; Cieza, L. A.

    2015-10-01

    We have obtained ALMA Band 7 observations of the FU Ori outburst system at a 0.″6 × 0.″5 resolution to measure the link between the inner disk instability and the outer disk through submillimeter continuum and molecular line observations. Our observations detect continuum emission that can be well-modeled by two unresolved sources located at the position of each binary component. The interferometric observations recover the entire flux reported in previous single-dish studies, ruling out the presence of a large envelope. Assuming that the dust is optically thin, we derive disk dust masses of 2 × 10‑4 M⊙ and 8× {10}-5 M⊙ for the north and south components, respectively. We place limits on the disks’ radii of r < 45 AU. We report the detection of molecular emission from 12CO(3-2), HCO+(4-3), and from HCN(4-3). The 12CO appears widespread across the two binary components and is slightly more extended than the continuum emission. The denser gas tracer HCO+ peaks close to the position of the southern binary component, while HCN appears to be peaked at the position of the northern component. This suggests that the southern binary component is embedded in denser molecular material, consistent with previous studies that indicate a heavily reddened object. At this angular resolution, any interaction between the two unresolved disk components cannot be disentangled. Higher-resolution images are vital for understanding the process of star formation via rapid accretion FU Ori-type episodes.

  13. Protocol for Translabial 3D-Ultrasonography for diagnosing levator defects (TRUDIL): a multicentre cohort study for estimating the diagnostic accuracy of translabial 3D-ultrasonography of the pelvic floor as compared to MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a condition affecting more than half of the women above age 40. The estimated lifetime risk of needing surgical management for POP is 11%. In patients undergoing POP surgery of the anterior vaginal wall, the re-operation rate is 30%. The recurrence risk is especially high in women with a levator ani defect. Such defect is present if there is a partially or completely detachment of the levator ani from the inferior ramus of the symphysis. Detecting levator ani defects is relevant for counseling, and probably also for treatment. Levator ani defects can be imaged with MRI and also with Translabial 3D ultrasonography of the pelvic floor. The primary aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of translabial 3D ultrasonography for diagnosing levator defects in women with POP with Magnetic Resonance Imaging as the reference standard. Secondary goals of this study include quantification of the inter-observer agreement about levator ani defects and determining the association between levator defects and recurrent POP after anterior repair. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of adding translabial ultrasonography to the diagnostic work-up in patients with POP will be estimated in a decision analytic model. Methods/Design A multicentre cohort study will be performed in nine Dutch hospitals. 140 consecutive women with a POPQ stage 2 or more anterior vaginal wall prolapse, who are indicated for anterior colporapphy will be included. Patients undergoing additional prolapse procedures will also be included. Prior to surgery, patients will undergo MR imaging and translabial 3D ultrasound examination of the pelvic floor. Patients will be asked to complete validated disease specific quality of life questionnaires before surgery and at six and twelve months after surgery. Pelvic examination will be performed at the same time points. Assuming a sensitivity and specificity of 90% of 3D ultrasound for diagnosing levator defects in a

  14. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects: A live gross anatomy and cadaveric histological study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA.This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry.Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of blepharoplasty

  15. Topography and landmarks for the nerve supply to the levator ani and its relevance to pelvic floor pathologies.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Joseph, Shamfa; Etienne, Denzil; Linganna, Sanjay; Hallner, Barry; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the anatomical variations of the nerve to the levator ani (LA) and to relate these findings to LA dysfunction. One hundred fixed human female cadavers were dissected using transabdominal, gluteal, and perineal approaches, resulting in two hundred dissections of the sacral plexus. The pudendal nerve and the sacral nerve roots were traced from their origin at the sacral foramina to their termination. All nerves contributing to the innervation of the LA were considered to be the nerve to the LA. Based on the spinal nerve components, the nerve to the LA was classified into the following categories: 50% (n = 100) originated from S4 and S5 (type I); 19% (n = 38) originated from S5 (type II); 16% (n = 32) originated from S4 (type III); 11% (n = 22) originated from S3 and S4 (type IV); 4% (n = 8) originated from S3, S4, and S5 (type V). Two patterns of nerve termination were observed. In 42% of specimens, the nerve to the LA penetrated the coccygeus muscle and assumed an external position along the inferior surface of the LA muscle. In the remaining 58% of specimens, the nerve crossed the superior surface of the coccygeus muscle and continued along the superior surface of the iliococcygeus muscle. Damage to the nerve to LA has been associated with various pathologies. In order to minimize injuries during surgical procedures, a thorough understanding of the course and variations of the nerve to the LA is extremely important. Clin. Anat. 29:516-523, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26579995

  16. Star Formation in the Cometary Globule Ori I-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjea, Bhaswati; Sandell, Göran

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the young stellar population in and near the cometary globule Ori I-2. The analysis is based on deep Nordic Optical Telescope R-band and Hα images, JCMT SCUBA 450 and 850 μm images combined with near-infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry and mid-infrared archival Spitzer images obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC; 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm), and MIPS (24 and 70 μm) instruments. We identify a total of 125 sources within the 5'×5' region imaged by the IRAC. Of these sources, 87 are detected in the R-band image and 51 are detected in the 2MASS. The detailed physical properties of the sources are explored using a combination of near/mid-infrared color-color diagrams, graybody fitting of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and an online SED fitting tool that uses a library of two-dimensional radiation transfer based accretion models of young stellar objects with disks. Ori I-2 shows clear evidence of triggered star formation with four young low-luminosity pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars embedded in the globule. At least two, possibly as many as four, additional low-mass PMS objects were discovered in the field which are probably part of the young σ Orionis cluster. Among the PMS stars which have formed in the globule, MIR-54 is a young, deeply embedded Class 0/I object; MIR-51 and 52 are young Class II sources, while MIR-89 is a more evolved, heavily extincted Class II object with its apparent colors mimicking a Class 0/I object. The Class 0/I object MIR-54 coincides with a previously known IRAS source and is a strong submillimeter source. It is most likely the source for the molecular outflow and the large parsec-scale Herbig-Haro (HH) flow. However, the nearby Class II source, MIR-52, which is strong a Hα emission line star, also appears to drive an outflow approximately aligned with the outflow from MIR-54, and because of the proximity of the two outflows, either star could contribute. MIR-89 appears to excite a low

  17. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    PubMed Central

    Beco, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Background Levator plate sagging (LPS), usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence) but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3) underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM) to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum) must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological) and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5). Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21). Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal incontinence, dyschesia

  18. Sporadic and familial blepharophimosis -ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome: FOXL2 mutation screen and MRI study of the superior levator eyelid muscle.

    PubMed

    Dollfus, H; Stoetzel, C; Riehm, S; Lahlou Boukoffa, W; Bediard Boulaneb, F; Quillet, R; Abu-Eid, M; Speeg-Schatz, C; Francfort, J J; Flament, J; Veillon, F; Perrin-Schmitt, F

    2003-02-01

    The analysis of the FOXL2 gene (3q23) in a series of two families and two sporadic cases affected with Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) is presented. This study detected two novel FOXL2 mutations (missence and nonsens mutations) and confirmed the recurrence of a previously described duplication. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the orbit, in one family, showed absence or hypotrophy of the eyelid superior levator muscle suggesting a possible role of FOXL2 in the development of this extra-ocular muscle. PMID:12630957

  19. ORI2 inhibits coxsackievirus replication and myocardial inflammation in experimental murine myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Jin Hee

    2014-01-01

    We purified ORI2 [3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxycarbonylethyl ester] from an extract of the plant Isodon excisus. We tested the antiviral effect of ORI2 in a coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis model. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common cause of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signaling in virus-infected cells is essential for CVB3 replication. Antiviral compounds were screened by HeLa cell survival assay. Several purified natural compounds were added to HeLa cells cultured in 96-well plates for 30 min after 1 multiplicity of infection (m.o.i) CVB3 infection. ORI2 significantly improved HeLa cell survival in a dose-dependent manner. For in vivo studies, BALB/c mice (n=20) were infected with CVB3, then 10 of the mice were treated by daily intraperitoneal injections of ORI2 (100 mM) for 3 consecutive days. ORI2 treatment significantly improved early survival in the treated mice compared to untreated mice (85% vs. 50%, respectively). Organ virus titers and myocardial damage were significantly lower in the ORI2-treated mice than in untreated mice. These results demonstrate that ORI2, delivered by intraperitoneal injection after CVB3 infection, has a significant antiviral effect by markedly inhibiting virus replication, resulting in a decrease in organ virus titer and myocardial damage. ORI2 may be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of CVB3 infections. PMID:25273388

  20. Development of an oriC vector for use in Mycoplasma synoviae.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad A; Marenda, Marc S; Markham, Philip F; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2014-08-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae, an important poultry pathogen, belonging to the class Mollicutes, causes airsacculitis, synovitis, decreased egg production and produces significant economic losses. Efforts to determine M. synoviae virulence factors and their role in pathogenicity require suitable tools for genetic manipulation of this pathogen. This study describes, for the first time, the identification and cloning of the origin of replication (oriC) of M. synoviae to develop a replicable oriC vector for this mycoplasma. Shuttle vectors containing different putative oriC regions along with tetracycline resistance gene tetM were constructed to transform M. synoviae. An oriC vector, pMAS-LoriC, harbouring the complete dnaA gene along with upstream and downstream DnaA boxes, successfully transformed M. synoviae at an average transformation frequency of 1.07×10(-8) transformants per colony-forming unit (CFU), and remained freely replicating as well as integrated at the chromosomal oriC. Plasmid copy number for pMAS-LoriC was estimated to be 62±29 (average±SD) per cell. This study also provided evidence of the occurrence of homologous recombination and the functionality of the heterologous tetM determinant in M. synoviae. The transformation technique and the oriC vector developed in this study have the potential to be used in targeted gene disruption, gene complementation and expression studies in this organism. PMID:24880130

  1. Dependence on place: A source of autonomy in later life for older Māori.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Elizabeth; Breheny, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Attachment to place is an important component of ageing. Although the importance of place for older people's well-being is known, the ways in which different conceptions of place and expectations for what later life may hold depend upon cultural beliefs, values, and expectations is underexplored. This study examined the ways that place influences experiences of ageing for older Māori in New Zealand. Eight interviews with older Māori were analysed thematically alongside field notes from a research visit. Attachment to place provided the foundation for experiences of ageing for older Māori. Through their connection to place, the participants drew on a comforting and comfortable dependence on land and family to enable autonomy in later life. Rather than seeking to maintain independence in terms of avoiding reliance on others, older Māori conceptualised older age through autonomy and freedom to live in accordance with Māori values encapsulated by whakawhanaungatanga. A good old age depended on balancing competing demands of living in wider society with attachment to place and Māori identity in later life. PMID:27131278

  2. The Escaping Spectroscopic Binary θ^1 Ori E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costero, R.; Allen, C.; Echevarría, J.; Georgiev, L.; Poveda, A.; Richer, M. G.

    2008-12-01

    θ^1 Ori E was found to be a double-lined spectroscopic binary by Costero et al. (2006). From the analysis of 86 Echelle spectra obtained during three years, in which the systems of both components are separable, we found that the nearly identical spectra are consistent with both stars being early- to mid-G subgiant stars, with strong Li I λ 6708Å absorption and moderate emission Ca II K lines. The latter features are indicative of the pre-main-sequence evolutionary stage of the binary and, hence, of its membership to the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The radial velocitiy curves of both components yield a circular orbit (e < 10^{-3}) for the binary, with a period of 9.8952+/-0.0007 d. The semi-amplitudes of the curves are almost identical (84.4+/-1.0 km s^{-1}) and the systemic velocity is 34.3+/-0.7 km s^{-1}. The latter value is 8.3 km s^{-1} larger, by at least 3σ, than the average radial velocity of the ONC members, and very similar to the transverse velocity (relative to component A in the Trapezium) derived for the star by Allen et al. (2004) and Sánchez et al. (2008). We conclude that the binary is escaping from the cluster in which it was formed.

  3. UX Ori Variables in the Cluster IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsunova, O. Yu.; Grinin, V. P.; Sergeev, S. G.; Semenov, A. O.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Results are presented from many years of photometric (VRCIC) observations of three variable T Tauri type stars in the cluster IC 348: V712 Per, V719 Per, and V909 Per. All three stars have photometric activity characteristic of UX Ori stars. The activity of V719 Per has increased significantly over the last 10 years: the amplitude of its Algol-like minima has increased by roughly a factor of 4 and has reached three stellar magnitudes in the I band. Periodograms of the light curves do not confirm the periods found previously by other authors on the basis of shorter series of observations. The slope of the color tracks on "color-magnitude" diagrams is used to determine the reddening law for these stars owing to selective absorption by circumstellar dust. Modelling of these parameters by the Mie theory shows that the maximum size amax of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disks of these stars is 1.5-2 times greater than in the interstellar medium. In V712 Per and V909 Per, the bulk of the mass of the dust particles is concentrated near amax, while in V719 Per the average mass of the dust particles is determined by the minimum size of the particles. It should be emphasized that these conclusions rely on an analysis of the optical variability of these stars.

  4. Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Enwonwu, C O; Falkler, W A; Idigbe, E O

    2000-01-01

    Cancrum oris (Noma) is a devastating infectious disease which destroys the soft and hard tissues of the oral and para-oral structures. The dehumanizing oro-facial gangrenous lesion affects predominantly children ages 2 to 16 years, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the estimated frequency in some communities varies from 1 to 7 cases per 1000 population. The risk factors are poverty, malnutrition, poor oral hygiene, residential proximity to livestock in unsanitary environments, and infectious diseases, particularly measles and those due to the herpesviridae. Infections and malnutrition impair the immune system, and this is the common denominator for the occurrence of noma. Acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG) and oral herpetic ulcers are considered the antecedent lesions, and ongoing studies suggest that the rapid progression of these precursor lesions to noma requires infection by a consortium of micro-organisms, with Fusobacterium necrophorum (Fn) and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) as the suspected key players. Additional to production of a growth-stimulating factor for Pi, Fn displays a classic endotoxin, a dermonecrotic toxin, a cytoplasmic toxin, and a hemolysin. Without appropriate treatment, the mortality rate from noma is 70-90%. Survivors suffer the two-fold afflictions of oro-facial mutilation and functional impairment, which require a time-consuming, financially prohibitive surgical reconstruction. PMID:12002813

  5. ORBITAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE σ Ori Aa, Ab, B TRIPLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Dorda, R.; Marco, A.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Barbá, R. H.; Montes, D.; Pellerin, A.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Sota, A.

    2015-02-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric σ Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhés method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the σ Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that σ Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while σ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the σ Orionis cluster, at 3 ± 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the σ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for σ Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.

  6. oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Replication of the bacterial chromosome initiates at a single origin of replication that is called oriC. This occurs via the concerted action of numerous proteins, including DnaA, which acts as an initiator. The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the DnaA protein complex at oriC, triggering the unwinding of DNA and the beginning of replication. The requisite information is encoded in the unique arrangement of specific sequences called DnaA boxes, which form a framework for DnaA binding and assembly. Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts under the influence of DnaA) and binding sites for additional proteins that positively or negatively regulate the initiation process. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge and understanding of the information encoded in bacterial origins of chromosomal replication, particularly in the context of replication initiation and its regulation. We show that oriC encoded instructions allow not only for initiation but also for precise regulation of replication initiation and coordination of chromosomal replication with the cell cycle (also in response to environmental signals). We focus on Escherichia coli, and then expand our discussion to include several other microorganisms in which additional regulatory proteins have been recently shown to be involved in coordinating replication initiation to other cellular processes (e.g., Bacillus, Caulobacter, Helicobacter, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces). We discuss diversity of bacterial oriC regions with the main focus on roles of individual DNA recognition sequences at oriC in binding the initiator and regulatory proteins as well as the overall impact of these proteins on the formation of initiation complex. PMID:25610430

  7. A profile of prognostic and molecular factors in European and Māori breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New Zealand Māori have a poorer outcome from breast cancer than non-Māori, yet prognostic data are sparse. The objective of this study was to quantify levels of prognostic factors in a cohort of self-declared Māori and European breast cancer patients from Christchurch, New Zealand. Methods and Results Clinicopathological and survival data from 337 consecutive breast cancer patients (27 Māori, 310 European) were evaluated. Fewer tumours were high grade in Māori women than European women (p = 0.027). No significant ethnic differences were detected for node status, tumour type, tumour size, human epidermal growth factor receptor, oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, or survival. In addition, tumour and serum samples from a sub-cohort of 14 Māori matched to 14 NZ European patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for molecular prognostic factors. Significant correlations were detected between increased grade and increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), microvessel density (MVD) and cytokeratins CK5/6 (p < 0.05). High nodal status correlated with reduced carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX). Negative ER/PR status correlated with increased GLUT-1, CA-IX and MVD. Within the molecular factors, increased HIF-1α correlated with raised GLUT-1, MVD and CK5/6, and CK5/6 with GLUT-1 and MVD (p < 0.05). The small number of patients in this sub-cohort limited discrimination of ethnic differences. Conclusions In this Christchurch cohort of breast cancer patients, Māori women were no more likely than European women to have pathological or molecular factors predictive of poor prognosis. These data contrast with data from the North Island NZ, and suggest potential regional differences. PMID:20932344

  8. Design of non-isomorphic symmetric descendants of the Miura-ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareh, Pooya; Guest, Simon D.

    2015-08-01

    The Miura fold pattern, or the Miura-ori, is a flat-foldable origami pattern with various applications in engineering and architecture. In addition to free-form variations, scholars have proposed a number of symmetric derivatives for this classic fold pattern over recent years. In a previous work, the authors of this paper studied isomorphic variations on the Miura-ori which led to the development of an ‘isomorphic family’ for this fold pattern. In this paper, we study non-isomorphic variations on the Miura-ori in order to develop a ‘non-isomorphic family’ for this pattern. Again we start with the Miura-ori, but reduce the symmetry by migrating from the original symmetry group to its subgroups, which may also include the enlargement of its unit cell. We systematically design and classify the non-isomorphic symmetric descendants of the Miura-ori which are either globally planar, or globally curved, flat-foldable tessellations.

  9. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  10. IHF redistributes bound initiator protein, DnaA, on supercoiled oriC of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Grimwade, J E; Ryan, V T; Leonard, A C

    2000-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, initiation of chromosome replication requires that DnaA binds to R boxes (9-mer repeats) in oriC, the unique chromosomal replication origin. At the time of initiation, integration host factor (IHF) also binds to a specific site in oriC. IHF stimulates open complex formation by DnaA on supercoiled oriC in cell-free replication systems, but it is unclear whether this stimulation involves specific changes in the oriC nucleoprotein complex. Using dimethylsulphate (DMS) footprinting on supercoiled oriC plasmids, we observed that IHF redistributed prebound DnaA, stimulating binding to sites R2, R3 and R5(M), as well as to three previously unidentified non-R sites with consensus sequence (A/T)G(G/C) (A/T)N(G/C)G(A/T)(A/T)(T/C)A. Redistribution was dependent on IHF binding to its cognate site and also required a functional R4 box. By reducing the DnaA level required to separate DNA strands and trigger initiation of DNA replication at each origin, IHF eliminates competition between strong and weak sites for free DnaA and enhances the precision of initiation synchrony during the cell cycle. PMID:10692160

  11. Photometric activity of UX Ori stars and related objects in the near infrared and visual. BF Ori, CQ Tau, WW Vul, and SV Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Grinin, V. P.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaja, A. N.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed the activity of four UX Ori stars in the near-IR ( JHKL) and visual ( V) using the results of long-term photometric observations. For comparison, we also obtained IR ( JHKLM) photometric observations of two visually quiet young stars of close spectral types (AB Aur and HD 190073). For the photometrically most active UX Ori stars BF Ori, CQ Tau, and WW Vul, the Algol-like declines of brightness in the visual, which are due to sporadic enhancements of the circumstellar extinction, are also observed (with decreasing amplitude) in the IR bands. A strict correlation between the V and J brightness variations is observed for all the stars except for SV Cep. For some of the UX Ori stars, a strong correlation between the visual and IR activity is observed up to L, where the main contribution to the emission is made by circumstellar dust. In the case of SV Cep, the visual variability is not correlated with the variability of the IR fluxes. On one occasion, a clear anti-correlation was even observed: a shallow, but prolonged decrease of the visual brightness was accompanied by an increase in the IR fluxes. This indicates that circumstellar clouds themselves can become powerful sources of IR emission. Our results provide evidence that the photometric activity of UX Ori stars is a consequence of instability of the deepest layers of their gas-dust accretion disks. In some cases (SV Cep), fluctuations of the density in this region are global, in the sense that they occur along a significant part of the circle marking the inner boundary of the dust disk. It is interesting that AB Aur, which is the quietest in the visual, appeared to be the most active in the IR. In contrast to UX Ori stars, the amplitude of its brightness variations increases from the J to the M band. It follows from analysis of the IR colors of this star that their variability cannot be described by models in which the variable IR emission has a temperature close to the sublimation temperature of

  12. Mechanistic analysis of local ori melting and helicase assembly by the papillomavirus E1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Stephen; Stenlund, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Summary Preparation of DNA templates for replication requires opening of the duplex to expose single stranded (ss) DNA. The locally melted DNA is required for replicative DNA helicases to initiate unwinding. How local melting is generated in eukaryotic replicons is unknown, but initiator proteins from a handful of eukaryotic viruses can perform this function. Here we dissect the local melting process carried out by the papillomavirus E1 protein. We characterize the melting process kinetically and identify mutations in the E1 helicase and in the ori that arrest the local melting process. We show that a subset of these mutants have specific defects for melting of the center of the ori containing the binding sites for E1 and demonstrate that these mutants fail to untwist the ori DNA. This newfound understanding of how E1 generates local melting suggests possible mechanisms for local melting in other replicons. PMID:21884978

  13. Pounamu: E Hine: access to contraception for indigenous Mãori teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Beverley; Makowharemahihi, Charrissa; Cram, Fiona; Robson, Bridget; Ngata, Tina

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Timely and equitable access to contraception enables teenage mothers to make informed choices about their sexual and reproductive health. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to contraception for Māori teenagers who become mothers. METHODS 'E Hine' is a longitudinal qualitative Kaupapa Māori (by Māori for Māori) study involving Māori women (aged 14-19 years), following them through pregnancy (n = 44) and the birth of their babies until their babies' first birthdays (n = 41). This analysis focusses on contraception access pre-and post-pregnancy. FINDINGS Pre-pregnancy most participants accessed contraception or advice. Contraception use was compromised by a lack of information, negative side effects, and limited follow up. All reported their subsequent pregnancies as unplanned. Participants gave considerable thought to post-pregnancy contraception. Despite this many experienced clinical and service delays, financial barriers, and negative contraceptive side effects. There was little focus on contraception initiation and a lack of integrated care between midwives and other primary care services, leaving many participants without timely effective contraception. The system worked well when there was a contraception plan that included navigation, free access, and provision of contraception. CONCLUSION The majority of participants actively sought contraception pre- and post-conception. Despite a publicly funded system, a lack of health sector integration resulted in multiple missed opportunities to meet the needs of these teenagers for effective contraception. Health service funding formulas should define the goal as initiation of contraception rather than advice and provide funding to improve timely access to long acting reversible contraception. KEYWORDS Indigenous teenage pregnancy; contraception; barriers to contraception; Māori mothers. PMID:27477375

  14. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes. PMID:21845732

  15. Looking Māori Predicts Decreased Rates of Home Ownership: Institutional Racism in Housing Based on Perceived Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand’s home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori. PMID:25738961

  16. 78 FR 49507 - OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of OriGen Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  17. Looking Māori predicts decreased rates of home ownership: institutional racism in housing based on perceived appearance.

    PubMed

    Houkamau, Carla A; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand's home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori. PMID:25738961

  18. Photometric activity of UX orionis stars and related objects in the near infrared and optical: CO Ori, RR Tau, UX Ori, and VV Ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaya, A. N.; Grinin, V. P.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.; Belan, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper continues a study of the photometric activity of UX Ori stars in the optical and near-infrared ( JHKLM bands) initiated in 2000. For comparison, the list of program stars contains two Herbig Ae stars that are photometrically quiet in the optical: MWC480 andHD179218. Fadings ofUXOri stars in the optical ( V band) due to sporadic increases of the circumstellar extinction are also observed in the infrared (IR), but with decreasing amplitude. Two stars, RR Tau and UX Ori, displayed photometric events when V -band fadings were accompanied by an increase in IR fluxes. Among the two Herbig Ae stars that are photometrically quiet in the optical, MWC 480 proved to be fairly active in the IR. Unlike the UX Ori stars, the variation amplitude of MWC 480 increases from the J band to the M band. In the course of the observations, no deep fadings in the IR bands were detected. This indicates that eclipses of the program stars have a local nature, and are due to extinction variations in the innermost regions of the circumstellar disks. The results presented testify to an important role of the alignment of the circumstellar disks relative to the direction towards the observer in determining the observed IR variability of young stars.

  19. Cloning and characterization of oriL2, a large palindromic DNA replication origin of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Lockshon, D; Galloway, D A

    1986-01-01

    An origin of replication within the long unique sequence of herpes simplex virus type 2 designated oriL2 has been identified in a position homologous to its type 1 counterpart, oriL1, between map coordinates 0.398 and 0.413. The difficulties encountered in previous attempts to clone both oriL2 and oriL1 in an undeleted form were surmounted by minimizing the growth of the host Escherichia coli, using a recBC sbcB E. coli host, and purifying the full-length plasmid from delected forms by using a novel method which exploits the ability of a palindrome-containing plasmid to adopt a cruciform conformation, thereby decreasing its supercoiling. In a previously developed assay for functional origin activity, oriL2 was localized to a 241-base-pair ApaI-SstII fragment. DNA sequence analysis revealed a 136-base pair, almost perfect palindrome. Comparison with oriL1 showed a very high degree of conservation: the two origins differ in only 16 of the 144-base-pair oriL1 palindromic region. Most significantly, the differences between oriL1 and oriL2 mainly occur in pairs so as to generally preserve the potential for intrastrand base pairing. The central region of oriL2 is homologous with the shorter palindromic structures detected in origins located within the repetitive sequences of the short component of herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2. Images PMID:3009865

  20. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  1. An improved method for oriT-directed cloning and functionalization of large bacterial genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Kvitko, Brian H; McMillan, Ian A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2013-08-01

    We have made significant improvements to a broad-host-range system for the cloning and manipulation of large bacterial genomic regions based on site-specific recombination between directly repeated oriT sites during conjugation. Using two suicide capture vectors carrying flanking homology regions, oriT sites are recombined on either side of the target region. Using a broad-host-range conjugation helper plasmid, the region between the oriT sites is conjugated into an Escherichia coli recipient strain, where it is circularized and maintained as a chimeric mini-F vector. The cloned target region is functionalized in multiple ways to accommodate downstream manipulation. The target region is flanked with Gateway attB sites for recombination into other vectors and by rare 18-bp I-SceI restriction sites for subcloning. The Tn7-functionalized target can also be inserted at a naturally occurring chromosomal attTn7 site(s) or maintained as a broad-host-range plasmid for complementation or heterologous expression studies. We have used the oriTn7 capture technique to clone and complement Burkholderia pseudomallei genomic regions up to 140 kb in size and have created isogenic Burkholderia strains with various combinations of genomic islands. We believe this system will greatly aid the cloning and genetic analysis of genomic islands, biosynthetic gene clusters, and large open reading frames. PMID:23747708

  2. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions...

  3. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  4. Swift and SMARTS observations of the 2015 outburst of V1118 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, Marc; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Kastner, Joel; Grosso, Nicolas; Walter, Frederick M.

    2016-01-01

    Swift observed V1118 Ori on 2015 Dec 11-12 (5.17 ksec, obs ID 00034203001) and on Dec 16 (2.45ks, obs ID 00034203002) during the latest mass accretion outburst reported by Lorenzetti et al. (ATel #8100).

  5. An Improved Method for oriT-Directed Cloning and Functionalization of Large Bacterial Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kvitko, Brian H.; McMillan, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    We have made significant improvements to a broad-host-range system for the cloning and manipulation of large bacterial genomic regions based on site-specific recombination between directly repeated oriT sites during conjugation. Using two suicide capture vectors carrying flanking homology regions, oriT sites are recombined on either side of the target region. Using a broad-host-range conjugation helper plasmid, the region between the oriT sites is conjugated into an Escherichia coli recipient strain, where it is circularized and maintained as a chimeric mini-F vector. The cloned target region is functionalized in multiple ways to accommodate downstream manipulation. The target region is flanked with Gateway attB sites for recombination into other vectors and by rare 18-bp I-SceI restriction sites for subcloning. The Tn7-functionalized target can also be inserted at a naturally occurring chromosomal attTn7 site(s) or maintained as a broad-host-range plasmid for complementation or heterologous expression studies. We have used the oriTn7 capture technique to clone and complement Burkholderia pseudomallei genomic regions up to 140 kb in size and have created isogenic Burkholderia strains with various combinations of genomic islands. We believe this system will greatly aid the cloning and genetic analysis of genomic islands, biosynthetic gene clusters, and large open reading frames. PMID:23747708

  6. Comparative microanatomy of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans: evolutionary divergence of lip function

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Carolyn R; Mooney, Mark P; Smith, Timothy D; Weinberg, Seth M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Docherty, Beth A; Bonar, Christopher J; Reinholt, Lauren E; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B; Siegel, Michael I; Marazita, Mary L; Burrows, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    The orbicularis oris muscle plays a role in the production of primate facial expressions and vocalizations, nutrient intake, and in some non-human primates it is used as a prehensile, manipulative tool. As the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the closest living relative of humans, a comparison of the orbicularis oris muscle between these species may increase our understanding of the morphological specializations related to the differing functional demands of their lips and the factors responsible for their divergent evolution. To this end, this study compares the microanatomy of the mid-line upper fibers of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans. A mid-line portion of the orbicularis oris muscle was harvested from the upper lips of three chimpanzee and five human cadavers. The sampled blocks included the area between the lateral borders of the nasal alar cartilages in both species. Each sample was processed for paraffin histology, sectioned and stained with a variety of protocols. Sections were examined for fiber direction and relative thickness of muscle layers. Ratios of cross-sectional connective tissue area vs. cross-sectional muscle tissue area, muscle fiber diameter and relative dermal thickness were calculated for each species. In both species, a clear pars marginalis layer was recognized, contrary to previous reports that only humans possess this layer. In chimpanzees, the relative fiber diameter and relative amount of muscle tissue (i.e. based on ratio of connective tissue area : muscle tissue area) were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in humans. In contrast, measurements of relative dermal thickness showed that humans have a greater average dermal thickness of the upper lip than chimpanzees. Taken together, these results suggest that both human and chimpanzee orbicularis oris muscle upper fibers meet the specific functional demands associated with their divergent vocal and facial display repertoires, the development of human

  7. Confidence and connectedness: Indigenous Māori women's views on personal safety in the context of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Jackson, Debra; Herd, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    ori (New Zealand) women, similar to women belonging to Indigenous and minority groups globally, have high levels of lifetime abuse, assault, and homicide, and are over-represented in events that compromise their safety. We sought insights into how Māori women view safety. Twenty Māori women's narratives revealed safety as a holistic concept involving a number of different elements. We found women had developed an acute sense of the concept of safety. They had firm views and clear strategies to maintain their own safety and that of their female family and friends. These women also provided insights into their experiences of feeling unsafe. PMID:26491900

  8. Barriers to best outcomes in breastfeeding for Māori: mothers' perceptions, whānau perceptions, and services.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Waldon, John; Manaena-Biddle, Harangi; Holdaway, Maureen; Cunningham, Chris

    2009-08-01

    This research explores the perceptions of New Zealand Māori women and their whānau (customary Māori extended family) toward barriers to achieving best outcomes in infant feeding: exclusively breastfed infants at 6 months. Interviews are undertaken with 59 Māori women who have given birth in the previous 3 years and 27 whānau members. Although mothers and whānau members feel positively toward breastfeeding and generally expect to breastfeed exclusively, these expectations are unmet in many cases because of lack of support when establishing breastfeeding; lack of support when life circumstances change; lack of timely, culturally relevant, and comprehensible information; confusion about smoking while breastfeeding; uncertainty about the safety of bed-sharing, and perceived lack of acceptability of breastfeeding in public. The relatively high rates of tobacco use by Māori create a tension for breastfeeding mothers, cited by some as a reason for ending breastfeeding prematurely. PMID:19286841

  9. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  10. MOST OBSERVATIONS OF {sigma} Ori E: CHALLENGING THE CENTRIFUGAL BREAKOUT NARRATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Rivinius, Th.; Rowe, J. F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Kuschnig, R.; Bohlender, D.; Neiner, C.; Telting, J. H.; Guenther, D. B.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2013-05-20

    We present results from three weeks' photometric monitoring of the magnetic helium-strong star {sigma} Ori E using the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars microsatellite. The star's light curve is dominated by twice-per-rotation eclipse-like dimmings arising when magnetospheric clouds transit across and occult the stellar disk. However, no evidence is found for any abrupt centrifugal breakout of plasma from the magnetosphere, either in the residual flux or in the depths of the light minima. Motivated by this finding we compare the observationally inferred magnetospheric mass against that predicted by a breakout analysis. The large discrepancy between the values leads us to argue that centrifugal breakout does not play a significant role in establishing the magnetospheric mass budget of {sigma} Ori E.

  11. Magnetic Braking of the Main Component of θ^{1} Ori C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, Yu. Yu.; Leushin, V. V.; Weigelt, G.

    θ^{1} Ori C is the nearest massive O star at the early phase of the evolution. Interferometric study of the star at the 6-m BTA telescope showed that it is a binary system with an orbital period of 11 yr (Weigelt et al., 1999). It was also found that θ^{1} Ori C is an oblique magnetic rotator (Donati et al., 2002; Wade et al., 2006). From high resolution spectra of the binary collected with the 6-m telescope we succeeded to separate week lines of the secondary component and to measure its rotation velocity. It was found that the secondary rotates three times faster than the primary. We discuss the possibility of magnetic braking of the primary star as the mechanism explaining the difference of rotation.

  12. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures. PMID:24703815

  13. Chromospheric and transition region structure of the Herbig emission stars HR 5999 and BN Ori

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.; Tjinadjie, H. R. E.; The, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    The IUE spectra of HR 5999 and BN Ori were analyzed, showing strong emission lines of C II, C IV, O I, and Si IV (also Mg II in HR 5999), indicating the presence of chromospheres and transition regions around these high mass premain sequence (PMS) stars. Infrared, optical, and ultraviolet observations show that BN Ori has a spectral type of FO-2 IIIe, a bolometric luminosity of 36 L, age 1.5 million yr, and mass 2 to 2.5 solar mass. As HR 5999 fades, the ratio of total to selective absorption increases indicating the appearance of larger grains or changes in grain alignment. Emission measure distributions are used to investigate the atmospheric structure of the stars. As HR 5999 fades the emission measure distribution rises systematically and the inferred transition region pressures increase. The transition region and chromospheric radiative losses are large and imply input mechanical energy fluxes similar to those of lower mass PMS stars.

  14. Neoliberalism and indigenous knowledge: Māori health research and the cultural politics of New Zealand's "National Science Challenges".

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica; Newbury, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-13 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) in New Zealand rapidly implemented a major restructuring of national scientific research funding. The "National Science Challenges" (NSC) initiative aims to promote greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, reflecting ongoing neoliberal reforms in New Zealand. Using the example of health research, we examine the NSC as a key moment in ongoing indigenous Māori advocacy against neoliberalization. NSC rhetoric and practice through 2013 moved to marginalize participation by Māori researchers, in part through constructing "Māori" and "science" as essentially separate arenas-yet at the same time appeared to recognize and value culturally distinctive forms of Māori knowledge. To contest this "neoliberal multiculturalism," Māori health researchers reasserted the validity of culturally distinctive knowledge, strategically appropriated NSC rhetoric, and marshalled political resources to protect Māori research infrastructure. By foregrounding scientific knowledge production as an arena of contestation over neoliberal values and priorities, and attending closely to how neoliberalizing tactics can include moves to acknowledge cultural diversity, this analysis poses new questions for social scientific study of global trends toward reconfiguring the production of knowledge about health. Study findings are drawn from textual analysis of MBIE documents about the NSC from 2012 to 2014, materials circulated by Māori researchers in the blogosphere in 2014, and ethnographic interviews conducted in 2013 with 17 Māori health researchers working at 7 sites that included university-based research centers, government agencies, and independent consultancies. PMID:26735331

  15. Regulation of Epstein-Barr virus OriP replication by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Italo; Deng, Zhong; Atanasiu, Constandache; Chen, Chi-Ju; D'Erme, Maria; Lieberman, Paul M

    2010-05-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an abundant, chromatin-associated, NAD-dependent enzyme that functions in multiple chromosomal processes, including DNA replication and chromatin remodeling. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) origin of plasmid replication (OriP) is a dynamic genetic element that confers stable episome maintenance, DNA replication initiation, and chromatin organization functions. OriP function depends on the EBV-encoded origin binding protein EBNA1. We have previously shown that EBNA1 is subject to negative regulation by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation). We now show that PARP1 physically associates with OriP in latently EBV-infected B cells. Short hairpin RNA depletion of PARP1 enhances OriP replication activity and increases EBNA1, origin recognition complex 2 (ORC2), and minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) association with OriP. Pharmacological inhibitors of PARP1 enhance OriP plasmid maintenance and increase EBNA1, ORC2, and MCM3 occupancy at OriP. PARylation in vitro inhibits ORC2 recruitment and remodels telomere repeat factor (TRF) binding at the dyad symmetry (DS) element of OriP. Purified PARP1 can ribosylate EBNA1 at multiple sites throughout its amino terminus but not in the carboxy-terminal DNA binding domain. We also show that EBNA1 linking regions (LR1 and LR2) can bind directly to oligomers of PAR. We propose that PARP1-dependent PARylation of EBNA1 and adjacently bound TRF2 induces structural changes at the DS element that reduce EBNA1 DNA binding affinity and functional recruitment of ORC. PMID:20219917

  16. X-RAY PRODUCTION BY V1647 Ori DURING OPTICAL OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Teets, William K.; Weintraub, David A.; Grosso, Nicolas; Principe, David; Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Hamaguchi, Kenji

    2011-11-10

    The pre-main-sequence (PMS) star V1647 Ori has recently undergone two optical/near-infrared (OIR) outbursts that are associated with dramatic enhancements in the stellar accretion rate. Our intensive X-ray monitoring of this object affords the opportunity to investigate whether and how the intense X-ray emission is related to PMS accretion activity. Our analysis of all 14 Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of V1647 Ori demonstrates that variations in the X-ray luminosity of V1647 Ori are correlated with similar changes in the OIR brightness of this source during both (2003-2005 and 2008) eruptions, strongly supporting the hypothesis that accretion is the primary generation mechanism for the X-ray outbursts. Furthermore, the Chandra monitoring demonstrates that the X-ray spectral properties of the second eruption were strikingly similar to those of the 2003 eruption. We find that X-ray spectra obtained immediately following the second outburst-during which V1647 Ori exhibited high X-ray luminosities, high hardness ratios, and strong X-ray variability-are well modeled as a heavily absorbed (N{sub H} {approx} 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}), single-component plasma with characteristic temperatures (kT{sub X} {approx} 2-6 keV) that are consistently too high to be generated via accretion shocks but are in the range expected for plasma heated by magnetic reconnection events. We also find that the X-ray absorbing column has not changed significantly throughout the observing campaign. Since the OIR and X-ray changes are correlated, we hypothesize that these reconnection events either occur in the accretion stream connecting the circumstellar disk to the star or in accretion-enhanced protostellar coronal activity.

  17. Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Māori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help.

    PubMed

    van Esdonk, Tineke; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    ori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Māori community health workers ("Aunties") to determine their willingness and perceived ability to find pregnant Māori smokers early in pregnancy and to provide cessation support. Three meetings were held in three different regions in New Zealand. The aunties believed they could find pregnant women in first trimester who were still smoking by using their networks, the 'kumara-vine' (sweet potato vine), tohu (signs/omens), their instinct and by looking for women in the age range most likely to get pregnant. The aunties were willing to provide cessation and other support but they said they would do it in a "Māori way" which depended on formed relationships and recognised roles within families. The aunties' believed that their own past experiences with pregnancy and/or smoking would be advantageous when providing support. Aunties' knowledge about existing proven cessation methods and services and knowledge about how to register with a LMC ranged from knowing very little to having years of experience working in the field. They were all supportive of receiving up-to-date information on how best to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Aunties in communities believe that they could find pregnant women who smoke and they are willing to help deliver cessation support. Our ongoing research will test the effectiveness of such an approach. PMID:24214817

  18. VLA observations of rapid 6 cm flux variations in alpha Ori

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J. A.; Stencel, R. E.; Drake, S. A.; Simon, T.; Linsky, J. L.; Florkowski, D.

    1987-01-01

    The red supergiant star alpha Ori was monitored with the Very Large Array (VLA). Thirteen observations at 6 cm show stochastic variations, at the 30 to 40 percent level, with no long term trend. All data was clipped and tapered in AIPS to minimize differences between VLA arrays. The calibration source varied by less than 10 percent over the same interval. The VLA observations of alpha Ori were continued, as well as alpha Her and alpha Sco, at both 2 and 6 cm, to confirm this result and search for long term trends. The stochastic 6 cm flux behavior, with 30 to 40 percent changes on all timescales from the shortest interval of 10 days to the longest, seems at odds with the 400 day periodic variations in U-band photometry and Mg II UV fluxes reported by Dupree, et al. The observed 6 cm flux was 25 percent below the 6 cm flux reported earlier this decade. Several models for the outer atmosphere of alpha Ori place the 6 cm optical depth unity location at several stellar radii above the optical photosphere. The rapid, stochastic variations reported are difficult to reconcile with almost any global process, such as pulsation, Alfven waves or periastron passage.

  19. A Comparison of Pacific, Māori, and European Violent Youth Offenders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ioane, Julia; Lambie, Ian; Percival, Teuila

    2016-05-01

    Pacific Island and Māori youth are disproportionately overrepresented in Aotearoa/New Zealand in violent offending. To date, research has not examined Pacific Island violent youth offenders in comparison with other ethnic populations. This study compared Pacific Island violent youth offenders with Māori and European violent youth offenders to determine whether similarities or differences existed in their offending, social, and demographic characteristics. Findings showed that Pacific Island violent youth offenders, in comparison with Māori and European violent youth offenders, were more likely to have grown up in the lowest socioeconomic deprivation areas in New Zealand, were more likely to be older when they first started offending, and their first offence was more likely to be of a serious, violent nature. Family violence was present among all three ethnic groups highlighting the ongoing importance of intervention in this area. The findings of the current study are likely to have implications for government department policy makers, along with program providers and practitioners. Recommendations are made regarding clinical implications and future research on this population. PMID:25476711

  20. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading. PMID:24648644

  1. The Escherichia coli Fis protein prevents initiation of DNA replication from oriC in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Wold, S; Crooke, E; Skarstad, K

    1996-01-01

    Fis protein participates in the normal control of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli. However, the mechanism by which it executes its effect is largely unknown. We demonstrate an inhibitory influence of purified Fis protein on replication from oriC in vitro. Fis inhibits DNA synthesis equally well in replication systems either dependent upon or independent of RNA polymerase, even when the latter is stimulated by the presence of HU or IHF. The extent of inhibition by Fis is modulated by the concentrations of DnaA protein and RNA polymerase; the more limiting the amounts of these, the more severe the inhibition by Fis. Thus, the level of inhibition seems to depend on the ease with which the open complex can be formed. Fis-mediated inhibition of DNA replication does not depend on a functional primary Fis binding site between DnaA boxes R2 and R3 in oriC, as mutations that cause reduced binding of Fis to this site do not affect the degree of inhibition. The data presented suggest that Fis prevents formation of an initiation-proficient structure at oriC by forming an alternative, initiation-preventive complex. This indicates a negative role for Fis in the regulation of replication initiation. PMID:8836178

  2. A Practice Indexes for Improving Facial Movements of Brass Instrument Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Hirano, Takeshi; Noto, Kazufumi; Nishida, Shogo; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    Two experimental studies have been conducted in order to propose practice indexes for the improvement of the embouchure of French horn players, two experimental studies have been conducted. In both studies, the same task was performed by advanced and amateur French horn players. The first study investigated the activity, while performing the above-mentioned task, of the 5 facial muscles (levator labii superioris, zygomaticus major, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and risorius muscles) on the right side of the face by surface electromyography, and the facial movement on the left side of the face by attaching two markers above each muscle and using two high-speed cameras simultaneously. The results of the study showed that it is possible for the four markers around the lower lip to practice indexes. The second study evaluated whether the above-mentioned markers are appropriate as practice indexes using a 3-D tracking system and questionnaires. The results showed that both the advanced and the amateur players assessed that the markers were suitable as practice indexes for improving the embouchure. This set of approaches could be useful for selecting practice indexes and developing scientific practice methods not only for the French horn but also for other instruments and other fields.

  3. Assembly of Helicobacter pylori initiation complex is determined by sequence-specific and topology-sensitive DnaA-oriC interactions.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Rafał; Mielke, Thorsten; Jaworski, Paweł; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna

    2014-07-29

    In bacteria, chromosome replication is initiated by binding of the DnaA initiator protein to DnaA boxes located in the origin of chromosomal replication (oriC). This leads to DNA helix opening within the DNA-unwinding element. Helicobacter pylori oriC, the first bipartite origin identified in Gram-negative bacteria, contains two subregions, oriC1 and oriC2, flanking the dnaA gene. The DNA-unwinding element region is localized in the oriC2 subregion downstream of dnaA. Surprisingly, oriC2-DnaA interactions were shown to depend on DNA topology, which is unusual in bacteria but is similar to initiator-origin interactions observed in higher organisms. In this work, we identified three DnaA boxes in the oriC2 subregion, two of which were bound only as supercoiled DNA. We found that all three DnaA boxes play important roles in orisome assembly and subsequent DNA unwinding, but different functions can be assigned to individual boxes. This suggests that the H. pylori oriC may be functionally divided, similar to what was described recently for Escherichia coli oriC. On the basis of these results, we propose a model of initiation complex formation in H. pylori. PMID:24862285

  4. The Design and Relevance of a Computerized Gamified Depression Therapy Program for Indigenous Māori Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Stasiak, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a major health issue among Māori indigenous adolescents, yet there has been little investigation into the relevance or effectiveness of psychological treatments for them. Further, consumer views are critical for engagement and adherence to therapy. However, there is little research regarding indigenous communities’ opinions about psychological interventions for depression. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct semistructured interviews with Māori (indigenous New Zealand) young people (taitamariki) and their families to find out their opinions of a prototype computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) program called Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts (SPARX), a free online computer game intended to help young persons with mild to moderate depression, feeling down, stress or anxiety. The program will teach them how to resolve their issues on their own using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as psychotherapeutic approach. Methods There were seven focus groups on the subject of the design and cultural relevance of SPARX that were held, with a total of 26 participants (19 taitamarki, 7 parents/caregivers, all Māori). There were five of the groups that were with whānau (family groups) (n=14), one group was with Māori teenage mothers (n=4), and one group was with taitamariki (n=8). The general inductive approach was used to analyze focus group data. Results SPARX computerized therapy has good face validity and is seen as potentially effective and appealing for Māori people. Cultural relevance was viewed as being important for the engagement of Māori young people with SPARX. Whānau are important for young peoples’ well-being. Participants generated ideas for improving SPARX for Māori and for the inclusion of whānau in its delivery. Conclusions SPARX computerized therapy had good face validity for indigenous young people and families. In general, Māori participants were positive about the SPARX

  5. Ancient DNA recovers the origins of Māori feather cloaks.

    PubMed

    Hartnup, K; Huynen, L; Te Kanawa, R; Shepherd, L D; Millar, C D; Lambert, D M

    2011-10-01

    Feather cloaks ("kakahu"), particularly those adorned with kiwi feathers, are treasured items or "taonga" to the Māori people of "Aotearoa"/New Zealand. They are considered iconic expression of Māori culture. Despite their status, much of our knowledge of the materials used to construct cloaks, the provenance of cloaks, and the origins of cloak making itself, has been lost. We used ancient DNA methods to recover mitochondrial DNA sequences from 849 feather samples taken from 109 cloaks. We show that almost all (>99%) of the cloaks were constructed using feathers from North Island brown kiwi. Molecular sexing of nuclear DNA recovered from 92 feather cloak samples also revealed that the sex ratio of birds deviated from a ratio of 1:1 observed in reference populations. Additionally, we constructed a database of 185 mitochondrial control region DNA sequences of kiwi feathers comprising samples collected from 26 North Island locations together with data available from the literature. Genetic subdivision (G(ST)), nucleotide subdivision (N(ST)) and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variants (SAMOVA) analyses revealed high levels of genetic structuring in North Island brown kiwi. Together with sequence data from previously studied ancient and modern kiwi samples, we were able to determine the geographic provenance of 847 cloak feathers from 108 cloaks. A surprising proportion (15%) of cloaks were found to contain feathers from different geographic locations, providing evidence of kiwi trading among Māori tribes or organized hunting trips into other tribal areas. Our data also suggest that the east of the North Island of New Zealand was the most prolific of all kiwi cloak making areas, with over 50% of all cloaks analyzed originating from this region. Similar molecular approaches have the potential to discover a wealth of lost information from artifacts of endemic cultures worldwide. PMID:21558445

  6. HH 222: A GIANT HERBIG-HARO FLOW FROM THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM V380 ORI

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Bally, John; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam E-mail: caa@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu E-mail: stefan.kraus@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or ''the waterfall'' on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ∼1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  7. HH 222: A Giant Herbig-Haro Flow from the Quadruple System V380 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or "the waterfall" on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ~1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  8. Discovery of two distorted interstellar bubbles. [found about T Orionis variable LL Ori and Zeta Oph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Sofia, S.

    1979-01-01

    During an extensive program of direct imagery of emission nebulae, arcuate structures have been found around two stars. A well-defined shocklike structure is found about the T Orionis variable LL Ori, located to the side of the Orion Nebula. A less extensive shocklike structure is also found about the runaway star Zeta Oph. These structures can be best described in terms of distorted interstellar bubbles. A direct consequence of this interpretation is an independent estimate of the rates of mass loss for these stars.

  9. Innovative dual impression technique for patients with atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, G; Agarwal, Swatantra; Nirmala, B. G; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris is an oral fibrosing disease resulting in marked rigidity and an eventual inability to open the mouth or had limited mouth opening. Patients with limited mouth opening are a common occurrence in prosthodontic practice. The majority of these patients can be treated with exercise and stretching movements before impressions are made. Some will not respond to these procedures because of facial scarring and surgical manipulation of the facial muscles. This article presents an impression procedure for overcoming difficulties encountered in such reduced mouth opening patients that can be assembled intraorally, disassembled intraorally, and reassembled extraorally. PMID:26929494

  10. Redesigning the architecture of policy-making: Engaging with Māori on nanotechnology in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Debashish; Kurian, Priya A; Morrison, Talei; Morrison, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on public engagement on the use of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, there is little evidence of the participation of marginalised indigenous communities in processes of such engagement. How do particular cultural values and worldviews shape the perceptions of new technologies among such indigenous peoples? This article addresses this question through an analysis of the deliberations of an indigenous Māori citizens' panel on nanotechnology in Aotearoa New Zealand. An active process of public engagement with the nation's Māori stakeholders, and their conversations with nanotechnology experts, sustainability activists and Māori researchers, helps map an alternative, culture-based architecture of public engagement on policies around new technologies. The analysis is grounded in a concept of active citizenship that we term 'sustainable citizenship'. PMID:25193966

  11. Couples Work in Cultural Context: Te Ao Māori and Poststucturalist Practices Informing Counselor Training in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Connor, Helene; Gremillion, Helen; Meima, Yolanda

    2016-06-01

    This article outlines key themes that appear in the teaching of poststructuralist ideas and practices for couples counseling within the Postgraduate Diploma in Counseling Program at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand, and it explores the congruence of this pedagogical approach with Māori (indigenous) understandings of relationality, collaboration, and partnership. The diploma program's curriculum includes narrative therapy and relational language-making. Themes explored in this article include: understanding (heterosexual) couple relationships as contextualized entities, deconstructing dominant discourses of coupledom, and the positioning of counselors/teachers as nonexpert. Taking each theme in turn, the authors, one of them Māori and two Pākehā (European), articulate points of alignment with Māori cultural concepts and practices. PMID:26950763

  12. Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: Māori oral traditions and natural hazards science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of Mātauranga Māori [Māori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map Māori oral traditions (pūrākau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering pūrākau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional Māori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which Mātauranga Taiao [Māori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with Māori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

  13. Application of MLST and pilus gene sequence comparisons to investigate the population structures of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces oris.

    PubMed

    Henssge, Uta; Do, Thuy; Gilbert, Steven C; Cox, Steven; Clark, Douglas; Wickström, Claes; Ligtenberg, A J M; Radford, David R; Beighton, David

    2011-01-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces oris are members of the oral biofilm. Their identification using 16S rRNA sequencing is problematic and better achieved by comparison of metG partial sequences. A. oris is more abundant and more frequently isolated than A. naeslundii. We used a multi-locus sequence typing approach to investigate the genotypic diversity of these species and assigned A. naeslundii (n = 37) and A. oris (n = 68) isolates to 32 and 68 sequence types (ST), respectively. Neighbor-joining and ClonalFrame dendrograms derived from the concatenated partial sequences of 7 house-keeping genes identified at least 4 significant subclusters within A. oris and 3 within A. naeslundii. The strain collection we had investigated was an under-representation of the total population since at least 3 STs composed of single strains may represent discrete clusters of strains not well represented in the collection. The integrity of these sub-clusters was supported by the sequence analysis of fimP and fimA, genes coding for the type 1 and 2 fimbriae, respectively. An A. naeslundii subcluster was identified with both fimA and fimP genes and these strains were able to bind to MUC7 and statherin while all other A. naeslundii strains possessed only fimA and did not bind to statherin. An A. oris subcluster harboured a fimA gene similar to that of Actinomyces odontolyticus but no detectable fimP failed to bind significantly to either MUC7 or statherin. These data are evidence of extensive genotypic and phenotypic diversity within the species A. oris and A. naeslundii but the status of the subclusters identified here will require genome comparisons before their phylogenic position can be unequivocally established. PMID:21738661

  14. Metallurgy of Miura-ori: lattice theory for inhomogeneous deformations of origami tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Silverberg, Jesse; McLeod, Lauren; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian

    2014-03-01

    In nature, as well as in art, one often encounters thin materials that have been deformed by their environment or their creator into complex folded states; examples include the folds of the endoplasmic reticulum, the villi in the intestinal tract, and tessellated patterns in the ancient Japanese art of origami. One (engineering) advantage of creating a folded structure is that the geometric constraints associated with creasing imbues the construction with exotic mechanical properties, such as generating a material with a negative Poisson's ratio. Materials exhibiting novel behavior of this type, arising from the special properties of the unit cell, are generally classified as metamaterials. In this talk I consider a mechanical metamaterial known as Miura-ori, an origami tessellation pattern that displays soft modes and crystallographic defects not accounted for by a purely geometric theory of an infinitely thin material. I will discuss a method for deriving how inhomogeneous deformations arise from bending within Miura-ori, and show that this leads to a natural coherence length over which the inhomogeneity decays. Additionally, I will show how the modular nature of origami unit cells lends additional richness to the mechanical properties associated with deformation.

  15. Lethality of Sortase Depletion in Actinomyces oris Caused by Excessive Membrane Accumulation of a Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harboring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalyzed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

  16. Pathogenicity of exopolysaccharide-producing Actinomyces oris isolated from an apical abscess lesion

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, K; Nambu, T; Yamanaka, T; Ishihara, K; Tatami, T; Mashimo, C; Walker, C B; Leung, K-P; Fukushima, H

    2013-01-01

    Aim To demonstrate a capacity for producing exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and an ability to form biofilm on abiotic materials of Actinomyces oris strain K20. Methodology The productivity of EPSs and the ability to form biofilm of strain K20 were evaluated by measuring viscosity of spent culture media and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the biofilm assay on microtitre plates, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the chemical composition of the viscous materials. To examine the role of the viscous materials attributable to the pathogenicity in this organism, the ability of strain K20 to induce abscess formation was compared in mice to that of ATCC 27044. Results The viscosity of the spent culture media of K20 was significantly higher than that of ATCC 27044. Strain K20 showed dense meshwork structures around the cells and formed biofilms on microtitre plates, whereas ATCC 27044 did not. Chemical analysis of the viscous materials revealed that they were mainly composed of neutral sugars with mannose constituting 77.5% of the polysaccharides. Strain K20 induced persistent abscesses in mice lasting at least 5 days at a concentration of 108 cells mL−1, whereas abscesses induced by ATCC 27044 healed and disappeared or decreased in size at day 5. Conclusions Strain K20 produced EPSs, mainly consisting of mannose, and formed biofilms. This phenotype might play an important role for A. oris to express virulence through the progression of apical periodontitis. PMID:22900599

  17. A qualitative analysis of Māori and Pacific smokers' views on informed choice and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Heather; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Erick, Stephanie; Hoek, Janet; Gray, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco companies frame smoking as an informed choice, a strategy that holds individuals responsible for harms they incur. Few studies have tested this argument, and even fewer have examined how informed indigenous smokers or those from minority ethnicities are when they start smoking. We explored how young adult Māori and Pacific smokers interpreted ‘informed choice’ in relation to smoking. Participants Using recruitment via advertising, existing networks and word of mouth, we recruited and undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 Māori and Pacific young adults aged 18–26 years who smoked. Analyses Data were analysed using an informed-choice framework developed by Chapman and Liberman. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes that extended this framework. Results Few participants considered themselves well informed and none met more than the framework's initial two criteria. Most reflected on their unthinking uptake and subsequent addiction, and identified environmental factors that had facilitated uptake. Nonetheless, despite this context, most agreed that they had made an informed choice to smoke. Conclusions The discrepancy between participants' reported knowledge and understanding of smoking's risks, and their assessment of smoking as an informed choice, reflects their view of smoking as a symbol of adulthood. Policies that make tobacco more difficult to use in social settings could help change social norms around smoking and the ease with which initiation and addiction currently occur. PMID:27188813

  18. DETAILED X-RAY LINE PROPERTIES OF {theta}{sup 2} Ori A IN QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mitschang, Arik W.; Nichols, Joy S.; Testa, Paola; Schulz, Norbert S.; Huenemoerder, David P.

    2011-06-10

    We investigate X-ray emission properties of the peculiar X-ray source {theta}{sup 2} Ori A in the Orion Trapezium region using more than 500 ks of HETGS spectral data in the quiescent state. The amount of exposure provides tight constraints on several important diagnostics involving O, Ne, Mg, and Si line flux ratios from He-like ion triplets, resonance line ratios of the H- and He-like lines, and line widths. Accounting for the influence of the strong UV radiation field of the O9.5V star, we can now place the He-like line origin well within two stellar radii of the O-star's surface. The lines are resolved with average line widths of 341 {+-} 38 km s{sup -1}. In the framework of standard wind models, this likely implies a rather weak wind with moderate post-shock velocities. The emission measure distribution of the X-ray spectrum, as reported previously, includes very high temperature components which are not easily explained in this framework. The X-ray properties are also not consistent with coronal emissions from an unseen low-mass companion nor with typical signatures from colliding wind interactions. The properties are more consistent with X-ray signatures observed in the massive Trapezium star {theta}{sup 1} Ori C which has recently been successfully modeled with a magnetically confined wind model.

  19. An indigenous approach to explore health-related experiences among Māori parents: the Pukapuka Hauora asthma study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma for Indigenous New Zealand Māori is amongst the highest in the world. Recent evidence shows ethnic differences in asthma symptom prevalence in New Zealand have widened, with asthma symptoms and hospitalisation rates consistently higher for Māori across all age-groups, especially children and adolescents. This paper: outlines our qualitative, longitudinal research exploring the practical issues Māori children and their families face trying to achieve optimum asthma outcomes; details the research methods used within this study; and discusses the process evaluation findings of the features that made this approach successful in engaging and retaining participants in the study. Methods Thirty-two Māori families were recruited using a Kaupapa Māori (Māori way) Research approach. Each participated in a series of four in-depth interviews that were carried out at seasonal intervals over the course of one year. Families also took part in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and participated in a Photovoice exercise. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers. The research team then conducted the analysis and theme development. The questionnaires were analysed separately, with explanations for findings explored within the qualitative data. Results The methodology produced a 100 percent retention rate of the participating families over the course of the follow-up. This was attributed to the research collaboration, the respectful research relationships established with families, and the families’ judgement that the methods used enabled them to tell their stories. The acceptability of the methodology will add to the validity and trustworthiness of the findings. Conclusion Given the extent and persistence of ethnic disparities in childhood asthma management, it is imperative that an indigenous approach be taken to understanding the core issues facing Māori families. By

  20. Minicircle-oriP-IFNγ: A Novel Targeted Gene Therapeutic System for EBV Positive Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zumin; Yang, Shiping; Yan, Haijiao; Tan, Li; Meng, Xiangqi; Ying, Xiaofang; Liu, Ranyi; Kang, Tiebang; Huang, Wenlin

    2011-01-01

    Background Nonviral vectors are attractively used for gene therapy owing to their distinctive advantages. Our previous study has demonstrated that transfer of human IFNγ gene into nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by using a novel nonviral vector, minicircle (mc), under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter was effective to inhibit tumor growth. However, therapies based on CMV promoter cannot express the targeted genes in cancer tissues. Previous studies indicated that the development of human NPC was closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and demonstrated the transcriptional enhancer function of oriP when bound by EBV protein. Therefore, the present study is to explore the targeted gene expression and the anti-tumor effect of a novel tumor-specific gene therapeutic system (mc-oriP-IFNγ) in which the transgene expression was under the transcriptional regulation of oriP promoter. Methodology/Principal Findings Dual-luciferase reporter assay and ELISA were used to assess the expression of luciferase and IFNγ. WST assay was used to assess the cell proliferation. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA level of EBNA1. RNAi was used to knockdown the expression of EBNA1. NPC xenograft models in nude mice were used to investigate the targeted antitumor efficacy of mc-oriP-IFNγ. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression and the activity of the IFNγ in tumor sections. Our results demonstrated that mc-oriP vectors mediated comparable gene expression and anti-proliferative effect in the EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 compared to mc-CMV vectors. Furthermore, mc-oriP vectors exhibited much lower killing effects on EBV-negative cell lines compared to mc-CMV vectors. The targeted expression of mc-oriP vectors was inhibited by EBNA1-siRNA in C666-1. This selective expression was corroborated in EBV-positive and -negative tumor models. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the feasibility of mc-oriP-IFNγ as a safe and highly effective

  1. The significance of socially-assigned ethnicity for self-identified Māori accessing and engaging with primary healthcare in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jennifer; Cormack, Donna; Crowe, Marie

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased focus in New Zealand on reducing health inequities between Māori and New Zealand European ethnic groups, research on barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access for Māori remains limited. In particular, there has been little interrogation of the significance of social-assignment of ethnicity for Māori in relation to engagement with predominantly non-Māori primary healthcare services and providers. A qualitative study was undertaken with a subsample (n = 40) of the broader Hauora Manawa Study to examine experiences of accessing and engaging with primary healthcare among adult urban Māori. Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews identified that participants perceived social-assignment as New Zealand European as an efficacious form of capital when interacting with predominantly non-Māori health professionals. Skin colour that was 'white' or was perceived to identify Māori as belonging to the 'dominant' New Zealand European ethnic group was reported as broadly advantageous and protective. In contrast, social-assignment as Māori was seen to be associated with risk of exposure to differential and discriminatory healthcare. Reducing the negative impacts of racialisation in a (neo)colonial society where 'White' cultural capital dominates requires increased recognition of the health-protective advantages of 'White' privilege and concomitant risks associated with socially-assigned categorisation of ethnicity as non-'White'. PMID:25645659

  2. V 1162 Ori: A multiperiodic delta Scuti star with variable period and amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arentoft, T.; Sterken, C.; Handler, G.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Bruch, A.; Niarchos, P.; Gazeas, K.; Manimanis, V.; Van Cauteren, P.; Poretti, E.; Dawson, D. W.; Liu, Z. L.; Zhou, A. Y.; Du, B. T.; Shobbrook, R. R.; Garrido, R.; Fried, R.; Akan, M. C.; Ibanoglu, C.; Evren, S.; Tas, G.; Johnson, D.; Blake, C.; Kurtz, D. W.

    2001-08-01

    We present the results of multisite observations of the delta Scuti star V 1162 Ori. The observations were done in the period October 1999-May 2000, when 18 telescopes at 15 observatories were used to collect 253 light extrema during a total of 290 hours of time-series observations. The purpose of the observations was to investigate amplitude and period variability previously observed in this star, and to search for low-amplitude frequencies. We detect, apart from the main frequency and its two first harmonics, four additional frequencies in the light curves, all with low amplitudes (1-3 mmag). Combining the present data set with data obtained in 1998-99 at ESO confirms the new frequencies and reveals the probable presence of yet another pulsational frequency. All five low-amplitude frequencies are statistically significant in the data, but at least one of them (f5) suffers from uncertainty due to aliasing. Using colour photometry we find evidence for a radial main frequency (f1), while most or all low-amplitude frequencies are likely non-radial. We show that the main frequency of V 1162 Ori has variable amplitude and period/phase, the latter is also displayed in the O-C diagram from light extrema. The amplitude variability in our data is cyclic with a period of 282 d and a range of nearly 20 mmag, but earlier amplitude values quoted in the literature cannot be explained by this cyclic variation. O-C analysis including data from the literature show that the period of V 1162 Ori displays a linear period change as well as sudden or cyclic variations on a time scale similar to that of the amplitude variations. Based on observations obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), Athens University and Kryonerion Observatories, European Southern Observatories (ESO: applications ESO 62H-0110, 64H-0065 and 64L-0182), Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (Brazil), Xinglong, Beersel Hills, Ege University, San Pedro Martir, Merate, Mt. Laguna, Siding Spring

  3. The Protective Influence of Family Connectedness, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Engagement for New Zealand Ma¯ori Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…

  4. Dust around young stars. Observations of the polarization of UX Ori in deep minima

    SciTech Connect

    Voshchinnikov, N.V.; Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.K.

    1988-09-01

    Photometric and polarimetric monitoring observations of UX Ori begun in 1986 in the Crimea and Bolivia have resulted in the observation of two deep minima of the brightness during which a growth of the linear polarization (to approx. =7%) was observed, together with a tendency for the circular polarization to increase (up to approx. =1%). Analysis of the observational data shows that the main source of the polarized radiation in the deep minima is the emission of the star scattered by grains of circumstellar dust. On the basis of Mie's theory for a polydisperse graphite-silicate mixtures of particles the optical properties of ellipsoidal dust envelopes have been calculated and a model of the Algol-like minimum constructed.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic properties of ω Ori (Neiner+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Petit, V.; Ud-Doula, A.; Wade, G. A.; Landstreet, J.; de Batz, B.; Cochard, F.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Huat, A.-L.

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution (R~68000) circular polarization (Stokes V) spectra of omega Ori were obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter, mounted on the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) in Hawaii, and the Narval spectropolarimeter, mounted on the 2-m Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France, as part of the commissioning ESPaDOnS runs (04BE80, 04BE37 and 04BD51), PI programmes (Neiner on Narval L062N05 and L072N08, and Landstreet on ESPaDOnS 07BC08) and of the MiMeS project (Wade on ESPaDOnS 08BP13). Six different epochs of spectropolarimetric data were obtained in 2004, 2007 January, 2007 November, 2008 January, 2008 October and 2009 January that resulted in 125 polarimetric observations. (1 data file).

  6. KIR Diversity in Māori and Polynesians: Populations in which HLA-B is not a Significant KIR Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Edinur, Hisham A.; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Traherne, James A.; Dunn, Paul P. J.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Parham, Peter; Norman, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    HLA class I molecules and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) form a diverse system of ligands and receptors that individualize human immune systems in ways that improve the survival of individuals and populations. Human settlement of Oceania by island-hopping East and Southeast Asian migrants started ~3,500 years ago. Subsequently, New Zealand was reached ~750 years ago by ancestral Māori. To examine how this history impacted KIR and HLA diversity, and their functional interaction, we defined at high resolution the allelic and haplotype diversity of the 13 expressed KIR genes in 49 Māori and 34 Polynesians. Eighty KIR variants, including four ‘new’ alleles, were defined; as were 35 centromeric and 22 telomeric KIR region haplotypes, which combine to give >50 full-length KIR haplotypes. Two new and divergent variant KIR form part of a telomeric KIR haplotype, which appears derived from Papua New Guinea and was probably obtained by the Asian migrants en route to Polynesia. Māori and Polynesian KIR are very similar, but differ significantly from African, European, Japanese and Amerindian KIR. Māori and Polynesians have high KIR haplotype diversity with corresponding allotype diversity being maintained throughout the KIR locus. Within the population each individual has a unique combination of HLA class I and KIR. Characterizing Māori and Polynesians is a paucity of HLA-B allotypes recognized by KIR. Compensating for this deficiency are high frequencies (>50%) of HLA-A allotypes recognized by KIR. These HLA-A allotypes are ones that modern humans likely acquired from archaic humans at a much earlier time. PMID:25139336

  7. Ethnic density and area deprivation: neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-07-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  8. The importance of accurate repair of the orbicularis oris muscle in the correction of unilateral cleft lip.

    PubMed

    Park, C G; Ha, B

    1995-09-01

    Most of the attempts and efforts in cleft lip repair have been directed toward the skin incision. The importance of the orbicularis oris muscle repair has been emphasized in recent years. The well-designed skin incision with simple repair of the orbicularis oris muscle has produced a considerable improvement in the appearance of the upper lip; however, the repaired upper lip seems to change its shape abnormally in motion and has a tendency to be distorted with age if the orbicularis oris muscle is not repaired precisely and accurately. Following the dissection of the normal upper lip and unilateral cleft lip in cadavers, we could find two different components in the orbicularis oris muscle, a superficial and a deep component. One is a retractor and the other is a constrictor of the lip. They have antagonistic actions to each other during lip movement. We also can identify these two different components of the muscle in the cleft lip patient during operation. We thought inaccurate and mixed connection between these two different functional components could make the repaired lip distorted and unbalanced, which would get worse during growth. By identification and separate repair of the two different muscular components of the orbicularis oris muscle (i.e., repair of the superficial and deep components on the lateral side with the corresponding components on the medial side), better results in the dynamic and three-dimensional configuration of the upper lip can be achieved, and unfavorable distortion can be avoided as the patients grow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7652051

  9. Research misconduct and its federal regulation: the origin and history of the Office of Research Integrity--with personal views by ORI's former associate director for investigative oversight.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Misconduct in science and research became the subject of significant public attention and Congressional scrutiny beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, which led to public statements, policies, and finally formal federal regulations being promulgated by Government agency officials. The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in the Department of Health and Human Services was a major and very visible component of this process. This article provides a detailed history of the first two decades of federal research misconduct regulations and of ORI's history (under extremely difficult and unfair challenges), including personal views by the former ORI chief investigator and associate director. PMID:24028479

  10. An investigation of the magnetic properties of the classical Be star ω Ori by the MiMeS Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Petit, V.; ud-Doula, A.; Wade, G. A.; Landstreet, J.; de Batz, B.; Cochard, F.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Huat, A.-L.

    2012-11-01

    One hundred and twenty-five new high-precision spectropolarimetric observations have been obtained with ESPaDOnS (Eschelle Spectro-Polarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Narval at Télescope Bernard Lyot to investigate the magnetic properties of the classical Be star ω Ori. No Stokes V signatures are detected in our polarimetric data. Measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field, with a median error bar of 30 G, and direct modelling of the mean least-squares deconvolved Stokes V profiles yield no evidence for a dipole magnetic field with polar surface strength greater than ˜80 G. We are therefore unable to confirm the presence of the magnetic field previously reported by Neiner et al. However, our spectroscopic data reveal the presence of periodic emission variability in H and He lines analogous to that reported by Neiner et al., considered as evidence of magnetically confined circumstellar plasma clouds. We revisit this hypothesis in light of the new magnetic analysis. Calculation of the magnetospheric Kepler radius RK and confinement parameter η* indicates that a surface dipole magnetic field with a polar strength larger than 63 G is sufficient to form of a centrifugally supported magnetosphere around ω Ori. Our data are not sufficiently sensitive to detect fields of this magnitude; we are therefore unable to confirm or falsify the magnetic cloud hypothesis. Based on our results, we examine three possible scenarios that could potentially explain the behaviour of ω Ori: (1) that no significant magnetic field is (or was) present in ω Ori, and that the observed phenomena have their origin in another mechanism or mechanisms than corotating clouds. We are, however, unable to identify one; (2) that ω Ori hosts an intermittent magnetic field produced by dynamo processes; however, no such process has been found so far to work in massive stars and especially to produce a dipolar field; and (3) that ω Ori

  11. DRAMATIC EVOLUTION OF THE DISK-SHAPED SECONDARY IN THE ORION TRAPEZIUM STAR {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 1} (BM Ori): MOST SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Windemuth, Diana; Herbst, William; Tingle, Evan; Fuechsl, Rachel; Kilgard, Roy; Pinette, Melanie; Templeton, Matthew; Henden, Arne

    2013-05-01

    The eclipsing binary {theta}{sup 1} Orionis B{sub 1}, variable star designation BM Ori, is the faintest of the four well-known Trapezium stars at the heart of the Orion Nebula. The primary is a B3 star ({approx}6 M{sub Sun }) but the nature of the secondary ({approx}2 M{sub Sun }) has long been mysterious, since the duration and shape of primary eclipse are inappropriate for any sort of ordinary star. Here we report nearly continuous photometric observations obtained with the MOST satellite over {approx}4 cycles of the 6.47 d binary period. The light curve is of unprecedented quality, revealing a deep, symmetric primary eclipse as well as a clear reflection effect and secondary eclipse. In addition, there are other small disturbances, some of which repeat at the same phase over the four cycles monitored. The shape of the primary light curve has clearly evolved significantly over the past 40 years. While its overall duration and depth have remained roughly constant, the slopes of the descent and ascent phases are significantly shallower now than in the past and its distinctive flat-bottomed ''pseudo-totality'' is much less obvious or even absent in the most recent data. We further demonstrate that the primary eclipse was detected at X-ray wavelengths during the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) study. The light curve continues to be well modeled by a self-luminous and reflective disk-shaped object seen nearly edge-on orbiting the B3 primary. The dramatic change in shape over four decades is modeled as an opacity variation in a tenuous outer envelope or disk of the secondary object. We presume that the secondary is an extremely young protostar at an earlier evolutionary phase than can be commonly observed elsewhere in the Galaxy and that the opacity variations observed are related to its digestion of some accreted matter over the last 50-100 years. Indeed, this object deserves continued observational and theoretical attention as the youngest known eclipsing

  12. Elevation of the Corner of the Mouth Using Botulinum Toxin Type A

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Indications for botulinum toxin type A have been constantly evolving, and it can currently be used in virtually any area of the face and neck. The authors present their experience with this neurotoxin in treating the platysmal bands and depressor anguli oris muscle with the purpose of cosmetically improving the anterior neck and lifting the oral commissure. PMID:21430826

  13. Interactions effectives, théories de champ moyen masses et rayons nucléaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.

    2003-05-01

    Effective interactions, mean field theories, masses and nuclear radii A review of effective interactions used in mean field theories for the description of properties of atomic nuclei is presented. Relativistic as well as non relativistic theories are discussed with a special attention to the cases where their results are very different. We will concentrate on the effective forces built up to investigate the nuclear medium in extreme conditions. Masses and r.m.s. radii along long chain of isotopes will be discussed. Large deformations, as observed in the fission of heavy nuclei, and exotic neutron rich nuclei will be taken as examples of these extreme conditions. Le principal propos de cet ouvrage est : (i) de passer en revue les outils théoriques utilisés sous le sigle ”théories microscopiques de champ moyen ”. Sans entrer dans le détail des formalismes (le lecteur sera systématiquement renvoyé ”pour en savoir plus ” à des cours plus complets qui ont déjà été donnés dans le passé à l'École Joliot-Curie) il s'agira surtout de préciser le contexte, les hypothèses et les approximations qui se cachent sous les sigles : Hartree-Fock (HF), Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB), Approximation BCS (HFBCS), Champ Moyen Relativiste (RMF), Approximations Hartree (RH), Hartree-Fock (RHF) et Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) Relativistes, ... ; (ii) de présenter la procédure générale et les ingrédients qui entrent dans la construction d'une interaction effective, élément de base de ces théories dont l'intérêt majeur est de livrer des résultats comparables à l'expérience sans paramètre ajustable ; (iii) de discuter des effets des différentes approximations ou interactions effectives sur des résultats expérimentaux pris dans diverses zones de noyaux. Ces discussions seront surtout centrées sur les masses et les rayons des noyaux mais aussi sur certaines quantités plus significatives que l'on peut en extraire : énergies de séparation de deux neutrons

  14. X-ray, UV and optical analysis of supergiants: ɛ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Raul E.; Hillier, D. John; Zsargó, Janos; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray to optical) analysis, based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric+wind models, of the B0 Ia-supergiant: ɛ Ori. The aim is to test the consistency of physical parameters, such as the mass-loss rate and CNO abundances, derived from different spectral bands. The derived mass-loss rate is {dot {M}} / {√{f_{∞}}} {˜} 1.6 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 where f∞ is the volume filling factor. However, the S IV λλ1062,1073 profiles are too strong in the models; to fit the observed profiles it is necessary to use f∞ <0.01. This value is a factor of 5 to 10 lower than inferred from other diagnostics, and implies {dot{M}} ≲ 1 × 10^{-7} M⊙ yr-1. The discrepancy could be related to porosity-vorosity effects or a problem with the ionization of sulphur in the wind. To fit the UV profiles of N V and O VI it was necessary to include emission from an interclump medium with a density contrast (ρcl/ρICM) of ˜100. X-ray emission in H/He like and Fe L lines was modelled using four plasma components located within the wind. We derive plasma temperatures from 1 × 106 to 7 × 106 K, with lower temperatures starting in the outer regions (R0 ˜ 3-6 R*), and a hot component starting closer to the star (R0 ≲ 2.9 R*). From X-ray line profiles we infer {dot{M}} < 4.9 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The X-ray spectrum (≥0.1 kev) yields an X-ray luminosity LX ˜ 2.0 × 10-7Lbol, consistent with the superion line profiles. X-ray abundances are in agreement with those derived from the UV and optical analysis: ɛ Ori is slightly enhanced in nitrogen and depleted in carbon and oxygen, evidence for CNO processed material.

  15. ori science education in Aotearoa New Zealand. He pūtea whakarawe: aspirations and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anaru; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This article reports on the first two phases of a multiphase science education development project in predominantly Māori kura (school communities) in the central region of the North Island of Aotearoa New Zealand. The development project in its entirety employs an action research methodology and by so doing endeavors to support the improvement of science education delivery in accordance with school community aspirations. The full project (a) establishes the current situation in Year 1-8 science education in the communities; (b) identifies developmental aspirations for stakeholders within the communities and identifies potential contributors and constraints to these aspirations; (c) implements mechanisms for achieving identified aspirations; and finally; (d) evaluates the effectiveness of such mechanisms. In its focus on the first two phases, this article incorporates the analytical lenses of Kaupapa Māori Theory and Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model. It concludes by outlining some priorities to consider for science education development based on the outcomes of our preliminary discussions.

  16. The FIS protein binds and bends the origin of chromosomal DNA replication, oriC, of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gille, H; Egan, J B; Roth, A; Messer, W

    1991-01-01

    The FIS protein (factor for inversion stimulation) is known to stimulate site-specific recombination processes, such as the inversion of the G segment of bacteriophage Mu, by binding to specific enhancer sequences. It has also been shown to activate transcription from rRNA promoters both in vitro and in vivo. We have identified a specific binding site for FIS in the center of the origin of chromosomal DNA replication, oriC. The DNA bends upon FIS binding. Occupation of the FIS site and binding of DnaA, the initiator protein, to its adjacent binding site (R3) are mutually exclusive. A fis mutant strain can not be efficiently transformed with plasmids which carry and replicate from oriC, suggesting that FIS is required for minichromosome replication. Images PMID:1870971

  17. ALMA Early Science Observations of Outbursting Stellar Systems:Disk Masses for FU Ori and EXor Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Hales, Antonio; Casassus, Simon; Principe, David; Schreiber, Matthias R.

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that low-mass stars build a significant fraction of their total mass during short outbursts of enhanced accretion (up to 10E-4 MSOLAR /yr). The most dramatic episodic accretion events known in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are FU Ori and EXor outbursts. FU Ori objects are characterized by a sudden brightening of 5 magnitudes or more within one year and remain bright for decades. EXor objects have lower amplitude outbursts on shorter timescales (months to years). Here we present an ALMA 230 GHz (1.3 mm / band-6) mini-survey of 8 outbursting sources (three FU Ori and ve EXor objects) in Orion with 1" (450 AU) resolution. We present continuum, 12CO, 13CO, and C18O line images and derive dust and (when possible) gas disk masses. The disk masses derived from the line observations are systematically lower (by factors of 3-5) than those calculated from the continuum and adopting the standard gas-to-dust ratio of 100, which agrees with results on T Tauri disks in Taurus. After beam deconvolution, we nd that the disks are remarkably compact (r = 70-150 AU). The 1.3 mm fuxes of the outbursting sources span over three orders of magnitude, but the FU Ori objects are signi cantly brighter than the EXor objects. The inferred disk masses for the brightest objects are > 0.1 Msolar , rendering gravitational instability a likely outburst mechanism. On the other hand, the inferred disk masses for the faintest targets are ~ 1-5 MJUP , and thus an alternative mechanism must be responsible for their outbursts.

  18. The Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in Māori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) Māori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk Māori and Pasifika adolescents. PMID:23930168

  19. Interkingdom cooperation between Candida albicans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces oris modulates early biofilm development on denture material.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Indira M G; Nobbs, Angela H; Ricomini-Filho, Antônio Pedro; Jenkinson, Howard F; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2016-04-01

    Candida-associated stomatitis affects up to 60% of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated fungal species. The oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of S. oralis and A. oris on the development of C. albicans biofilms on denture material. Resin discs were coated with saliva and at early (1.5 h) or later (24 h) stages of biofilm development, cell numbers of each species were determined. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms labelled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Interkingdom interactions underpinning biofilm development were also evaluated planktonically utilizing fluorescence microscopy. Synergistic interactions between all three species occurred within biofilms and planktonically. Bacterial cells coaggregated with each other and adhered singly or in coaggregates to C. albicans hyphal filaments. Streptococcus oralis appeared to enhance hyphal filament production and C. albicans biovolume was increased 2-fold. Concomitantly, cell numbers of S. oralis and A. oris were enhanced by C. albicans. Thus, cooperative physical and metabolic processes occurring between these three microbial species intensify pathogenic plaque communities on denture surfaces. PMID:26755532

  20. Role for a region of helically unstable DNA within the Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in origin function

    SciTech Connect

    Polonskaya, Zhanna; Benham, Craig J.; Hearing, Janet . E-mail: jhearing@ms.cc.sunysb.edu

    2004-10-25

    The minimal replicator of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP is composed of two binding sites for the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and flanking inverted repeats that bind the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2. Although not required for minimal replicator activity, additional binding sites for EBNA-1 and TRF2 and one or more auxiliary elements located to the right of the EBNA-1/TRF2 sites are required for the efficient replication of oriP plasmids. Another region of oriP that is predicted to be destabilized by DNA supercoiling is shown here to be an important functional component of oriP. The ability of DNA fragments of unrelated sequence and possessing supercoiled-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) structures, but not fragments characterized by helically stable DNA, to substitute for this component of oriP demonstrates a role for the SIDD region in the initiation of oriP-plasmid DNA replication.

  1. The MaoP/maoS Site-Specific System Organizes the Ori Region of the E. coli Chromosome into a Macrodomain.

    PubMed

    Valens, Michèle; Thiel, Axel; Boccard, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome. MaoP belongs to a group of proteins conserved in the Enterobacteria that coevolved with Dam methylase including SeqA, MukBEF and MatP that are all involved in the control of chromosome conformation and segregation. Analysis of DNA rings excised from the chromosome demonstrated that the single maoS site is required in cis on the chromosome to exert its effect while MaoP can act both in cis and in trans. The position of markers in the Ori region was affected by inactivating maoP. However, the MaoP/maoS system was not sufficient for positioning the Ori region at the ¼-¾ regions of the cell. We also demonstrate that the replication and the resulting expansion of bulk DNA are localized centrally in the cell. Implications of these results for chromosome positioning and segregation in E. coli are discussed. PMID:27627105

  2. The 'warrior gene' and the Mãori people: the responsibility of the geneticists.

    PubMed

    Perbal, Laurence

    2013-09-01

    The 'gene of' is a teleosemantic expression that conveys a simplistic and linear relationship between a gene and a phenotype. Throughout the 20th century, geneticists studied these genes of traits. The studies were often polemical when they concerned human traits: the 'crime gene', 'poverty gene', 'IQ gene', 'gay gene' or 'gene of alcoholism'. Quite recently, a controversy occurred in 2006 in New Zealand that started with the claim that a 'warrior gene' exists in the Mãori community. This claim came from a geneticist working on the MAOA gene. This article is interested in the responsibility of that researcher regarding the origin of the controversy. Several errors were made: overestimation of results, abusive use of the 'gene of' kind of expression, poor communication with the media and a lack of scientific culture. The issues of the debate were not taken into account sufficiently, either from the political, social, ethical or even the genetic points of view. After more than 100 years of debates around 'genes of' all kinds (here, the 'warrior gene'), geneticists may not hide themselves behind the media when a controversy occurs. Responsibilities have to be assumed. PMID:22494506

  3. Mentoring and research misconduct: an analysis of research mentoring in closed ORI cases.

    PubMed

    Wright, David E; Titus, Sandra L; Cornelison, Jered B

    2008-09-01

    We are reporting on how involved the mentor was in promoting responsible research in cases of research misconduct. We reviewed the USPHS misconduct files of the Office of Research Integrity. These files are created by Institutions who prosecute a case of possible research misconduct; ORI has oversight review of these investigations. We explored the role of the mentor in the cases of trainee research misconduct on three specific behaviors that we believe mentors should perform with their trainee: (1) review source data, (2) teach specific research standards and (3) minimize stressful work situations. We found that almost three quarters of the mentors had not reviewed the source data and two thirds had not set standards. These two behaviors are positively correlated. We did not see convincing evidence in the records that mentors were causing stress, but it was apparent in the convicted trainees' confessions that over 50% experienced some kind of stress. Secondary data, while not created for this research purpose, allows us to look at concrete research behaviors that are otherwise not very researchable. We believe it is important for mentors and institutions to devote more attention to teaching mentors about the process of education and their responsibilities in educating the next generation of scientists. This becomes a critical issue for large research groups who need to determine who is in charge educating, supervising and assuring data integrity. PMID:18615274

  4. On the 2015 Outburst of the EXor Variable V1118 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Antoniucci, S.; Arkharov, A. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Di Paola, A.; Bisogni, S.; Marchetti, A.

    2016-03-01

    After a long-lasting period of quiescence of about a decade, the source V1118 Ori, one of the most representative members of the EXor variables, is now outbursting. Since the initial increase of the near-infrared flux of about 1 mag (JHK bands) registered on 2015 September 22, the source brightness has remained fairly stable. We estimate ΔV ˜ 3 mag, with respect to the quiescence phase. An optical/near-IR low-resolution spectrum has been obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope instruments MODS and LUCI2 and compared with a spectrum of a similar spectral resolution and sensitivity level taken during quiescence. Together with the enhancement of the continuum, the outburst spectrum presents a definitely higher number of emission lines, in particular H i recombination lines of the Balmer, Paschen, and Brackett series, along with bright permitted lines of several species, forbidden atomic lines, and CO ro-vibrational lines. Both mass accretion and mass-loss rates have significantly increased (by about an order of magnitude: {\\dot{M}}{acc} = 1.2-4.8 10-8 M⊙ yr-1, {\\dot{M}}{loss} = 0.8-2 10-9 M⊙ yr-1), with respect to the quiescence phase. If compared with previous outbursts, the present one appears less energetic. Alternatively, it could already be in the fading phase (with the maximum brightness level reached when the source was not visible), or, viceversa, still in the rising phase.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 25 Ori group low-mass stars (Downes+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, J. J.; Briceno, C.; Mateu, C.; Hernandez, J.; Vivas, A. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Allen, L.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-epoch optical V-, R-, I-band and Hα observations across the entire Orion OB1 association (spanning ~180deg2) were obtained as part of the CVSO (Briceno et al., 2005AJ....129..907B, Cat. J/AJ/129/907), being conducted since 1998 with the Jurgen Stock 1.0/1.5 Schmidt-type telescope and the 8000x8000-pixel QUEST-I CCD Mosaic camera, at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. During 2009 a new dedicated 4m survey telescope, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), located at ESO's Paranal Observatory, was commissioned by the VISTA consortium. For the Galactic Science Verification of VISTA, an ~30deg2 area of the Orion OB1 association, which included the Orion Belt region, part of the Orion A cloud, the 25 Orionis and σ Ori clusters, was imaged in the Z, Y, J, H and Ks filters, during 2009 October 16 to November 2. (3 data files).

  6. HCF1 and OCT2 Cooperate with EBNA1 To Enhance OriP-Dependent Transcription and Episome Maintenance of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wiedmer, Andreas; Sentana-Lledo, Daniel; Cassel, Joel; Messick, Troy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infections as multicopy episomes with complex patterns of viral gene transcription and chromatin structure. The EBV origin of plasmid replication (OriP) has been implicated as a critical control element for viral transcription, as well as viral DNA replication and episome maintenance. Here, we examine cellular factors that bind OriP and regulate histone modification, transcription regulation, and episome maintenance. We found that OriP is enriched for histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation in multiple cell types and latency types. Host cell factor 1 (HCF1), a component of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) histone methyltransferase complex, and transcription factor OCT2 (octamer-binding transcription factor 2) bound cooperatively with EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1) at OriP. Depletion of OCT2 or HCF1 deregulated latency transcription and histone modifications at OriP, as well as the OriP-regulated latency type-dependent C promoter (Cp) and Q promoter (Qp). HCF1 depletion led to a loss of histone H3K4me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4) and H3 acetylation at Cp in type III latency and Qp in type I latency, as well as an increase in heterochromatic H3K9me3 at these sites. HCF1 depletion resulted in the loss of EBV episomes from Burkitt's lymphoma cells with type I latency and reactivation from lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) with type III latency. These findings indicate that HCF1 and OCT2 function at OriP to regulate viral transcription, histone modifications, and episome maintenance. As HCF1 is best known for its function in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early gene transcription, our findings suggest that EBV latency transcription shares unexpected features with HSV gene regulation. IMPORTANCE EBV latency is associated with several human cancers. Viral latent cycle gene expression is regulated by the epigenetic control of the OriP enhancer region. Here, we show that cellular factors

  7. Whakawhanaungatanga: the importance of culturally meaningful connections to improve uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Levack, William MM; Jones, Bernadette; Grainger, Rebecca; Boland, Pauline; Brown, Melanie; Ingham, Tristram R

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary rehabilitation is known to improve function and quality of life for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little research has been conducted on the influence of culture on experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. This study examined factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD in New Zealand. Method Grounded theory nested within kaupapa Māori methodology. Transcripts were analyzed from interviews and focus groups with 15 Māori and ten New Zealand non-Māori invited to attend pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD. Māori participants had either attended a mainstream hospital-based program, a community-based program designed “by Māori, for Māori”, or had experienced both. Results Several factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation were common to all participants regardless of ethnicity: 1) participants’ past experiences (eg, of exercise; of health care systems), 2) attitudes and expectations, 3) access issues (eg, time, transport, and conflicting responsibilities), and 4) initial program experiences. These factors were moderated by the involvement of family and peers, interactions with health professionals, the way information on programs was presented, and by new illness events. For Māori, however, several additional factors were also identified relating to cultural experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. In particular, Māori participants placed high value on whakawhanaungatanga: the making of culturally meaningful connections with others. Culturally appropriate communication and relationship building was deemed so important by some Māori participants that when it was absent, they felt strongly discouraged to attend pulmonary rehabilitation. Only the more holistic services offered a program in which they felt culturally safe and to which they were willing to return for ongoing rehabilitation. Conclusion Lack of attention to cultural factors in the delivery of

  8. Interaction of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF59 with oriLyt is dependent on binding with K-Rta.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Cyprian C; Susilarini, Ni Ketut; Pari, Gregory S

    2011-04-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) displays two distinct life stages, latency and lytic reactivation. Progression through the lytic cycle and replication of the viral genome constitute an essential step toward the production of infectious virus and human disease. KSHV K-RTA has been shown to be the major transactivator required for the initiation of lytic reactivation. In the transient-cotransfection replication assay, K-Rta is the only noncore protein required for DNA synthesis. K-Rta was shown to interact with both C/EBPα binding motifs and the R response elements (RRE) within oriLyt. It is postulated that K-Rta acts in part to facilitate the recruitment of replication factors to oriLyt. In order to define the role of K-Rta in the initiation of lytic DNA synthesis, we show an interaction with ORF59, the DNA polymerase processivity factor (PF), one of the eight virally encoded proteins necessary for origin-dependent DNA replication. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, both K-Rta and ORF59 interact with the RRE and C/EBPα binding motifs within oriLyt in cells harboring the KSHV bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). A transient-transfection ChIP assay demonstrated that the interaction of ORF59 with oriLyt is dependent on binding with K-Rta and that ORF59 fails to bind to oriLyt in the absence of K-Rta. Also, using the cotransfection replication assay, overexpression of the interaction domain of K-Rta with ORF59 has a dominant negative effect on oriLyt amplification, suggesting that the interaction of K-Rta with ORF59 is essential for DNA synthesis and supporting the hypothesis that K-Rta facilitates the formation of a replication complex at oriLyt. PMID:21289111

  9. Role of pi dimers in coupling ("handcuffing") of plasmid R6K's gamma ori iterons.

    PubMed

    Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Inman, Ross B; Rakowski, Sheryl A; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2005-06-01

    One proposed mechanism of replication inhibition in iteron-containing plasmids (ICPs) is "handcuffing," in which the coupling of origins via iteron-bound replication initiator (Rep) protein turns off origin function. In minimal R6K replicons, copy number control requires the interaction of plasmid-encoded pi protein with the seven 22-bp iterons of the gamma origin of replication. Like other related Rep proteins, pi exists as both monomers and dimers. However, the ability of pi dimers to bind iterons distinguishes R6K from most other ICPs, where only monomers have been observed to bind iterons. Here, we describe experiments to determine if monomers or dimers of pi protein are involved in the formation of handcuffed complexes. Standard ligation enhancement assays were done using pi variants with different propensities to bind iterons as monomers or dimers. Consistent with observations from several ICPs, a hyperreplicative variant (pi.P106L(wedge)F107S) exhibits deficiencies in handcuffing. Additionally, a novel dimer-biased variant of pi protein (pi.M36A(wedge)M38A), which lacks initiator function, handcuffs iteron-containing DNA more efficiently than does wild-type pi. The data suggest that pi dimers mediate handcuffing, supporting our previously proposed model of handcuffing in the gamma ori system. Thus, dimers of pi appear to possess three distinct inhibitory functions with respect to R6K replication: transcriptional autorepression of pi expression, in cis competition (for origin binding) with monomeric activator pi, and handcuffing-mediated inhibition of replication in trans. PMID:15901701

  10. Building the bacterial orisome: high affinity DnaA recognition plays a role in setting the conformation of oriC DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gulpreet; Vora, Mansi P.; Czerwonka, Christopher A.; Rozgaja, Tania A.; Grimwade, Julia E.; Leonard, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During assembly of the E. coli pre-replicative complex (pre-RC), initiator DnaA oligomers are nucleated from three widely separated high affinity DnaA recognition sites in oriC. Oligomer assembly is then guided by low affinity DnaA recognition sites, but is also regulated by a switch-like conformational change in oriC mediated by sequential binding of two DNA bending proteins, Fis and IHF, serving as inhibitor and activator, respectively. Although their recognition sites are separated by up to 90 bp, Fis represses IHF binding and weak DnaA interactions until accumulating DnaA displaces Fis from oriC. It remains unclear whether high affinity DnaA binding plays any role in Fis repression at a distance and it is also not known whether all high affinity DnaA recognition sites play an equivalent role in oligomer formation. To examine these issues, we developed origin-selective recombineering methods to mutate E. coli chromosomal oriC. We found that, although oligomers were assembled in the absence of any individual high affinity DnaA binding site, loss of DnaA binding at peripheral sites eliminated Fis repression, and made binding of both Fis and IHF essential. We propose a model in which interaction of DnaA molecules at high affinity sites regulates oriC DNA conformation. PMID:24443848

  11. Transfer Protein TraY of Plasmid R1 Stimulates TraI-Catalyzed oriT Cleavage In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Wolfgang; Bamberger, Martina; Zechner, Ellen L.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of TraY protein on TraI-catalyzed strand scission at the R1 transfer origin (oriT) in vivo was investigated. As expected, the cleavage reaction was not detected in Escherichia coli cells expressing tral and the integration host factor (IHF) in the absence of other transfer proteins. The TraM dependence of strand scission was found to be inversely correlated with the presence of TraY. Thus, the TraY and TraM proteins could each enhance cleaving activity at oriT in the absence of the other. In contrast, no detectable intracellular cleaving activity was exhibited by TraI in an IHF mutant strain despite the additional presence of both TraM and TraY. An essential role for IHF in this reaction in vivo is, therefore, implied. Mobilization experiments employing recombinant R1 oriT constructions and a heterologous conjugative helper plasmid were used to investigate the independent contributions of TraY and TraM to the R1 relaxosome during bacterial conjugation. In accordance with earlier observations, traY was dispensable for mobilization in the presence of traM, but mobilization did not occur in the absence of both traM and traY. Interestingly, although the cleavage assays demonstrate that TraM and TraY independently promote strand scission in vivo, TraM remained essential for mobilization of the R1 origin even in the presence of TraY. These findings suggest that, whereas TraY and TraM function may overlap to a certain extent in the R1 relaxosome, TraM additionally performs a second function that is essential for successful conjugative transmission of plasmid DNA. PMID:11208788

  12. X-Raying the Beating Heart of a Newborn Star: Rotational Modulation of High-Energy Radiation from V1647 Ori

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael; Petre, Robert; Teets, William K.; Principe, David

    2012-01-01

    We report a periodicity of approx.1 day in the highly elevated X-ray emission from the protostar V1647 Ori during its two recent multiple-year outbursts of mass accretion. This periodicity is indicative of protostellar rotation at near-breakup speed. Modeling of the phased X-ray light curve indicates the high-temperature ( 50 MK), X-ray-emitting plasma, which is most likely heated by accretion-induced magnetic reconnection, resides in dense ( 5 1010 cm.3), pancake-shaped magnetic footprints where the accretion stream feeds the newborn star. The sustained X-ray periodicity of V1647 Ori demonstrates that such protostellar magnetospheric accretion configurations can be stable over timescales of years. Subject headings: stars: formation stars: individual (V1647 Ori) stars: pre-main sequence X-rays: stars

  13. Replication of Epstein-Barr virus oriLyt: lack of a dedicated virally encoded origin-binding protein and dependence on Zta in cotransfection assays.

    PubMed Central

    Fixman, E D; Hayward, G S; Hayward, S D

    1995-01-01

    Using a transient replication assay in which cosmid DNAs were cotransfected into Vero cells, we had previously demonstrated that oriLyt replication required six Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded replication genes. No oriLyt origin-binding protein was identified in this study, but oriLyt replication in the cotransfection assay was also dependent on the three lytic cycle transactivators Zta, Rta, and Mta and an activity encoded by the EBV Sal/I F fragment. We have now used expression plasmids for the six known replication proteins to further examine the question of the requirement for an oriLyt origin-binding protein. The activity in Sal/I-F was shown to be encoded by BKRF3. The predicted product of this open reading frame is an enzyme, uracyl DNA glycosylase, not an origin-binding protein, and is dispensable for replication in assays using expression plasmids. BBLF2, which is positionally related to the gene for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL9 origin-binding protein, was confirmed to be expressed as a spliced transcript with BBLF3 and not as an independent product. Examination of the requirement for the EBV transactivators revealed that Rta, while contributing to replication efficiency, was dispensable. Mta could be substituted by HSV IE63, and in complementation experiments with HSV replication genes, Mta was no longer required for replication of EBV oriLyt, suggesting that the contribution of Mta to replication may be indirect. Zta continued to be required for detectable oriLyt replication both with the EBV replication proteins and in the complementation assays with HSV replication proteins. We conclude that EBV does not encode an equivalent of HSV UL9 and that Zta is the sole virally encoded protein serving an essential origin-binding function. PMID:7707526

  14. First BVR light curves and preliminary results of a recently discovered W UMa-type binary: V1848 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Poojon, P.

    2014-04-01

    First complete photometric light curves of a recently discovered contact binary, V1848 Ori, are presented. BVR imaging data were used to derive photometric solutions, using Wilson-Devinney code. We discovered that this system is a weak-contact binary, with a fillout factor of f = 13.14%(±1.44%). Preliminary results showed that V1848 Ori is an A-type W UMa system, with a mass ratio of q = 0.7615. The more massive component was found about 400 K hotter than the other one. This system has varied from W-type to A-type during the last decade. According to the preliminary physical parameters, the weak-contact configuration of this system, with the mass ratio close to unity, and no sign of long-term orbital period change yet, is unlikely to be broken. The contact configuration is expected to be maintained and become deeper or not, depending on effect of the AML mechanism.

  15. Regulation of chromosomal replication initiation by oriC-proximal DnaA-box clusters in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Hajime; Yoshimura, Mika; Ueki, Mikako; Oshima, Taku; Ogasawara, Naotake; Ishikawa, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial chromosome replication is initiated by binding of DnaA to a DnaA-box cluster (DBC) within the replication origin (oriC). In Bacillus subtilis, six additional DBCs are found outside of oriC and some are known to be involved in transcriptional regulation of neighboring genes. A deletion mutant lacking the six DBCs (Δ6) initiated replication early. Further, inactivation of spo0J in Δ6 cells yielded a pleiotropic phenotype, accompanied by severe growth inhibition. However, a spontaneous suppressor in soj or a deletion of soj, which stimulates DnaA activity in the absence of Spo0J, counteracted these effects. Such abnormal phenotypic features were not observed in a mutant background in which replication initiation was driven by a plasmid-derived replication origin. Moreover, introduction of a single DBC at various ectopic positions within the Δ6 chromosome partly suppressed the early-initiation phenotype, but this was dependent on insertion location. We propose that DBCs negatively regulate replication initiation by interacting with DnaA molecules and play a major role, together with Spo0J/Soj, in regulating the activity of DnaA. PMID:21911367

  16. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the λ Ori H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, M.; Haffner, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in Hα, [S ii] λ 6716, and [N ii] λ 6583 around the well-known O8 III star λ Ori A (HD 36861) ({\\ell }=185^\\circ to 205^\\circ ,b=-24^\\circ to -1^\\circ ). The integrated intensity ({v}{{LSR}}=-80 to +80 km s‑1), {I}{{H}α }, within WHAM’s one-degree beams varies from ∼190 R near the center to ∼10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from λ Ori, although the behavior of [N ii]/Hα is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S ii]/[N ii] intensity ratio ranges from ∼0.5 to ∼1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower Hα intensities). Variations of the [S ii]/Hα, [N ii]/Hα, and [S ii]/[N ii] line ratios in this diffuse region show some similar trends to those seen in the warm ionized medium (WIM) but with generally lower metal-line ratios. As with the WIM, the trends are driven by changes in the underlying physical parameters, most notably the ionization states and gas temperature. To investigate which cause might be dominant in this region, we use these extremely high signal-to-noise observations to construct a map of temperature and non-thermal velocity throughout the nebula. Using the line widths of Hα and [S ii], we separate thermal and non-thermal components and find spatial trends of these parameters within the nebula. Ion temperatures range between 4000 and 8000 K throughout the nebula. The non-thermal velocity map reveals a decrease in velocity from about 10 to 5 km s‑1 from the center to the edge of the lower half of the H ii region. In addition to using the widths as a measure of temperature, we also use the variation in [N ii]/Hα to estimate electron temperature. The results obtained from

  17. Segregation of relaxed replicated dimers when DNA ligase and DNA polymerase I are limited during oriC-specific DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, B R; Maier, P G; Greene, R S

    1989-01-01

    An in vitro Escherichia coli oriC-specific DNA replication system was used to investigate the DNA replication pathways of oriC plasmids. When this system was perturbed by the DNA ligase inhibitor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), alterations occurred in the initiation of DNA synthesis and processing of intermediates and DNA products. Addition of high concentrations of NMN soon after initiation resulted in the accumulation of open circular dimers (OC-OC). These dimers were decatenated to open circular monomers (form II or OC), which were then processed to closed circular supercoiled monomers (form I or CC) products. After a delay, limited ligation of the interlinked dimers (OC-OC to CC-OC and CC-CC) also occurred. Similar results were obtained with replication protein extracts from polA mutants. The presence of NMN before any initiation events took place prolonged the existence of nicked template DNA and promoted, without a lag period, limited incorporation into form II molecules. This DNA synthesis was nonspecific with respect to oriC, as judged by DnaA protein dependence, and presumably occurred at nicks in the template DNA. These results are consistent with oriC-specific initiation requiring closed supercoiled molecules dependent on DNA ligase activity. The results also show that decatenation of dimers occurs readily on nicked dimer and represents an efficient pathway for processing replication intermediates in vitro. Images PMID:2544556

  18. The use of an angularis oris axial pattern flap in a dog after resection of a multilobular osteochondroma of the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Naomi; Boston, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old neutered male boxer was presented for treatment of a multilobular osteochondroma of the hard palate. The mass was surgically resected and the hard palate defect was reconstructed using an angularis oris axial pattern buccal mucosal flap. No local recurrence was reported 6 mo after surgery. PMID:21286330

  19. The magnetic field and circumstellar environment of the helium-strong star HD36485 = δOriC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.; Bohlender, D. A.; Bolton, C. T.; Buemi, C.; Catanzaro, G.; Hill, G. M.; Stift, M. J.

    2010-02-01

    Extensive Hα spectroscopy of the cool, helium-strong star δOriC obtained over two decades has enabled a detailed analysis of the variable Hα emission observed in this sharp-lined and strongly magnetic B3V star. Radial velocity measurements from these and other spectra have also confirmed the binary nature of the star, the first detection of the secondary being provided, and permitted an improved determination of the system's orbital parameters. The amplitude of the radial velocities and a preliminary spectroscopic analysis indicate that the secondary component is an early A-type star. Disentangling the contribution of the two components to the Balmer line profiles, we determine an effective temperature for δOriC slightly larger than previously adopted in the literature. The Hα emission is variable with a period of 1.47775 +/- 0.00004d, assumed to be the rotation period of the primary component. After removal of the binary system's photospheric contribution to the Hα line, we find that the emission arises from two distinct, but asymmetrical, optically translucent circumstellar clouds. When strongest the emission peaks have intensities of approximately 15 per cent of the continuum level at about 150kms-1 on either side of the line centre, and emission is apparent to +/-225kms-1, or 6R* above the photosphere if we assume that the magnetic field forces the circumstellar material into rigid rotation about the star. New 6cm Very Large Array radio measurements, when combined with archival data, suggest that the radio flux of the star is also variable. An analysis of new and previously published magnetic field observations enabled us to derive a value for the inclination of the rotation axis of i = 12° +/- 3° and an obliquity of the magnetic axis of β <= 52°. The nature of the emission variability is similar to that of the prototypical helium-strong star σ Ori E, but since the latter object has an inclination of >75°, δOriC provides us with an opportunity to

  20. Spectroscopy of the M Supergiant α Ori in the 1 2.5 μm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Martin; Wahlgren, Glenn

    The study of elemental abundances in cool stars via atomic lines in the optical region is made di.cult by stellar molecular absorption. At infrared wavelengths this problem is diminished, but ground-based observations suffer from absorption by the earth’s atmosphere. Fortunately, there are spectral windows through which we can observe. We have explored several such windows in the spectral region from 1 2.5 μm, coinciding with the wavelength domain of the new VLT instrument CRIRES, for atomic lines suitable for the study of cool luminous stars, in particular α Ori (M2Iab). We present preliminary results from this search along with our first results on abundances of iron and the weak s-process elements Sr, Y, Zr.

  1. Mobilization of Chimeric oriT Plasmids by F and R100-1: Role of Relaxosome Formation in Defining Plasmid Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Richard A.; Frost, Laura S.

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage at the F plasmid nic site within the origin of transfer (oriT) requires the F-encoded proteins TraY and TraI and the host-encoded protein integration host factor in vitro. We confirm that F TraY, but not F TraM, is required for cleavage at nic in vivo. Chimeric plasmids were constructed which contained either the entire F or R100-1 oriT regions or various combinations of nic, TraY, and TraM binding sites, in addition to the traM gene. The efficiency of cleavage at nic and the frequency of mobilization were assayed in the presence of F or R100-1 plasmids. The ability of these chimeric plasmids to complement an F traM mutant or affect F transfer via negative dominance was also measured using transfer efficiency assays. In cases where cleavage at nic was detected, R100-1 TraI was not sensitive to the two-base difference in sequence immediately downstream of nic, while F TraI was specific for the F sequence. Plasmid transfer was detected only when TraM was able to bind to its cognate sites within oriT. High-affinity binding of TraY in cis to oriT allowed detection of cleavage at nic but was not required for efficient mobilization. Taken together, our results suggest that stable relaxosomes, consisting of TraI, -M, and -Y bound to oriT are preferentially targeted to the transfer apparatus (transferosome). PMID:10869081

  2. A Functional oriT in the Ptw Plasmid of Burkholderia cenocepacia Can Be Recognized by the R388 Relaxase TrwC

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Esther; Bakioui, Sawsane; Gomes, Margarida C.; O'Callaghan, David; Vergunst, Annette C.; Sangari, Félix J.; Llosa, Matxalen

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is both a plant pathogen and the cause of serious opportunistic infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis patients. B. cenocepacia K56-2 harbors a native plasmid named Ptw for its involvement in the Plant Tissue Watersoaking phenotype. Ptw has also been reported to be important for survival in human cells. Interestingly, the presence of PtwC, a homolog of the conjugative relaxase TrwC of plasmid R388, suggests a possible function for Ptw in conjugative DNA transfer. The ptw region includes Type IV Secretion System genes related to those of the F plasmid. However, genes in the adjacent region shared stronger homology with the R388 genes involved in conjugative DNA metabolism. This region included the putative relaxase ptwC, a putative coupling protein and accessory nicking protein, and a DNA segment with high number of inverted repeats and elevated AT content, suggesting a possible oriT. Although we were unable to detect conjugative transfer of the Ptw resident plasmid, we detected conjugal mobilization of a co-resident plasmid containing the ptw region homologous to R388, demonstrating the cloned ptw region contains an oriT. A similar plasmid lacking ptwC could not be mobilized, suggesting that the putative relaxase PtwC must act in cis on its oriT. Remarkably, we also detected mobilization of a plasmid containing the Ptw oriT by the R388 relaxase TrwC, yet we could not detect PtwC-mediated mobilization of an R388 oriT-containing plasmid. Our data unambiguously show that the Ptw plasmid harbors DNA transfer functions, and suggests the Ptw plasmid may play a dual role in horizontal DNA transfer and eukaryotic infection. PMID:27200362

  3. The strain-specific cis-acting element of beet curly top geminivirus DNA replication maps to the directly repeated motif of the ori.

    PubMed

    Choi, I R; Stenger, D C

    1996-12-01

    Strains of beet curly top geminivirus (BCTV) possess distinct cis- and trans-acting replication specificity elements which are not separately interchangeable among strains. Analysis of the replication competency of chimeric BCTV genomes, in which portions of the origin of DNA replication (ori) were derived from heterologous BCTV strains, have permitted identification of an essential cis-acting element governing strain-specific replication in a subgroup II geminivirus. Our studies indicate that the cis-acting element responsible for strain-specific replication properties resides within the directly repeated motif of the BCTV ori. Transient replication assays conducted in leaf disks and complementation experiments conducted in whole plants indicated that the trans-acting replication specificity element, residing within the amino-terminal region of the C1 Rep protein, may recognize and replicate a chimeric BCTV genome containing a heterologous ori so long as all or portions of the core element of the directly repeated motif are derived from the same strain as the Rep protein. As Rep protein binding to the core element of the directly repeated motif has been demonstrated by others to be essential for replication of subgroup III geminiviruses, our results support the hypothesis that replication specificity of subgroup II viruses is governed by processes similar to that of subgroup III viruses. However, a second cis-acting element of the ori, which appears to contribute to subgroup III virus replication specificity, does not seem to be required for replication specificity among the subgroup II viruses examined. Nonetheless, a potential role for a second cis-acting element in the BCTV ori contributing to maximal replication cannot be excluded. PMID:8941329

  4. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF V2775 Ori, AN OUTBURSTING PROTOSTAR IN L 1641: EXPLORING THE EDGE OF THE FU ORIONIS REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Kounkel, Marina; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Henning, Thomas; Ali, Babar; Stanke, Thomas; Osorio, Mayra; Wilson, T. L.

    2012-09-01

    Individual outbursting young stars are important laboratories for studying the physics of episodic accretion and the extent to which this phenomenon can explain the luminosity distribution of protostars. We present new and archival data for V2775 Ori (HOPS 223), a protostar in the L 1641 region of the Orion molecular clouds that was discovered by Caratti o Garatti et al. to have recently undergone an order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity. Our near-infrared spectra of the source have strong blueshifted He I {lambda}10830 absorption, strong H{sub 2}O and CO absorption, and no H I emission, all typical of FU Orionis sources. With data from the Infrared Telescope Facility, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment that span from 1 to 70 {mu}m pre-outburst and from 1 to 870 {mu}m post-outburst, we estimate that the outburst began between 2005 April and 2007 March. We also model the pre- and post-outburst spectral energy distributions of the source, finding it to be in the late stages of accreting its envelope with a disk-to-star accretion rate that increased from {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} to {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} during the outburst. The post-outburst luminosity at the epoch of the FU Orionis-like near-IR spectra is 28 L{sub Sun }, making V2775 Ori the least luminous documented FU Orionis outburster with a protostellar envelope. The existence of low-luminosity outbursts supports the notion that a range of episiodic accretion phenomena can partially explain the observed spread in protostellar luminosities.

  5. Revisiting the rigidly rotating magnetosphere model for σ Ori E - II. Magnetic Doppler imaging, arbitrary field RRM, and light variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Kochukhov, O.; Krtička, J.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Prvák, M.; Mikulášek, Z.; Silvester, J.; Owocki, S. P.

    2015-08-01

    The initial success of the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere (RRM) model application to the B2Vp star σ Ori E by Townsend, Owocki & Groote triggered a renewed era of observational monitoring of this archetypal object. We utilize high-resolution spectropolarimetry and the magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) technique to simultaneously determine the magnetic configuration, which is predominately dipolar, with a polar strength Bd = 7.3-7.8 kG and a smaller non-axisymmetric quadrupolar contribution, as well as the surface distribution of abundance of He, Fe, C, and Si. We describe a revised RRM model that now accepts an arbitrary surface magnetic field configuration, with the field topology from the MDI models used as input. The resulting synthetic H α emission and broad-band photometric observations generally agree with observations, however, several features are poorly fit. To explore the possibility of a photospheric contribution to the observed photometric variability, the MDI abundance maps were used to compute a synthetic photospheric light curve to determine the effect of the surface inhomogeneities. Including the computed photospheric brightness modulation fails to improve the agreement between the observed and computed photometry. We conclude that the discrepancies cannot be explained as an effect of inhomogeneous surface abundance. Analysis of the UV light variability shows good agreement between observed variability and computed light curves, supporting the accuracy of the photospheric light variation calculation. We thus conclude that significant additional physics is necessary for the RRM model to acceptably reproduce observations of not only σ Ori E, but also other similar stars with significant stellar wind-magnetic field interactions.

  6. The 2005 Accretion Outburst in V1118 Ori: Evidence for A Spectral Change in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Skinner, S. L.; Briggs, K. R.; Walter, F. M.; Stringfellow, G.; Hamilton, R. T.; Guinan, E. F.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from our X-ray monitoring campaign of the 2005 accretion outburst in the young low-mass star V1118 Ori. Optical and near-infrared photometry are presented as well. The X-ray data from early 2005 indicate that the X-ray flux and luminosity varied within a factor of two only, and were similar to the pre-outburst values measured in a serendipitous observation in 2002. Similarly, the hydrogen column density showed no evidence for significant excursions from the pre-outburst value of a few times 1021 cm-2. However, we observed a spectral change from a dominant hot plasma ( ˜ 25 MK) in 2002 and in January 2005 to a cooler plasma ( ˜ 8 MK) in February and March 2005. We argue that the closing in of the accretion disk during the outburst disrupted the hot magnetic loops high in the corona, whereas the lower cooler loops were less affected and became the dominant coronal component. We acknowledge support by NASA through Chandra award DD5-6029X and through XMM-Newton award NNG05GI96G to Columbia University. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The PSI group acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 20-58827.99 and 20-66875.01). Stony Brook's participation in SMARTS is made possible by support from the offices of the Provost and the Vice President for Research. We thank J. Allyn Smith, P. McGehee, J. Espinoza, and D. Gonzalez for doing the observations with the SMARTS telescopes. We also thank H. Tannanbaum, N. Schartel, and the VLA TOO panel for granting time to observe V1118 Ori.

  7. On the origin, homologies and evolution of primate facial muscles, with a particular focus on hominoids and a suggested unifying nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, R; Wood, B A; Aziz, M A; Burrows, A

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian facial muscles are a subgroup of hyoid muscles (i.e. muscles innervated by cranial nerve VII). They are usually attached to freely movable skin and are responsible for facial expressions. In this study we provide an account of the origin, homologies and evolution of the primate facial muscles, based on dissections of various primate and non-primate taxa and a review of the literature. We provide data not previously reported, including photographs showing in detail the facial muscles of primates such as gibbons and orangutans. We show that the facial muscles usually present in strepsirhines are basically the same muscles that are present in non-primate mammals such as tree-shrews. The exceptions are that strepsirhines often have a muscle that is usually not differentiated in tree-shrews, the depressor supercilii, and lack two muscles that are usually differentiated in these mammals, the zygomatico-orbicularis and sphincter colli superficialis. Monkeys such as macaques usually lack two muscles that are often present in strepsirhines, the sphincter colli profundus and mandibulo-auricularis, but have some muscles that are usually absent as distinct structures in non-anthropoid primates, e.g. the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, levator labii superioris, nasalis, depressor septi nasi, depressor anguli oris and depressor labii inferioris. In turn, macaques typically lack a risorius, auricularis anterior and temporoparietalis, which are found in hominoids such as humans, but have muscles that are usually not differentiated in members of some hominoid taxa, e.g. the platysma cervicale (usually not differentiated in orangutans, panins and humans) and auricularis posterior (usually not differentiated in orangutans). Based on our observations, comparisons and review of the literature, we propose a unifying, coherent nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia as a whole and provide a list of more than 300 synonyms that have been used in the

  8. Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-01

    A total of 27 bacterial isolates from California sea lions and a walrus tentatively classified within the family Pasteurellaceae was further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, tentatively designated Bisgaard taxon 57. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, the most closely related species with a validly published name was Bisgaardia hudsonensis and the most closely related species based on rpoB sequence comparison was Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida; highest similarities between the isolates and the type strains of B. hudsonensis and P. multocida subsp. multocida were 95.0 and 88.2%. respectively. All isolates of Bisgaard taxon 57 exhibit the phenotypic characters of the family Pasteurellaceae. Members of Bisgaard taxon 57 can be separated from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by the following tests: positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer and indole; no X- or V-factor dependency; and acid production from L-arabinose (slow), L-fucose, maltose and trehalose, but not from dulcitol, D-mannitol, D-mannose or sucrose. The main fatty acids of Bisgaard taxon 57 (CCUG 59994(T)) are C(14:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)ω7c and the summed feature C(14:0) 3-OH/iso-C(16:1) I. This fatty acid profile is characteristic of members of the Pasteurellaceae. The quinone profile of Bisgaard taxon 57 (DSM 23800(T)) was similar to that of other genera in the Pasteurellaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain Baika1(T) is 36.2 mol%, which is at the lower end of the range for members of the family Pasteurellaceae. On the basis of both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that members of Bisgaard taxon 57 should be classified as representatives of a novel species in a new genus, Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Otariodibacter oris is Baika1(T) (=CCUG 59994(T)=DSM 23800(T)), which was

  9. The fluid and electrolyte balance of New Zealand European and Māori/Pacific Island athletes: An observational study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Andrew; Brown, Rachel Clare; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Observational research on professional athletes from the USA suggests differences may exist in sweat sodium loss based on ethnic differences. The New Zealand (NZ) sporting population is mainly of European or Māori/Pacific Island origin. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the fluid-electrolyte balance of athletes by ethnicity. A total of 20 Māori/Pacific Islanders (MP; body mass 100.97 ± 13.05 kg) and 29 NZ European (NZE; body mass 89.11 ± 11.56 kg) elite male athletes were recruited. Sweat rates were determined by body mass change during a 1-h spin cycle exercise session, during which fluid intakes and heart rate were recorded. Sweat samples were analysed for sodium concentration. Mean ± SD sweat sodium concentrations were 73.4 ± 27.2 mmol·L(-1) and 55.5 ± 26.8 mmol·L(-1) for the MP and NZE groups, respectively (p = 0.070). Sweat rate was 0.93 ± 0.26 L·h(-1) for the MP group and 0.89 ± 0.33 L·h(-1) for the NZE group (p = 0.357). Fluid intake was 1.05 ± 0.48 L and 0.93 ± 0.49 L for MP and NZE, respectively (p = 0.395). Half of the MP group gained weight during the exercise session compared to 37% of the NZE group. Pre-exercise urine specific gravity was significantly lower amongst the NZE group (1.016 ± 0.009 g mL(-1)) than the MP group (1.024 ± 0.008 g mL(-1)) p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the groups, p = 0.082. Hydration practices of athletes in NZ may differ by ethnicity, and this may highlight the need for more targeted education by ethnicity. PMID:25743610

  10. The EXOTIME Monitoring Program Discovers Substellar Companion Candidates around the Rapidly Pulsating Subdwarf B Stars V1636 Ori and DW Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, S.; Silvotti, R.; Lutz, R.; Kim, S.-L.; Exotime Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The EXOTIME monitoring program has discovered sub-stellar companion candidates around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars V1636 Ori and DW Lyn using the timing method. Here we motivate our continuing search, and refer to descriptions of the photometric data collected, the data analysis and the characteristics of the O-C diagrams obtained. We also discuss our on-going efforts to consolidate the candidate discoveries with additional simulations and confirm them with independent methods.

  11. Whakawhiti Kōrero, a Method for the Development of a Cultural Assessment Tool, Te Waka Kuaka, in Māori Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Hinemoa; Kersten, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of tools for the measurement of outcomes and needs in traumatic brain injury is well recognised. The development of tools for these injuries in indigenous communities has been limited despite the well-documented disparity of brain injury. The wairua theory of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Māori proposes that a culturally defined injury occurs in tandem with the physical injury. A cultural response is therefore indicated. This research investigates a Māori method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool designed to further examine needs associated with the culturally determined injury and in preparation for formal validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is a method used to develop better statements in the development of the assessment tool. Four wānanga (traditional fora) were held including one with whānau (extended family) with experience of traumatic brain injury. The approach was well received. A final version, Te Waka Kuaka, is now ready for validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is an indigenous method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool in Māori traumatic brain injury. This method is likely to have wider applicability, such as Mental Health and Addictions Services, to ensure robust process of outcome measure and needs assessment development. PMID:26576070

  12. The past photometric history of the FU Ori-type young eruptive star 2MASS J06593158-0405277 = V960 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdana-Šepić, Rajka; Munari, Ulisse

    2016-02-01

    The known FU Ori-type young eruptive stars are exceedingly rare (a dozen or so confirmed objects) and 2MASS J06593158-0405277, with its 2014 outburst, is likely the latest addition to the family. All members have displayed just one such eruption in their recorded history, an event lasting for decades. To test the FU Ori nature of 2MASS J06593158-0405277, we have reconstructed its photometric history by measuring its brightness on Harvard photographic plates spanning the time interval 1899-1989. No previous large amplitude eruption similar to that initiated in 2014 has been found, as in bona fide FU Ori-type objects. The median value of the brightness in quiescence of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 is B = 15.5, with the time interval 1935-1950 characterized by a large variability (˜ 1 mag amplitude) that contrasts with the remarkable photometric stability displayed at later epochs. The variability during 1935-1950 can either be ascribed to some T Tau like activity of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 itself or to the also young and fainter star 2MASS J06593168-0405224 that lies 5 arcsec to the North and forms an unresolved pair at the astrometric scale of Harvard photographic plates.

  13. Studies in Be-star variability. I - A remarkable similarity of the rapid periodic light variations of EM Cep, Sigma ORI E, and possibly LQ And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmanec, P.

    1984-08-01

    The rapid periodic light variations observed in photometric observations of two (possibly three) Be stars (Sigma-Ori E, EM Cep, and LQ And) are analyzed. The variation is characterized by a light curve with two similar but unequal minima and maxima which are reminiscent of the light curves of contact eclipsing binaries. The stars have rather short periods (1.191 days for Sigma-Ori E, 0.086 days for EM Cep, and 0.623 days for LQ And) and are completely lacking in the radial-velocity variations associated with these periods. Spectral variations in Sigma-Ori E correlate well with variations in the photometric period, and this case might also apply to EM Cep and LQ And. It is suspected that the variations are associated with the rotational periods of the stars, thereby confirming the applicability of the magnetic oblique rotator model for He variable stars developed by Shore and Bolton (1982). The light curves of all three stars are reproduced in graphic form.

  14. Whakawhiti Kōrero, a Method for the Development of a Cultural Assessment Tool, Te Waka Kuaka, in Māori Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Elder, Hinemoa; Kersten, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of tools for the measurement of outcomes and needs in traumatic brain injury is well recognised. The development of tools for these injuries in indigenous communities has been limited despite the well-documented disparity of brain injury. The wairua theory of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Māori proposes that a culturally defined injury occurs in tandem with the physical injury. A cultural response is therefore indicated. This research investigates a Māori method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool designed to further examine needs associated with the culturally determined injury and in preparation for formal validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is a method used to develop better statements in the development of the assessment tool. Four wānanga (traditional fora) were held including one with whānau (extended family) with experience of traumatic brain injury. The approach was well received. A final version, Te Waka Kuaka, is now ready for validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is an indigenous method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool in Māori traumatic brain injury. This method is likely to have wider applicability, such as Mental Health and Addictions Services, to ensure robust process of outcome measure and needs assessment development. PMID:26576070

  15. The N-terminus of porcine circovirus type 2 replication protein is required for nuclear localization and ori binding activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-L.; Chien, M.-S.; Du, Y.-W.; Wu, P.-C.; Huang Chienjin

    2009-02-20

    Porcine circovirus type 2 possesses a circular, single-stranded DNA genome that requires the replication protein (Rep) for virus replication. To characterize the DNA binding potential and the significant region that confers the nuclear localization of the Rep protein, the defined coding regions of rep gene were cloned and expressed. All of the recombinant proteins except for the N-terminal 110 residues deletion mutant could bind to the double-stranded minimal binding site of replication origin (ori). In addition, the N-terminal deletion mutant lacking 110 residues exhibited mainly cytoplasmic staining in the transfected cells in contrast to the others, which localized dominantly in the nucleus, suggesting that this N-terminal domain is essential for nuclear localization. Furthermore, a series of green fluorescence proteins (GFP) containing potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences were tested for their cellular distribution. The ability of the utmost 20 residues of the N-terminal region to target the GFP to the nucleus confirmed its role as a functional NLS.

  16. The Chandra Delta Ori Large Project: Occultation Measurements of the Shocked Gas tn the Nearest Eclipsing O-Star Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Nichols, Joy; Naze, Yael; Rauw, Gregor; Pollock, Andrew; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Evans, Nancy; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Oskinova, Lida; Hamann, W. -R.; Gull, Ted; Ignace, Rico; Hole, Tabetha; Iping, Rosina; Walborn, Nolan; Hoffman, Jennifer; Lomax, Jamie; Waldron, Wayne; Owocki, Stan; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Leutenegger, Maurice; Hole, Tabetha; Gayley, Ken; Russell, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Delta Ori is the nearest massive, single-lined eclipsing binary (O9.5 II + B0.5III). As such it serves as a fundamental calibrator of the mass-radius-luminosity relation in the upper HR diagram. It is also the only eclipsing O-type binary system which is bright enough to be observable with the CHANDRA gratings in a reasonable exposure. Studies of resolved X-ray line complexes provide tracers of wind mass loss rate and clumpiness; occultation by the X-ray dark companion of the line emitting region can provide direct spatial information on the location of the X-ray emitting gas produced by shocks embedded in the wind of the primary star. We obtained phase-resolved spectra with Chandra in order to determine the level of phase-dependent vs. secular variability in the shocked wind. Along with the Chandra observations we obtained simultaneous photometry from space with the Canadian MOST satellite to help understand the relation between X-ray and photospheric variability.

  17. The relationship between socially-assigned ethnicity, health and experience of racial discrimination for Māori: analysis of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In New Zealand, there are significant and long-standing inequalities in a range of health outcomes, risk factors and healthcare measures between Māori (indigenous peoples) and Pākehā (European). This study expands our understanding of racism as a determinant of such inequalities to examine the concept of socially-assigned ethnicity (how an individual is classified by others ethnically/racially) and its relationship to health and racism for Māori. There is some evidence internationally that being socially-assigned as the dominant ethnic group (in this case European) offers health advantage. Methods We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey for adult participants who self-identified their ethnicity as Māori (n = 3160). The association between socially-assigned ethnicity and individual experience of racial discrimination, and socially-assigned ethnicity and health (self-rated health, psychological distress [Kessler 10-item scale]) was assessed using logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. Results Māori who were socially-assigned as European-only had significantly lower experience of racial discrimination (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.78) than Māori who were socially-assigned as non-European. Being socially-assigned as European-only was also associated with health advantage compared to being socially-assigned non-European: more likely to respond with self-rated very good/excellent health (age, sex adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.74), and lower Kessler 10 scores (age, sex adjusted mean difference = -0.66, 95% C I = -1.22, -0.10). These results were attenuated following adjustment for socioeconomic measures and experience of racial discrimination. Conclusions Results suggest that, in a race conscious society, the way people’s ethnicities are viewed by others is associated with tangible health risk or advantage, and this is consistent with an

  18. Role of π Dimers in Coupling (“Handcuffing”) of Plasmid R6K's γ ori Iterons

    PubMed Central

    Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Inman, Ross B.; Rakowski, Sheryl A.; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    One proposed mechanism of replication inhibition in iteron-containing plasmids (ICPs) is “handcuffing,” in which the coupling of origins via iteron-bound replication initiator (Rep) protein turns off origin function. In minimal R6K replicons, copy number control requires the interaction of plasmid-encoded π protein with the seven 22-bp iterons of the γ origin of replication. Like other related Rep proteins, π exists as both monomers and dimers. However, the ability of π dimers to bind iterons distinguishes R6K from most other ICPs, where only monomers have been observed to bind iterons. Here, we describe experiments to determine if monomers or dimers of π protein are involved in the formation of handcuffed complexes. Standard ligation enhancement assays were done using π variants with different propensities to bind iterons as monomers or dimers. Consistent with observations from several ICPs, a hyperreplicative variant (π·P106L∧F107S) exhibits deficiencies in handcuffing. Additionally, a novel dimer-biased variant of π protein (π·M36A∧M38A), which lacks initiator function, handcuffs iteron-containing DNA more efficiently than does wild-type π. The data suggest that π dimers mediate handcuffing, supporting our previously proposed model of handcuffing in the γ ori system. Thus, dimers of π appear to possess three distinct inhibitory functions with respect to R6K replication: transcriptional autorepression of π expression, in cis competition (for origin binding) with monomeric activator π, and handcuffing-mediated inhibition of replication in trans. PMID:15901701

  19. The Double-Lined Spectroscopic Binary θ?1 Ori E: An Intermedite-Mass, Pre-Main Sequence System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costero, R.; Poveda, A.; Echevarría, J.

    2007-08-01

    Theta 1 Ori E = ADS 4186 E = NSV 2291 , the fifth brightest star in the Orion Trapezium, was reported to be a double-lined spectroscopic binary by Costero et al. 2006 (IAUC 8669). In this paper we present the derived orbital elements of the binary system and physical parameters of its members. The velocity curve of each component was derived from 61 Echelle spectra in which the absorption systems are not blended. The radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlating these spectra with those of two reference stars with well-measured radial velocities, in the 5120 -"5515 Å spectral range. The binary components are nearly identical, their composite spectral type being around G0IV. The Li I 6708 Å absorption line is strong and the Ca II K line is in emission inboth stars, indicative of their pre-main sequence evolutionary stage. The orbit is circular (e <10^-3). The orbital period and systemic velocity are 9.896 ± 0.001 d and 32.4 ± 1.0 km/s.The semi-amplitude of both components is 85.7±3.0 km/s. From the published K magnitude for the object and a suitable pre-main sequence stellar evolution model, we find the bolometric luminosity, radius and mass of each component to be, respectively, 89, 8.4 and 4.0 (in solar units), if the stars are identical to each other. Based on the latter values, the orbital inclination is about 59°, while the minimum Inclination for grazing eclipses to occur is 65°. Hence, no observable eclipses in this binary are expected.

  20. Fluorescence Processes in the Outer Atmospheres of the Evolved M-Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister; Ayres, Thomas; Wahlgren, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The prototypical M-giant and M-supergiant stars, Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)) and Alpha Ori (M2Iab), have been observed as part of the "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres). "ASTRAL-Cool Stars" is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect, using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R~46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, R~30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and R~114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/). In this paper, we use the very rich emission-line spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, Gamma Cru (GaCrux) and Alpha Ori (Betelgeuse), to study the fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work and newly identified in our on-going analysis of these extraordinary new “Treasury” spectra. Detailed descriptions of selected processes are given to illustrate their operation. The wide variety of fluorescence processes in operation in these outer atmospheres, both molecular and atomic, suggest that there is a mixture of warm and cool plasmas present and that H I Ly-alpha in particular is locally very strong, even though, in the case of Alpha Ori, no flux is seen at earth due to strong circumstellar absorption at that wavelength. Many new fluorescence line products and several new processes have been identified in these spectra, which are more complete and of higher S/N than previously available for these stars.

  1. Stable replication of the EBNA1/OriP-mediated baculovirus vector and its application to anti-HCV gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Norihiko; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Chang, Myint OO; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Although combined interferon-α-ribavirin therapy is effective for about 50% of the patients with HCV, better therapies are needed and preventative vaccines have yet to be developed. Short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) inhibit gene expression by RNA interference. The application of transient shRNA expression is limited, however, due to the inability of the shRNA to replicate in mammalian cells and its inefficient transduction. The duration of transgene (shRNA) expression in mammalian cells can be significantly extended using baculovirus-based shRNA-expressing vectors that contain the latent viral protein Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and the origin of latent viral DNA replication (OriP) sequences. These recombinant vectors contain compatible promoters and are highly effective for infecting primary hepatocyte and hepatoma cell lines, making them very useful tools for studies of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. Here, we report the use of these baculovirus-based vector-derived shRNAs to inhibit core-protein expression in full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon cells. Results We constructed a long-term transgene shRNA expression vector that contains the EBV EBNA1 and OriP sequences. We also designed baculovirus vector-mediated shRNAs against the highly conserved core-protein region of HCV. HCV core protein expression was inhibited by the EBNA1/OriP baculovirus vector for at least 14 days, which was considerably longer than the 3 days of inhibition produced by the wild-type baculovirus vector. Conclusion These findings indicate that we successfully constructed a long-term transgene (shRNA) expression vector (Ac-EP-shRNA452) using the EBNA1/OriP system, which was propagated in Escherichia coli and converted into mammalian cells. The potential anti-HCV activity of the long-term transgene (shRNA) expression vector was evaluated with the view of establishing

  2. Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb isotope systematics of basaltic samples from IODP Site U1349A, Ori Massif of the Shatsky Rise Oceanic Plateau, Northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, I.; Murphy, D. T.; Geldmacher, J.; Heydolph, K.

    2011-12-01

    Shatsky Rise is located on the northwest Pacific plate, and has an elongated structure from southeast to northwest. It represents a large oceanic plateau (up to 500 km wide) that was formed between 140-150 Ma in an active spreading ridge at relatively high emplacement rates (1.2-4.6 km3/y), similar to those of some flood basalt provinces [1]. Whether the Shatsky Rise formed by the impact of a mantle plume head or by shallow mantle processes at a rapidly extending triple junction is a matter of ongoing debate. Geochemical research will provide vital information on mantle sources and melting conditions contributing to LIP magmatism [1]. The Ori Massif is one of the three elevated massifs within the Shatsky Rise, comprising a volume of 0.7 × 106 km3. It is situated in the middle of the plateau with the largest edifice Tamu Massif to the southeast and the smaller Shirshov Massif to the northwest. Within plume theory Ori Massif formed at an intermediate to early stage of a plume volcanism. In shallow mantle theory it formed from a shallow lithospheric source during oceanic spreading at a triple junction [1]. During IODP Expedition 324 two sites were drilled on Ori Massif, one of which, U1349A, targeted the summit. The Hole U1349A penetrated 250.4m beneath the seafloor, and includes 165.1m of sediments and 85.3m of igneous basement. The uppermost volcanic flows (~55m) are highly vesicular, stongly altered to reddish brown clays and contain abundant pseudomorphs after olivine. These flows are underlain by highly altered volcaniclastic breccia (>40m) [1]. Here we present Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb isotope characterisation of the U1349A basaltic basement samples. Our results on the Ori Massif will be combined with isotope data from the Tamu Massif and Shirshov Massif. Thus, some preliminary conclusions about the source of mantle material that formed the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau and its variation in space and time can be made. [1] Expedition 324 Scientists (2010) Expedition

  3. A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

  4. The mitochondrial nucleoid protein, Mgm101p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in the maintenance of rho(+) and ori/rep-devoid petite genomes but is not required for hypersuppressive rho(-) mtDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Xiao Ming; Clark-Walker, G Desmond; Chen, Xin Jie

    2002-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MGM101 gene encodes a DNA-binding protein targeted to mitochondrial nucleoids. MGM101 is essential for maintenance of a functional rho(+) genome because meiotic segregants, with a disrupted mgm101 allele, cannot undergo more than 10 divisions on glycerol medium. Quantitative analysis of mtDNA copy number in a rho(+) strain carrying a temperature-sensitive allele, mgm101-1, revealed that the amount of mtDNA is halved each cell division upon a shift to the restrictive temperature. These data suggest that mtDNA replication is rapidly blocked in cells lacking MGM101. However, a small proportion of meiotic segregants, disrupted in MGM101, have rho(-) genomes that are stably maintained. Interestingly, all surviving rho(-) mtDNAs contain an ori/rep sequence. Disruption of MGM101 in hypersuppressive (HS) strains does not have a significant effect on the propagation of HS rho(-) mtDNA. However, in petites lacking an ori/rep, disruption of MGM101 leads to either a complete loss or a dramatically decreased stability of mtDNA. This discriminatory effect of MGM101 suggests that replication of rho(+) and ori/rep-devoid rho(-) mtDNAs is carried out by the same process. By contrast, the persistence of ori/rep-containing mtDNA in HS petites lacking MGM101 identifies a distinct replication pathway. The alternative mtDNA replication mechanism provided by ori/rep is independent of mitochondrial RNA polymerase encoded by RPO41 as a HS rho(-) genome is stably maintained in a mgm101, rpo41 double mutant. PMID:11973295

  5. Suzaku Observation of Strong Fluorescent Iron Line Emission from the Young Stellar Object V1647 Ori during Its New X-ray Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in August 2008. During the 87 ksec observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a. high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other young stellar objects. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT approx.5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Ka line with a remarkably large equivalent width of approx. 600 eV. Such a, large equivalent width indicates that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Ka line ; so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  6. Introduction à une théorie des systèmes composites : exemples simples de matériaux lamellaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akjouj, A.; Sylla, B.; Dobrzynski, L.

    This review paper is mostly an introduction to the linear response theory for composite systems. The composite materials are defined here as being formed by different homogeneous parts connected together by interfaces. This type of material can be constructed with the help of homogeneous "bricks" cuted out from infinite materials. This cutting procedures are realized with the help of cleavage operators. The "bricks" are then put together by a coupling operator. This construction manner enables to obtain for any composite system a general equation relating the composite response function (called also Green's function) to the elements of the infinite material response functions and to the cleavage and coupling operators. A general and unified formulation valid as well in matrix algebra as in the algebra of differential equations results from this approach. Any general theory is abstract ; simple examples help very much to understand it. The principal aim of this review paper is the introduction of a general theory for composite systems through simple and analytical examples from the fields of phonons, magnons and electrons in the lamellar composite materials. In order to achieve this goal, the algebra of the examples is as explicit as possible. The references of what was already realized in theory of composite response are discussed also. A prospective and non exhaustive study of all the fields where such a theory can prove to be helpful is given also in this review paper. Cet article de revue est essentiellement une introduction à la théorie de la réponse linéaire dans les systèmes composites. Les matériaux composites sont définis ici comme étant formés de parties homogènes différentes reliées par des interfaces. Ce type de matériaux peut être construit à partir de "briques" homogènes découpées dans des matériaux infinis. Ces opérations de découpage sont effectuées par l'intermédiaire d'opérateurs de clivage. Les "briques" sont ensuite

  7. Structure and function of the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. IV. Transcription of the oriC region and expression of DNA gyrase genes and other open reading frames.

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, N; Moriya, S; Yoshikawa, H

    1985-01-01

    We have determined nucleotide sequence of some 10,000 base pairs (bp) in the oriC region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Initiation sites of transcription from this region were determined in vivo by the S1-mapping method. Five major initiation sites were found in the leader sequences of five open reading frames (ORF) deduced from the nucleotide sequence. The sixth site is located inside the ORF323("recF"). Putative promoters were found for each transcript. Function of these promoters was demonstrated in Escherichia coli by the Maxi-cell method using appropriate fragments cloned in pBR vectors. Based on these results, genes in 10,000 bp oriC region are divided into 4 transcriptional units. GyrB composes one unit with two other ORFs, while gyrA constitutes a single unit by itself. The promoters for ORF446("dnaA") and ORF378("dnaN") are located within the putative signal sequences for oriC. Transcription from these promoters is dependent on a dna-initiation gene, dnaB. Images PMID:2987848

  8. Emended description of Actinomyces naeslundii and descriptions of Actinomyces oris sp. nov. and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov., previously identified as Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1, 2 and WVA 963.

    PubMed

    Henssge, Uta; Do, Thuy; Radford, David R; Gilbert, Steven C; Clark, Douglas; Beighton, David

    2009-03-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii is an important early colonizer in the oral biofilm and consists of three genospecies (1, 2 and WVA 963) which cannot be readily differentiated using conventional phenotypic testing or on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We have investigated a representative collection of type and reference strains and clinical and oral isolates (n=115) and determined the partial gene sequences of six housekeeping genes (atpA, rpoB, pgi, metG, gltA and gyrA). These sequences identified the three genospecies and differentiated them from Actinomyces viscosus isolated from rodents. The partial sequences of atpA and metG gave best separation of the three genospecies. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 formed two distinct clusters, well separated from both genospecies WVA 963 and A. viscosus. Analysis of the same genes in other oral Actinomyces species (Actinomyces gerencseriae, A. israelii, A. meyeri, A. odontolyticus and A. georgiae) indicated that, when sequence data were obtained, these species each exhibited <90 % similarity with the A. naeslundii genospecies. Based on these data, we propose the name Actinomyces oris sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 27044(T) =CCUG 34288(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies 2 and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 49338(T) =CCUG 34287(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies WVA 963. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 should remain as A. naeslundii sensu stricto, with the type strain ATCC 12104(T) =NCTC 10301(T) =CCUG 2238(T). PMID:19244431

  9. ORAL MYOFUNCTIONAL AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE ORBICULARIS ORIS AND MENTALIS MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II/1 MALOCCLUSION SUBMITTED TO FIRST PREMOLAR EXTRACTION

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Denize Ramirez; Semeghini, Tatiana Adamov; Kroll, Lucio Benedito; Berzin, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oral myofunctional alterations before and after first premolar extraction in Class II/1 malocclusion patients that could endanger the long-term dental arch stability. Material and Methods: The study was performed by means of morphological, functional and electromyographic analyses in 17 Class II/1 malocclusion patients (group T) and 17 Class I malocclusion patients (group C -control), both groups with 12-30-year age range (mean age: 20.93 ± 4.94 years). Results: Data analyzed statistically by Student's t-test showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the maxillary and mandibular dental arch perimeters after orthodontic treatment, but lip posture at rest did not present statistically significant differences after treatment (p>0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test analyzed data from lip posture (orbicularis oris muscle) at rest and during swallowing, as well as the mentalis muscle behavior during the above-mentioned function, not showing statistically significant differences (p>0.05) after treatment (groups T1 and T2). However, group T differed significantly from group C (p<0.05). Lip posture during swallowing showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) for subjects submitted to orthodontic therapy when compared to data acquired before the treatment. The electromyographic analysis confirmed these data. Conclusions: Found myofunctional alterations observed after the orthodontic treatment in Class II/1 malocclusion seemed to jeopardize the long-term orthodontic stability, making recurrence possible. PMID:19089223

  10. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  11. The Rep78 gene product of adeno-associated virus (AAV) self-associates to form a hexameric complex in the presence of AAV ori sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R H; Spano, A J; Kotin, R M

    1997-01-01

    The Rep78 and Rep68 proteins of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are replication initiator proteins that bind the viral replicative-form origin of replication, nick the origin in a site- and strand-specific fashion, and mediate vectorial unwinding of the DNA duplex via an ATP-dependent helicase activity, thus initiating a strand displacement mechanism of viral DNA replication. Genetic and biochemical studies have identified Rep mutants that demonstrate a trans-dominant negative phenotype in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the possibility that multimerization of Rep is essential for certain replicative functions. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the largest of the Rep proteins, Rep78, to self-associate in vitro and in vivo. Self-association of Rep78 in vivo was demonstrated through the use of a mammalian two-hybrid system. Rep-Rep protein interaction was confirmed in vitro through coimmunoprecipitation experiments with a bacterially expressed maltose-binding protein-Rep78 fusion protein in combination with [35S]methionine-labeled Rep78 synthesized in a coupled in vitro transcription-translation system. Mapping studies with N- and C-terminal truncation mutant forms of Rep indicate that amino acid sequences required for maximal self-association occur between residues 164 and 484. Site-directed mutagenesis identified two essential motifs within this 321-amino-acid region: (i) a putative alpha-helix bearing a 3,4-hydrophobic heptad repeat reminiscent of those found in coiled-coil domains and (ii) a previously recognized nucleoside triphosphate-binding motif. Deletion of either of these regions from the full-length polypeptide resulted in severe impairment of Rep-Rep interaction. In addition, gel filtration chromatography and protein cross-linking experiments indicated that Rep78 forms a hexameric complex in the presence of AAV ori sequences. PMID:9151837

  12. Physical parameters and long-term photometric variability of V1481 Ori, an SB2 member of Orion nebula Cluster with an accreting component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Parihar, P.; Biazzo, K.; Lanza, A. F.; Distefano, E.; Melo, C. H. F.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Herbst, W.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of our analysis on V1481 Ori (JW 239), a young SB2 in the Orion nebula Cluster with a circumbinary disc accreting on the lower mass component. The analysis is based on high-resolution spectroscopic data and high-quality photometric time series about 20-yr long. Thanks to the spectroscopy, we confirm the binary nature of this system consisting of M3 + M4 components and derive the mass ratio MB/MA = 0.54, a variable luminosity ratio LB/LA = 0.68-0.94, and an orbital period Porb = 4.433 d. The photometric data allowed us to measure the rotation periods of the two components Pphot = 4.4351 d and they are found to be synchronized with the orbital period. The simultaneous modelling of V-, I-band, and radial velocity curves in the 2005 season suggests that the variability is dominated by one hotspot on the secondary component covering at least ˜3.5 per cent of the stellar surface and about 420 K hotter than the unperturbed photosphere. Such a spot may originate from the material of the circumbinary disc accreting on to the secondary component. We also detect an apparent 6-yr periodic variation in the position of this hotspot, which is inferred from the phase migration of the light-curve maximum, which we interpret as due to either the presence of surface differential rotation as large as 0.065 per cent, a value compatible with the fully convective components, or to a periodic exchange of angular momentum between the disc and the star, which implies a minimum magnetic field strength of 650 G at the stellar surface.

  13. Accuracy and coverage assessment of Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) Genes Encoding Immunoglobulins in the Whole Genome Sequence Assembly (OryCun2.0) and Localization of the IGH Locus to Chromosome 20

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, E. Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Agarwala, Richa; Bonnet-Garnier, Amélie; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Hayes, Hélène; Mage, Rose G.

    2013-01-01

    We report analyses of genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy and light chains in the rabbit 6.51x whole genome assembly. This OryCun2.0 assembly confirms previous mapping of the duplicated IGK1 and IGK2 loci to chromosome 2 and the IGL lambda light chain locus to chromosome 21. The most frequently rearranged and expressed IGHV1 that is closest to IG DH and IGHJ genes encodes rabbit VHa allotypes. The partially inbred Thorbecke strain rabbit used for whole-genome sequencing was homozygous at the IGK but heterozygous with the IGHV1a1 allele in one of 79 IGHV-containing unplaced scaffolds and IGHV1a2, IGHM, IGHG and IGHE sequences in another. Some IGKV, IGLV and IGHA genes are also in other unplaced scaffolds. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, we assigned the previously unmapped IGH locus to the q-telomeric region of rabbit chromosome 20. An approximately 3 Mb segment of human chromosome 14 including IGH genes predicted to map to this telomeric region based on synteny analysis could not be located on assembled chromosome 20. Unplaced scaffold chrUn0053 contains some of the genes that comparative mapping predicts to be missing. We identified discrepancies between previous targeted studies and the OryCun2.0 assembly and some new BAC clones with IGH sequences that can guide other studies to further sequence and improve the OryCun2.0 assembly. Complete knowledge of gene sequences encoding variable regions of rabbit heavy, kappa and lambda chains will lead to better understanding of how and why rabbits produce antibodies of high specificity and affinity through gene conversion and somatic hypermutation. PMID:23925440

  14. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)": Winds of the Evolved M Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program that collected a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R=30,000-100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the ASTRAL website at the University of Colorado at http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/ and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we examine the wealth of wind diagnostics contained in the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 III giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2 Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and characterize the winds at the time of these STIS observations in 2011 and compare the results with those obtained from more limited data taken at earlier epochs with HST/GHRS and IUE. In particular we study the variation of the numerous Fe II profiles with intrinsic strength in the two stars. The shifting wavelengths of the wind absorptions relative to the emission peaks and the changes in relative strengths of the emission peaks reflect the acceleration of the wind from the base of the chromosphere. Although the characteristics of the Gamma Cru wind are relatively stable with time, the Alpha Ori wind outflow appears significantly smaller than seen by Carpenter et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, 970) in GHRS observations taken in 1992 (and in earlier IUE observations). There might in fact be evidence in these STIS spectra that the outflow has turned into an inflow, as reported at epochs prior to IUE by Boesgaard and Magnan (1975 ApJ 198, 369) and Boesgaard (1979 ApJ 232, 485) based on a limited number of lines in the extreme blue end of ground-based spectra.

  15. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-03-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  16. Organochlorines and heavy metals in wild caught food as a potential human health risk to the indigenous Māori population of South Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael; Phillips, Ngaire R; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W; Tipa, Gail

    2011-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants in wild kai (food) of cultural, recreational and economic importance to the indigenous Māori of New Zealand is a potential human health risk. Contaminants that are known to bioaccumulate through the food chain (e.g., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PCBs and selected heavy metals) were analysed in important kai species including eel (Anguilla sp.), brown trout (Salmo trutta), black flounder (Rhombosolea retiaria) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) from important harvesting sites in the region of South Canterbury. Eels contained relatively high wet weight concentrations of p,p'-DDE (8.6-287ng/g), PCBs ((32)Σ(PCB); 0.53-58.3ng/g), dieldrin (<0.05-16.3ng/g) and Σchlordanes (0.03-10.6ng/g). Trout and flounder contained lower concentrations of organochlorines than eels, with p,p'-DDE wet weight concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 18.5ng/g for trout and 6.4 to 27.8ng/g for flounder. Total arsenic wet weight concentrations were below detection limits for eels but ranged from 0.27 to 0.89μg/g for trout and 0.12 to 0.56μg/g for flounder. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.56μg/g, 0.11 to 0.50μg/g and 0.04 to 0.10μg/g (ww) for eel, trout and flounder respectively. Lifetime excess cancer risk was calculated through established risk assessment procedures, highlighting dieldrin, ΣPCBs and p,p'-DDE in eels and arsenic in trout and flounder as primary contaminants of concern. A second non-cancer chronic health risk assessment indicated that mercury and PCBs were a potential concern in eels and mercury in trout. A cumulative lifetime cancer risk assessment showed potential health risk for consumption of some species, even at low consumption rates and provided the basis for establishing recommended dietary consumption limits for harvest sites within the study region. PMID:21402398

  17. [Noma/Cancrum oris: a neglected disease].

    PubMed

    García-Moro, Maria; García-Merino, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Angel; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-Sánchez, José Elías

    2015-10-01

    Noma is an aggressive orofacial gangrenous pathology that damages hard and soft tissues of the mouth and the face. Throughout the centuries it has been present around the globe, but nowadays it has practically disappeared from developed countries and mainly affects children from the most disadvantaged places, especially in Africa. Noma disease is a multifactorial process; malnutrition, debilitating diseases (bacterial or viral systemic diseases, HIV-associated immunosuppression, etc.) and intraoral infections are some of the factors implied. The characteristic tissue necrosis is produced by a polymicrobial infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacillus cereus, Trueperella pyogenes, spyrochetes, etc, are some of the species that have been isolated from the affected areas. Without treatment, noma is lethal in a short period of time, and the patients that survive show severe sequelae that hinder their life and interpersonal relationships. The aim of this paper is to unify the existing information and to promote wider knowledge and awareness among the population. PMID:26437752

  18. Learning about Inclusion by Listening to Ma¯ori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural and learning difficulties experienced by students from minoritised cultural groups often arise because their cultural beliefs, values and preferred practices differ markedly from those of their teachers and their school. Research in New Zealand has shown that if inclusive education is to have real meaning for these students and their…

  19. Microbiological understandings and mysteries of noma (cancrum oris).

    PubMed

    Falkler, W A; Enwonwu, C O; Idigbe, E O

    1999-04-01

    The microbiologic history of noma was reviewed. Studies have associated the disease process with large numbers of fusiform bacilli and spirochetal organisms. In order to study the microbiology of the staging and infection periods of noma 62 Nigerian children, aged 3-14 years, 22 children had acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) and were also malnourished, 20 exhibited no acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis but were malnourished and 20 were free of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and in good nutritional state) were evaluated for the presence of viruses and oral microorganisms. The ANUG cases in the malnourished children had a higher incidence of Herpesviridae, the main virus being detected was cytomegalovirus. There were more anaerobic microorganisms recovered, with Prevotella intermedia as the predominant isolate, in the malnourished children as compared to the healthy children. A study of the predominant microflora in active sites of noma lesions was carried out in eight noma patients, 3-15 years of age, in Sokoto State, northwestern Nigeria. Fusobacterium necrophorum was recovered from 87.5% of the noma lesions. Oral microorganisms isolated included Prevotella intermedia, alpha-hemolytic streptococci and Actinomyces spp. which were isolated from 75.0, 50.0 and 37.5% of the patients, respectively. Peptostreptococcus micros, Veillonella parvula, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp. were each recovered from one lesion. All strains were observed to be sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested with the exception of one strain of P. intermedia which showed resistance to penicillin. The pathogenic mechanisms of F. necrophorum as a trigger organism were discussed. The isolation from human noma lesions of F. necrophorum, a pathogen primarily associated with animal diseases, may have important etiologic and animal transmission implications. PMID:10522213

  20. Motor fuel additive and ori-inhibited motor fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a composition. It is obtained by reacting, at a temperature of 30{sup 0}C-200C 0.5-2.5 moles of one or more aliphatic carboxylic acids selected from the group consisting of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, pivalic, acrylic, propiolie, methacylic, crotonic, isocrfotonic, maleic and fumaric acid; and 0.5-1.5 moles of a polyoxyalkylene diamine.

  1. Functional organisation of corticonuclear pathways to motoneurones of lower facial muscles in man.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B U; Werhahn, K; Rothwell, J C; Roericht, S; Fauth, C

    1994-01-01

    EMG responses were recorded from lower facial muscles (depressor labii inferioris or depressor anguli oris) of 12 normal subjects after magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. Using a figure-of-eight stimulating coil, the largest responses were obtained from points around 8-10 cm lateral to the vertex. Usually they were bilateral and had the same latency (11-12 ms) on both sides of the face. Patients with complete Bell's palsy had no response in muscles on the same side as the lesion, indicating that the ipsilateral component to cortical stimulation was not the result of recrossing in the periphery of nerve fibres from the contralateral side. Single-unit studies showed that cortical stimulation produced two phases of motoneuronal facilitation: a short-latency (central motor delay from contralateral cortex to the intracranial portion of the facial nerve, 7.6 ms), short-duration (1- to 2-ms duration peak in the post-stimulus time histogram) input, which was more commonly evoked by contralateral than ipsilateral stimulation; and a longer latency (central delay > 15 ms), long-duration input evoked equally well from either hemisphere. The former may represent activity in a predominantly contralateral oligosynaptic corticobulbar pathway; the latter, a polysynaptic indirect (e.g. cortico-tegmento-nuclear) bilateral pathway to lower facial muscles. PMID:7851513

  2. Specificity of facelift surgery, including mid facelift, in case of facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Le Louarn, C

    2015-10-01

    The asymmetry created by the facial palsy is of course a cause of demand for facelift surgery. As this lifting action is specific and different from the standard procedures, 3 zones of analysis are proposed: first the frontal and temporal areas with the direct eyebrow lift, second the neck and jawline with action on the depressor anguli oris for the non-paralyzed side and the anterior sub SMAS dissection and third the midface. A new and more simple technique of concentric malar lift is proposed. The first publication on concentric malar lift was made 11years ago. Midface rejuvenation stays very challenging. As a proof of that, many authors prefer a partial rejuvenation of mid face with fat reinjection, with no effect on skin excess, even if all the MRI studies demonstrated no fat loss with time but only fat transfer. This proves that midface lift did not acquire enough simplicity, reliability to become a standard procedure. Six hundred concentric malar lift later, a technical simplification validated with 110 patients and 2years of follow-up is proposed. The improvement is due to a new way to pass the threads deeply on the bone, using permanent barbed sutures. This surgery becomes easier and more efficient. PMID:26384622

  3. Crossed linguo-buccal reflex in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Nagumo, K; Hirayama, K; Nakajima, Y; Takahashi, M

    2000-12-15

    A pathological crossed orofacial reflex, called crossed linguo-buccal reflex in the present study, was observed in approximately 1/3 of post-stroke patients with central facial palsy. Stroking with pressure two or three times with a split wooden tongue-blade to the tongue or palate contralateral to the central facial palsy elicited a reflex movement consisting of retraction of the angle of mouth and medio-posterior withdrawal of the buccal mucosa on the paretic side. Seventy-seven patients with central hemifacial palsy caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion were examined clinically, electromyographically and by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, three men with bilateral cerebral lesions and bilateral crossed linguo-buccal reflexes were electromyographically examined. Twenty-two patients with unilateral cerebral lesions had this reflex. It was found that this reflex was most frequently observed in patients with a capsulo-caudate lesion involving the head of the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb and genu of the internal capsule. The electromyogram of the reflex showed increased activity in the orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, risorius, zygomaticus major and buccinator muscles on the paretic side with a long latency (254-856 ms), and a prolonged after-discharge after the stimulation. Reciprocal inhibition was observed in patients with bilateral positive reflexes. These findings suggest that liberation of the polysynaptic brainstem reflex in the medulla oblongata and pons from the indirect corticobulbar inhibition may underlie the occurrence of the crossed linguo-buccal reflex in post-stroke patients. PMID:11102639

  4. Intraoperative blood loss during surgical treatment of low-rectal cancer by abdominosacral resection is higher than during extra-levator abdominosacral amputation of the rectum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Abdominosacral resection (ASR) usually required blood transfusions, which are virtually no longer in use in the modified abdominosacral amputation of the rectum (ASAR). The aim of this study was to compare the intra-operative bleeding in low-rectal patients subjected to ASR or ASAR. Material and methods The study included low-rectal cancer patients subjected to ASR (n = 114) or ASAR (n = 46) who were retrospectively compared in terms of: 1) the frequency of blood transfusions during surgery and up to 24 h thereafter; 2) the volume of intraoperative blood loss (ml of blood transfused) during surgery and up to 24 h thereafter; 3) hemoglobin concentrations (Hb) 1, 3 and 5 days after surgery; 4) the duration of hospitalization. Results Blood transfusions were necessary in 107 ASR patients but in none of those subjected to ASAR (p < 0.001). Median blood loss in the ASR group was 800 ml (range: 100–4500 ml). The differences between the groups in median Hb determined 1, 3 and 5 days following surgery were insignificant. The proportions of patients with abnormal values of Hb, however, were significantly higher in the ASR group on postoperative days 1 and 3 (day 1: 71.9% vs. 19.6% in the ASAR group, p = 0.025; day 3: 57.% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.009). Average postoperative hospitalization in ASR patients was 13 days compared to 9 days in the ASAR group (p = 0.031). Conclusions Abdominosacral amputation of the rectum predominates over ASR in terms of the prevention of intra- and postoperative bleeding due to the properly defined surgical plane in low-rectal cancer patients. PMID:24904664

  5. IncobotulinumtoxinA in aesthetics: Russian multidisciplinary expert consensus recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana; Gubanova, Elena; Khrustaleva, Irina; Atamanov, Vasiliy; Saybel, Anastasiya; Parsagashvili, Elena; Dmitrieva, Irina; Sanchez, Elena; Lapatina, Natalia; Korolkova, Tatiana; Saromytskaya, Alena; Goltsova, Elena; Satardinova, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    augmentation of glabellar lines, periorbital wrinkles, forehead lines, bunny lines, perioral wrinkles, depressor anguli oris, mentalis, masseters and platysmal bands, and performing the Nefertiti lift, are presented here. PMID:26089695

  6. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  7. Evidences for a large hot spot on the disk of Betelgeuse (α Ori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Le Bouquin, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Massive evolved stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. When they die as supernova but also through their mass loss during the several thousands of years of their red supergiant (RSG) phase. Unfortunately the mass loss mechanism remains poorly understood. Detailed study of the CSE and photosphere of nearby RSGs is required to constrain this scenario. Betelgeuse is the closest RSG (197 pc) and therefore has a large apparent diameter (~ 42 mas) which makes it a very interesting target. For several years, our team has lead a multi-wavelength and multi-scale observing program to characterize its mass loss. We will review here our recent results in near-infrared interferometry.

  8. Interstitial photodynamic therapy for cancers of cavum oris, skin, and cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chaoying; Yang, Dong; Wang, Kaihua; Cao, Qingqing

    1993-03-01

    Interstitial photodynamic therapy, in which the straight cut optical fiber was directly inserted into tumors and the insertion points were rationally arranged on an entire lesion area, was performed on 31 oral cancers, 6 skin cancers, and 4 cervix cancers in 41 patients. A highly satisfactory rate of complete response (90%) was obtained via only one treatment. And no severe complication occurred in any of the treatments. The follow-up record for 33 cases with a CR curative effect shows 12 cases have survived free of tumor more than 4 years and only 5 cases relapsed within a year. In this paper, the factors affecting therapeutic effectiveness and the selection of indication are discussed.

  9. Morphology of the Bearded Seal (Erignathus barbatus) Muscular-Vibrissal Complex: A Functional Model for Phocid Subambient Pressure Generation.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Bearded seals possess a broad muscular snout with large mystacial vibrissal fields that are involved in tactile sensation and prey identification. Although the microstructure of bearded seal vibrissae and their feeding performance have been investigated their orofacial morphology has not. Such morphological studies are important to understand the underlying mechanisms of feeding performance and to test proposed functional hypotheses. Therefore, the facial musculature was examined in bearded seals to test functional hypotheses regarding feeding performance. The orofacial musculature is composed primarily of three enlarged muscular layers, the M. levator nasolabialis, M. orbicularis oris, and M. buccinatorius (superficial), M. maxillonasolabialis (intermediate), and the M. lateralis nasi and M. dilator nasi (deep). The expansion of these muscles, the three dimensionality of the entire muscular array, the soft tissue insertions, and constant volume fit the model of a muscular hydrostat, and explains the detailed and varied mobility of their snout. An anastomosing network of CN VII innervates these facial muscles. The disproportionately large infraorbital nerve of CN V courses toward the snout and divides into numerous branches that penetrate the external capsule of every Follicle Sinus-Complex. The anatomical evidence support that the M. orbicularis oris, M. buccinatorius, and M. maxillonasolabialis form a robust lateral lip complex that can occluded lateral gape during subambient pressure generation. The rostral portion of the M. orbicularis oris, M. dilator nasi, and M. mentalis function to pursue the rostral lips to form a circular aperture important for projecting steep pressure gradients rostral to the lips for prey acquisition. Anat Rec, 299:1043-1053, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27257128

  10. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  11. A Biomechanical Modeling Study of the Effects of the Orbicularis Oris Muscle and Jaw Posture on Lip Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavness, Ian; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Demolin, Didier; Payan, Yohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' general aim is to use biomechanical models of speech articulators to explore how possible variations in anatomical structure contribute to differences in articulatory strategies and phone systems across human populations. Specifically, they investigated 2 issues: (a) the link between lip muscle anatomy and variability in…

  12. Structure de l'univers - quand l'observation guide la théorie... ou pas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    The scientific method is often presented, e.g. to children, as a linear process, starting by a question and ending by the elaboration of a theory, with a few experiments in-between. The reality of the building of science is much more complex, with back-and-forth motions between theories and observations, with some intervention of technology and randomness. This complex process is not always correctly understood and assimilated, even amongst scientists. The hero cult, mixed with some revisionism, still exists despite in-depth historical studies. In this context, it may be useful to comparatively examine the reaction to crucial observations, their interpretation and their impact on the contemporaneous theory development. Four examples are presented here, all linked to the question of the 'construction of the heavens' but at different epochs.

  13. Search for contact systems among EB-type binaries. IV - V375 Cas, UW Ori, DO Cas, RU ERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, F.; di Fiore, L.; Milano, L.; Pirozzi, L.; Russo, G.

    1992-12-01

    We present the analysis of the data of four EB-type eclipsing binaries, continuing our search for contact or almost contact systems. The Price algorithm has been used in conjunction to the Wilson-Devinney model to try to obtain, where possible, unambiguous solutions for all the systems.

  14. Allier théorie et pratique dans la lutte contre la pandémie du Sida

    PubMed Central

    Zerbo, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Le premier cas d'infection par le VIH a été notifié en 1986 au Burkina Faso. L'ignorance qui entourait cette infection et l'absence de traitement curatif a amplifié ses conséquences sociales et économiques. La mise en œuvre des interventions communautaire est un enjeu majeur actuel qui recommande la compréhension des logiques sociales endogènes qui influencent les comportements individuels et collectifs. C'est en cela que l'implication des sciences sociales dans la lutte contre les maladies, en particulier le Sida constitue un enjeu, en termes de définition et d'identification de leur contribution. Dans notre propos, nous pouvons mettre en évidence trois niveaux de contribution des sciences sociales, notamment la sociologie, l'anthropologie, la psychologie et dans une certaine mesure le droit et l’économie, à la prévention du Sida et la prise en charge des personnes infectées par le VIH. Il faut noter que ces disciplines contribuent à la lutte contre le VIH d'une part, par des réflexions et des éléments d'analyses constructives, et d'autre part, l'aptitude des porteurs de ces disciplines est parfois sollicitée pour l'efficacité de la mise en œuvre des actions et l'organisation des systèmes de soins. PMID:25722761

  15. Replication of a chimeric origin containing elements from Epstein-Barr virus ori P and bovine papillomavirus minimal origin.

    PubMed

    Kivimäe, S; Allikas, A; Kurg, R; Ustav, M

    2001-05-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E2 protein is a multifunctional protein that activates viral transcription, co-operates in initiation of viral DNA replication, and is required for long-term episomal maintenance of viral genomes. The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus is required for synthesis and maintenance of Epstein-Barr virus genomes. Both viral proteins act through direct interactions with their respective DNA sequences in their origins of replication. The chimeric protein E2:EBNA1, which consists of an transactivation domain of E2 and DNA binding domain of EBNA1 supported the replication of the chimeric origin that contained EBNA1 binding sites in place of the E2 binding sites principally as full-length E2 did in the case of papillomavirus minimal origin. This indicates that the chimeric protein E2:EBNA1 is competent to assemble a replication complex similar to the E2 protein. These data confirm the earlier observations that the only part of E2 specifically required for its activity in replication is the N-terminal activation domain and the function of the DNA binding domain of E2 in the initiation of replication is to tether the transactivation domain of E2 to the origin of replication. PMID:11311423

  16. Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a surgical tool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2008-02-01

    One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue. Stimulation and screening of the nerve is possible without making physical contact. The gerbil facial nerve was irradiated with 250-μs-long pulses of 2.12 μm radiation delivered via a 600-μm-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Muscle action potentials were recorded with intradermal electrodes. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71-1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3-0.4 mV, 0.15-1.4 mV and 0.3-2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2, but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2.

  17. The hunt for origins of DNA replication in multicellular eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Urban, John M.; Foulk, Michael S.; Casella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Origins of DNA replication (ORIs) occur at defined regions in the genome. Although DNA sequence defines the position of ORIs in budding yeast, the factors for ORI specification remain elusive in metazoa. Several methods have been used recently to map ORIs in metazoan genomes with the hope that features for ORI specification might emerge. These methods are reviewed here with analysis of their advantages and shortcomings. The various factors that may influence ORI selection for initiation of DNA replication are discussed. PMID:25926981

  18. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  19. Muscle phenotype remains unaltered after limb autotomy and unloading.

    PubMed

    Griffis, B; Moffett, S B; Cooper, R L

    2001-01-01

    Loss of chelipeds in crustaceans results in severe atrophy of the major muscle responsible for lifting the limb, the anterior levator. We decided to test if this loss of mechanical load altered muscle phenotype as measured by SDS-PAGE analysis of levator total protein and actomyosin fractions. Levator muscles of adult crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, with either functional regenerate limbs or lack of limb buds (papilla stage) were compared with those from normal contralateral limbs and those from pristine animals. We find that there is no difference in protein profiles among the three conditions. However, the total protein profile for the dually excited levator muscle is unique compared to those of fast or slow muscles of the abdomen (L and SEL, respectively), which receive only phasic or tonic excitatory innervation. The levator myosin heavy chain profile is similar to that of slow phenotype muscles such as the SEL and opener. We conclude that load does not influence levator phenotype. This is likely due either to the intact innervation and continued activation of the levator during atrophy or to the maintenance of passive tension on the muscle. J. Exp. Zool. 289:10-22, 2001. PMID:11169489

  20. Exercise and Shoulder Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... of four small muscles (known as the rotator cuff) and another five muscles that stabilize the scapula ( ... Adequate strength and endurance of both the rotator cuff and shoulder blade stabilizing muscles (trapezius, levator scapula, ...

  1. Foreign Objects in the Rectum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (Video) Appendicitis Additional Content Medical News Foreign Objects in the Rectum By Parswa Ansari, MD NOTE: ... Fissure Anal Itching Anorectal Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease ...

  2. The OECD program to validate the rat Hershberger bioassay to screen compounds for in vivo and androgen and antiandrogen responses: Phase-2 dose-response studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGN: The Hershberger bioassay is designed to identify suspected androgens and antiandrogens based on changes in the weights of five androgen-responsive tissues (ventral prostate, paired seminal vesicles and coagulating glands, the levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscles, the g...

  3. Régimes permanents bidimensionnels d'infiltration dans un sol cultivé et microirrigué, II. Comparaison de la théorie avec des mesures in-situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulier, J. F.; Vauclin, M.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental plot of 2500 m 2 in area has been cultivated and irrigated by line sources (trickle irrigation), in order to compare the theory presented in the first part of the paper with measurements during two years (sorghum, maize). In addition a stochastic-conceptual model taking into account the spatial variability of the soil hydraulic characteristics described by means of a scaling factor (according to porous media's similitude theory) is developed. Field-averages and variances of variables associated with the flow are calculated according to this model and compared with actual ones measured all over the field-plot. Fourteen sites equipped for measuring water content (neutron access tubes) and water pressure (tensiometers) are chosen in such a way that they represent the statistical distribution of a single parameter showing the textural variation in this loamy soil. The experimental results show that the steady-state approach is reasonable for water content on a weekly basis but is questionable for water pressure. Agreement between the deterministic model with a fitted water extraction model and the measurements at two sites is correct in the irrigated row and their differences, particularly in the driest parts of the soil, are discussed. The stochastic approach gives averaged water-content values close to the experimental ones but underestimates the variances, especially for sorghum. Although for this particular field plot deterministic modelling cannot be rejected as far as water content is concerned, the estimation of the mean behavior through tensiometric measurements seems rather risky.

  4. Métallurgie fondamentale et métallurgie numérique : l'héritage de Jacques Friedel dans la théorie de la plasticité des métaux et alliages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchet, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Jacques Friedel's contribution to the theory of plasticity is described, as well as the more recent developments it inspired. It involves the microscopic properties of dislocations as well as macroscopic effects. The evolution of fundamental metallurgy toward numerical metallurgy is discussed, and Friedel's point of view on numerical methods is analyzed.

  5. The Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of urban regeneration on young people and their families

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neil R; Clark, Charlotte; Fahy, Amanda E; Tharmaratnam, Vanathi; Lewis, Daniel J; Thompson, Claire; Renton, Adrian; Moore, Derek G; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Eldridge, Sandra; Petticrew, Mark; Greenhalgh, Tricia; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cummins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews suggest that there is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of large-scale urban regeneration programmes in improving health and well-being and alleviating health inequalities. The development of the Olympic Park in Stratford for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games provides the opportunity to take advantage of a natural experiment to examine the impact of large-scale urban regeneration on the health and well-being of young people and their families. Design and methods A prospective school-based survey of adolescents (11–12 years) with parent data collected through face-to-face interviews at home. Adolescents will be recruited from six randomly selected schools in an area receiving large-scale urban regeneration (London Borough of Newham) and compared with adolescents in 18 schools in three comparison areas with no equivalent regeneration (London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Barking & Dagenham). Baseline data will be completed prior to the start of the London Olympics (July 2012) with follow-up at 6 and 18 months postintervention. Primary outcomes are: pre–post change in adolescent and parent mental health and well-being, physical activity and parental employment status. Secondary outcomes include: pre–post change in social cohesion, smoking, alcohol use, diet and body mass index. The study will account for individual and environmental contextual effects in evaluating changes to identified outcomes. A nested longitudinal qualitative study will explore families’ experiences of regeneration in order to unpack the process by which regeneration impacts on health and well-being. Ethics and dissemination The study has approval from Queen Mary University of London Ethics Committee (QMREC2011/40), the Association of Directors of Children's Services (RGE110927) and the London Boroughs Research Governance Framework (CERGF113). Fieldworkers have had advanced Criminal Records Bureau clearance. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, national and international conferences, through participating schools and the study website (http://www.orielproject.co.uk). PMID:22936822

  6. 42 CFR 93.511 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative..., specification of disputes of fact and their materiality to the ORI findings of research misconduct and any...

  7. 42 CFR 93.511 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative..., specification of disputes of fact and their materiality to the ORI findings of research misconduct and any...

  8. 42 CFR 93.511 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative..., specification of disputes of fact and their materiality to the ORI findings of research misconduct and any...

  9. 42 CFR 93.511 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative..., specification of disputes of fact and their materiality to the ORI findings of research misconduct and any...

  10. 77 FR 40059 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Sinae Kim, Ph.D., Emory University: Based on the report of an investigation conducted by Emory University (EU) and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Sinae Kim, former Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Medicine, EU, engaged in research......

  11. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Matthew Poore, Advanced Liquid Logic Inc.: Based on the report of an inquiry conducted by Advanced Liquid Logic Inc. (Liquid Logic), the Respondent's admission, and additional analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Mr. Matthew Poore, former Technician, Liquid Logic, engaged in......

  12. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Mahesh Visvanathan, Research...

  13. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Calleen S. Zach, Creighton University: Based on evidence obtained from Creighton University (CU) and additional evidence gathered by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) during its oversight review, ORI found that Ms. Calleen S. Zach, former Research Assistant and Data Base......

  14. 76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Nicola Solomon, Ph.D., University of Michigan Medical School: Based on an investigation conducted by the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) and a preliminary analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Dr. Nicola Solomon, former postdoctoral scholar, Department of Human......

  15. 76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... Research Center: Based on the Respondent's acceptance of ORI's research misconduct findings, ORI found...

  16. Redefining bacterial origins of replication as centralized information processors

    PubMed Central

    Marczynski, Gregory T.; Rolain, Thomas; Taylor, James A.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we stress the differences between eukaryotes and bacteria with respect to their different cell cycles, replication mechanisms and genome organizations. One of the most basic and underappreciated differences is that a bacterial chromosome uses only one ori while eukaryotic chromosome uses multiple oris. Consequently, eukaryotic oris work redundantly in a cell cycle divided into separate phases: First inactive replication proteins assemble on eukaryotic oris, and then they await conditions (in the separate “S-phase”) that activate only the ori-bound and pre-assembled replication proteins. S-phase activation (without re-assembly) ensures that a eukaryotic ori “fires” (starts replication) only once and that each chromosome consistently duplicates only once per cell cycle. This precise chromosome duplication does not require precise multiple ori firing in S-phase. A eukaryotic ori can fire early, late or not at all. The single bacterial ori has no such margin for error and a comparable imprecision is lethal. Single ori usage is not more primitive; it is a totally different strategy that distinguishes bacteria. We further argue that strong evolutionary pressures created more sophisticated single ori systems because bacteria experience extreme and rapidly changing conditions. A bacterial ori must rapidly receive and process much information in “real-time” and not just in “cell cycle time.” This redefinition of bacterial oris as centralized information processors makes at least two important predictions: First that bacterial oris use many and yet to be discovered control mechanisms and second that evolutionarily distinct bacteria will use many very distinct control mechanisms. We review recent literature that supports both predictions. We will highlight three key examples and describe how negative-feedback, phospho-relay, and chromosome-partitioning systems act to regulate chromosome replication. We also suggest future studies and discuss

  17. Redefining bacterial origins of replication as centralized information processors.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, Gregory T; Rolain, Thomas; Taylor, James A

    2015-01-01

    In this review we stress the differences between eukaryotes and bacteria with respect to their different cell cycles, replication mechanisms and genome organizations. One of the most basic and underappreciated differences is that a bacterial chromosome uses only one ori while eukaryotic chromosome uses multiple oris. Consequently, eukaryotic oris work redundantly in a cell cycle divided into separate phases: First inactive replication proteins assemble on eukaryotic oris, and then they await conditions (in the separate "S-phase") that activate only the ori-bound and pre-assembled replication proteins. S-phase activation (without re-assembly) ensures that a eukaryotic ori "fires" (starts replication) only once and that each chromosome consistently duplicates only once per cell cycle. This precise chromosome duplication does not require precise multiple ori firing in S-phase. A eukaryotic ori can fire early, late or not at all. The single bacterial ori has no such margin for error and a comparable imprecision is lethal. Single ori usage is not more primitive; it is a totally different strategy that distinguishes bacteria. We further argue that strong evolutionary pressures created more sophisticated single ori systems because bacteria experience extreme and rapidly changing conditions. A bacterial ori must rapidly receive and process much information in "real-time" and not just in "cell cycle time." This redefinition of bacterial oris as centralized information processors makes at least two important predictions: First that bacterial oris use many and yet to be discovered control mechanisms and second that evolutionarily distinct bacteria will use many very distinct control mechanisms. We review recent literature that supports both predictions. We will highlight three key examples and describe how negative-feedback, phospho-relay, and chromosome-partitioning systems act to regulate chromosome replication. We also suggest future studies and discuss using replication

  18. Elevator Muscle Anterior Resection: A New Technique for Blepharoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zigiotti, Gian Luigi; Delia, Gabriele; Grenga, Pierluigi; Pichi, Francesco; Rechichi, Miguel; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; d'Alcontres, Francesco Stagno; Lupo, Flavia; Meduri, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Blepharoptosis is a condition of inadequate upper eyelid position, with a downward displacement of the upper eyelid margin resulting in obstruction of the superior visual field. Levator resection is an effective technique that is routinely used to correct aponeurotic ptosis. The anterior levator resection is the procedure of choice in moderate blepharoptosis when there is moderate to good levator muscle function, furthermore, with an anterior approach, a greater resection can be achieved than by a conjunctival approach. The authors describe a modification in the Putterman technique with a resection done over a plicated elevator, plication that was suggested by Mustardè. The technique has been named as elevator muscle anterior resection. The elevator muscle anterior resection inspires from the Fasanella-Servat operation by the use of a clamp, making the operation simple and predictable. PMID:26703054

  19. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  20. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  1. [Computerized tomography of the organs of the small pelvis in children with anorectal atresia].

    PubMed

    Sitkovskiĭ, N B; Babiĭ, Ia S; Kaplan, V M; Dan'shin, T I; Sil'chenko, M I; Bodnar', V V; Gbenu, A S

    1992-01-01

    In 12 children with the different forms of anorectal atresia, for studying the state of a sphincter apparatus of the rectum and assessment of quality of its bringing down into the perineum after proctoplasty, computerized tomography of the organs of a small pelvis was used. Underdeveloped and undifferentiated musculus levator ani in children with high anorectal atresia and fistula to the urinary bladder was revealed. The method permits to establish exact location of the intestine brought down relative to musculus levator ani and external anal sphincter. PMID:1518247

  2. Oridonin upregulates PTEN through activating p38 MAPK and inhibits proliferation in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Xiang; Yuan, Shuang-Xue; Ren, Chun-Mei; Yu, Yu; Sun, Wen-Juan; He, Bai-Cheng; Wu, Ke

    2016-06-01

    Oridonin (ORI) has been reported as an antiproliferation and apoptosis-inducing natural product in various cancer cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated the antiproliferation effect of ORI in HCT116 cells, and analyzed the possible molecular mechanism which mediates this effect. We found that ORI inhibits proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 cells, thus also tumor growth. Mechanically, we found that ORI has no substantial effect on mRNA expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), but increases the total protein level of PTEN and markedly reduces the phosphorylation of PTEN; Exogenous expression of PTEN potentiates the anticancer effect of ORI, while knockdown of PTEN attenuates it. ORI also increases the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor reduces the antiproliferation effect ORI in HCT116 cells. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK increases the phosphorylation of PTEN, and reverses ORI-induced decrease of PTEN phosphorylation. Our findings suggested that ORI may be a potential anticancer drug for colon cancer, this effect may be mediated by enhancing the function of PTEN through reducing its phosphorylation, which may be resulted from the ORI-induced activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:27108927

  3. Oridonin inhibits gefitinib-resistant lung cancer cells by suppressing EGFR/ERK/MMP-12 and CIP2A/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiangling; He, Zhongwei; Cao, Wei; Cai, Fen; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Qiuyue; Fan, Chunsheng; Duan, Chao; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Jiu; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Oridonin (Ori), a diterpenoid compound extracted from traditional medicinal herbs, elicits antitumor effects on many cancer types. However, whether Ori can be used in gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells remains unclear. This study investigated the antitumor activity and underlying mechanisms of Ori. Results demonstrated that this compound dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of the gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells in vitro. Ori also significantly downregulated the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK, Akt, expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), and the cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A). In addition, Ori upregulated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells. Ori combined with docetaxel synergistically inhibited these cells. Ori also inhibited tumor growth in murine models. Immunohistochemistry results further revealed that Ori downregulated phospho-EGFR, MMP-12, and CIP2A in vivo. These findings indicated that Ori can inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and migration of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells by suppressing EGFR/ERK/MMP-12 and CIP2A/PP2A/Akt signaling pathways. Thus, Ori may be a novel effective candidate to treat gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. PMID:27082429

  4. Genome-scale analysis of metazoan replication origins reveals their organization in specific but flexible sites defined by conserved features

    PubMed Central

    Cayrou, Christelle; Coulombe, Philippe; Vigneron, Alice; Stanojcic, Slavica; Ganier, Olivier; Peiffer, Isabelle; Rivals, Eric; Puy, Aurore; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Desprat, Romain; Méchali, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In metazoans, thousands of DNA replication origins (Oris) are activated at each cell cycle. Their genomic organization and their genetic nature remain elusive. Here, we characterized Oris by nascent strand (NS) purification and a genome-wide analysis in Drosophila and mouse cells. We show that in both species most CpG islands (CGI) contain Oris, although methylation is nearly absent in Drosophila, indicating that this epigenetic mark is not crucial for defining the activated origin. Initiation of DNA synthesis starts at the borders of CGI, resulting in a striking bimodal distribution of NS, suggestive of a dual initiation event. Oris contain a unique nucleotide skew around NS peaks, characterized by G/T and C/A overrepresentation at the 5′ and 3′ of Ori sites, respectively. Repeated GC-rich elements were detected, which are good predictors of Oris, suggesting that common sequence features are part of metazoan Oris. In the heterochromatic chromosome 4 of Drosophila, Oris correlated with HP1 binding sites. At the chromosome level, regions rich in Oris are early replicating, whereas Ori-poor regions are late replicating. The genome-wide analysis was coupled with a DNA combing analysis to unravel the organization of Oris. The results indicate that Oris are in a large excess, but their activation does not occur at random. They are organized in groups of site-specific but flexible origins that define replicons, where a single origin is activated in each replicon. This organization provides both site specificity and Ori firing flexibility in each replicon, allowing possible adaptation to environmental cues and cell fates. PMID:21750104

  5. The Chinese Hamster Dihydrofolate Reductase Replication Origin Beta Is Active at Multiple Ectopic Chromosomal Locations and Requires Specific DNA Sequence Elements for Activity

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Amy L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    To identify cis-acting genetic elements essential for mammalian chromosomal DNA replication, a 5.8-kb fragment from the Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus containing the origin beta (ori-β) initiation region was stably transfected into random ectopic chromosomal locations in a hamster cell line lacking the endogenous DHFR locus. Initiation at ectopic ori-β in uncloned pools of transfected cells was measured using a competitive PCR-based nascent strand abundance assay and shown to mimic that at the endogenous ori-β region in Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells. Initiation activity of three ectopic ori-β deletion mutants was reduced, while the activity of another deletion mutant was enhanced. The results suggest that a 5.8-kb fragment of the DHFR ori-β region is sufficient to direct initiation and that specific DNA sequences in the ori-β region are required for efficient initiation activity. PMID:11158297

  6. Multiple Lytic Origins of Replication Are Required for Optimal Gammaherpesvirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Christine; Steer, Beatrix; Adler, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved question in herpesvirus biology is why some herpesviruses contain more than one lytic origin of replication (oriLyt). Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as model virus containing two oriLyts, we demonstrate that loss of either of the two oriLyts was well tolerated in some situations but not in others both in vitro and in vivo. This was related to the cell type, the organ or the route of inoculation. Depending on the cell type, different cellular proteins, for example Hexim1 and Rbbp4, were found to be associated with oriLyt DNA. Overexpression or downregulation of these proteins differentially affected the growth of mutants lacking either the left or the right oriLyt. Thus, multiple oriLyts are required to ensure optimal fitness in different cell types and tissues. PMID:27007137

  7. Multiple Lytic Origins of Replication Are Required for Optimal Gammaherpesvirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Christine; Steer, Beatrix; Adler, Heiko

    2016-03-01

    An unresolved question in herpesvirus biology is why some herpesviruses contain more than one lytic origin of replication (oriLyt). Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as model virus containing two oriLyts, we demonstrate that loss of either of the two oriLyts was well tolerated in some situations but not in others both in vitro and in vivo. This was related to the cell type, the organ or the route of inoculation. Depending on the cell type, different cellular proteins, for example Hexim1 and Rbbp4, were found to be associated with oriLyt DNA. Overexpression or downregulation of these proteins differentially affected the growth of mutants lacking either the left or the right oriLyt. Thus, multiple oriLyts are required to ensure optimal fitness in different cell types and tissues. PMID:27007137

  8. 77 FR 76041 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Terry S. Elton, Ph.D., The Ohio State University: Based on the reports of two investigations conducted by The Ohio State University (OSU) and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Terry S. Elton, Professor, College of Pharmacy and Davis......

  9. 42 CFR 93.504 - Grounds for dismissal of a hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... research misconduct and any administrative actions, including debarment and suspension actions, in...

  10. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  11. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  12. 42 CFR 93.509 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  13. 42 CFR 93.512 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  14. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  15. 42 CFR 93.505 - Rights of the parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  16. 42 CFR 93.512 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  17. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  18. 42 CFR 93.504 - Grounds for dismissal of a hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... research misconduct and any administrative actions, including debarment and suspension actions, in...

  19. 42 CFR 93.505 - Rights of the parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  20. 42 CFR 93.509 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  1. 42 CFR 93.504 - Grounds for dismissal of a hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... research misconduct and any administrative actions, including debarment and suspension actions, in...

  2. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  3. 42 CFR 93.504 - Grounds for dismissal of a hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... research misconduct and any administrative actions, including debarment and suspension actions, in...

  4. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  5. 42 CFR 93.512 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  6. 42 CFR 93.512 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  7. Electromyography of the perineal striated muscles during cystometry.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, R L; Derluyn, J; Verduyn, H

    1975-01-01

    The electromyographic patterns of the external urethral sphincter, the anal sphincter, and the levator ani during cystometries have been analyzed. Synchronized activity changes occur during abdominal straining. Muscle fatigue is very pronounced. Activity may be less synchronized during bladder filling and micturition, even in normal cystometries. In neurogenic diseases, true dyssynergia between the striated muscles may be observed. PMID:1118953

  8. Palatal Activity in Voicing Distinctions: A Simultaneous Fiberoptic and Electromyographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Hirose, Hajime

    1975-01-01

    A study of electromyographic (EMG) activity and palatal movement is reported. Motion pictures were taken of the nasal surface of the soft palate and EMG recordings from the levator palatini muscle were obtained. Both were analyzed for the relationship of velar height to EMG strength and time. (SC)

  9. Effect of cleft palate repair on the susceptibility to contraction-induced injury of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenitally-clefted goat palates.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite cleft palate repair, velopharyngeal competence is not achieved in ~ 15% of patients, often necessitating secondary surgical correction. Velopharyngeal competence postrepair may require the conversion of levator veli palatini muscle fibers from injury-susceptible type 2 fibers to injury-resi...

  10. Contraction-induced injury to single permeabilized muscle fibers from normal and congenitally-clefted goat palates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine (LVP) muscle. It was determined that muscle fiber type, size, and sensitivity to contraction-induced injury was different between cleft palate ind...

  11. Contractile properties of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenital cleft palates and normal palates of Spanish goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine muscle. It was determined that the muscle fibers of the cleft palate-induced goats were primarily of the type 2 (fast fibers) which fatigue easil...

  12. The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goats Palates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cleft palate goat model was used to study the contractile properties of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle which is responsible for the movement of the soft palate. In 15-25% of patients that undergo palatoplasty, residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) remains a problem and often require...

  13. A Multi-Compartment 3-D Finite Element Model of Rectocele and Its Interaction with Cystocele

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiajia; Chen, Luyun; Fenner, Dee E.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a subject-specific 3-D finite element model to understand the mechanics underlying formation of female pelvic organ prolapse, specifically a rectocele and its interaction with a cystocele. The model was created from MRI 3-D geometry of a healthy 45 year-old multiparous woman. It included anterior and posterior vaginal walls, levator ani muscle, cardinal and uterosacral ligaments, anterior and posterior arcus tendineus fascia pelvis, arcus tendineus levator ani, perineal body, perineal membrane and anal sphincter. Material properties were mostly from the literature. Tissue impairment was modeled as decreased tissue stiffness based on previous clinical studies. Model equations were solved using Abaqus v 6.11. The sensitivity of anterior and posterior vaginal wall geometry was calculated for different combinations tissue impairments under increasing intraabdominal pressure. Prolapse size was reported as POP-Q point at point Bp for rectocele and point Ba for cystocele. Results show that a rectocele resulted from impairments of the levator ani and posterior compartment support. For 20% levator and 85% posterior support impairments, simulated rectocele size (at POP-Q point: Bp) increased 0.29 mm/cm H2O without apical impairment and 0.36 mm/cm H2O with 60% apical impairment, as intraabdominal pressures increased from 0 to 150 cm H2O. Apical support impairment could result in the development of either a cystocele or rectocele. Simulated repair of posterior compartment support decreased rectocele but increased a preexisting cystocele. We conclude that development of rectocele and cystocele depend on the presence of anterior, posterior, levator and/or or apical support impairments, as well as the interaction of the prolapse with the opposing compartment. PMID:25757664

  14. Transcription-dependent DNA transactions in the mitochondrial genome of a yeast hypersuppressive petite mutant.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, E; Clayton, D A

    1998-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains highly conserved sequences, called rep/ori, that are associated with several aspects of its metabolism. These rep/ori sequences confer the transmission advantage exhibited by a class of deletion mutants called hypersuppressive petite mutants. In addition, because they share features with the mitochondrial leading-strand DNA replication origin of mammals, rep/ori sequences have also been proposed to participate in mtDNA replication initiation. Like the mammalian origins, where transcription is used as a priming mechanism for DNA synthesis, yeast rep/ori sequences contain an active promoter. Although transcription is required for maintenance of wild-type mtDNA in yeast, the role of the rep/ori promoter as a cis-acting element involved in the replication of wild-type mtDNA is unclear, since mitochondrial deletion mutants need neither transcription nor a rep/ori sequence to maintain their genome. Similarly, transcription from the rep/ori promoter does not seem to be necessary for biased inheritance of mtDNA. As a step to elucidate the function of the rep/ori promoter, we have attempted to detect transcription-dependent DNA transactions in the mtDNA of a hypersuppressive petite mutant. We have examined the mtDNA of the well-characterized petite mutant a-1/1R/Z1, whose repeat unit shelters the rep/ori sequence ori1, in strains carrying either wild-type or null alleles of the nuclear genes encoding the mitochondrial transcription apparatus. Complex DNA transactions were detected that take place around GC-cluster C, an evolutionarily conserved GC-rich sequence block immediately downstream from the rep/ori promoter. These transactions are strictly dependent upon mitochondrial transcription. PMID:9566917

  15. Nonrandom minichromosome replication in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Koppes, L J; von Meyenburg, K

    1987-01-01

    The intervals between rounds of chromosome and minichromosome replication were measured by density shift experiments and found to be similar. Thus the minichromosome, a lambda asnA oriC bacteriophage, mostly replicates once each division cycle rather than randomly, despite its high copy number. Slight differences between the chromosome and the oriC plasmid are explained. PMID:2947900

  16. 48 CFR 731.205-70 - Overseas recruitment incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overseas recruitment... Organizations 731.205-70 Overseas recruitment incentive. Note: the term employee as used in this section means... recruitment incentive (ORI), to the extent the ORI: Is authorized by the contractor's normal policy...

  17. 42 CFR 93.108 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in research misconduct proceedings is limited, to the extent possible, to those who need to know, consistent with a thorough, competent, objective and fair research misconduct proceeding, and as allowed by... complainants to ORI pursuant to an ORI review of research misconduct proceedings under § 93.403. (2) Under §...

  18. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Pratima Karnik, Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University: Based on the admission of the Respondent, ORI found that Dr. Pratima Karnik, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research misconduct in research submitted to the......

  19. Multiple replication origins with diverse control mechanisms in Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Liu, Hailong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple replication origins in archaea is not well understood. In particular, little is known about their specific control mechanisms. Here, we investigated the active replication origins in the three replicons of a halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula hispanica, by extensive gene deletion, DNA mutation and genome-wide marker frequency analyses. We revealed that individual origins are specifically dependent on their co-located cdc6 genes, and a single active origin/cdc6 pairing is essential and sufficient for each replicon. Notably, we demonstrated that the activities of oriC1 and oriC2, the two origins on the main chromosome, are differently controlled. A G-rich inverted repeat located in the internal region between the two inverted origin recognition boxes (ORBs) plays as an enhancer for oriC1, whereas the replication initiation at oriC2 is negatively regulated by an ORB-rich region located downstream of oriC2-cdc6E, likely via Cdc6E-titrating. The oriC2 placed on a plasmid is incompatible with the wild-type (but not the ΔoriC2) host strain, further indicating that strict control of the oriC2 activity is important for the cell. This is the first report revealing diverse control mechanisms of origins in haloarchaea, which has provided novel insights into the use and coordination of multiple replication origins in the domain of Archaea. PMID:24271389

  20. Oridonin Attenuates Synaptic Loss and Cognitive Deficits in an Aβ1–42-Induced Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Li, Chaosheng; Hui, Zhen; Xu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic loss induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. In this study, we found that oridonin (Ori) rescued synaptic loss induced by Aβ1–42 in vivo and in vitro and attenuated the alterations in dendritic structure and spine density observed in the hippocampus of AD mice. In addition, Ori increased the expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin and promoted mitochondrial activity in the synaptosomes of AD mice. Ori also activated the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus of AD mice. Furthermore, in the Morris water maze test, Ori reduced latency and searching distance and increased the number of platform crosses in AD mice. These data suggest that Ori might prevent synaptic loss and improve behavioral symptoms in Aβ1–42-induced AD mice. PMID:26974541

  1. Oridonin Attenuates Synaptic Loss and Cognitive Deficits in an Aβ1-42-Induced Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sulei; Yu, Linjie; Yang, Hui; Li, Chaosheng; Hui, Zhen; Xu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic loss induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. In this study, we found that oridonin (Ori) rescued synaptic loss induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro and attenuated the alterations in dendritic structure and spine density observed in the hippocampus of AD mice. In addition, Ori increased the expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin and promoted mitochondrial activity in the synaptosomes of AD mice. Ori also activated the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus of AD mice. Furthermore, in the Morris water maze test, Ori reduced latency and searching distance and increased the number of platform crosses in AD mice. These data suggest that Ori might prevent synaptic loss and improve behavioral symptoms in Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. PMID:26974541

  2. Status of known T type sources towards the σ Orionis cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Ramirez, K.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Bejar, V. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the characterization of the three T type candidates (S Ori 70, S Ori 73, and S Ori J053804.65-021352.5) lying in the line of sight towards σ Orionis (˜3 Myr, ˜352 pc, solar metallicity) by means of near-infrared photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic studies. H-band methane images were collected for all three sources using the LIRIS instrument on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. J-band spectra of resolution ˜500 were obtained for S Ori J053804.65-021352.5 with the ISAAC spectrograph on the 8 m Very Large Telescope (VLT), and public low resolution (R˜50) JH spectra obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were employed for the spectroscopic classification of S Ori 70 and 73. Accurate proper motions with a typical uncertainty of ±3 mas yr^{-1} were derived using ancient images and new data collected with ISAAC/VLT and WFC3/HST. The three objects were spectroscopically classified as T4.5 ± 0.5 (S Ori 73), T5 ± 0.5 (S Ori J053804.65-021352.5), and T7^{+0.5}_{-1.0} (S Ori 70). These spectral types agree with the H-band methane colors. The proper motions of S Ori 70 and 73 are larger than that of the cluster by >4 σ. The proper motion of S Ori J053804.65-021352.5 is consistent with a null displacement during the time interval of 7.03 yr.

  3. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars). Methods Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Results Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14–15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. Māori responded to the new law with

  4. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes. PMID:27090084

  5. Surgically mismanaged ptosis associated with double elevator palsy.

    PubMed

    Callahan, M A

    1981-01-01

    The primary goal in mismanaged as well as untreated cases of combined double elevator muscle palsy and ptosis is alleviation of the paretic ocular motor imbalance to correct pseudoptosis, followed, if necessary, by levator resection to correct any residual true ptosis component. The great hypotropia often found in double elevator muscle palsy should be corrected, preferably by a muscle transposition procedure combined, in certain cases, with inferior rectus muscle recession if the inferior rectus muscle has contracted. Only in young patients can these two surgical procedures be safely combined, particularly if it is desirable to decrease the number of general anesthetics that the patient must take. Only after proper management of the paretic strabismus should the levator be resected, because, in certain cases, extraocular muscle surgery will completely abolish the upper lid ptosis. PMID:7458735

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasound appearance of pelvic floor in nulliparous women and pelvic organ prolapse women.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tao; Li, Qin; Xu, Lian; Liu, Feifei; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP) women using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72%) cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36%) cases and the pelvic organs arranged abnormally in 23 (46%) cases. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor in POP women who presented with abnormalities in the morphology and structure of pelvic floor. PMID:23155363

  7. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tao; Li, Qin; Xu, Lian; Liu, Feifei; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP) women using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72%) cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36%) cases and the pelvic organs arranged abnormally in 23 (46%) cases. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor in POP women who presented with abnormalities in the morphology and structure of pelvic floor. PMID:23155363

  8. Testosterone enhances C-14 2-deoxyglucose uptake by striated muscle. [sex hormones and muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toop, J.; Max, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of testosterone propionate (TP) on C-14 2-deoxyglucose (C-14 2DG) uptake was studied in the rat levator ani muscle in vivo using the autoradiographic technique. Following a delay of 1 to 3 h after injecting TP, the rate of C-14 2DG uptake in experimental animals began to increase and continued to increase for at least 20 h. The label, which corresponds to C-14 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate, as demonstrated by chromatographic analysis of muscle extracts, was uniformly distributed over the entire muscle and was predominantly in muscle fibers, although nonmuscular elements were also labeled. The 1 to 3 h time lag suggests that the TP effect may be genomic, acting via androgen receptors, rather than directly on muscle membranes. Acceleration of glucose uptake may be an important early event in the anabolic response of the rat levator ani muscle to androgens.

  9. Identification and comparative oridonin metabolism in different species liver microsomes by using UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS and PCA.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinghua; Xie, Weiwei; Tian, Tingting; Jin, Yiran; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Kerong; Du, Yingfeng

    2016-10-15

    Oridonin (ORI) is an active natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid ingredient with notable anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities. Currently, a strategy was developed to identify metabolites and to assess the metabolic profiles of ORI in vitro using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Triple/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS). Meanwhile, the metabolism differences of ORI in the liver microsomes of four different species were investigated using a principal component analysis (PCA) based on the metabolite absolute peak area values as the variables. Based on the proposed methods, 27 metabolites were structurally characterized. The results indicate that ORI is universally metabolized in vitro, and the metabolic pathway mainly includes dehydration, hydroxylation, di-hydroxylation, hydrogenation, decarboxylation, and ketone formation. Overall, there are obvious inter-species differences in types and amounts of ORI metabolites in the four species. These results will provide basic data for future pharmacological and toxicological studies of ORI and for other ent-kauranes diterpenoids. Meanwhile, studying the ORI metabolic differences helps to select the proper animal model for further pharmacology and toxicological assessment. PMID:27503750

  10. EBV latency types adopt alternative chromatin conformations.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Italo; Klichinsky, Michael; Lieberman, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp) or type III (Cp) gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer. PMID:21829357

  11. Inhibition of structural changes in the simian virus 40 core origin of replication by mutation of essential origin sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, J A

    1992-01-01

    Mutation of the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of replication (ori) has revealed the presence of three critical domains needed for DNA replication. The outer two domains, the AT tract and early palindrome element (EP), colocalize with DNA regions that become structurally altered in the presence of the SV40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) and ATP. Mutations within each domain were examined for their effect on the distortion of ori DNA by T antigen, as assayed by the sensitivity of DNA to KMnO4 oxidation. We have found that mutations in the AT tract that inhibit SV40 DNA replication also inhibit the distortion of the AT tract. Similarly, mutations in the EP inhibited the generation of structural changes in this element by T antigen. Although AT-tract mutations or mutations on the late side of ori affected structural changes only in the AT tract, certain EP mutations or mutations on the early side of ori also inhibited AT-tract distortion. Mutation of the flanking regions did not significantly affect either the affinity of T antigen for ori or the rate of binding to ori. We conclude from these results that the primary function of the flanking ori domains is to undergo structural changes required during the initiation of SV40 DNA replication. Moreover, our results suggest that the efficiency of replication initiation is significantly affected by the degree to which the flanking elements undergo a structural transition. Images PMID:1323692

  12. Second outburst phase of a young eruptive star V1647 Orionis (McNeil's nebula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Mallick, K. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Joshi, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    Young low mass stars still embedded in dust and molecular gas pass through a stage of outbursts. These outbursts are due to sudden increase in accretion rate from the inner disc. V1647 Orionis underwent an FU Ori kind of outburst in 2004 and returned to its pre-outburst phase in early 2006. Within just 2 years it again underwent a second outburst in 2008; such an event is rarely seen in FU Ori type of outburst. We therefore followed the source in its second outburst phase from 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) and 2-m IUCAA Girawali Observatory (IGO) Telescope. Our optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometric data show that the source is undergoing a slow but steady dimming of ˜ 0.3 - 0.5 mag since the recent second outburst. It seems that the observed properties of the outburst of V1647 Ori are different from both the EX Ori and FU Ori type of outbursts, and suggest that this star probably represents a new type of eruptive young star, to be different from both FU Ori and EX Ori classes.

  13. Identification of metabolites of oridonin in rats with a single run on UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS system based on multiple mass defect filter data acquisition and multiple data processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tingting; Jin, Yiran; Ma, Yinghua; Xie, Weiwei; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Kerong; Zhang, Lantong; Du, Yingfeng

    2015-12-01

    Oridonin (ORI) is an active natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid ingredient originating from well-known traditional Chinese herb medicine and is expected to be pursued as a new anticancer agent. In the present study, a novel and efficient approach was developed for in vivo screening and identification of ORI metabolites using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS). This analytical strategy was as follows: an effective on-line data acquisition method multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) combined with dynamic background subtraction (DBS), was developed to trace all of potential metabolites of ORI. The MMDF and DBS method could trigger an information dependent acquisition scan, which could give the information of low-level metabolites masked by background noise and endogenous components in complex matrix. Moreover, the sensitive and specific multiple data-mining techniques including extracted ion chromatography, mass defect filtering, product ion filtering and neutral loss filtering were employed to identify the metabolites of ORI. Then, structures for the metabolites were successfully assigned based on accurate masses, the mass fragmentation of ORI and metabolic knowledge. Finally, an important parameter Clog P was used to estimate the retention time of isomers. Based on the proposed strategy, 16 phase I and 2 phase II metabolites were detected in rats after oral administration of ORI. The main biotransformation route of ORI was identified as reduction, oxidation, dehydroxylation and glucuronic acid conjugation. This is the first study of ORI metabolism in vivo. This study not only proposed a practical strategy for rapidly screening and identifying metabolites, but also provided useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of ORI in vivo. At the same time this methodology can be widely applied for the structural characterization of the metabolites

  14. CHANDRA REVEALS VARIABLE MULTI-COMPONENT X-RAY EMISSION FROM FU ORIONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Guedel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2010-10-20

    FU Orionis is the prototype of a class of eruptive young stars ('FUors') characterized by strong optical outbursts. We recently completed an exploratory survey of FUors using XMM-Newton to determine their X-ray properties, about which little was previously known. The prototype FU Ori and V1735 Cyg were detected. The X-ray spectrum of FU Ori was found to be unusual, consisting of a cool moderately absorbed component plus a hotter component viewed through an absorption column density that is an order of magnitude higher. We present here a sensitive (99 ks) follow-up X-ray observation of FU Ori obtained at higher angular resolution with Chandra ACIS-S. The unusual multi-component spectrum is confirmed. The hot component is centered on FU Ori and dominates the emission above 2 keV. It is variable (a signature of magnetic activity) and is probably coronal emission originating close to FU Ori's surface viewed through cool gas in FU Ori's strong wind or accretion stream. In contrast, the X-ray centroid of the soft emission below 2 keV is offset 0.''20 to the southeast of FU Ori, toward the near-IR companion (FU Ori S). This offset amounts to slightly less than half the separation between the two stars. The most likely explanation for the offset is that the companion contributes significantly to the softer X-ray emission below 2 keV (and weakly above 2 keV). The superimposed X-ray contributions from FU Ori and the companion resolve the paradox posed by XMM-Newton of an apparently single X-ray source viewed through two different absorption columns.

  15. The Dilator Naris Muscle as a Reporter of Facial Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Julie S.; Kleiss, Ingrid J.; Knox, Christopher J.; Heaton, James T.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many investigators study facial nerve regeneration using the rat whisker pad model, though widely standardized outcomes measures of facial nerve regeneration in the rodent have not yet been developed. The intrinsic whisker pad “sling” muscles producing whisker protraction, situated at the base of each individual whisker, are extremely small and difficult to study en bloc. Here, we compare the functional innervation of two potential reporter muscles for whisker pad innervation: the dilator naris and the levator labii superioris, to characterize facial nerve regeneration. Methods Motor supply of the dilator naris and levator labii superioris was elucidated by measuring contraction force and compound muscle action potentials during stimulation of individual facial nerve branches, and by measuring whisking amplitude before and after dilator naris distal tendon release. Results The pattern of dilator naris innervation matched that of the intrinsic whisker pad musculature (i.e. via the buccal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve), whereas the levator labii superioris appeared to be innervated almost entirely by the zygomatic branch, whose primary target is the orbicularis oculi muscle. Conclusion While the levator labii superioris has been commonly used as a reporter muscle of whisker pad innervation, the present data show that its innervation pattern does not overlap substantially with the muscles producing whisker protraction. The dilator naris muscle may serve as a more appropriate reporter for whisker pad innervation because it is innervated by the same facial nerve branches as the intrinsic whisker pad musculature, making structure\\function correlations more accurate, and more relevant to investigators studying facial nerve regeneration. PMID:25643189

  16. Pubic Bone Injuries after First Childbirth: Utility of MR in detection and differential diagnosis of structural injury

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Catherine; Jacobson, Jon A.; Low, Lisa Kane; Park, Lee; DeLancey, John; Miller, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate utility of MR in diagnosing structural injury in primiparous women with pelvic floor injury risks. Methods Observational study of 77 women with 3T MR imaging after delivery. Women (n=45) were operationally defined as High Risk for levator ani muscle tears (2nd stage labor> 150 minutes, anal sphincter tear, forceps, age> 35, birth weight > 4000 grams) or Low Risk (n=32): vaginally delivered without these risk factors (n=12); delivered by cesarean after 2nd stage labor >150 minutes (n=14), and cesarean without labor (n=6). All women were imaged using MR fluid sensitive sequences. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed images for bone marrow edema, fracture, pubic symphysis measurements, and levator ani tear. Results MR imaging showed pubic bone fractures in 38% of women at High Risk and 13% of at Low Risk for pelvic floor injury (χ2(3)= 9.27, p=0.03). Levator ani muscle tears were present in 44% of the High Risk and 9% of Low Risk women (X2(3)=11.57, p=0.010). Bone marrow edema in the pubic bones was present in 61% of women studied across delivery categories. Complex patterns of injury included combinations of bone marrow edema, fractures, levator ani tears and pubic symphysis injuries. No MR documented injuries were present in 18% of women at High Risk and 44% at Low Risk (χ2(1)=6.2, p=.013). Conclusions Criteria identifying primiparous women at risk for pelvic floor injury can predict increased risk of bone and soft tissues changes at the pubic symphysis. Fluid sensitive MR imaging has utility for differential diagnosis of structural injury in postpartum women. PMID:21728205

  17. Normative Velopharyngeal Data in Infants: Implications for Treatment of Cleft Palate.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Graham C; Perry, Jamie L; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-09-01

    Identifying normative data related to velopharyngeal muscles and structures may have clinical significance for infants born with cleft palate, especially as they relate to selection of surgical intervention and postsurgical outcomes. Previous studies suggest that patients whose anatomy postsurgically is dissimilar to that of their normative counterparts are at risk for hypernasal speech. However, studies have not documented what constitutes "normal" anatomy for the clinically relevant population-that is, the infant population. The purpose of this study is to examine a magnetic resonance imaging database (n = 29) related to normative velopharyngeal structures and provide a preliminary comparison to 2 selected patients with repaired cleft palate. Twenty-nine healthy infants between 9 and 23 months of age (mean = 15.2 months) with normal craniofacial and velopharyngeal anatomy were recruited to participate in this study. Normative data were compared to 2 infants with repaired cleft palate between 13 and 15 months of age (mean = 14 months). Quantitative craniometric and velopharyngeal measures from the sagittal and oblique coronal image planes were collected. Variables of interest included: levator muscle, velar, and craniometric measures. Females demonstrated significantly larger intravelar segments compared with males. White infants demonstrated significantly larger levator muscles compared to non-white infants. Infants with repaired cleft palate demonstrated increased overall levator muscle length and levator extravelar length compared with infants with normal velopharyngeal anatomy.Data from the present study provide a normative database for future investigators to utilize as a comparative tool when evaluating infants with normal and abnormal velopharyngeal anatomy. PMID:27607114

  18. Historical model for editor and Office of Research Integrity cooperation in handling allegations, investigation, and retraction in a contentious (Abbs) case of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan R; Daroff, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between a journal editor and the federal Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in addressing investigations of research misconduct, each performing their own responsibilities while keeping each other informed of events and evidence, can be critical to the professional and regulatory resolution of a case. This paper describes the history of one of ORI's most contentious investigations that involved falsification of research on Parkinson's disease patients by James Abbs, Professor of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, published in the journal Neurology, which was handled cooperatively by the authors, who were the chief ORI investigator and the Editor-in-Chief of Neurology, respectively. PMID:25397599

  19. GW Orionis: Inner disk readjustments in a triple system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Roccatagliata, V.; Fedele, D.; Henning, Th.; Eiroa, C.; Müller, A.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Disks are expected to dissipate quickly in binary or multiple systems. Investigating such systems can improve our knowledge of the disk dispersal. The triple system GW Ori, still harboring a massive disk, is an excellent target. Aims: We study the young stellar system GW Ori, concentrating on its accretion, wind activity and disk properties. Methods: We use high-resolution optical spectra of GW Ori to do spectral classification and derive the radial velocities (RV). We analyze the wind and accretion activity using the emission lines in the spectra. We also use U-band photometry, which has been collected from the literature, to study the accretion variability of GW Ori. We characterize the disk properties of GW Ori by modeling its spectral energy distribution (SED). Results.By comparing our data to the synthetical spectra, we classify GW Ori as a G8 star. Based on the RVs derived from the optical spectra, we confirm the previous result as a close companion in GW Ori with a period of ~242 days and an orbital semi-major axis of ~1 AU. The RV residuals after the subtraction of the orbital solution with the equivalent widths (EW) of accretion-related emission lines vary with periods of 5-6.7 days during short-time intervals, which are caused by the rotational modulation. The Hα and Hβ line profiles of GW Ori can be decomposed in two central-peaked emission components and one blue-shifted absorption component. The blue-shifted absorption components are due to a disk wind modulated by the orbital motion of the close companion. Therefore, the systems like GW Ori can be used to study the extent of disk winds. We find that the accretion rates of GW Ori are rather constant but can occasionally be enhanced by a factor of 2-3. We reproduce the SED of GW Ori by using disk models with gaps ~25-55 AU in size. A small population of tiny dust particles within the gap produces the excess emission at near-infrared bands and the strong and sharp silicate feature at 10

  20. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Postpartum Women One Week after Their First Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifei; Xu, Lian; Ying, Tao; Tao, Junjia; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 95 postpartum women (47 vaginal delivery, 48 Cesarean section) using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. All the primiparae underwent ultrasound examination within one week after their first delivery. Volume datasets were acquired and analyzed to determine the alterations of levator hiatus after childbirth. Significant differences were observed in the levator hiatus of postpartum women compared with that of nullipara women. In postpartum women, the levator hiatus, with their dimensions increased, expanded into a circular shape. Puborectalis was avulsed in eight cases (accounting for 8.42% of all) and pelvic organ prolapse was found in 12 cases (accounting for 12.63%). The hiatal dimensions were larger and the incidence of pubrectalis muscle avulsion (17.02% vs. 0%) and pelvic organ prolapse (21.28% vs. 4.17%) was significantly higher in Vaginal delivery group than Cesarean section group. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor of postpartum women who present with morphological abnormalities, and such abnormalities are more likely to show in vaginal delivery women compared to Cesarean section. PMID:24522119

  1. Anococcygeal Raphe Revisited: A Histological Study Using Mid-Term Human Fetuses and Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated the morphology of the anococcygeal ligament. As the anococcygeal ligament and raphe are often confused, the concept of the anococcygeal raphe needs to be re-examined from the perspective of fetal development, as well as in terms of adult morphology. Materials and Methods We examined the horizontal sections of 15 fetuses as well as adult histology. From cadavers, we obtained an almost cubic tissue mass containing the dorsal wall of the anorectum, the coccyx and the covering skin. Most sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson-trichrome solution. Results The adult ligament contained both smooth and striated muscle fibers. A similar band-like structure was seen in fetuses, containing: 1) smooth muscle fibers originating from the longitudinal muscle coat of the anal canal and 2) striated muscle fibers from the external anal sphincter (EAS). However, in fetuses, the levator ani muscle did not attach to either the band or the coccyx. Along and around the anococcygeal ligament, we did not find any aponeurotic tissue with transversely oriented fibers connecting bilateral levator ani slings. Instead, in adults, a fibrous tissue mass was located at a gap between bilateral levator ani slings; this site corresponded to the dorsal side of the ligament and the EAS in the immediately deep side of the natal skin cleft. Conclusion We hypothesize that a classically described raphe corresponds to the specific subcutaneous tissue on the superficial or dorsal side of the anococcygeal ligament. PMID:22665356

  2. Three-dimensional ultrasound appearance of pelvic floor in nulliparous women and postpartum women one week after their first delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Xu, Lian; Ying, Tao; Tao, Junjia; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 95 postpartum women (47 vaginal delivery, 48 Cesarean section) using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. All the primiparae underwent ultrasound examination within one week after their first delivery. Volume datasets were acquired and analyzed to determine the alterations of levator hiatus after childbirth. Significant differences were observed in the levator hiatus of postpartum women compared with that of nullipara women. In postpartum women, the levator hiatus, with their dimensions increased, expanded into a circular shape. Puborectalis was avulsed in eight cases (accounting for 8.42% of all) and pelvic organ prolapse was found in 12 cases (accounting for 12.63%). The hiatal dimensions were larger and the incidence of pubrectalis muscle avulsion (17.02% vs. 0%) and pelvic organ prolapse (21.28% vs. 4.17%) was significantly higher in Vaginal delivery group than Cesarean section group. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor of postpartum women who present with morphological abnormalities, and such abnormalities are more likely to show in vaginal delivery women compared to Cesarean section. PMID:24522119

  3. The Relationship Between Oxygen Reserve Index and Arterial Partial Pressure of Oxygen During Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dorotta, Ihab L.; Wells, Briana; Juma, David; Applegate, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of intraoperative pulse oximetry (Spo2) enhances hypoxia detection and is associated with fewer perioperative hypoxic events. However, Spo2 may be reported as 98% when arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) is as low as 70 mm Hg. Therefore, Spo2 may not provide advance warning of falling arterial oxygenation until Pao2 approaches this level. Multiwave pulse co-oximetry can provide a calculated oxygen reserve index (ORI) that may add to information from pulse oximetry when Spo2 is >98%. This study evaluates the ORI to Pao2 relationship during surgery. METHODS: We studied patients undergoing scheduled surgery in which arterial catheterization and intraoperative arterial blood gas analysis were planned. Data from multiple pulse co-oximetry sensors on each patient were continuously collected and stored on a research computer. Regression analysis was used to compare ORI with Pao2 obtained from each arterial blood gas measurement and changes in ORI with changes in Pao2 from sequential measurements. Linear mixed-effects regression models for repeated measures were then used to account for within-subject correlation across the repeatedly measured Pao2 and ORI and for the unequal time intervals of Pao2 determination over elapsed surgical time. Regression plots were inspected for ORI values corresponding to Pao2 of 100 and 150 mm Hg. ORI and Pao2 were compared using mixed-effects models with a subject-specific random intercept. RESULTS: ORI values and Pao2 measurements were obtained from intraoperative data collected from 106 patients. Regression analysis showed that the ORI to Pao2 relationship was stronger for Pao2 to 240 mm Hg (r2 = 0.536) than for Pao2 over 240 mm Hg (r2 = 0.0016). Measured Pao2 was ≥100 mm Hg for all ORI over 0.24. Measured Pao2 was ≥150 mm Hg in 96.6% of samples when ORI was over 0.55. A random intercept variance component linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures indicated that Pao2 was significantly related to ORI

  4. Towards an indigenous science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    1996-06-01

    The recent development of a national science curriculum in Māori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous Māori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how Māori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects Māori culture and language.

  5. 78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Manager, DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL), SAIC-Frederick, Inc., the Operations and Technical..., ORI found that Respondent fabricated the quantitative and qualitative data for RNA and DNA...

  6. 42 CFR 93.516 - Standard and burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative... findings of research misconduct. The destruction, absence of, or respondent's failure to provide research records adequately documenting the questioned research is evidence of research misconduct where...

  7. 42 CFR 93.513 - Submission of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.513 Submission of witness...

  8. 42 CFR 93.516 - Standard and burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative... findings of research misconduct. The destruction, absence of, or respondent's failure to provide research records adequately documenting the questioned research is evidence of research misconduct where...

  9. 42 CFR 93.25 - Organization of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 93.25 Organization of this part. This part is subdivided into five subparts. Each... Research Integrity. E Information on how to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS...

  10. 42 CFR 93.514 - Amendment to the charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... findings of research misconduct up to 30 days before the scheduled hearing. (b) The ALJ may...

  11. 42 CFR 93.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General... Office of Research Integrity (ORI), and institutions in responding to research misconduct issues; (b) Define what constitutes misconduct in PHS supported research; (c) Define the general types...

  12. 42 CFR 93.514 - Amendment to the charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... findings of research misconduct up to 30 days before the scheduled hearing. (b) The ALJ may...

  13. 42 CFR 93.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General... Office of Research Integrity (ORI), and institutions in responding to research misconduct issues; (b) Define what constitutes misconduct in PHS supported research; (c) Define the general types...

  14. 42 CFR 93.513 - Submission of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.513 Submission of witness...

  15. 42 CFR 93.523 - The Administrative Law Judge's ruling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... accordance with 45 CFR 76.845(c). The decision of the debarring official on debarment or suspension is...

  16. 42 CFR 93.515 - Actions for violating an order or for disruptive conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.515 Actions for violating an order or...

  17. 42 CFR 93.515 - Actions for violating an order or for disruptive conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.515 Actions for violating an order or...

  18. 42 CFR 93.523 - The Administrative Law Judge's ruling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... accordance with 45 CFR 76.845(c). The decision of the debarring official on debarment or suspension is...

  19. 42 CFR 93.523 - The Administrative Law Judge's ruling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... accordance with 45 CFR 76.845(c). The decision of the debarring official on debarment or suspension is...

  20. 42 CFR 93.515 - Actions for violating an order or for disruptive conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.515 Actions for violating an order or...

  1. 42 CFR 93.513 - Submission of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.513 Submission of witness...

  2. 42 CFR 93.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General... Office of Research Integrity (ORI), and institutions in responding to research misconduct issues; (b) Define what constitutes misconduct in PHS supported research; (c) Define the general types...

  3. 42 CFR 93.516 - Standard and burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative... findings of research misconduct. The destruction, absence of, or respondent's failure to provide research records adequately documenting the questioned research is evidence of research misconduct where...

  4. 42 CFR 93.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General... Office of Research Integrity (ORI), and institutions in responding to research misconduct issues; (b) Define what constitutes misconduct in PHS supported research; (c) Define the general types...

  5. 42 CFR 93.25 - Organization of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 93.25 Organization of this part. This part is subdivided into five subparts. Each... Research Integrity. E Information on how to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS...

  6. 42 CFR 93.514 - Amendment to the charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... findings of research misconduct up to 30 days before the scheduled hearing. (b) The ALJ may...

  7. 42 CFR 93.515 - Actions for violating an order or for disruptive conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.515 Actions for violating an order or...

  8. 42 CFR 93.514 - Amendment to the charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... findings of research misconduct up to 30 days before the scheduled hearing. (b) The ALJ may...

  9. 42 CFR 93.523 - The Administrative Law Judge's ruling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS... accordance with 45 CFR 76.845(c). The decision of the debarring official on debarment or suspension is...

  10. 42 CFR 93.513 - Submission of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.513 Submission of witness...

  11. 42 CFR 93.516 - Standard and burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative... findings of research misconduct. The destruction, absence of, or respondent's failure to provide research records adequately documenting the questioned research is evidence of research misconduct where...

  12. Circumstellar grain formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draine, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Dust formation around cool giant and supergiant stars is examined in terms of grain formulation. Optical properties of small clusters, molecular physics of cluster nucleation and growth, circumstellar mass flows, and their application to alpha Ori are discussed.

  13. A Comparative Study of Normalization Methods Used in Statistical Analysis of Oligonucleotide Microarray Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normalization methods used in the statistical analysis of oligonucleotide microarray data were evaluated. The oligonucleotide microarray is considered an efficient analytical tool for analyzing thousands of genes simultaneously in a single experiment. However, systematic variation in microarray, ori...

  14. Morphofunctional changes of orofacial muscles in patients with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate.

    PubMed

    Proff, Peter; Weingärtner, Jens; Koppe, Thomas; Fanghänel, Jochen; Mack, Florian; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The facial musculature is part of a biocybernetic feedback system within the stomatognathic system, the continuity of which is disturbed by clefts of the lip, jaw, and palate (cheilognathopalatoschisis). This results in topographic, fine-structural and functional alterations of the facial musculature. In two heads with unilateral clefts and two heads with bilateral clefts, the facial musculature was dissected and the M. orbicularis oris macroscopically and topographically examined. We found changes in the attachment of the M. orbicularis oris. The modiolus, which is coresponsible for the proper topographic relation of the M. obicularis oris to the other facial muscles, was unchanged. Further, we examined the vascular system of the muscle, which likewise adapts to the altered situation. Lip/jaw/palatal clefts result in anatomically functional and fine-structural alterations of the M. orbicularis oris, while the rest of the facial musculature remains unchanged. PMID:17419554

  15. Complainant issues in research misconduct: the office of research integrity experience.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Chris B

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the experiences of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) with issues involving complainants who make allegations of research misconduct. The paper describes the legal framework for complainant issues, the various roles of the complainant as the allegation of misconduct proceeds through the steps of investigation and resolution, how allegations of retaliation against the complainant are handled, the responsibilities of ORI and of the research institution where the alleged misconduct occurred, and ORI's experience with several cases of alleged retaliation. In each of these areas, the paper attempts to provide guidance to prospective complainants, research institutions, and other interested persons on effective ways to approach the various problems and concerns that arise, while maintaining a balance between the needs of the complainant, the accused, the research institution handling the allegation, and ORI. PMID:16816133

  16. The weak magnetic field of the O9.7 supergiant ζOrionisA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouret, J.-C.; Donati, J.-F.; Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Marcolino, W.; Lanz, T.; Howarth, I. D.

    2008-09-01

    We report here the detection of a weak magnetic field of 50-100G on the O9.7 supergiant ζOrionisA (ζOriA), using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with NARVAL at the 2-m Télescope Bernard Lyot atop Pic du Midi (France). ζOriA is the third O star known to host a magnetic field (along with θ1OriC and HD191612), and the first detection on a `normal' rapidly rotating O star. The magnetic field of ζOriA is the weakest magnetic field ever detected on a massive star. The measured field is lower than the thermal equipartition limit (about 100G). By fitting non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres to our spectra, we determined that ζOriA is a 40Msolar star with a radius of 25Rsolar and an age of about 5-6Myr, showing no surface nitrogen enhancement and losing mass at a rate of about 2 × 10-6Msolaryr-1. The magnetic topology of ζOriA is apparently more complex than a dipole and involves two main magnetic polarities located on both sides of the same hemisphere; our data also suggest that ζOriA rotates in about 7.0d and is about 40° away from pole-on to an Earth-based observer. Despite its weakness, the detected magnetic field significantly affects the wind structure; the corresponding Alfvén radius is however very close to the surface, thus generating a different rotational modulation in wind lines than that reported on the two other known magnetic O stars. The rapid rotation of ζOriA with respect to θ1OriC appears as a surprise, both stars having similar unsigned magnetic fluxes (once rescaled to the same radius); it may suggest that the subequipartition field detected on ζOriA is not a fossil remnant (as opposed to that of θ1 OriC and HD191612), but the result of an exotic dynamo action produced through magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL), operated by the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France

  17. Visible iris sign as a predictor of problems during and following anterior approach ptosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, R; Salam, A; Then, S-Y; Grieve, A P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the pre- and postoperative features of the visible iris sign (VIS), which is the apparent visibility of iris colour through a closed upper eyelid, in patients undergoing anterior approach surgery for severe involutional aponeurotic ptosis, and to assess its effect on postoperative outcome. Design Prospective, comparative interventional case series. Methods Prospective series of all patients undergoing surgery for severe involutional aponeurotic ptosis during a 16-month period at a single centre. Inclusion criteria Severe involutional ptosis (upper eyelid margin reflex distance (MRD) ≤1 mm) treated by anterior-approach surgery. Main outcome measures Presence of VIS, type of ptosis (primary or recurrent), preoperative MRD, levator function and skin crease height, documented unusual intra-operative findings, postoperative complications, and follow-up time. Results Of 133 procedures for involutional aponeurotic ptosis, 96 procedures (56 patients) were included in the study. In total, 12 patients (21%, 12/56, 2 males, and 10 females) had been identified as having VIS preoperatively. In order to avoid any selection bias, only patients with severe degree of ptosis were included in the two groups with the two groups being alike in the preoperative lid height, levator function or the skin crease. In the VIS group, 55% (12/22) had a thinned, significantly retracted levator aponeurosis and a thin tarsus prone to full-thickness suture passes (36.3%, 8/22) during aponeurosis reattachment. Immediate persistent overcorrection during surgery was seen in three procedures, with one patient having an under corrected outcome when treated with a hang-back suture. In the non-VIS group, no patients were documented intra-operatively, as having significant retraction of the levator aponeurosis. However, 14% (10/74) of the eyelids were recorded as having a very attenuated levator and one patient (3%, 1/44) was noted to have a floppy tarsus that was difficult to

  18. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  19. Explorer : des clés pour mieux comprendre la matière

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-14

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les théories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'accélérateur fasse trembler le modèle standard. Cette théorie des particules élémentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expériences ont été conçus pour les éclairer.

  20. Macronutrient intake in advanced age: Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ).

    PubMed

    Wham, Carol; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon A; Rolleston, Anna; Muru-Lanning, Marama; Hayman, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kerse, Ngaire

    2016-09-01

    As part of the 12-month follow-up of the longitudinal cohort study, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand, dietary intake was assessed in 216 Māori and 362 non-Māori octogenarians using repeat 24-h multiple pass recalls. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated, and food items reported were allocated to food groups used in the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (NZANS). Intakes were compared with the nutrient reference values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. The median BMI was higher for Māori (28·3 kg/m2) than for non-Māori (26·2 kg/m2) P=0·007. For Māori, median energy intake was 7·44 MJ/d for men and 6·06 MJ/d for women with 16·3 % energy derived from protein, 43·3 % from carbohydrate and 38·5 % from fat. Median energy intake was 7·91 and 6·26 MJ/d for non-Māori men and women, respectively, with 15·4 % of energy derived from protein, 45 % from carbohydrate and 36·7 % from fat. For both ethnic groups, bread was the top contributor to energy and carbohydrate intakes. Protein came from beef and veal, fish and seafood, bread, milk and poultry with the order differing by ethnic groups and sex. Fat came mainly from butter and margarine. Energy-adjusted protein was higher for Māori than non-Māori (P=0·049). For both ethnic groups, the median energy levels were similar, percent carbohydrate tended to be lower and percent fat higher compared with adults aged >70 years in NZANS. These unique cross-sectional data address an important gap in our understanding of dietary intake in this growing section of our population and highlight lack of age-appropriate NRV. PMID:27546175

  1. Effectiveness of γ-oryzanol in reducing neuromotor deficits, dopamine depletion and oxidative stress in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson's disease induced by rotenone.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Stífani Machado; de Paula, Mariane Trindade; Poetini, Marcia Rósula; Meichtry, Luana; Bortolotto, Vandreza Cardoso; Zarzecki, Micheli Stefani; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Prigol, Marina

    2015-12-01

    The γ-orizanol present in rice bran oil contains a mix of steryl triterpenyl esters of ferulic acid, which is believed to be linked to its antioxidant potential. In this study we investigated the neuroprotective actions of γ-orizanol (ORY) against the toxicity induced by rotenone (ROT) in Drosophila melanogaster. The flies (both genders) aged between 1 and 5 days old were divided into four groups of 50 flies each: (1) control, (2) ORY 25 μM, (3) ROT 500 μM, (4) ORY 25 μM+ROT 500 μM. Flies were concomitantly exposed to a diet containing ROT and ORY for 7 days according to their respective groups. Survival and behavior analyses were carried out in vivo, and ex vivo analyses involved acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), determination of dopaminergic levels, cellular viability and mitochondrial viability, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reactive species levels (RS), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and contents of total thiols and non-proteic thiols (NPSH). Our results show for the first time that ORY not only acts as an endogenous activator of the cellular antioxidant defenses, but it also ameliorates rotenone induced mortality, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our salient findings regarded the restoration of cholinergic deficits, dopamine levels and improved motor function provided by ORY. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of ORY and that this effect can be potentially due to its antioxidant action. In conclusion, the present results show that ORY is effective in reducing the ROT induced toxicity in D. melanogaster, which showed a neuroprotective action, possibly due to the presence of the antioxidant constituents such as the ferulic acid. PMID:26366809

  2. Line profile variation in delta-Orionis A, l-Orionis A, and 15 Monocerotis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Snow, T. P.; Cash, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a monitoring program with IUE and Einstein are presented for three stars, delta-Ori A, l-Ori A, and 15 Mon. Line profile variability is observed in the UV profiles accessible to IUE and the relation between the variation in the different ions suggests that the ionization level is varying in the winds of these stars. This is consistent with Einstein observations of soft X-ray variability for two of the stars.

  3. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  4. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required. PMID:22640030

  5. Explorer : des clés pour mieux comprendre la matière

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les théories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'accélérateur fasse trembler le modèle standard. Cette théorie des particules élémentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expériences ont été conçus pour les éclairer.

  6. Absence of Significant Cool Disks in Young Stellar Objects Exhibiting Repetitive Optical Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Kóspál, Ágnes; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Dunham, Michael M.; Hirano, Naomi; Henning, Thomas; Takami, Michihiro; Dong, Ruobing; Hashimoto, Jun; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Carrasco-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report Submillimeter Array 1.3 mm high angular resolution observations toward the four EXor-type outbursting young stellar objects VY Tau, V1118 Ori, V1143 Ori, and NY Ori. The data mostly show low dust masses Mdust in the associated circumstellar disks. Among the sources, NY Ori possesses a relatively massive disk with Mdust ˜ 9 × 10-4M⊙. V1118 Ori has a marginal detection equivalent to Mdust ˜ 6 × 10-5M⊙. V1143 Ori has a non-detection also equivalent to Mdust < 6 × 10-5M⊙. For the nearest source, VY Tau, we get a surprising non-detection that provides a stringent upper limit Mdust < 6 × 10-6M⊙. We interpret our findings as suggesting that the gas and dust reservoirs that feed the short-duration, repetitive optical outbursts seen in some EXors may be limited to the small-scale, innermost region of their circumstellar disks. This hot dust may have escaped our detection limits. Follow-up, more sensitive millimeter observations are needed to improve our understanding of the triggering mechanisms of EXor-type outbursts.

  7. Nucleotide sequence of both genomic RNAs of a North American tobacco rattle virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Sudarshana, M R; Berger, P H

    1998-01-01

    The complete sequence of a North American tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolate, 'Oregon yellow' (ORY), was determined from cDNA and RT-PCR clones derived from the two genomic RNAs of this isolate. The RNA-1 is 6790 bases and RNA-2 is 3261 bases. The sequence of TRV-ORY RNA-1 was similar to RNA-1 to TRV isolate SYM, and differs in 48 nucleotides. TRV-ORY RNA-1 was one base shorter than--SYM, and had 47 base substitutions resulting in 12 amino acid substitutions of which 4 were conservative. The RNA-2 of TRV-ORY was distinct from RNA-2 of other characterized TRV isolates and contained three open reading frames (ORFs) that could potentially code for proteins of MW 22.4 kDa, 37.6 kDa and 17.9 kDa. Based on the homology of the predicted amino acid sequence with those of other tobraviruses. ORF1 of RNA-2 encodes the coat protein (CP). The protein sequence of ORF2 had regions of limited similarity with those of ORF2 of two other TRV isolates and pea early browning tobravirus. The ORF3 was unique to TRV-ORY. Phylogenetic analysis of tobravirus CPs indicated that TRV-ORY was most closely related to pepper ringspot tobravirus and TRV-TCM. The relationship of tobravirus CPs to other rod-shaped tubular plant viruses is also discussed. PMID:9739332

  8. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  9. Complex polar machinery required for proper chromosome segregation in vegetative and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Lenarcic, Rok; Willis, Clare R.; Roberts, David M.; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Errington, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chromosome segregation is an essential process of cell multiplication. In prokaryotes, segregation starts with the newly replicated sister origins of replication, oriCs, which move apart to defined positions in the cell. We have developed a genetic screen to identify mutants defective in placement of oriC during spore development in the Gram‐positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the previously identified proteins Soj and DivIVA, our screen identified several new factors involved in polar recruitment of oriC: a reported regulator of competence ComN, and the regulators of division site selection MinD and MinJ. Previous work implicated Soj as an important regulator of oriC positioning in the cell. Our results suggest a model in which the DivIVA‐interacting proteins ComN and MinJ recruit MinD to the cell pole, and that these proteins work upstream of Soj to enable oriC placement. We show that these proteins form a polar complex, which acts in parallel with but distinct from the sporulation‐specific RacA pathway of oriC placement, and also functions during vegetative growth. Our study further shows that MinD has two distinct cell cycle roles, in cell division and chromosome segregation, and highlights that cell probably use multiple parallel mechanisms to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:27059541

  10. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    ori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities. PMID:22952336

  11. Pivotal Role of the Non-hr Origin of DNA Replication in the Genesis of Defective Interfering Baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pijlman, Gorben P.; Dortmans, Jos C. F. M.; Vermeesch, Angela M. G.; Yang, Kai; Martens, Dirk E.; Goldbach, Rob W.; Vlak, Just M.

    2002-01-01

    The generation of deletion mutants, including defective interfering viruses, upon serial passage of Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in insect cell culture has been studied. Sequences containing the non-homologous region origin of DNA replication (non-hr ori) became hypermolar in intracellular viral DNA within 10 passages in Se301 insect cells, concurrent with a dramatic drop in budded virus and polyhedron production. These predominant non-hr ori-containing sequences accumulated in larger concatenated forms and were generated de novo as demonstrated by their appearance and accumulation upon infection with a genetically homogenous bacterial clone of SeMNPV (bacmid). Sequences were identified at the junctions of the non-hr ori units within the concatemers, which may be potentially involved in recombination events. Deletion of the SeMNPV non-hr ori using RecE/RecT-mediated homologous ET recombination in Escherichia coli resulted in a recombinant bacmid with strongly enhanced stability of virus and polyhedron production upon serial passage in insect cells. This suggests that the accumulation of non-hr oris upon passage is due to the replication advantage of these sequences. The non-hr ori deletion mutant SeMNPV bacmid can be exploited as a stable eukaryotic heterologous protein expression vector in insect cells. PMID:11991989

  12. Mathematics curriculum development and indigenous language revitalisation: contested spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen; Trinick, Tony; Meaney, Tamsin

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the development of two iterations of mathematics curricula over a 15-year period for classrooms teaching in te reo Māori, the endangered Indigenous language of Aotearoa New Zealand. Similarities and differences between the two iterations are identified. Although parameters set by the New Zealand Ministry of Education about what the curricula would look like and how they would be developed were not always commensurate with Māori aspirations, analysis suggests that Māori were able to use opportunities to ensure that their agendas for language development and revitalisation were achieved. Spaces were made available because of the government's ideological assumptions, but were used by Māori to achieve their ideological aims. However, neither iteration was smooth, with Māori having to determine how to operate within these contested spaces. The result of Māori requirements to have language recognised as an important issue was that both process and product of curriculum development were affected.

  13. Differential induction of structural changes in the simian virus 40 origin of replication by T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, J A; Dean, F B; Hurwitz, J

    1991-01-01

    The ATP-dependent binding of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) to the SV40 origin of replication (ori) results in the structural distortion of two critical elements within flanking regions of ori and the untwisting of the DNA helix. We examined the effect of changes in temperature, ATP concentration, and other reaction parameters on the generation of these DNA structural changes. We found that induction of the two localized structural transitions were highly and differentially sensitive to reaction conditions. Significant distortion of the early palindrome element, shown previously to result from DNA melting, required low levels of ATP (10 to 30 microM) but temperatures above 25 degrees C. Distortion of the AT tract occurred at low temperatures (5 degrees C) but required relatively high concentrations of ATP (greater than 300 microM). Thus, T antigen can induce structural changes within one critical element of ori without generating significant structural distortion within the second element. The response of ori untwisting to reaction conditions generally increased in parallel with or fell intermediate between the inductions of localized structural transitions. We suggest that ori untwisting and localized structural distortions are interdependent consequences of T-antigen binding to ori. These results suggest a model for the structural events occurring during the initial steps of SV40 DNA replication. Images PMID:1847451

  14. Rapid amplification system for recombinant protein production in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells.

    PubMed

    Metta, M K; Kunaparaju, R K; Tantravahi, S

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins have changed the face of modern medicine in the present trend and they continue to provide innovative therapies for deadly diseases. This study describes the development of a novel stable expression system for rapid amplification of genes in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. The expression system consists of a host CHO cell line and an expression vector (pUB-PyOri-D-C) which encodes for Polyomavirus (Py) Origin of Replication (PyOri) for amplification of integrated genes in the presence of Py Large T Antigen (PyLT) and Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) selectable marker gene for selection in the presence of Methotrexate (MTX). Use of both PyOri/PyLT and DHFR can reduce the number of rounds of selection and amplification required for isolation of high producing clones. The efficiency of pUB-PyOri-D-C was compared with that of pUB-D-C plasmid using Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Erythropoietin (EPO) as reporter proteins. Our results showed that pUB-PyOri-D-C-EPO can help development of high expressing clone in one round of selection/amplification as compared to multiple rounds of selection/amplification with pUB-D-C-EPO plasmid. CHO-DG44/EPO clone generated using pUB-PyOri-D-C-EPO gave a productivity of 119 mg/L in shake flask. PMID:26950459

  15. The Coronal Abundances of Mid-F Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin

    2013-05-01

    A Chandra spectrum of the moderately active nearby F6 V star π3 Ori is used to study the coronal properties of mid-F dwarfs. We find that π3 Ori's coronal emission measure distribution is very similar to those of moderately active G and K dwarfs, with an emission measure peak near log T = 6.6 seeming to be ubiquitous for such stars. In contrast to coronal temperature, coronal abundances are known to depend on spectral type for main sequence stars. Based on this previously known relation, we expected π3 Ori's corona to exhibit an extremely strong "first ionization potential (FIP) effect," a phenomenon first identified on the Sun where elements with low FIP are enhanced in the corona. We instead find that π3 Ori's corona exhibits a FIP effect essentially identical to that of the Sun and other early G dwarfs, perhaps indicating that the increase in FIP bias toward earlier spectral types stops or at least slows for F stars. We find that π3 Ori's coronal characteristics are significantly different from two previously studied mid-F stars, Procyon (F5 IV-V) and τ Boo (F7 V). We believe π3 Ori is more representative of the coronal characteristics of mid-F dwarfs, with Procyon being different because of luminosity class, and τ Boo being different because of the effects of one of two close companions, one stellar (τ Boo B: M2 V) and one planetary.

  16. CONSTRAINING MASS RATIO AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY SYSTEM WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, Laurent; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil; Monnier, John D.; Crepp, Justin; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Remi

    2012-09-20

    We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

  17. Constraining Mass Ratio and Extinction in the FU Orionis Binary System with Infrared Integral Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Vasisht, Gautam; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Monnier, John D.; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Dekany, Richard; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Roberts, Jenny; Soummer, Rémi

    2012-09-01

    We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0farcs5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 μm interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, AV = 8-12, with an effective temperature of ~4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

  18. Complex polar machinery required for proper chromosome segregation in vegetative and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Tomas G; Lenarcic, Rok; Willis, Clare R; Roberts, David M; Hamoen, Leendert W; Errington, Jeff; Wu, Ling J

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome segregation is an essential process of cell multiplication. In prokaryotes, segregation starts with the newly replicated sister origins of replication, oriCs, which move apart to defined positions in the cell. We have developed a genetic screen to identify mutants defective in placement of oriC during spore development in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the previously identified proteins Soj and DivIVA, our screen identified several new factors involved in polar recruitment of oriC: a reported regulator of competence ComN, and the regulators of division site selection MinD and MinJ. Previous work implicated Soj as an important regulator of oriC positioning in the cell. Our results suggest a model in which the DivIVA-interacting proteins ComN and MinJ recruit MinD to the cell pole, and that these proteins work upstream of Soj to enable oriC placement. We show that these proteins form a polar complex, which acts in parallel with but distinct from the sporulation-specific RacA pathway of oriC placement, and also functions during vegetative growth. Our study further shows that MinD has two distinct cell cycle roles, in cell division and chromosome segregation, and highlights that cell probably use multiple parallel mechanisms to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:27059541

  19. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-02-23

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  20. Octane requirement increase of 1990 and 1991 model vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The octane requirement increase (ORI) of 80 1990 and 43 1991 model-year vehicles operated on commercial fuels in customer-like service has been determined. These ORI values were established from the octane number requirements regardless of whether they were determined at maximum- or part-throttle. At 15,000 miles, the mean ORI of the 1990 vehicles with full-boiling range fuels (FBRU) was 4.4 (R+M)/2 octane numbers, 5.2 Research octane numbers (RON), and 3.5 Motor octane numbers (MON). The ORI of individual vehicles ranged from no increase to 1 1. 1 (R + M)/2 numbers. At 15,000 miles, the mean ORI of the 1991 vehicles with full-boiling range fuels (FBRU) was 3.3 (R+M)/2 numbers, 4.1 RON, and 2.6 MON. Individual vehicle ORI ranged from no increase to 9.2 (R + M)/2 numbers. As opposed to a number of 1989 models submitted which showed a somewhat unusual variation with mileage, the 1990 and 1991 models behaved in the more traditional manner.

  1. Characterization of the known T-type dwarfs towards the σ Orionis cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Ramírez, K.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: The detailed study of T-type candidate members of the young σ Orionis cluster (~3 Myr, ~352 pc, solar metallicity) is fundamental to properly assess the objects' cluster membership and their contribution to the definition of the substellar mass function. Methods: A total of three T-type candidates (S Ori 70, S Ori 73, and S Ori J053804.65-021352.5) lying in the line of sight towards σ Orionis were characterized by means of near-infrared photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic studies. H-band methane images were collected for all three sources and an additional sample of 15 field T-type dwarfs using the LIRIS instrument on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT). J-band spectra of resolution of ~500 were obtained for S Ori J053804.65-021352.5 with the ISAAC spectrograph on the 8 m Very Large Telescope (VLT), and JH spectra of resolution of ~50 acquired with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were employed for the spectroscopic classification of S Ori 70 and 73. Accurate proper motions with a typical uncertainty of ±3 mas yr-1 and a time interval of ~7-9 yr were derived using old images and new data collected with ISAAC/VLT and WFC3/HST. Results: Using the LIRIS observations of the field T dwarfs, we calibrated this imager for T spectral typing via methane photometry. The three S Ori objects were spectroscopically classified as T4.5 ± 0.5 (S Ori 73), T5 ± 0.5 (S Ori J053804.65-021352.5), and T7 +0.5-1.0 (S Ori 70). These spectral types agree with the measured H-band methane colors. The similarity between the observed JH spectra and the methane colors and the data of field ultra-cool dwarfs of related classifications suggests that S Ori 70, 73, and S Ori J053804.65-021352.5 do not deviate significantly in surface gravity in relation to the field. Additionally, the detection of K I at ~1.25 μm in S Ori J053804.65-021352.5 points to a high-gravity atmosphere. Only the K-band reddish nature of S Ori 70 may be

  2. Multiple DNA Binding Proteins Contribute to Timing of Chromosome Replication in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. DnaA associated with either ATP or ADP binds to a set of strong DnaA binding sites in oriC, whereas only DnaA(ATP) is capable of binding additional and weaker sites to promote initiation. Additional DNA binding proteins act to ensure that initiation occurs timely by affecting either the cellular mass at which DNA replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on oriC for modulation of its activity but also at additional regulatory sites to control the nucleotide bound status of DnaA. Here we review the contribution of key DNA binding proteins to the tight regulation of chromosome replication in E. coli cells. PMID:27446932

  3. Multiple DNA Binding Proteins Contribute to Timing of Chromosome Replication in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. DnaA associated with either ATP or ADP binds to a set of strong DnaA binding sites in oriC, whereas only DnaAATP is capable of binding additional and weaker sites to promote initiation. Additional DNA binding proteins act to ensure that initiation occurs timely by affecting either the cellular mass at which DNA replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on oriC for modulation of its activity but also at additional regulatory sites to control the nucleotide bound status of DnaA. Here we review the contribution of key DNA binding proteins to the tight regulation of chromosome replication in E. coli cells. PMID:27446932

  4. Prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population: effect of age and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HLA-B27 genotyping is commonly used to support a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A recent study has suggested that HLA-B27 may adversely affect longevity. The objectives of this study were to determine, for the first time, the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population, and to test whether HLA-B27 prevalence declines with age. Methods 117 Caucasian controls, 111 New Zealand Māori controls, and 176 AS patients were directly genotyped for HLA-B27 using PCR-SSP. These participants and a further 1103 Caucasian controls were genotyped for the HLA-B27 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4349859 and rs116488202. All AS patients testing positive for HLA-B27 of New Zealand Māori ancestry underwent high resolution typing to determine sub-allele status. Results HLA-B27 prevalence was 9.2% in New Zealand Caucasian controls and 6.5% in Māori controls. No decline in HLA-B27 prevalence with age was detected in Caucasian controls (p = 0.92). Concordance between HLA-B27 and SNP genotypes was 98.7-99.3% in Caucasians and 76.9-86% in Māori. Of the 14 AS patients of Māori ancestry, 1 was negative for HLA-B27, 10 were positive for HLAB*2705, and 3 positive for HLAB*2704. All cases of genotype discordance were explained by the presence of HLAB*2704. Conclusions HLA-B27 prevalence in New Zealand Caucasians is consistent with that of Northern European populations and did not decline with increasing age. In Māori with AS who were HLA-B27 positive, 76.9% were positive for HLA-B*2705, suggesting that genetic susceptibility to AS in Māori is primarily due to admixture with Caucasians. PMID:24286455

  5. Generation of High Resolution and High Precision Orthorectified Road Imagery from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Tachibana, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a novel technique to generate a high resolution and high precision Orthorectified Road Imagery (ORI) by using spatial information acquired from a Mobile Mapping System (MMS) is introduced. The MMS was equipped with multiple sensors such as GPS, IMU, odometer, 2-6 digital cameras and 2-4 laser scanners. In this study, a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) based approach, similar to general aerial photogrammetry, was adopted to build a terrain model in order to generate ORI with high resolution and high geometric precision. Compared to aerial photogrammetry, there are several issues that are needed to be addressed. ORI is generated by merging multiple time sequence images of a short section. Hence, the influence of occlusion due to stationary objects, such as telephone poles, trees, footbridges, or moving objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians are very significant. Moreover, influences of light falloff at the edges of cameras, tone adjustment among images captured from different cameras or a round trip data acquisition of the same path, and time lag between image exposure and laser point acquisition also need to be addressed properly. The proposed method was applied to generate ORI with 1 cm resolution, from the actual MMS data sets. The ORI generated by the proposed technique was more clear, occlusion free and with higher resolution compared to the conventional orthorectified coloured point cloud imagery. Moreover, the visual interpretation of road features from the ORI was much easier. In addition, the experimental results also validated the effectiveness of proposed radiometric corrections. In occluded regions, the ORI was compensated by using other images captured from different angles. The validity of the image masking process, in the occluded regions, was also ascertained.

  6. Morphology and evolution of the jaw suspension in lamniform sharks.

    PubMed

    Wilga, C D

    2005-07-01

    both of the insertion points. The original ventral preorbitalis division now inserts onto the connective tissue surrounding the mid-region of the upper jaw, while the new dorsal preorbitalis division inserts onto the surrounding connective tissue and skin at a more posterior position on the upper jaw. The retractor muscle of the jaws, the levator hyomandibularis, has also been modified during the evolution of lamniform sharks. In most sharks, including basal lamniforms, the levator hyomandibularis inserts onto the hyomandibula and functions to retract the jaws after protrusion. In alopid and lamnid sharks the levator hyomandibularis inserts primarily onto the upper and lower jaws around the jaw joint and is a more direct route for retracting the jaws. Thus, there has been at least one instance of character loss (ethmopalatine ligament), acquisition (palatonasal ligament), subdivision (preorbitalis), and modification (ventral preorbitalis, dorsal preorbitalis, and levator hyomandibularis) in the ligaments and muscles associated with the jaw suspension and jaw protrusion mechanism in lamniform sharks. While derived lamniform sharks (Lamna nasus, Carcharodon carcharius, and Isurus oxyrinchus) lost the ancestral passive lateral support of the ethmoid articulation of the upper jaw, they simultaneously acquired muscular support by way of the levator hyomandibularis, which provides a dynamic mechanism for lateral support. The evolution of multiple divisions of preorbitalis insertions onto the palatoquadrate and modification of the levator hyomandibularis insertion directly onto the jaws provides an active mechanism for multiple protractions and retractions of the upper jaw, which is advantageous in those sharks that gouge or saw pieces from large oversized prey items. PMID:15880740

  7. Vertical Diplopia and Ptosis from Removal of the Orbital Roof in Pterional Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Shilpa J.; Lawton, Michael T.; McDermott, Michael W.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe a newly recognized clinical syndrome consisting of ptosis, diplopia, vertical gaze limitation, and abduction weakness that can occur following orbital roof removal during orbito-zygomatic-pterional craniotomy. Design Case series. Participants Eight study patients, ages 44 – 80 years, 7 female, with neuro-ophthalmic symptoms after pterional craniotomy. Methods Case description of eight study patients. Main Outcome Measures Presence of ptosis, diplopia, and gaze limitation. Results Eight patients had neuro-ophthalmic findings after pterional craniotomy for meningioma removal or aneurysm clipping. The cardinal features were ptosis, limited elevation and hypotropia. Three patients also had limitation of downgaze and two had limitation of abduction. Imaging showed loss of the fat layers which normally envelop the superior rectus/levator palpebrae superioris. The muscles appeared attached to the defect in the orbital roof. Ptosis and diplopia developed in two patients despite Medpor titanium mesh implants. Deficits in all patients showed spontaneous improvement. In two patients a levator advancement was required to repair ptosis. In three patients an inferior rectus recession using an adjustable suture was performed to treat vertical diplopia. Follow-up a mean of 6.5 years later revealed that all patients had a slight residual upgaze deficit, but alignment was orthotropic in primary gaze. Conclusions After pterional craniotomy, ptosis, diplopia and vertical gaze limitation can result from tethering of the superior rectus/levator palpebrae superioris complex to the surgical defect in the orbital roof. Lateral rectus function is sometimes compromised by muscle attachment to the lateral orbital osteotomy. This syndrome occurs in about 1% of patients after removal of the orbital roof and can be treated, if necessary, by prism glasses or surgery. PMID:25439610

  8. Open-sky isolated subtotal Muller's muscle resection for ptosis surgery: a review of over 300 cases and assessment of long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Peter, N M; Khooshabeh, R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate short- and long-term success rates on isolated subtotal Muller resection in over 300 cases of ptosis over a 10-year period. Methods Clinical records were retrospectively evaluated for aetiology and severity of ptosis, levator function, response to phenylephrine, pre- and postoperative margin reflex distance of the upper lid (MRD1), postoperative lid contour and symmetry, complications and follow-up duration. Main outcome measures: change in MRD1 and eyelid contour. Surgical success: postoperative MRD1 ≥2 and ≤4.5 mm, symmetry to within 1.0 mm and satisfactory contour. All patients were also sent patient satisfaction questionnaires, and invited to attend for a longer-term assessment of their surgical outcome. Results In total, 92 and 95% of 309 eyelids met all three criteria for success after an average follow-up of 4 and 47 months, respectively. Mean improvement in MRD1 was 2.56 mm. In all, 97% had postoperative MRD1 of ≥2 and ≤4.5 mm and over 99% had an excellent contour. Altogether, 95 and 89% were within 1.0 and 0.5 mm symmetry of the fellow eye, respectively. In total, 51% of eyelids continued to rise, 17% maintained the same initial postoperative height, and 32% dropped by 1 mm or less. In all, 92% felt that their initial postoperative eyelid height had been maintained. Only 2% required repeat surgery and minor complications occurred in 4%. Conclusions Isolated subtotal Muller's resection is safe and effective for the repair of the majority of ptosis with moderate-to-good levator function. It results in a more predictable height, which is maintained over time, less frequent contour abnormalities, and lower re-operation rates compared with anterior levator advancement. PMID:23306727

  9. The anabolic steroid methandienone targets the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and myostatin signaling in a rat training model.

    PubMed

    Mosler, Stephanie; Pankratz, Carlos; Seyfried, Alexis; Piechotta, Marion; Diel, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the biological activity of myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of muscle growth, is affected by training but also anabolic steroids. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the frequently abused anabolic steroid methandienone (Md) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and androgen-sensitive tissues in intact rats performing a treadmill training to simulate the situation of abusing athletes. The anabolic effects were correlated with the expression of members of the MSTN signaling cascade. Md treatment resulted in a significant stimulation of anabolic activity of the levator ani muscle, which was further increased by training, while prostate and seminal vesicle weights decreased in conformance with hormone concentrations of LH and testosterone. In gastrocnemius muscle, mRNA expression of genes of the MSTN signaling cascade (MSTN, Smad7 and MyoD) was reduced by training but not after Md treatment, in soleus muscle MSTN and its inhibitors, follistatin (FLST) and Smad-7 were only affected after training in combination with Md treatment. In summary, our data demonstrate that Md treatment of intact rats results in anabolic effects which are enhanced in combination with physical activity. Interestingly, the anabolic activity on the levator ani was increased in combination with training, although the levator ani muscle was not specifically stimulated by our training protocol. In the m. gastrocnemius and soleus, the anabolic effects correlate with changes in the expression patterns of genes involved in MSTN signaling. Our data provide evidence that the decrease in the weight of androgen-sensitive sexual glands, observed after Md treatment, is caused by a suppression of endogenous testosterone synthesis. These observations provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between anabolic steroids, training and MSTN signaling during skeletal muscle adaptation. PMID:21818626

  10. Actions of motor neurons and leg muscles in jumping by planthopper insects (hemiptera, issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Bräunig, Peter

    2010-04-15

    To understand the catapult mechanism that propels jumping in a planthopper insect, the innervation and action of key muscles were analyzed. The large trochanteral depressor muscle, M133b,c, is innervated by two motor neurons and by two dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, all with axons in N3C. A smaller depressor muscle, M133a, is innervated by two neurons, one with a large-diameter cell body, a large, blind-ending dendrite, and a giant ovoid, axon measuring 50 microm by 30 microm in nerve N5A. The trochanteral levator muscles (M132) and (M131) are innervated by N4 and N3B, respectively. The actions of these muscles in a restrained jump were divisible into a three-phase pattern. First, both hind legs were moved into a cocked position by high-frequency bursts of spikes in the levator muscles lasting about 0.5 seconds. Second, and once both legs were cocked, M133b,c received a long continuous sequence of motor spikes, but the two levators spiked only sporadically. The spikes in the two motor neurons to M133b,c on one side were closely coupled to each other and to the spikes on the other side. If one hind leg was cocked then the spikes only occurred in motor neurons to that side. The final phase was the jump movement itself, which occurred when the depressor spikes ceased and which lasted 1 ms. Muscles 133b,c activated synchronously on both sides, are responsible for generating the power, and M133a and its giant neuron may play a role in triggering the release of a jump. PMID:20151364

  11. Apraxia of lid opening.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta; Teimory, Masoud

    2007-07-01

    We describe eyelid movement abnormalities in an 80-year-old man with apraxia of lid opening (ALO), resulting from involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition (ILPI) and pretarsal orbicularis oculi (OO) contraction. He was unable to open his lids at will following closure. Attempted eye opening resulted in forceful contraction of the frontalis muscle, backward thrusting of the head and lengthened lid closure. The inability to reopen the lids was not evident during spontaneous reflex blinking and he had no difficulty in keeping the lids open once they had been manually lifted up. There were no episodes of involuntary drooping of the eyelids or spasmodic contraction of the OO causing involuntary eyelid closure. Pursuit eye movements were not restricted, the vestibulo-ocular reflex was preserved and both horizontal and vertical saccades were normal. Despite the clinically visible persistence of pretarsal OO activity, treatment with botulinum toxin injections in the pretarsal and preseptal portions of the muscle did not reduce his difficulty in initiating lid elevation but he found some benefit using lid crutches. ALO is thought to be due to an abnormality in the supranuclear control of eyelid movement. ILPI can present either isolated or combined with blepharospasm. The excitatory levator palpebrae response necessary to lift the lids up is likely to be in very close connection with the OO antagonistic inhibitory response. Alterations in one or another pre-motor structure may result in inability to raise the lids due to inhibition of the levator palpebrae as well as persistence of the pretarsal OO. PMID:17576707

  12. Bilateral Ptosis as the First Presentation of Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    TALEBIAN, Ahmad; SOLTANI, Babak; TALEBIAN, Motahhareh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute weakness in children. It has multiple variant forms with different presentations. A rare initial sign is ptosis. In this study, we present a 10-year-old girl with bilateral ptosis without opthalmoplegia followed by a weakness in extremities with a favourable response to intravenous immunoglobulin. Due to the patient’s initial eyelid levators, myasthenia gravis was ruled out by a Tensilon test and electrophysiological studies. Our report highlights the possibility of GBS as a cause of isolated ptosis, especially in cases without ophthalmoplegia. PMID:27057192

  13. Retained strabismus suture material masquerading as nonspecific orbital inflammation.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Alison B; Scofield, Stacy M; Gallin, Pamela F; Kazim, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of orbital myositis of the superior rectus muscle-levator complex masquerading as nonspecific orbital inflammation but corresponding in location to a known braided polyester "chicken suture" placed 20 years earlier during strabismus surgery. The orbital inflammation was refractory to oral steroids but resolved promptly on surgical removal of the suture material. Although suture material is known to cause foreign body granulomatous reactions, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of a deep, diffuse orbital inflammation attributable to chicken suture placed during strabismus surgery. PMID:27112911

  14. Unattractive infant faces elicit negative affect from adults

    PubMed Central

    Schein, Stevie S.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N = 87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. PMID:25658199

  15. Anorectal avulsion: an exceptional rectal trauma.

    PubMed

    Ibn Majdoub Hassani, Karim; Ait Laalim, Said; Benjelloun, El Bachir; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Anorectal avulsion is an exceptional rectal trauma in which the anus and sphincter no longer join the perineum and are pulled upward. As a result, they ventrally follow levator ani muscles. We present a rare case of a 29-years old patient who was admitted in a pelvic trauma context; presenting a complete complex anorectal avulsion. The treatment included a primary repair of the rectum and a diverting colostomy so as to prevent sepsis. Closure of the protective sigmoidostomy was performed seven months after the accident and the evolution was marked by an anal stenosis requiring iterative dilatations. PMID:24094142

  16. Eustachian Tube Function.

    PubMed

    Ars, Bernard; Dirckx, Joris

    2016-10-01

    The fibrocartilaginous eustachian tube is part of a system of contiguous organs including the nose, palate, rhinopharynx, and middle ear cleft. The middle ear cleft consists of the tympanic cavity, which includes the bony eustachian tube (protympanum) and the mastoid gas cells system. The tympanic cavity and mastoid gas cells are interconnected and allow gaseous exchange and pressure regulation. The fibrocartilaginous eustachian tube is a complex organ consisting of a dynamic conduit with its mucosa, cartilage, surrounding soft tissue, peritubal muscles (ie, tensor and levator veli palatine, salpingopharyngeus and tensor tympani), and superior bony support (the sphenoid sulcus). PMID:27468632

  17. TcpM: a novel relaxase that mediates transfer of large conjugative plasmids from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Jessica A; Traore, Daouda A; Bannam, Trudi L; Lyras, Dena; Whisstock, James C; Rood, Julian I

    2016-03-01

    Conjugative transfer of toxin and antibiotic resistance plasmids in Clostridium perfringens is mediated by the tcp conjugation locus. Surprisingly, neither a relaxase gene nor an origin of transfer (oriT) has been identified on these plasmids, which are typified by the 47 kb tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. The tcpM gene (previously called intP) encodes a potential tyrosine recombinase that was postulated to be an atypical relaxase. Mutagenesis and complementation studies showed that TcpM was required for wild-type transfer of pCW3 and that a tyrosine residue, Y259, was essential for TcpM activity, which was consistent with the need for a relaxase-mediated hydrophilic attack at the oriT site. Other catalytic residues conserved in tyrosine recombinases were not required for TcpM activity, suggesting that TcpM was not a site-specific recombinase. Mobilization studies led to the identification of the oriT site, which was located in the 391 bp intergenic region upstream of tcpM. The oriT site was localized to a 150 bp region, and gel mobility shift studies showed that TcpM could bind to this region. Based on these studies we postulate that conjugative transfer of pCW3 involves the atypical relaxase TcpM binding to and processing the oriT site to initiate plasmid transfer. PMID:26560080

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF QUANTITATIVE AND HIGH-THROUGHPUT ASSAYS OF POLYOMAVIRUS AND PAPILLOMAVIRUS DNA REPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Morin, Geneviève; Lehoux, Michaël; Bullock, Peter A.; Archambault, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Polyoma- and papillomaviruses genome replication is initiated by the binding of large T antigen (LT) and of E1 and E2, respectively, at the viral origin (ori). Replication of an ori-containing plasmid occurs in cells transiently expressing these viral proteins and is typically quantified by Southern blotting or PCR. To facilitate the study of SV40 and HPV31 DNA replication, we developed cellular assays in which transient replication of the ori-plasmid is quantified using a firefly luciferase gene located in cis to the ori. Under optimized conditions, replication of the SV40 and HPV31 ori-plasmids resulted in a 50- and 150-fold increase in firefly luciferase levels, respectively. These results were validated using replication-defective mutants of LT, E1 and E2 and with inhibitors of DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. These quantitative and high-throughput assays should greatly facilitate the study of SV40 and HPV31 DNA replication and the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of this process. PMID:20079917

  19. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    PubMed

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:23395783

  20. V1647 Orionis: The X-Ray Evolution of a Pre-Main-Sequence Accretion Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Grosso, Nicolas; Weintraub, David A.; Simon, Theodore; Henden, Arne; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Frank, Adam; Ozawa, Hideki

    2006-09-01

    We present Chandra X-Ray Observatory monitoring observations of the recent accretion outburst displayed by the pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) star V1647 Ori. The X-ray observations were obtained over a period beginning prior to outburst onset in late 2003 and continuing through its apparent cessation in late 2005, and demonstrate that the mean flux of the spatially coincident X-ray source closely tracked the near-infrared luminosity of V1647 Ori throughout its eruption. We find negligible likelihood that the correspondence between X-ray and infrared light curves over this period was the result of multiple X-ray flares unrelated to the accretion burst. The recent Chandra data confirm that the X-ray spectrum of V1647 Ori hardened during outburst, relative both to its preoutburst state and to the X-ray spectra of nearby pre-MS stars in the L1630 cloud. We conclude that the observed changes in the X-ray emission from V1647 Ori over the course of its 2003-2005 eruption were generated by a sudden increase and subsequent decline in its accretion rate. These results for V1647 Ori indicate that the flux of hard X-ray emission from erupting low-mass, pre-MS stars, and the duration and intensity of such eruptions, reflect the degree to which star-disk magnetic fields are reorganized before and during major accretion events.

  1. S Orionis 70: Just a Foreground Field Brown Dwarf?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; McGovern, Mark R.; McLean, Ian S.; Prato, L.; Reid, I. Neill

    2004-04-01

    We examine recent claims that the T-type brown dwarf S Ori 053810.1-203626 (S Ori 70) is a spectroscopically verified low-mass (3+5-1 MJup) member of the 1-8 Myr σ Orionis cluster. Comparative arguments by Martín & Zapatero Osorio asserting that S Ori 70 exhibits low surface gravity spectral features indicative of youth and low mass are invalidated by the fact that their comparison object was not the field T dwarf 2MASS 0559-1404, but rather a nearby background star. Instead, we find that the 1-2.5 μm spectra of S Ori 70 are well matched to older (age~few Gyr) field T6-T7 dwarfs. Moreover, we find that spectral model fits to late-type field T dwarf spectra tend to yield low surface gravities (logg=3.0-3.5), and thus young ages (<~5 Myr) and low masses (<~3 MJup), inconsistent with expected and/or empirical values. Finally, we show that the identification of one T dwarf in the field imaged by Zapatero Osorio et al. is statistically consistent with the expected foreground contamination. Based on the reexamined evidence, we conclude that S Ori 70 may simply be an old, massive (30-60 MJup) field brown dwarf lying in the foreground of the σ Orionis cluster. This interpretation should be considered before presuming the existence of so-called ``cluster planets.''

  2. Escherichia coli prereplication complex assembly is regulated by dynamic interplay among Fis, IHF and DnaA.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Valorie T; Grimwade, Julia E; Camara, Johanna E; Crooke, Elliott; Leonard, Alan C

    2004-03-01

    Initiator DnaA and DNA bending proteins, Fis and IHF, comprise prereplication complexes (pre-RC) that unwind the Escherichia coli chromosome's origin of replication, oriC. Loss of either Fis or IHF perturbs synchronous initiation from oriC copies in rapidly growing E. coli. Based on dimethylsulphate (DMS) footprinting of purified proteins, we observed a dynamic interplay among Fis, IHF and DnaA on supercoiled oriC templates. Low levels of Fis inhibited oriC unwinding by blocking both IHF and DnaA binding to low affinity sites. As the concentration of DnaA was increased, Fis repression was relieved and IHF rapidly redistributed DnaA to all unfilled binding sites on oriC. This behaviour in vitro is analogous to observed assembly of pre-RC in synchronized E. coli. We propose that as new DnaA is synthesized in E. coli, opposing activities of Fis and IHF ensure an abrupt transition from a repressed complex with unfilled weak affinity DnaA binding sites to a completely loaded unwound complex, increasing both the precision of DNA replication timing and initiation synchrony. PMID:14982629

  3. Multiple Infections with Cardinium and Two Strains of Wolbachia in The Spider Mite Tetranychus phaselus Ehara: Revealing New Forces Driving the Spread of Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Xiao; Chen, Da-Song; Ge, Cheng; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) has been proposed as a major mechanism by which certain strains of Wolbachia to invade and persist in host populations. However, mechanisms that underlie the invasion and persistence of non-CI strains are less well understood. Here, we established a spider mite Tetranychus phaselus population multiply infected by Cardinium as well as two distinct lineages of Wolbachia, designated wCon and wOri, to study the forces driving the spread of the non-CI strain of Wolbachia wOri. Interestingly, we found that wOri provided a longevity advantage to its female hosts under ideal conditions, making wOri stay longer in this population, and then being transmitted to more offspring. Furthermore, the lifespan of uninfected females was reduced when mated with multiple-infected males. As a result, the uninfected population is attenuated by the multiple-infected males. Thus, we infer that the host age effects of multiple infection may represent sufficient forces driving the spread of wOri through the host population. PMID:23355904

  4. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  5. Coordinate initiation of chromosome and minichromosome replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Helmstetter, C E; Leonard, A C

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli minichromosomes harboring as little as 327 base pairs of DNA from the chromosomal origin of replication (oriC) were found to replicate in a discrete burst during the division cycle of cells growing with generation times between 25 and 60 min at 37 degrees C. The mean cell age at minichromosome replication coincided with the mean age at initiation of chromosome replication at all growth rates, and furthermore, the age distributions of the two events were indistinguishable. It is concluded that initiation of replication from oriC is controlled in the same manner on minichromosomes and chromosomes over the entire range of growth rates and that the timing mechanism acts within the minimal oriC nucleotide sequence required for replication. Images PMID:3301802

  6. Interstellar clouds containing optically thin H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of Black and Delgarno that the relative populations of the excited rotational levels of H2 can be understood in terms of cascading following absorption in the Lyman and Werner bands is employed to infer the gas densities and radiation fields within diffuse interstellar clouds containing H2 that is optically thin in those bands. The procedure is described for computing the populations of the different rotation levels, the relative distribution among the different rotation levels of newly formed H2 is determined on the basis of five simplified models, and the rate of H2 formation is estimated. The results are applied to delta Ori, two components of iota Ori, the second components of rho Leo and zeta Ori, tau Sco, gamma Vel, and zeta Pup. The inferred parameters are summarized for each cloud.

  7. Copernicus observations of interstellar matter toward the Orion OB1 association. I - Epsilon and Pi-5 Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus UV data on interstellar lines toward Epsilon Ori and Pi-5 Ori are analyzed to study abundances and physical conditions in both low- and intermediate-velocity components. Clouds at -8 and +5 km/s (LSR) toward Epsilon Ori show typical depletions of Fe, Ti, Mg, and Si in dense (H number density about 100 per cu cm) gas. Low-column-density intermediate-velocity clouds toward both stars, with low densities (hydrogen number density less than 1 per cu cm) and near-cosmic Si abundances, are consistent with a widespread pattern of high-velocity gas over a 15-deg area surrounding the Orion region. Such activity may be attributed to the repeated action of supernovae in a patchy low-density region of interstellar gas.

  8. The Importance of Odorant Conformation to the Binding and Activation of a Representative Olfactory Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Peterlin, Zita; Li, Yadi; Sun, Guangxing; Shah, Rohan; Firestein, Stuart; Ryan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Olfactory receptors (ORs) form a large family of G-protein coupled receptor proteins (GPCRs) responsible for sensing the ambient chemical environment. The molecular recognition strategies used by ORs to detect and distinguish odorant molecules are unclear. Here, we investigated the variable of odorant carbon chain conformation for an established odorant-OR pair: n-octanal and rat OR-I7. A series of conformationally restricted octanal mimics were tested on live olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Our results support a model in which unactivated OR-I7 binds aliphatic aldehydes indiscriminately, and then applies conformational and length filters to distinguish agonists from antagonists. Specific conformers are proposed to activate OR-I7 by steric buttressing of an OR activation pocket. Probing endogenously expressed rat OSNs with octanal and constrained mimics furnished evidence that odorant conformation contributes to an odorant’s unique olfactory code signature. PMID:19101476

  9. Research misconduct among clinical trial staff.

    PubMed

    Redman, Barbara K; Templin, Thomas N; Merz, Jon F

    2006-07-01

    Between 1993 and 2002, 39 clinical trial staff were investigated for scientific misconduct by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI). Analysis of ORI case records reveals practices regarding workload, training and supervision that enable misconduct. Considering the potential effects on human subjects protection, quality and reliability of data, and the trustworthiness of the clinical research enterprise, regulations or guidance on use of clinical trial staff ought to be available. Current ORI regulations do not hold investigators or institutions responsible for supervision and training of clinical trial staff. Given the important issues at stake, the definition of research misconduct should encompass the intentional or negligent mismanagement of scientific projects. Individual institutions and professional associations not only can but should adopt stricter standards of conduct than those reflected in federal regulations. PMID:16909150

  10. Velocity dispersions in galaxies. V - The nuclei of M31 and M32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Elmergreen, B. G.

    1976-01-01

    Stigmatic spectra between 4160 and 4385 A of the central regions of M31 and M32 as well as the K0 III star 51 Ori are presented which were obtained using a SEC-vidicon integrating television tube and the coude spectrograph of the Hale telescope. Line-of-sight velocity dispersions of approximately 130 and 55 km/s are determined for the nuclei of M31 and M32, respectively, by directly comparing their spectra with Gaussian-broadened spectra of 51 Ori. The analytical techniques are outlined, and alternative methods for estimating velocity dispersions are evaluated, including least-squares fitting of intensities and division of Fourier transforms. It is noted that the broadened spectrum of 51 Ori fits the nucleus of M32 and the bulge of M31 much better than the nucleus of M31 in the region between 4180 and 4370 A.

  11. Results of a telehealth-enabled chronic care management service to support people with long-term conditions at home.

    PubMed

    Venter, Anton; Burns, Rosemary; Hefford, Martin; Ehrenberg, Nieves

    2012-04-01

    Both congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are more common among Māori than non-Māori people, and the cultural acceptability of home-based remote monitoring technology has not been tested. We conducted a 12-month pilot trial of home telemonitoring. Patients were randomly assigned to the control and intervention groups. Patients in the control group showed no clear differences in quality of life at the end of the trial. The telehealth group showed a consistent trend towards improved quality of life on several instruments, including the SF-36, the St George Respiratory Questionnaire and the K10 questionnaire; the improvement in the latter was significant. Hospitalizations were reduced in both the control (-19%) and telehealth group (-25%). Patient interviews indicated that the technology was acceptable to most patients and their families, including the Māori. The results from the pilot trial suggest that wider implementation with a cost benefit evaluation could be worthwhile. PMID:22362838

  12. Globalisation, localisation and implications of a transforming nursing workforce in New Zealand: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Callister, Paul; Badkar, Juthika; Didham, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Severe staff and skill shortages within the health systems of developed countries have contributed to increased migration by health professionals. New Zealand stands out among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in terms of the high level of movements in and out of the country of skilled professionals, including nurses. In New Zealand, much attention has been given to increasing the number of Māori and Pacific nurses as one mechanism for improving Māori and Pacific health. Against a backdrop of the changing characteristics of the New Zealand nursing workforce, this study demonstrates that the globalisation of the nursing workforce is increasing at a faster rate than its localisation (as measured by the growth of the Māori and New Zealand-born Pacific workforces in New Zealand). This challenges the implementation of culturally appropriate nursing programmes based on the matching of nurse and client ethnicities. PMID:21790871

  13. Criminal sittings – rape in the colony, New Zealand, 1862.

    PubMed

    Erai, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In 1862 His Honor, Justice Johnston, issued his instructions to the jury of the New Zealand Supreme Court for two simultaneous rape trials – the alleged rape of a European woman by two Māori men, and an alleged “assault with intent to commit a rape” of a Māori woman by a European man. This article argues that those instructions should be read within an historiographical critique of British colonial expansion, print capitalism and violence. Drawing on feminist postcolonial theorizing the question posed here, is, “What is the historical, ideological context for a newspaper reporting of the possible rape of a Māori woman in 1862? PMID:22059253

  14. Observations of the circumstellar gas shells around Betelgeuse and Antares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernat, A. P.; Lambert, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented on the direct observations of the circumstellar shell around alpha-Ori, along with new observations of the Ca II infrared triplet lines which provide lower limits for the Ca(+) shell radii for alpha-Ori and alpha-Sco (Antares). The 8542-A line in alpha-Ori does not show a circumstellar absorption core, and the shell radius limit is estimated to be at least 31 times stellar radius. A 108-mA circumstellar core is observed in the 8542-A line in Antares for which a shell radius equal to 4.0 times stellar radius is suggested. The discovery of circumstellar emission through resonance line scattering will provide valuable additional information on the physical conditions in the shell.

  15. Support Needs of Families Living with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Searing, Billie Margaret Jean; Graham, Fiona; Grainger, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the perceived availability and helpfulness of supports used by caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in New Zealand, particularly for caregivers who are Māori, and who live rurally. Caregivers (N = 92) completed the Family Support Scale with comparisons analysed using t tests. Free text comments were invited and analysed using a general inductive approach. More support was perceived as available by Non-Māori than Māori p = 0.03, 95 % CI (0.21, 3.88). Spouses were rated as the most helpful support. Professional helpers were rated as 'somewhat helpful'. Helpful support emphasised caring, knowledge and accessibility. Ethnic differences in perceptions of support endorse calls for culturally tailored supports. Informal supports are highly valued however professional supports require development to better meet caregiver needs. PMID:26141047

  16. Exploring the Spectral Type Dependence of Coronal Abundance Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian

    2010-09-01

    We propose to improve our empirical understanding of how coronal abundance anomalies, such as the solar "FIP effect," vary with spectral type by observing the X-ray spectra of Pi3 Ori (F6 V) and GJ 338 (M0 V+K7 V) with LETGS. No high resolution X-ray spectrum has ever been taken of a coronal main sequence star with a spectral type as early as that of Pi3 Ori. A known correlation between spectral type and FIP effect suggests that Pi3 Ori's X-ray spectrum should show the strongest solar-like FIP effect ever observed. The observation of the GJ 338 binary will efficiently provide two stellar spectra in one exposure, which we will use to test whether stars with modest coronal activity can possess an "inverse FIP effect," a phenomenon generally associated only with very active stars.

  17. Crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of the replication initiation protein E1 from papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Enemark, E J; Chen, G; Vaughn, D E; Stenlund, A; Joshua-Tor, L

    2000-07-01

    Papillomaviral infection causes both benign and malignant lesions and is a necessary cause of cervical carcinoma. Replication of this virus requires the replication initiation proteins E1 and E2, which bind cooperatively at the origin of replication (ori) as an (E1)2-(E2)2-DNA complex. This is a precursor to larger E1 complexes that distort and unwind the ori. We present the crystal structure of the E1 DNA binding domain refined to 1.9 A resolution. Residues critical for DNA binding are located on an extended loop and an alpha helix. We identify the E1 dimerization surface by selective mutations at an E1/E1 interface observed in the crystal and propose a model for the (E1)2-DNA complex. These and other observations suggest how the E1 DNA binding domain orchestrates assembly of the hexameric helicase on the ori. PMID:10949036

  18. Involvement of Fis protein in replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Filutowicz, M; Ross, W; Wild, J; Gourse, R L

    1992-01-01

    We report evidence indicating that Fis protein plays a role in initiation of replication at oriC in vivo. At high temperatures, fis null mutants form filamentous cells, show aberrant nucleoid segregation, and are unable to form single colonies. DNA synthesis is inhibited in these fis mutant strains following upshift to 44 degrees C. The pattern of DNA synthesis inhibition upon temperature upshift and the requirement for RNA synthesis, but not protein synthesis, for resumed DNA synthesis upon downshift to 32 degrees C indicate that synthesis is affected in the initiation phase. fis mutations act synergistically with gyrB alleles known to affect initiation. oriC-dependent plasmids are poorly established and maintained in fis mutant strains. Finally, purified Fis protein interacts in vitro with sites in oriC. These interactions could be involved in mediating the effect of Fis on DNA synthesis in vivo. Images PMID:1309527

  19. A white dwarf companion to the main-sequence star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis and the binary hypothesis for the origin of peculiar red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, Thomas B.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1988-04-01

    In the course of an investigation with the IUE satellite of the ultraviolet spectra of peculiar red giants, the authors have discovered a white dwarf companion to the MS star 4 ο1Ori. They discuss the reductions performed for the ο1Ori IUE observations, and compare these with field white dwarfs to derive parameters of the white dwarf and the luminosity of the primary. Upper detection limits are derived for hot degenerate companions to four other bright MS stars, HR 363, RS Cnc, ST Her, and OP Her. Combined with the ο1Ori observations, it is argued that the nondetections for these stars are consistent with the statistics of field giant binaries and that either mass-transfer effects are not responsible for the incipient S-star nature of the MS stars, if their abundance peculiarities are recent, or that the MS stars must be older than 106yr.

  20. A replicative plasmid vector allows efficient complementation of pathogenic Leptospira strains.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christopher J; Benaroudj, Nadia; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease, remains poorly understood because of a lack of genetic manipulation tools available for pathogenic leptospires. Current genetic manipulation techniques include insertion of DNA by random transposon mutagenesis and homologous recombination via suicide vectors. This study describes the construction of a shuttle vector, pMaORI, that replicates within saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic leptospires. The shuttle vector was constructed by the insertion of a 2.9-kb DNA segment including the parA, parB, and rep genes into pMAT, a plasmid that cannot replicate in Leptospira spp. and contains a backbone consisting of an aadA cassette, ori R6K, and oriT RK2/RP4. The inserted DNA segment was isolated from a 52-kb region within Leptospira mayottensis strain 200901116 that is not found in the closely related strain L. mayottensis 200901122. Because of the size of this region and the presence of bacteriophage-like proteins, it is possible that this region is a result of a phage-related genomic island. The stability of the pMaORI plasmid within pathogenic strains was tested by passaging cultures 10 times without selection and confirming the presence of pMaORI. Concordantly, we report the use of trans complementation in the pathogen Leptospira interrogans. Transformation of a pMaORI vector carrying a functional copy of the perR gene in a null mutant background restores the expression of PerR and susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide comparable to that of wild-type cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate the replication of a stable plasmid vector in a large panel of Leptospira strains, including pathogens. The shuttle vector described will expand our ability to perform genetic manipulation of Leptospira spp. PMID:25724960

  1. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Frances G; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J T; Fairhurst, Heather M; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Grubb, Warren B; Ramsay, Joshua P

    2015-09-18

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2-3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus. PMID:26243776

  2. Characterization of Multiple Regions Involved in Replication and Mobilization of Plasmid pNZ4000 Coding for Exopolysaccharide Production in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    van Kranenburg, Richard; de Vos, Willem M.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the regions involved in replication and mobilization of the 40-kb plasmid pNZ4000, encoding exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in Lactococcus lactis NIZO B40. The plasmid contains four highly conserved replication regions with homologous rep genes (repB1, repB2, repB3, and repB4) that belong to the lactococcal theta replicon family. Subcloning of each replicon individually showed that all are functional and compatible in L. lactis. Plasmid pNZ4000 and genetically labeled derivatives could be transferred to different L. lactis strains by conjugation, and pNZ4000 was shown to be a mobilization plasmid. Two regions involved in mobilization were identified near two of the replicons; both included an oriT sequence rich in inverted repeats. Conjugative mobilization of the nonmobilizable plasmid pNZ124 was promoted by either one of these oriT sequences, demonstrating their functionality. One oriT sequence was followed by a mobA gene, coding for a trans-acting protein, which increased the frequency of conjugative transfer 100-fold. The predicted MobA protein and the oriT sequences show protein and nucleotide similarity, respectively, with the relaxase and with the inverted repeat and nic site of the oriT from the Escherichia coli plasmid R64. The presence on pNZ4000 of four functional replicons, two oriT sequences, and several insertion sequence-like elements strongly suggests that this EPS plasmid is a naturally occurring cointegrate. PMID:9765557

  3. The WERO group stop smoking competition: main outcomes of a pre- and post- study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One potential promising strategy for increasing smoking cessation for Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) and New Zealand resident Pacific Island people is Quit and Win competitions. The current uncontrolled pre and post study, WERO (WERO in Māori language means challenge), differs from previous studies in that it aims to investigate if a stop smoking contest, using both within team support, external support from a team coach and cessation experts, and technology, would be effective in prompting and sustaining quitting. Method Fifteen teams, recruited from urban Māori, rural Māori and urban Pacific communities, competed to win a NZ$5000 (about €3,000, £2600) prize for a charity or community group of their choice. People were eligible if they were aged 18 years and over and identified as smokers. Smoking status was biochemically validated at the start and end of the 3 month competition. At 3-months post competition self-reported smoking status was collected. Results Fourteen teams with 10 contestants and one team with eight contestants were recruited. At the end of the competition the biochemically verified quit rate was 36%. The 6 months self-reported quit rate was 26%. The Pacific and rural Māori teams had high end of competition and 6 months follow-up quit rates (46% and 44%, and 36% and 29%). Conclusion WERO appeared to be successful in prompting quitting among high smoking prevalence groups. WERO combined several promising strategies for supporting cessation: peer support, cessation provider support, incentives, competition and interactive internet and mobile tools. Though designed for Māori and Pacific people, WERO could potentially be effective for other family- and community-centred cultures. PMID:24924780

  4. Direct single-molecule observations of local denaturation of a DNA double helix under a negative supercoil state.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shunsuke; Motooka, Shinya; Usui, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Shohei; Miyata, Hidefumi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Takeshi; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Mizuno, Akira; Oshige, Masahiko; Katsura, Shinji

    2015-03-17

    Effects of a negative supercoil on the local denaturation of the DNA double helix were studied at the single-molecule level. The local denaturation in λDNA and λDNA containing the SV40 origin of DNA replication (SV40ori-λDNA) was directly observed by staining single-stranded DNA regions with a fusion protein comprising the ssDNA binding domain of a 70-kDa subunit of replication protein A and an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (RPA-YFP) followed by staining the double-stranded DNA regions with YOYO-1. The local denaturation of λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA under a negative supercoil state was observed as single bright spots at the single-stranded regions. When negative supercoil densities were gradually increased to 0, -0.045, and -0.095 for λDNA and 0, -0.047, and -0.1 for SV40ori-λDNA, single bright spots at the single-stranded regions were frequently induced under higher negative supercoil densities of -0.095 for λDNA and -0.1 for SV40ori-λDNA. However, single bright spots of the single-stranded regions were rarely observed below a negative supercoil density of -0.045 and -0.047 for λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA, respectively. The probability of occurrence of the local denaturation increased with negative superhelicity for both λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA. PMID:25697222

  5. Physical well-being and ethnic inequality in New Zealand prisons, 1840–1975

    PubMed Central

    Inwood, Kris; Oxley, Les

    2015-01-01

    The British colonization of New Zealand after 1840 was marked by an unusual concern compared to other settler colonies for incorporating the indigenous population Māori population into the new society. But despite a continuing political rhetoric of protection and sovereignty Māori have historically had lower living standards and, since the 1920s, higher rates of incarceration than European-descended New Zealanders (Pākehā). In this paper we examine differences between Māori and Pākehā over 130 years using prison records. Aggregate data from the Ministry of Justice show long-term change and differences in incarceration rates. Using a dataset of all extant registers of men entering New Zealand prisons we show change over time in convictions and in height. The adult statures of Māori and Pākehā were similar for men born before 1900 but marked differences emerged among cohorts born during the twentieth century. By World War II the gap in adult stature widened to around 3 cm, before narrowing for men born after World War II. Periods of divergence in stature are paralleled by divergence in fertility and indicators of family size, suggesting the possibility that increasing fertility stressed the economic situation of Māori families. The prison evidence suggests that inequalities in ‘net nutrition’ between Māori and Pākehā are long-standing but not unchanging, indeed they increased for cohorts born into the early 20th century. A subset of the data describing adolescents confirms that among those born after 1945 the ethnic differential was already visible by the age of 16 years. PMID:26167110

  6. The magnetic field of ζ Orionis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Rivinius, Th.

    2015-10-01

    Context. ζ Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field. Methods: Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the least-squares deconvolution technique to extract the magnetic information. Results: We confirm that ζ Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component ζ Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a period of 6.829 d. This is the only magnetic O supergiant known as of today. With an oblique dipole field model of the Stokes V profiles, we show that the polar field strength is ~140 G. Because the magnetic field is weak and the stellar wind is strong, ζ Ori Aa does not host a centrifugally supported magnetosphere. It may host a dynamical magnetosphere. Its companion ζ Ori Ab does not show any magnetic signature, with an upper limit on the undetected field of ~300 G. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. [Cloning and functional studies of the chromosomal replication origin of Actinomadura yumaensis].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hai-yang; Lin, Kai-chun; Yang, Chang-juz; Qin, Zhong-jun

    2007-06-01

    The chromosomal replication origins (oriC) have been investigated in Gram-positive eubacteria actinomycetes, including Streptomyces, Mycobacterium and Amycolatopsis, and reveal various DnaA-boxes and AT-rich sequences between the conserved dnaA and dnaN genes. Actinomadura yumaensis NRRL12515 is a producer of anthelmintic polyether maduramicin. In this paper,cloning, sequencing and functional studies of its oriC have been carried out. A pair of oligonucleotide primers, based on the conserved sequences of dnaA and dnaN, was used to PCR amplification. A-1.3kb DNA band was detected on agarose gel. Subsequently cloning in an E. coli plasmid pBluescript II SK ( + ) and sequencing showed 1265bp,which contained 919bp between dnaA and dnaN genes. 14 DnaA-boxes with conserved 9bp sequence (T/C) (T/C) GTCC (A/C) CA and two 13bp AT-rich regions (GAAAAATCCCAAG, AAGAAAAAACTCA), were found on the sequence,indicating the oriC of A. yumaensis NRRL12515. Phylogenetic trees based on the sequences of oriC and of 16S rRNA genes of the four actinomycetes species show a similar pattern, suggesting that oriC sequences also reflected well the relationship between actinomycetes species. An E. coli plasmid pOR1, containing the oriC, actinomycetes selection markers tsr and melC, was introduced into Streptomyces coelicolor M145 by conjugal transfer. Transformants were obtained,and plasmids DNA were isolated and detected as low copy number, suggesting a functional mini-chromosome in Streptomyces. PMID:17672320

  8. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Frances G.; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J. T.; Fairhurst, Heather M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Grubb, Warren B.; Ramsay, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2–3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus. PMID:26243776

  9. THE CORONAL ABUNDANCES OF MID-F DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin

    2013-05-10

    A Chandra spectrum of the moderately active nearby F6 V star {pi}{sup 3} Ori is used to study the coronal properties of mid-F dwarfs. We find that {pi}{sup 3} Ori's coronal emission measure distribution is very similar to those of moderately active G and K dwarfs, with an emission measure peak near log T = 6.6 seeming to be ubiquitous for such stars. In contrast to coronal temperature, coronal abundances are known to depend on spectral type for main sequence stars. Based on this previously known relation, we expected {pi}{sup 3} Ori's corona to exhibit an extremely strong ''first ionization potential (FIP) effect'', a phenomenon first identified on the Sun where elements with low FIP are enhanced in the corona. We instead find that {pi}{sup 3} Ori's corona exhibits a FIP effect essentially identical to that of the Sun and other early G dwarfs, perhaps indicating that the increase in FIP bias toward earlier spectral types stops or at least slows for F stars. We find that {pi}{sup 3} Ori's coronal characteristics are significantly different from two previously studied mid-F stars, Procyon (F5 IV-V) and {tau} Boo (F7 V). We believe {pi}{sup 3} Ori is more representative of the coronal characteristics of mid-F dwarfs, with Procyon being different because of luminosity class, and {tau} Boo being different because of the effects of one of two close companions, one stellar ({tau} Boo B: M2 V) and one planetary.

  10. AKARI/FIS Mapping of the ISM-Wind Bow Shock around α Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Yamamura, Issei; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Fukushi, Hinako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki

    2008-12-01

    We present 10' × 50'scan maps around an M supergiant αOri at 65, 90, 140, and 160μm obtained with the AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite. Higher spatial resolution data with the exact analytic solution permit us to fit the de-projected shape of the stellar-wind bow shock around αOri to have a stand-off distance of 4'.8, position angle of 55° and inclination angle of 56°. The shape of the bow shock suggests that the velocity of αOri with respect to the local medium is v* = 40 nH-1/2, where nH is the hydrogen nucleus density at αOri. We found that the local medium is of nH = 1.5 to 1.9 cm-3 and the velocity of the local flow is at 11km s-1 by using the most recent astrometric solutions for αOri under the assumption that the medium local to αOri is moving away from the Orion OB 1 association. AKARI images may also reveal avortex ring due to instabilities on the surface of the bow shock, as demonstrated by numerical models. This research exemplifies the potential of AKARI All-Sky data as well as follow-up observations with Herschel Space Telescope and Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy for this avenue of research in revealing the nature of the interaction between the stellar wind and the interstellar medium.

  11. Periodic spectrum variations in helium-rich stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walborn, N. R.

    1982-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of four helium-rich stars are presented. In HD 37776, antiphase variations of Si III and He I have been found, which represent another point of similarity to the Ap phenomenon. The remarkable H-alpha emission variations in Sigma Ori E are illustrated with uniform phase coverage, and strict periodicity over a five-year interval is shown. A radial-velocity study of HD 64740 shows constancy to within the accuracy of the observations. Finally, Delta Ori B is confirmed as a helium-rich star.

  12. Retraction Note: Chronic neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment following transient global cerebral ischemia: role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article [1] has been retracted by the Editors-in-Chief. Based on the report of an inquiry conducted by Wayne State University and additional analysis conducted by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) [2], the ORI informed the journal that the first author Dr Teresita L. Briones engaged in research misconduct by falsifying and/or fabricating data by falsely reporting the results of Western blot experiments, and that data reported in Figures 2A and 2C in [1] were duplicated, reused and falsely relabelled, and claimed to represent different experiments. We have not been able to contact any of the authors. PMID:26610849

  13. The V1647 Orionis (IRAS 05436-0007) Protostar and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGehee, Peregrine M.; Smith, J. Allyn; Henden, Arne A.; Richmond, Michael W.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Ivezić, Željko; Brinkmann, J.

    2004-12-01

    We present Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and United States Naval Observatory (USNO) observations of the V1647 Ori protostar and its surrounding field near NGC 2068. V1647 Ori, the likely driving source for HH 23, brightened significantly in 2003 November. Analysis of SDSS imaging acquired in 1998 November and 2002 February during the quiescent state, recent USNO photometry, and published Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and Gemini data show that the color changes associated with brightening suggest an EX Lupi type (EXor) outburst rather than a simple dust-clearing event.

  14. High resolution spectroscopy of the new FU Orionis object BBW 76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisloeffel, J.; Hessman, F. V.; Mundt, R.

    1990-06-01

    High-resolution spectra of the new FU Orionis object BBW 76 are presented. Although the photometric outburst of this FU Orionis object could not be observed, its spectral characteristics clearly identify it as belonging to this class. BBW 76 shows Balmer line profiles typical for FU Orionis stars. Its absorption line spectrum and, in particular, the line widths are strikingly similar to that of FU Ori. Other similarities to FU Ori are the presence of an arclike nebula, and the FIR luminosities and color temperatures.

  15. IUE observations of new A star candidate proto-planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the detection of accreting gas in the A5e PMS Herbig Ae star, HR 5999, most of the observations for this IUE program were devoted to Herbig Ae stars rather than to main sequence A stars. Mid-UV emission at optical minimum light was detected for UX Ori (A1e), BF Ori (A5e), and CQ Tau (F2e). The presence of accreting gas in HD 45677 and HD 50138 prompted reclassification of these stars as Herbig Be stars rather than as protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed results are discussed.

  16. Maleic anhydride-polyether-polyamine reaction product and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.

    1987-04-21

    A material is described having a use as a motor fuel additive for controlling engine octane requirement increase (ORI), controlling and reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide engine emissions, and having carburetor detergency properties. The material is the reaction product of maleic anhydride, a polyether polyamine, preferably a polyether diamine, and a hydrocarbyl polyamine, preferably an n-alkyl-alkylene diamine. A concentrate comprising the prescribed reaction product dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent is also described. Motor fuels containing the reaction product additive of the instant invention show improved ORI control and carburetor detergency in comparison with motor fuels without the reaction product additive.

  17. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  18. The herpes simplex virus amplicon: analyses of cis-acting replication functions.

    PubMed Central

    Spaete, R R; Frenkel, N

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that defective virus vectors (amplicons) derived from herpes simplex viruses could be efficiently propagated in virus stocks in the presence of trans-acting helper virus functions. The present study established that two separate cis-acting functions--a DNA replication origin and a cleavage/packaging signal--are required for amplicon propagation. Using deleted derivatives of cloned amplicons, we mapped one of the viral DNA replication origins (ori-2 or oriL) at coordinate 0.422 of the standard HSV-1 genome and at an equivalent position within the HSV-2 genome. Images PMID:2983310

  19. In-house Information Processing and Management System in Otsuka Chemical Ltd.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Masahiko; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Tanioka, Kyoko

    This paper describes objectives and background of developing an in-house information processing and management system (ORIS), the system outline, and future subjects to be solved. ORIS aims to share in-house information resources and to provide prompt and versatile searching. It was started to be developed in Nov. 1984, and has been operated since Feb. 1985. Only three months passed since the system has been run so that it is hard to evaluate it at present. Consolidation of the database, PR of the system, control of primary materials and so on are regarded as subjects to be solved in near future.

  20. Mars US rover traverse co-registration using multi-resolution Orbital 3D imaging datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, W. D.

    2013-09-01

    Co-registered 3D Digital terrain Models (DTMs) and orthorectified imaging (ORI) orbital datasets have been produced of all the major US Mars landing sites. These have been sourced from HiRise, HRSC and MOLA. Co-registration was achieved using manual tiepointing within ARCgis v10. These DTM and ORI products were sourced from publicly available datasets or from EU-FP7-PRoViSG partners or generated using internal UCL 3D-RPIF [1] resources. For rover traverses, this results in substantial transformations which implies that all the SPICE kernels will need to be recomputed.

  1. A Cadaveric Investigation of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vuvi H; Liu, Hao Howe; Rosales, Armando; Reeves, Rustin

    2016-01-01

    Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN's anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve's spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations. A transverse plane through the laryngeal prominence was established to measure the distance of the DSN from this plane as it enters, crosses, and exits the middle scalene muscle. Approximately 70% of the DSNs originated from C5, with 74% piercing the middle scalene muscle. About 48% of the DSNs supplied the levator scapulae muscle only and 52% innervated both the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles. The average distances from a transverse plane at the laryngeal prominence where the DSN entered, crossed, and exited the middle scalene muscle were 1.50 cm, 1.79 cm, and 2.08 cm, respectively. Our goal is to help improve clinicians' ability to locate the site of DSN entrapment so that appropriate management can be implemented. PMID:27597900

  2. Neural control of the female urethral and anal rhabdosphincters and pelvic floor muscles

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The urethral rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles are important in maintenance of urinary continence and in preventing descent of pelvic organs [i.e., pelvic organ prolapse (POP)]. Despite its clinical importance and complexity, a comprehensive review of neural control of the rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles is lacking. The present review places historical and recent basic science findings on neural control into the context of functional anatomy of the pelvic muscles and their coordination with visceral function and correlates basic science findings with clinical findings when possible. This review briefly describes the striated muscles of the pelvis and then provides details on the peripheral innervation and, in particular, the contributions of the pudendal and levator ani nerves to the function of the various pelvic muscles. The locations and unique phenotypic characteristics of rhabdosphincter motor neurons located in Onuf's nucleus, and levator ani motor neurons located diffusely in the sacral ventral horn, are provided along with the locations and phenotypes of primary afferent neurons that convey sensory information from these muscles. Spinal and supraspinal pathways mediating excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the motor neurons are described; the relative contributions of the nerves to urethral function and their involvement in POP and incontinence are discussed. Finally, a detailed summary of the neurochemical anatomy of Onuf's nucleus and the pharmacological control of the rhabdosphincter are provided. PMID:20484700

  3. Nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium or paravaginal tissue: an immunohistochemical study using elderly donated cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Hieda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hiromasa; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2014-03-01

    The paracolpium or paravaginal tissue is surrounded by the vaginal wall, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum (Denonvilliers' fascia). To clarify the configuration of nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium, we examined histological sections of 10 elderly cadavers. The paracolpium contained the distal part of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus and its branches: the cavernous nerve, the nerves to the urethra and the nerves to the internal anal sphincter (NIAS). The NIAS ran postero-inferiorly along the superior fascia of the levator ani muscle to reach the longitudinal muscle layer of the rectum. In two nulliparous and one multiparous women, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum were distinct and connected with the superior fascia of the levator at the tendinous arch of the pelvic fasciae. In these three cadavers, the pelvic plexus and its distal branches were distributed almost evenly in the paracolpium and sandwiched by the pubocervical and Denonvilliers' fasciae. By contrast, in five multiparous women, these nerves were divided into the anterosuperior group (bladder detrusor nerves) and the postero-inferior group (NIAS, cavernous and urethral nerves) by the well-developed venous plexus in combination with the fragmented or unclear fasciae. Although the small number of specimens was a major limitation of this study, we hypothesized that, in combination with destruction of the basic fascial architecture due to vaginal delivery and aging, the pelvic plexus is likely to change from a sheet-like configuration to several bundles. PMID:24693482

  4. Resolving within- and between-population variation in feeding ecology with a biomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Osenberg, Craig W; Huckins, Casey J F; Kaltenberg, Anthony; Martinez, Ari

    2004-09-01

    Studies of phenotypic plasticity have emphasized the effect of the environment on the phenotype, but plasticity can also be used as a tool to study the functional significance of key traits. By inducing variation in phenotypes and testing quantitative models that predict performance based on biological mechanisms, we can develop functionally general models of performance. Pumpkinseed sunfish from lakes with high snail availability have large levator posterior muscles (which are used to crush snail shells), whereas fish from lakes with few snails have relatively small muscles. Here we: (1) quantify differences in the feeding ability of an ontogenetic series of pumpkinseed from two populations; and (2) evaluate whether a biomechanical model can resolve the observed ontogenetic and between-population variation in feeding ecology. Mass, but not length, of the levator posterior muscle in fish from Three Lakes (a lake rich in snails) was greater than for comparably sized fish from Wintergreen Lake (a lake with few snails). Handling times were shorter, crushing strengths were 71% greater, and foraging rate (snail tissue mass consumed per time) and the fraction of thick-shelled snails in the diet were approximately 100% greater for fish from Three Lakes compared to comparably sized fish from Wintergreen. These between-lake differences were not significant after adjusting for variation in pharyngeal morphology, suggesting that the biomechanical model of snail crushing resolved observed ontogenetic and population-level variation in the feeding ecology of pumpkinseed. PMID:15338265

  5. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09972.001 PMID:27090084

  6. Coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves in the inferior hypogastric plexus: anatomical and immunohistochemical study with 3D reconstruction in human male fetus

    PubMed Central

    Alsaid, Bayan; Bessede, Thomas; Karam, Ibrahim; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Uhl, Jean-Francois; Benoît, Gérard; Droupy, Stéphane; Delmas, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Classic anatomical methods have failed to determine the precise location, origin and nature of nerve fibres in the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP). The purpose of this study was to identify the location and nature (adrenergic and/or cholinergic) of IHP nerve fibres and to provide a three-dimensional (3D) representation of pelvic nerves and their relationship to other anatomical structures. Serial transverse sections of the pelvic portion of two human male fetuses (16 and 17 weeks’ gestation) were studied histologically and immunohistochemically, digitized and reconstructed three-dimensionally. 3D reconstruction allowed a ‘computer-assisted dissection’, identifying the precise location and distribution of the pelvic nerve elements. Proximal (supra-levator) and distal (infra-levator) communications between the pudendal nerve and IHP were observed. By determining the nature of the nerve fibres using immunostaining, we were able to demonstrate that the hypogastric nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves, which are classically considered purely sympathetic and parasympathetic, respectively, contain both adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres. The pelvic autonomic nervous system is more complex than previously thought, as adrenergic and cholinergic fibres were found to co-exist in both ‘sympathetic’ and ‘parasympathetic’ nerves. This study is the first step to a 3D cartography of neurotransmitter distribution which could help in the selection of molecules to be used in the treatment of incontinence, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. PMID:19438760

  7. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  8. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A injection in patients requiring temporary tarsorrhaphy to improve corneal epithelial defects

    PubMed Central

    Kasaee, Abolfazl; Musavi, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaie, Syed Ziaeddin; Hashemian, Mohammad Nasser; Mohebbi, Shahrzad; Khodabandeh, Alireza; Taher Rajabi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport, (Ipsen Biopharm Ltd, Wrexham, UK)) injection in patients requiring temporary tarsorrhaphy to improve corneal epithelial defects. METHODS Thirty patients were enrolled into the prospective study between March 2007 and September 2009. Doses of 15 and 30U of Dysport were injected into the levator palpebrae superioris muscle through the eyelid. The patients were followed daily until completion of ptosis and then 1-2 weekly until complete resolution of levator function and improvement of corneal condition. RESULTS Ptosis took 2.64±1.85 days to be completed (range 1-9 days) and lasted for 12±2.19 weeks. For patients with seventh nerve palsy, 30U Dysport was appropriate to produce sufficient ptosis whereas in other patients 15U of toxin was sufficient. In 83.3% of patients ptosis was sufficient for complete recovery of corneal epithelium and 16.7% required a second procedure (Amniotic membrane transplantation, conjunctival flap). There was a direct correlation between age and duration of ptosis. In patients with seventh nerve palsy, the amount of resultant ptosis was significantly lower than that of other patients. The only adverse effects of injection were superior rectus underaction (33.3%) and diplopia (16.7%) which resolved in all patients without any intervention. CONCLUSION Dysport injection is a safe and effective substitute for surgical tasorrhaphy with fewer complications. PMID:22553562

  9. Pelvic floor ultrasound: a review.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Hans Peter

    2010-04-01

    Imaging currently plays a limited role in the investigation of pelvic floor disorders. It is obvious that magnetic resonance imaging has limitations in urogynecology and female urology at present due to cost and access limitations and due to the fact that it is generally a static, not a dynamic, method. However, none of those limitations apply to sonography, a diagnostic method that is very much part of general practice in obstetrics and gynecology. Translabial or transperineal ultrasound is helpful in determining residual urine; detrusor wall thickness; bladder neck mobility; urethral integrity; anterior, central, and posterior compartment prolapse; and levator anatomy and function. It is at least equivalent to other imaging methods in visualizing such diverse conditions as urethral diverticula, rectal intussusception, mesh dislodgment, and avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Ultrasound is the only imaging method able to visualize modern mesh slings and implants and may predict who actually needs such implants. Delivery-related levator trauma is the most important known etiologic factor for pelvic organ prolapse and not difficult to diagnose on 3-/4-dimensional and even on 2-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound. It is likely that this will be an important driver behind the universal use of this technology. This review gives an overview of the method and its main current uses in clinical assessment and research. PMID:20350640

  10. Pelvic floor ultrasonography: an update.

    PubMed

    Shek, K L; Dietz, H-P

    2013-02-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a number of highly prevalent clinical conditions such as female pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. The etiology and pathophysiology of those conditions are, however, not well understood. Recent technological advances have seen a surge in the use of imaging, both in research and clinical practice. Among the techniques available such as sonography, X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound is superior for pelvic floor imaging, especially in the form of perineal or translabial imaging. The technique is safe with no radiation, simple, cheap, easily accessible and provides high spatial and temporal resolutions. Translabial or perineal ultrasound is useful in determining residual urinary volume, detrusor wall thickness, bladder neck mobility and in assessing pelvic organ prolapse as well as levator function and anatomy. It is at least equivalent to other imaging techniques in diagnosing, such diverse conditions as urethral diverticula, rectal intussusception and avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Ultrasound is the only imaging method capable of visualizing modern slings and mesh implants and may help selecting patients for implant surgery. Delivery-related levator injury seems to be the most important etiological factor for pelvic organ prolapse and recurrence after prolapse surgery, and it is most conveniently diagnosed by pelvic floor ultrasound. This review gives an overview of the methodology. Its main current uses in clinical assessment and research will also be discussed. PMID:23412016

  11. Etiology of craniofacial malformations in mouse models of blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heude, Églantine; Bellessort, Brice; Fontaine, Anastasia; Hamazaki, Manatsu; Treier, Anna-Corina; Treier, Mathias; Levi, Giovanni; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas

    2015-03-15

    Blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus-inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by narrow palpebral fissures and eyelid levator muscle defects. BPES is often associated to premature ovarian insufficiency (BPES type I). FOXL2, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, is the only gene known to be mutated in BPES. Foxl2 is essential for maintenance of ovarian identity, but the developmental origin of the facial malformations of BPES remains, so far, unexplained. In this study, we provide the first detailed account of the developmental processes leading to the craniofacial malformations associated to Foxl2. We show that, during development, Foxl2 is expressed both by Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCCs) and by Cranial Mesodermal Cells (CMCs), which give rise to skeletal (CNCCs and CMCs) and muscular (CMCs) components of the head. Using mice in which Foxl2 is selectively inactivated in either CNCCs or CMCs, we reveal that expression of Foxl2 in CNCCs is essential for the development of extraocular muscles. Indeed, inactivation of Foxl2 in CMCs has only minor effects on muscle development, whereas its inactivation in CNCCs provokes a severe hypoplasia of the levator palpabrae superioris and of the superior and inferior oblique muscles. We further show that Foxl2 deletion in either CNCCs or CMCs prevents eyelid closure and induces subtle skeletal developmental defects. Our results provide new insights in the complex developmental origin of human BPES and could help to understand the origin of other ocular anomalies associated to this syndrome. PMID:25416281

  12. Localisation of motoneurons supplying the extra-ocular muscles of the rat using horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent double labelling.

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira Garcia, J L; Gomez Segade, L A; Suarez Nuñez, J M

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative and quantitative investigation into the location of the motoneurons innervating the extra-ocular muscles of the rat. Injections of horseradish peroxidase, bisbenzimide, propidium iodide and DAPI-primuline were made either in one or simultaneously in two muscles. Unlike those of the cat, rabbit and monkey, the motoneurons which make up the oculomotor nucleus of the rat are not arranged in spatially separate subgroups belonging each to its corresponding extra-ocular muscle, but instead allow a high degree of superposition among the motor pools which they compose. The motoneurons innervating the lateral rectus and inferior oblique muscles are all homolateral; those of the medial and inferior rectus muscles are mainly homolateral with a few contralateral exceptions; and those of the superior rectus, levator palpebrae and superior oblique muscles are mainly contralateral with a small minority of homolateral exceptions. As well as from the main motor pools with which they are associated, the medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, levator palpebrae, superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles all receive innervation from motoneurons lying among the fibres of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis. All these observations are supported by quantitative data. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6195140

  13. Enhancement of aphrodisiac activity in male rats by ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Yimlamai, T; Pholpramool, C

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KD) and exercise training on reproductive function in male rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control, KD70 (received 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks), Ex (exercise training for 4 weeks), Ex + KD70 (exercise training with KD 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). At the end of treatment regimes, sexual behaviours including mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculation latency (PEL), number of mount within 30 min (MF(30)) and number of ejaculation (NEL) were assessed by a video camera, and fertility was tested by natural mating. Results showed that KD had no effect on the weights of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys and levator ani muscle. On the other hand, the weights of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and levator ani muscle were significantly increased in the Ex and Ex+KD70 groups. ML and EL were shortened in all treatment groups, but PEL was decreased only in KP70 group. Only Ex and Ex + KD70 groups exhibited lower MF and higher NEL whilst MF(30) were not changed in all groups. None of the treatments altered male fertility. It is concluded that KD enhanced sexual motivation whereas exercise training promoted both sexual motivation and performance. PMID:21729142

  14. [Correction of the position of the cilia in facial paralysis: Technical note].

    PubMed

    Caillot, A; Labbé, D

    2015-06-01

    Facial paralysis is a incapacitating pathology that we treat with lengthening temporalis myoplasty for reanimation of the smile. To treat lagophthalmia, we use the extension of the levator of the upper eyelid according Tessier and the asymmetric external blepharorraphy. These techniques can optionally be combined with other techniques, as needed. However, many patients are embarrassed by the appearance of the lashes of the upper eyelid homolateral side facial paralysis. The cilia are lowered and horizontalised, creating a functional disorder by partial "amputation" of the visual field and aesthetic inconvenience. We describe a surgical technique to correct the malposition of the lashes. This technique can be carried out independently or in the lengthening of the temporal myoplasty or another surgical procedure on the eye. In case of extension of the levator of the upper eyelid, the technique we propose requires no additional incision. This is a simple technique and increases very little surgical time. It is fast, little or no morbid, reproducible and provides a significant improvement in the aesthetic and functional patient. This simple technique allows to provide both aesthetic and functional refinement for patients with facial paralysis sequelae. PMID:25708730

  15. A shell finite element model of the pelvic floor muscles.

    PubMed

    d'Aulignac, D; Martins, J A C; Pires, E B; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M Natal

    2005-10-01

    The pelvic floor gives support to the organs in the abdominal cavity. Using the dataset made public in (Janda et al. J. Biomech. (2003) 36(6), pp. 749-757), we have reconstructed the geometry of one of the most important parts of the pelvic floor, the levator ani, using NURB surfaces. Once the surface is triangulated, the corresponding mesh is used in a finite element analysis with shell elements. Based on the 3D behavior of the muscle we have constructed a shell that takes into account the direction of the muscle fibers and the incompressibility of the tissue. The constitutive model for the isotropic strain energy and the passive strain energy stored in the fibers is adapted from Humphrey's model for cardiac muscles. To this the active behavior of the skeletal muscle is added. We present preliminary results of a simulation of the levator ani muscle under pressure and with active contraction. This research aims at helping simulate the damages to the pelvic floor that can occur after childbirth. PMID:16298856

  16. [A Case of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Successfully Treated by Conversion Surgery after Multidisciplinary Treatment].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yosuke; Yamashita, Shinya; Tominaga, Harumi; Kimura, Yuri; Odagiri, Kazuki; Kurokawa, Tomoaki; Yamaguchi, Megumi; Takahashi, Gen; Sawada, Genta; Jeongho, Moon; Inoue, Masasi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Nakahira, Sin; Hatanaka, Nobutaka

    2015-10-01

    A 70-year-old woman who complained of abdominal pain and a prolapsed tumor from the anus was diagnosed with an intestinal obstruction resulting from anal canal cancer. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge tumor (11×5×12 cm) invading the vagina and levator ani muscle. Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes on both sides indicated metastasis. The clinical stage was T4b (vagina, levator ani muscle, and pudenda) N0H0M1a (LYM), stage IV (Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma: 8th edition). As curative resection was not possible, a transvers colostomy was performed to relieve the intestinal obstruction. This was followed by chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy/1.8 Gy×25; TS-1, 80 mg/body for 2 weeks and a 1-week interval, for 2 courses) and up to 10 courses of Bev+mFOLFOX6 continuously. After this regimen, there was a remarkable reduction in tumor size. Positron emission tomography-CT revealed no FDG uptake in the primary rectal site or inguinal lymph nodes, but a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 6.3 was detected in the vagina. Six weeks after chemotherapy, the patient underwent a pelvic exenteration including resection of the vagina, bladder, and pudenda. The pathological stage was yp T4b (vagina) N0H0M0, stageⅡ. Curative resection was performed, and the patient had a Grade 2 pathological response after chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26489576

  17. ANMS-ESNM Position Paper and Consensus Guidelines On Biofeedback Therapy for Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Satish S.C.; Benninga, Marc A; Bharucha, Adil E; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Whitehead, William E

    2015-01-01

    Anorectal disorders such as dyssynergic defecation, fecal incontinence, levator ani syndrome and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome are common, and affect both the adult and pediatric populations. Although they are treated with several treatment approaches, over the last two decades, biofeedback therapy using visual and verbal feedback techniques has emerged as an useful option. Because it is safe, it is commonly recommended. However, the clinical efficacy of biofeedback therapy in adults and children is not clearly known, and there is a lack of critical appraisal of the techniques used and the outcomes of biofeedback therapy for these disorders. The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society and the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility convened a task force to examine the indications, study performance characteristics, methodologies used and the efficacy of biofeedback therapy, and to provide evidence-based recommendations. Based on the strength of evidence, biofeedback therapy is recommended for the short term and long term treatment of constipation with dyssynergic defecation (Level I, Grade A), and for the treatment of fecal incontinence (Level II, Grade B). Biofeedback therapy may be useful in the short-term treatment of Levator Ani Syndrome with dyssynergic defecation (Level II, Grade B), and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome with dyssynergic defecation (Level III, Grade C), but the evidence is fair. Evidence does not support the use of biofeedback for the treatment of childhood constipation (Level 1, Grade D). PMID:25828100

  18. A Cadaveric Investigation of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vuvi H.; Liu, Hao (Howe); Rosales, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN's anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve's spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations. A transverse plane through the laryngeal prominence was established to measure the distance of the DSN from this plane as it enters, crosses, and exits the middle scalene muscle. Approximately 70% of the DSNs originated from C5, with 74% piercing the middle scalene muscle. About 48% of the DSNs supplied the levator scapulae muscle only and 52% innervated both the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles. The average distances from a transverse plane at the laryngeal prominence where the DSN entered, crossed, and exited the middle scalene muscle were 1.50 cm, 1.79 cm, and 2.08 cm, respectively. Our goal is to help improve clinicians' ability to locate the site of DSN entrapment so that appropriate management can be implemented. PMID:27597900

  19. Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona. PMID:17154285

  20. A Prototype External Magnetic Eyelid Device for Blepharoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Kevin E.; Tomasi, Matteo; Yoon, Michael; Paschalis, Eleftherios I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test a prototype magnet system (magnetic levator prosthesis) for the ability to comfortably and non-invasively provide eye opening with maintenance of the blink in people with paralytic ptosis and determine preliminary efficacy for short-term clinical application. Methods The prototype device consisted of a magnet on a spectacle frame and a micro-magnet array mounted externally on the eyelid. Participants with unilateral CN III palsy (n=3) trialed the predicate (ptosis crutch) and magnet device. Video analysis was used to quantify changes in eyelid opening and subjective responses were documented with a rating scale. A 20-minute and then a 1-week trial were offered. Results The magnetic levator prosthesis device was effective to provide eye opening while allowing, at minimum, a volitional blink without ill effects on the eyelid skin or ocular surface. Comfort scores ranged from 6 to 9 out of 10 over 3 evaluations. All patients chose an extended trial of the magnet device and reported continued 8-9/10 comfort and efficacy after the extended 1-week trial. Conclusions Comfortable and effective restoration of eye opening with maintenance of the blink is feasible using external static magnets and warrants further study. Translational Relevance This is the first careful documentation of the successful use of an externally mounted static magnet system to treat paralytic ptosis. PMID:25674358

  1. Online Friendship, Romance, and Sex: Properties and Associations of the Online Relationship Initiation Scale.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2016-08-01

    Online relationships are increasingly central to many people's lives. As a result, there is a growing need to scientifically examine their psychosocial implications. This study developed and tested the Online Relationship Initiation Scale (ORIS) through classical and item response theory analyses to address this need. An anonymous online survey included 713 adults, aged 18-71 years. The ORIS was tested on psychometric properties and examined for associations with gender and several standardized psychosocial measures. Results demonstrated unidimensionality of nine items, strong factor loadings, and high internal consistency (α = 0.90, ωt = 0.94). All items captured significant information on the latent trait and none showed differential item functioning by sex, age group, or ethnicity. General linear modeling confirmed hypotheses that men were more likely than women to initiate online relationships. Online relationship initiation was not strongly associated with perceived social support, but was positively related to financial distress, and willingness to engage in infidelity or unprotected sex. The ORIS was negatively associated with age and satisfaction with life and showed modest interactions with ethnicity and hours online. This study provided empirical evidence for an interpersonal relationship initiation construct. The ORIS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for evaluating online interpersonal behaviors and their associations with psychosocial and demographic factors. Such psychometrically sound instruments can be useful in exploring online interpersonal behaviors and their significance. PMID:27447244

  2. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.316 Completing the research misconduct process. (a) ORI expects institutions to carry inquiries...

  3. 42 CFR 93.406 - Final HHS actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in § 93.501, the ORI finding of research misconduct is the final HHS action on the research... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct...

  4. 42 CFR 93.413 - HHS compliance actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Institutional... and the requirements of this part may result in enforcement action against the institution. (b) ORI... reprimand. (2) Direct that research misconduct proceedings be handled by HHS. (3) Place the institution...

  5. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to contest findings of research... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity...

  6. Measuring the effect of spray plume angle on the accuracy of droplet size data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of droplet size data using laser diffraction allows for quick and easy assessment of droplet size for agricultural spray nozzles and pesticides; however, operation and setup of the instrument and test system can potentially influence the accuracy of the data. One of the factors is the orie...

  7. 75 FR 73987 - Target Date Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... whether the final rule should be effective on a different date. E. Regulatory Impact Analysis Executive... submit their comments electronically to e-ORI@dol.gov , or by using the Federal eRulemaking portal http... above. \\1\\ 72 FR 60452 (Oct. 24, 2007). \\2\\ 73 FR 23349 (Apr. 30, 2008). The final regulation...

  8. 76 FR 76252 - Proposed Revision of Annual Information Return/Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... or provide health benefits to the employees of two or more employers, to file the Form M-1 with the..., identified by RIN 1210-AB51, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: e-ORI@dol.gov . Mail or...

  9. 42 CFR 93.303 - Assurances for small institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances for small institutions. 93.303 Section... Assurances for small institutions. (a) If an institution is too small to handle research misconduct proceedings, it may file a “Small Organization Statement” with ORI in place of the formal...

  10. Role of topology in electrical properties of bacterio-rhodopsin and rat olfactory receptor I7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfinito, E.; Reggiani, L.

    2010-03-01

    We report on electrical properties of the two sensing proteins: bacteriorhodopsin and rat olfactory receptor OR-I7. As relevant transport parameters we consider the small-signal impedance spectrum and the static current-voltage characteristics. Calculations are compared with available experimental results and the model predictability is tested for future perspectives.

  11. 42 CFR 93.25 - Organization of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 93.25 Organization of this part. This part is subdivided into five subparts. Each subpart contains information related to a broad topic or specific audience with special responsibilities... Research Integrity. E Information on how to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS...

  12. 42 CFR 93.25 - Organization of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 93.25 Organization of this part. This part is subdivided into five subparts. Each subpart contains information related to a broad topic or specific audience with special responsibilities... Research Integrity. E Information on how to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS...

  13. 77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... of blood stem cell niches.'' Nature 463:495-500, 2010. Mayack, S.R., & Wagers, A.J. ``Osteolineage niche cells initiate hemotopoietic stem cell mobilization.'' Blood 112:519-531, 2008. As a result of... review, ORI found that Dr. Shane Mayack, former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Developmental and...

  14. 42 CFR 93.211 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing. 93.211 Section 93.211 Public Health PUBLIC... Definitions § 93.211 Hearing. Hearing means that part of the research misconduct proceeding from the time a respondent files a request for an administrative hearing to contest ORI findings of research misconduct...

  15. The rolling-circle melting-pot model for porcine circovirus DNA replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stem-loop structure, formed by a pair of inverted repeats during DNA replication, is a conserved feature at the origin of DNA replication (Ori) among plant and animal viruses, bacteriophages and plasmids that replicate their genomes via the rolling-circle replication (RCR) mechanism. Porcine circo...

  16. Control of the replication initiator DnaA by an anti-cooperativity factor

    PubMed Central

    Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Proper coordination of DNA replication with cell growth and division is critical for production of viable progeny. In bacteria, coordination of DNA replication with cell growth is generally achieved by controlling activity of the replication initiator DnaA and its access to the chromosomal origin of replication, oriC. Here we describe a previously unknown mechanism for regulation of DnaA. YabA, a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis, interacts with DnaA and DnaN, the sliding (processivity) clamp of DNA polymerase. We found that in vivo, YabA associated with the oriC region in a DnaA-dependent manner and limited the amount of DnaA at oriC. In vitro, purified YabA altered binding of DnaA to DNA by inhibiting cooperativity. Though previously undescribed, proteins that directly inhibit cooperativity may be a common mechanism for regulating replication initiation. Conditions that cause release of DnaN from the replisome, or overproduction of DnaN, caused decreased association of YabA and increased association of DnaA with oriC. This effect of DnaN, either directly or indirectly, is likely responsible, in part, for enabling initiation of a new round of replication following completion of a previous round. PMID:21895792

  17. Filamentary structure in the Orion molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Langer, William D.; Stark, Antony A.; Wilson, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    A large-scale (C-13)O map (containing 33,000 spectra on a 1-arcmin grid) is presented for the giant molecular cloud located in the southern part of Ori which contains the Ori Nebula, NGC 1977, and the L1641 dark cloud complex. The overall structure of the cloud is filamentary, with individual features having a length up to 40 times their width. The northern portion of the cloud is compressed, dynamically relaxed, and supports massive star formation. In contrast, the southern part of the Ori A cloud is diffuse, exhibits chaotic spatial and velocity structure, and supports only intermediate- to low-mass star formation. This morphology may be the consequence of the formation and evolution of the Ori OB I association centered north of the molecular cloud. The entire cloud, in addition to the 5000-solar-mass filament containing both OMC-1 and OMC-2, exhibits a north-south velocity gradient. Implications of the observed cloud morphology for theories of molecular cloud evolution are discussed.

  18. Filamentary structure in the Orion molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Bally, J.; Stark, A.A.; Wilson, R.W.; Langer, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A large-scale (C-13)O map (containing 33,000 spectra on a 1-arcmin grid) is presented for the giant molecular cloud located in the southern part of Ori which contains the Ori Nebula, NGC 1977, and the L1641 dark cloud complex. The overall structure of the cloud is filamentary, with individual features having a length up to 40 times their width. The northern portion of the cloud is compressed, dynamically relaxed, and supports massive star formation. In contrast, the southern part of the Ori A cloud is diffuse, exhibits chaotic spatial and velocity structure, and supports only intermediate- to low-mass star formation. This morphology may be the consequence of the formation and evolution of the Ori OB I association centered north of the molecular cloud. The entire cloud, in addition to the 5000-solar-mass filament containing both OMC-1 and OMC-2, exhibits a north-south velocity gradient. Implications of the observed cloud morphology for theories of molecular cloud evolution are discussed. 14 references.

  19. Bacterial origin recognition complexes direct assembly of higher-order DnaA oligomeric structures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Diana T; Grimwade, Julia E; Betteridge, Thu; Rozgaja, Tania; Torgue, Julien J-C; Leonard, Alan C

    2009-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiator proteins form origin recognition complexes (ORCs) that bind to replication origins during most of the cell cycle and direct assembly of prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) before the onset of S phase. In the eubacterium Escherichia coli, there is a temporally similar nucleoprotein complex comprising the initiator protein DnaA bound to three high-affinity recognition sites in the unique origin of replication, oriC. At the time of initiation, this high-affinity DnaA-oriC complex (the bacterial ORC) accumulates additional DnaA that interacts with lower-affinity sites in oriC, forming a pre-RC. In this paper, we investigate the functional role of the bacterial ORC and examine whether it mediates low-affinity DnaA-oriC interactions during pre-RC assembly. We report that E. coli ORC is essential for DnaA occupation of low-affinity sites. The assistance given by ORC is directed primarily to proximal weak sites and requires oligomerization-proficient DnaA. We propose that in bacteria, DnaA oligomers of limited length and stability emerge from single high-affinity sites and extend toward weak sites to facilitate their loading as a key stage of prokaryotic pre-RC assembly. PMID:19833870

  20. Homologous recombination plays minor role in excision of unit-length viral genomes from head-to-tail direct tandem repeats of porcine circovirus during DNA replication in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we demonstrated that a theta-replicating bacterial plasmid containing 1.75 copies of genomic porcine circovirus (PCV) DNA in head-to-tail tandem (HTT) [a partial copy of PCV type 1 (PCV1), a complete copy of PCV type 2 (PCV2) and two origins of DNA replication (Ori)] yielded three differ...

  1. 75 FR 55335 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act of 1974: Department of Homeland Security/ALL-031 Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... year. ISE-SAR Submission: Additional details indicator. Data entry date. Dissemination code. Fusion center contact first name. Fusion center contact last name. Fusion center contact e-mail address. Fusion... information). Source Organization: Organization name. Organization ORI. System ID. Fusion center...

  2. 42 CFR 93.401 - Interaction with other offices and interim actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and... may notify and consult with other offices at any time if it has reason to believe that a research misconduct proceeding may involve that office. If ORI believes that a criminal or civil fraud violation...

  3. 42 CFR 93.401 - Interaction with other offices and interim actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and... may notify and consult with other offices at any time if it has reason to believe that a research misconduct proceeding may involve that office. If ORI believes that a criminal or civil fraud violation...

  4. 42 CFR 93.401 - Interaction with other offices and interim actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and... may notify and consult with other offices at any time if it has reason to believe that a research misconduct proceeding may involve that office. If ORI believes that a criminal or civil fraud violation...

  5. Comparison of Three Near Infrared Spectrophotometers for Infestation Detection in Wild Blueberries Using Multivariate Calibration Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for automated non-destructive detection of insect infestation internal to small fruit is desirable because of the zero-to-zero tolerance of the fresh and processed fruit markets. Three NIRS instruments: the Ocean Optics SD2000, the Perten DA7000 and the Ori...

  6. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... senior scientist, Discovery Research, Women's Health, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, engaged in research... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI)...

  7. Teachers' Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupoux, Errol; Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence; Wolman, Clara

    2006-01-01

    After conducting a thorough review of the state of inclusion of students with disabilities in Haiti, the authors present a study that investigates the attitudes of urban and rural teachers in Haiti toward inclusion. Participants were administered the Opinions Relative to Integration (ORI) of Students with Disabilities instrument. Reliability of…

  8. Nucleolin is important for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1-mediated episome binding, maintenance, and transcription.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Zhao, Bo; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Shen, Chih-Long; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-wen

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for EBV episome maintenance, replication, and transcription. These effects are mediated by EBNA1 binding to cognate oriP DNA, which comprise 20 imperfect copies of a 30-bp dyad symmetry enhancer and an origin for DNA replication. To identify cell proteins essential for these EBNA1 functions, EBNA1 associated cell proteins were immune precipitated and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nucleolin (NCL) was identified to be EBNA1 associated. EBNA1's N-terminal 100 aa and NCL's RNA-binding domains were critical for EBNA1/NCL interaction. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated NCL depletion substantially reduced EBNA1 recruitment to oriP DNA, EBNA1-dependent transcription of an EBV oriP luciferase reporter, and EBV genome maintenance in lymphoblastoid cell lines. NCL RNA-binding domain K429 was critical for ATP and EBNA1 binding. NCL overexpression increased EBNA1 binding to oriP and transcription, whereas NCL K429A was deficient. Moreover, NCL silencing impaired lymphoblastoid cell line growth. These experiments reveal a surprisingly critical role for NCL K429 in EBNA1 episome maintenance and transcription, which may be a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24344309

  9. Search for optical coronal line emission from the X-ray sources Epsilon Orionis /B0 Ia/ and Kappa Orionis /B0.5 Ia/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordsieck, K. H.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Anderson, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A search was conducted for evidence of a coronal region at the base of the winds of Epsilon Ori and Kappa Ori, by means of high signal-to-noise observations at the forbidden lines of Fe X, at 6574 A, and Fe XIV, 5303 A. Both stars have been detected as soft X-ray sources, and show anomalously strong O VI lines in their UV spectra. Large coronal emission measures were expected from the total X-ray flux and Auger-enhanced ionization, but the fact that the iron coronal lines were not detected places new limits on the emission measure if the total temperature is in the range of 700,000-3,000,000 or more than 1,000,000 for Kappa Ori and 2,000,000 for Epsilon Ori. It is suggested that at least some of the X-rays arise, not from the base corona, but from source features farther out in the wind.

  10. 77 FR 51910 - Privacy Act, Exempt Record System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... indication of possible violations of civil or criminal law. FDA's new system of records will be modeled after... Proceedings, HHS/OPHS/ORI'' System No. 09-37-0021 (59 FR 36717, July 19, 1994; revised most recently at 75 FR... to ensure that FDA's Office of Criminal Investigations, HHS Office of Inspector General,...

  11. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  12. MARKERS OF THE LOW-DOSE RADIATION RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionizing radiation has a unique ability to induce damage simultaneously at multiple sites within a spatially restricted region of DNA. The resulting double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) present a major threat to the integrity and stability of the genome. Our understanding of the ori...

  13. 48 CFR 27.304-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor, the agency shall follow the applicable procedures at 37 CFR 401. (2) A small business concern or...)(i) through (e)(1)(iv) in accordance with agency procedures and 37 CFR part 401. (c) Greater rights... least the following objectives (see 37 CFR 401.3(b) and 401.15): (1) Promoting the utilization...

  14. 48 CFR 27.304-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contractor, the agency shall follow the applicable procedures at 37 CFR 401. (2) A small business concern or...)(i) through (e)(1)(iv) in accordance with agency procedures and 37 CFR part 401. (c) Greater rights... least the following objectives (see 37 CFR 401.3(b) and 401.15): (1) Promoting the utilization...

  15. 48 CFR 27.304-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contractor, the agency shall follow the applicable procedures at 37 CFR 401. (2) A small business concern or...)(i) through (e)(1)(iv) in accordance with agency procedures and 37 CFR part 401. (c) Greater rights... least the following objectives (see 37 CFR 401.3(b) and 401.15): (1) Promoting the utilization...

  16. 48 CFR 27.304-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contractor, the agency shall follow the applicable procedures at 37 CFR 401. (2) A small business concern or...)(i) through (e)(1)(iv) in accordance with agency procedures and 37 CFR part 401. (c) Greater rights... least the following objectives (see 37 CFR 401.3(b) and 401.15): (1) Promoting the utilization...

  17. 48 CFR 27.304-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contractor, the agency shall follow the applicable procedures at 37 CFR 401. (2) A small business concern or...)(i) through (e)(1)(iv) in accordance with agency procedures and 37 CFR part 401. (c) Greater rights... least the following objectives (see 37 CFR 401.3(b) and 401.15): (1) Promoting the utilization...

  18. Intracellular Locations of Replication Proteins and the Origin of Replication during Chromosome Duplication in the Slowly Growing Human Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Kamran, Mohammad; Verma, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We followed the position of the replication complex in the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori using antibodies raised against the single-stranded DNA binding protein (HpSSB) and the replicative helicase (HpDnaB). The position of the replication origin, oriC, was also localized in growing cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescence-labeled DNA sequences adjacent to the origin. The replisome assembled at oriC near one of the cell poles, and the two forks moved together toward the cell center as replication progressed in the growing cell. Termination and resolution of the forks occurred near midcell, on one side of the septal membrane. The duplicated copies of oriC did not separate until late in elongation, when the daughter chromosomes segregated into bilobed nucleoids, suggesting sister chromatid cohesion at or near the oriC region. Components of the replication machinery, viz., HpDnaB and HpDnaG (DNA primase), were found associated with the cell membrane. A model for the assembly and location of the H. pylori replication machinery during chromosomal duplication is presented. PMID:24363345

  19. 42 CFR 93.500 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 45 CFR 76.845(c). (d) Where a proposed debarment or suspension action is based upon an ORI... contest, and fact-finding required under the HHS debarment and suspension regulations at 45 CFR part 76, subparts H and G, respectively, and 48 CFR Subparts 9.4 and 309.4....

  20. Change Processes in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "The Role of the Survey in the Assessment of an Organization for High Performance Redesign: A Case Study" (Teresa K. Moyers, Oris T. Griffin), looks at how one company used a survey to analyze the way the social system currently is designed and operates. "Thriving on Change: An Organizational…