Science.gov

Sample records for level analytical facility

  1. Final deactivation project report on the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility, Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility (Building 3019B) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities. This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This document provides a history and description of the facility prior to the commencement of deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous materials inventory, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed. Building 3019B will require access to perform required S&M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3019B was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 Program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S&M activities the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S&M until decommissioning activities begin.

  2. Refurbishment of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Coleman, R.M.

    1996-08-01

    An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet ANL-W programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was undertaken. To place the facility in compliance with current regulations, all penetrations within the facility were sealed, the ventilation system was redesigned, upgraded and replaced, the master-slave manipulators were replaced, the hot cell windows were removed, refurbished, and reinstalled, all hot cell utilities were replaced, a lead-shielded glovebox housing an Inductive Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) System was interfaced with the hot cells, and a new CO{sub 2} fire suppression system and other ALHC support equipment were installed.

  3. Advanced analytical facilities report of the planetary materials and geochemistry working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The role of advanced analytical facilities; upgrading/replacement of the existing facilities; the relationship of advanced facilities to the present program; and possible facilities are examined. Major conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  4. Definition of performance specifications for automated Analytical Electrophoresis Facility (AAEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    In order to provide specifications for the automated Analytical Electrophoresis Facility (AAEF) that would satisfy the broadest variety of demands of a future user community, a survey was carried out of all those people who were identified as having published papers on cell electrophoresis in the past four years. A computer search was conducted of the relevant literature from which a list of 87 investigators was derived and defined as the user community for purposes of the mailing. A questionnaire was developed covering the areas of performance which required definition which was subsequently circulated to the user community. Based on the response to this survey performance specifications were assembled.

  5. Analytic and Informational Support for State-Level Academic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruthers, J. Kent; Orwig, Melvin D.

    Any state-level postsecondary education agency could perform its job more effectively through discriminate use of the available technology of informational and analytic planning approaches. The paper attempts to increase an awareness of how data, analytic techniques, and their product information should be used to assist state-level academic…

  6. Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

    Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

  7. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) SHOWING INITIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING INITIAL EXCAVATION. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-54-10703. Unknown Photographer, 5/21/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-54-12124. Unknown Photographer, 9/21/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-54-12573. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 10/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. DETAILS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200062700098105071. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAILS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0627-00-098-105071. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4272-14-108. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0627-00-098-105631. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4272-814-134. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) SHOWING REMOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING REMOTE ANALYTICAL LABORATORY, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AND MULTICURIE CELL ROOM. INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0627-00-008-105065. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4272-14-102. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.T. ); Ingersoll, J.K. )

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone , a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory.

  14. 24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. A Three Level Analytic Model for Alkali Vapor Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Gordon D.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A three level analytic model for optically pumped alkali metal vapor lasers is developed considering the steady-state rate equations for the longitudinally averaged number densities of the ground {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} and first excited {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} states. The threshold pump intensity includes both the requirements to fully bleach the pump transition and exceed optical losses, typically about 200 W/cm{sup 2}. Slope efficiency depends critically on the fraction of incident photons absorbed and the overlap of pump and resonator modes, approaching the quantum efficiency of 0.95-0.98, depending on alkali atom. For efficient operation, the collisional relaxation between the two upper levels should be fast relative to stimulated emission. By assuming a statistical distribution between the upper levels, the limiting analytic solution for the quasi-two level system is achieved. Application of the model and comparisons to recent laser demonstrations is presented.

  17. Analytical simulation of seismic testing of VKL (Versuchskreislauf) piping system at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic tests with simulated earthquake excitation (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the VKL (Versuchskreislauf) piping system at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, Federal Republic of Germany. The major objectives of these test were to study the behavior of a full-scale in-plant piping system subjected to a range of seismic excitation levels, from design levels to those that exceed design levels manifold and those that might induce failure of pipe supports or plasticity in the pipe runs, and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. Data obtained in the tests are also being used to validate analytical method for piping response calculation. Detailed reports on the SHAM experiments are given elsewhere. The paper describes an effort to evaluate the subsystem analysis module of the SMACS code using some of the SHAM test data. The SMACS modules a linear finite-element program, derived from the SAP4 code and capable of calculating the response of nuclear power plant subsystems subjected to multiple, independent acceleration excitation. The evaluation is based on a comparison of computational results of simulation of SHAM test with corresponding test measurements. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) SHOWING EMPLACEMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING EMPLACEMENT OF ROOF SLABS. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-54-13463. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 12/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) SHOWING PLACEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING PLACEMENT OF PIERS. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-54-11716. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. SECOND FLOOR PLAN OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) WARM LABORATORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR PLAN OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) WARM LABORATORY ROOM, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, HOT CHEMISTRY LABORATORY, AND MULTICURIE CELL ROOM. INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0627-00-098-105066. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4272-14-103. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0627-00-098-105632. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4272-814-135. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. EAST AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0627-00-098-105067. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4272-14-104. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. NORTH AND SOUTH SECTIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND SOUTH SECTIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0627-00-098-105068. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4272-14-105. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 30. FLOOR PLANS OF WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY. SHOWS LEVELS ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. FLOOR PLANS OF WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY. SHOWS LEVELS ABOVE GRADE AND AT LEVEL OF OPERATING CORRIDOR. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106351. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Trace level detection of analytes using artificial olfactometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for detecting the presence of an analyte, such as for example, a lightweight device, including: a sample chamber having a fluid inlet port for the influx of the analyte; a fluid concentrator in flow communication with the sample chamber wherein the fluid concentrator has an absorbent material capable of absorbing the analyte and capable of desorbing a concentrated analyte; and an array of sensors in fluid communication with the concentrated analyte to be released from the fluid concentrator.

  6. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  7. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements. Portions of the LLW system are several decades old, or older, and do not comply with current environmental protection regulations. Several subsystems of the LLW system have been designated to receive a state-of-the-art replacement and refurbishment. One such subsystem serves Building 2026, the High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory. This assessment focuses on the scope of work for the Building 2026 replacement LLW Collection and Transfer System, including the provision of a new Monitoring and Control Station (Building 2099) to receive, store, and treat (adjust pH) low level radioactive waste.

  8. Pollution Prevention Plan for the Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization Off-Site Union Valley Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization (ACO) Off-Site Union Valley Facility (Union Valley Facility) is managed by Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, L.L.C. (B and W Y-12) through the Y-12 National Security Complex organization. Accordingly, the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program encompasses the operations conducted at the Union Valley Facility. The Y-12 Program is designed to fully comply with state, federal and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements concerning waste minimization/pollution prevention as documented in the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program Plan. The Program is formulated to reduce the generation and toxicity of all Y-12 wastes in all media, including those wastes generated by the Union Valley Facility operations. All regulatory and DOE requirements are met by the Y-12 Program Plan.

  9. Trace level detection of analytes using artificial olfactometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor); Kelso, David M. (Inventor); Munoz, Beth C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for detecting the presence of an analyte indicative of various medical conditions, including halitosis, periodontal disease and other diseases are also disclosed.

  10. Analytical services Organization Union Valley sample Preparation facility Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Annual Inventory Document

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Analytical Services Organization (ASO), Union Valley Sample Preparation Facility (UVSPF), provides analytical testing in support of the Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), and associated sites. Samples generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are routinely received at the WSPF for analytical evaluatiotiidentification. Many of these samples are polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulated from a source or being sent to the facility to determine PCB content. PCB laboratory wastes in solid and liquid form are generated during the evaluation of these materials, requiring the WSPF staff to maintain formal storage areas for staging the materials prior to off-site shipment for disposal. The purpose of this report is to fulfill the requirements set forth in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 761.180(a), Subpart J, which requires owners or operators of a facility using or storing PCBS to prepare an annual inventory document by July 1 of the current year which covers the previous calendar year. This report provides documentation of the inventory of PCB materials/wastes that were generated, stored for dispos~ and shipped off site for disposal for the period January 1, 1997, to January 1, 1998. The following is a summary of materials/wastes subject to the aforementioned reporting requirements.

  11. 21 CFR 530.40 - Safe levels and availability of analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safe levels and availability of analytical methods... Safe levels and availability of analytical methods. (a) In accordance with § 530.22, the following safe... accordance with § 530.22, the following analytical methods have been accepted by FDA:...

  12. Health facilities at the district level in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Peter; Harahap, Nida P

    2009-01-01

    Background At Independence the Government of Indonesia inherited a weak and unevenly distributed health system to which much of the population had only limited access. In response, the government decided to increase the number of facilities and to locate them closer to the people. To staff these health facilities the government introduced obligatory government service for all new graduates in medicine, nursing and midwifery. Most of these staff also established private practices in the areas in which they were located. The health information system contains little information on the health care facilities established for private practice by these staff. This article reports on the results of enumerating all health facilities in 15 districts in Java. Methods We enumerated all healthcare facilities, public and private, by type in each of 15 districts in Java. Results The enumeration showed a much higher number of healthcare facilities in each district than is shown in most reports and in the health information system which concentrates on public, multi-provider facilities. Across the 15 districts: 86% of facilities were solo-provider facilities for outpatient services; 13% were multi-provider facilities for outpatient services; and 1% were multi-provider facilities offering both outpatient and inpatient services. Conclusion The relatively good distribution of health facilities in Indonesia was achieved through establishing public health centers at the sub-district level and staffing them through a system of compulsory service for doctors, nurses and midwives. Subsequently, these public sector staff also established solo-provider facilities for their own private practice; these solo-provider facilities, of which those for nurses are almost half, comprise the largest category of outpatient care facilities, most are not included in official statistics. Now that Indonesia no longer has mandatory service for newly graduated doctors, nurses and midwives, it will have

  13. Trace level detection of analytes using artificial olfactometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for detecting the presence of an analyte, wherein said analyte is a microorganism marker gas. The device comprises a sample chamber having a fluid inlet port for the influx of the microorganism marker gas; a fluid concentrator in flow communication with the sample chamber, wherein the fluid concentrator has an absorbent material capable of absorbing the microorganism marker gas and thereafter releasing a concentrated microorganism marker gas; and an array of sensors in fluid communication with the concentrated microorganism marker gas. The sensor array detects and identifies the marker gas upon its release from fluid concentrate.

  14. 21 CFR 530.22 - Safe levels and analytical methods for food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... analytical method; or (3) Establish a safe level based on other appropriate scientific, technical, or regulatory criteria. (b) FDA may require the development of an acceptable analytical method for the... such an acceptable analytical method, the agency will publish notice of that requirement in the...

  15. 21 CFR 530.22 - Safe levels and analytical methods for food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... analytical method; or (3) Establish a safe level based on other appropriate scientific, technical, or regulatory criteria. (b) FDA may require the development of an acceptable analytical method for the... such an acceptable analytical method, the agency will publish notice of that requirement in the...

  16. Remote Internet access to advanced analytical facilities: a new approach with Web-based services.

    PubMed

    Sherry, N; Qin, J; Fuller, M Suominen; Xie, Y; Mola, O; Bauer, M; McIntyre, N S; Maxwell, D; Liu, D; Matias, E; Armstrong, C

    2012-09-01

    Over the past decade, the increasing availability of the World Wide Web has held out the possibility that the efficiency of scientific measurements could be enhanced in cases where experiments were being conducted at distant facilities. Examples of early successes have included X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental measurements of protein crystal structures at synchrotrons and access to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and NMR facilities by users from institutions that do not possess such advanced capabilities. Experimental control, visual contact, and receipt of results has used some form of X forwarding and/or VNC (virtual network computing) software that transfers the screen image of a server at the experimental site to that of the users' home site. A more recent development is a web services platform called Science Studio that provides teams of scientists with secure links to experiments at one or more advanced research facilities. The software provides a widely distributed team with a set of controls and screens to operate, observe, and record essential parts of the experiment. As well, Science Studio provides high speed network access to computing resources to process the large data sets that are often involved in complex experiments. The simple web browser and the rapid transfer of experimental data to a processing site allow efficient use of the facility and assist decision making during the acquisition of the experimental results. The software provides users with a comprehensive overview and record of all parts of the experimental process. A prototype network is described involving X-ray beamlines at two different synchrotrons and an SEM facility. An online parallel processing facility has been developed that analyzes the data in near-real time using stream processing. Science Studio and can be expanded to include many other analytical applications, providing teams of users with rapid access to processed results along with the means for detailed

  17. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  18. Comparing State- Versus Facility-Level Effects on Crowding in U.S. Correctional Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Wooldredge, John

    2008-01-01

    The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated…

  19. Criticality safety considerations for low-level-waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.

    1995-04-01

    The nuclear criticality safety for handling and burial of certain special nuclear materials (SNM) at low-level-waste (LLW) facilities is licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Recently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff assisted the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Low-Level-Waste and Decommissioning Projects Branch, in developing technical specifications for the nuclear criticality safety of {sup 235}U and {sup 235}Pu in LLW facilities. This assistance resulted in a set of nuclear criticality safety criteria that can be uniformly applied to the review of LLW package burial facility license applications. These criteria were developed through the coupling of the historic surface-density criterion with current computational technique to establish safety criteria considering SNM material form and reflector influences. This paper presents a summary of the approach used to establish and to apply the criteria to the licensing review process.

  20. Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that contains the radial ground wires, note the ring beneath the antenna circles is cleared of vegetation and covered with gravel, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  4. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental Regulatory Planning Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  5. Unitary Operations: The Relationship between Level of Moral Development and Analytic Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woog, Pierre

    Despite the relevance of moral development to professional education, little research has been done to examine the application of moral development theory. To relate Analytic Interactive Style to post-formal operational thinking or "unitary operations thinking," to test the relationship between level of moral development and Analytic Interactive…

  6. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This document will be reissued at a future date and will then include the assessment of the installation of the replacement tank system. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements.

  7. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  8. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  10. An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Jesse D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States overall electrical generation capacity is expected to increase by 10-25 gigawatts (GW) per year to meet increases in demand. Wind energy is a key component of state and federal renewable energy standards, and central to the Department of Energy’s 20% by 2030 wind production goals. Increased wind energy development may present increased resource conflict with avian wildlife, and environmental permitting has been identified as a potential obstacle to expansion in the sector. ICF developed an analytical framework to help applicants and agencies examine potential impacts in support of facility siting and permitting. A key objective of our work was to develop a framework that is scalable from the local to the national level, and one that is generalizable across the different scales at which biological communities operate – from local influences to meta-populations. The intent was to allow natural resource managers to estimate the cumulative impacts of turbine strikes and habitat changes on long-term population performance in the context of a species demography, genetic potential, and life history. We developed three types of models based on our literature review and participation in the scientific review processes. First, the conceptual model was developed as a general description of the analytical framework. Second, we developed the analytical framework based on the relationships between concepts, and the functions presented in the scientific literature. Third, we constructed an application of the model by parameterizing the framework using data from and relevant to the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA), and an existing golden eagle population model. We developed managed source code, database create statements, and written documentation to allow for the reproduction of each phase of the analysis. ICF identified a potential template adaptive management system in the form of the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Adaptive Harvest

  11. The finite time multi-level SU(2) Landau-Zener problems: exact analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkam Tchouobiap, S. E.; Kenmoe, M. B.; Fai, L. C.

    2015-10-01

    The multi-level SU(2) Landau-Zener problem is analytically solved at finite time within the framework of the Bloch tensor formalism and with the help of the disentanglement Wei-Norman ordering technique. A generalized and exact analytical solution is achieved that accounts not only for all projections of an arbitrary spin S along the Zeeman field direction but also for non-adiabatic and adiabatic evolutions.

  12. Analytic solution and pulse area theorem for three-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil; O'Brien, Chris; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Scully, Marlan O.

    2015-12-01

    We report an analytic solution for a three-level atom driven by arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic pulses. In particular, we consider far-detuned driving pulses and show an excellent match between our analytic result and the numerical simulations. We use our solution to derive a pulse area theorem for three-level V and Λ systems without making the rotating wave approximation. Formulated as an energy conservation law, this pulse area theorem can be used to understand pulse propagation through three-level media.

  13. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  14. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Junkert, R.

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  15. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance.

  16. High level waste facilities -- Continuing operation or orderly shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, L.A.

    1998-04-01

    Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed.

  17. SU-E-T-569: Neutron Shielding Calculation Using Analytical and Multi-Monte Carlo Method for Proton Therapy Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S; Shin, E H; Kim, J; Ahn, S H; Chung, K; Kim, D-H; Han, Y; Choi, D H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the shielding wall design to protect patients, staff and member of the general public for secondary neutron using a simply analytic solution, multi-Monte Carlo code MCNPX, ANISN and FLUKA. Methods: An analytical and multi-Monte Carlo method were calculated for proton facility (Sumitomo Heavy Industry Ltd.) at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. The NCRP-144 analytical evaluation methods, which produced conservative estimates on the dose equivalent values for the shielding, were used for analytical evaluations. Then, the radiation transport was simulated with the multi-Monte Carlo code. The neutron dose at evaluation point is got by the value using the production of the simulation value and the neutron dose coefficient introduced in ICRP-74. Results: The evaluation points of accelerator control room and control room entrance are mainly influenced by the point of the proton beam loss. So the neutron dose equivalent of accelerator control room for evaluation point is 0.651, 1.530, 0.912, 0.943 mSv/yr and the entrance of cyclotron room is 0.465, 0.790, 0.522, 0.453 mSv/yr with calculation by the method of NCRP-144 formalism, ANISN, FLUKA and MCNP, respectively. The most of Result of MCNPX and FLUKA using the complicated geometry showed smaller values than Result of ANISN. Conclusion: The neutron shielding for a proton therapy facility has been evaluated by the analytic model and multi-Monte Carlo methods. We confirmed that the setting of shielding was located in well accessible area to people when the proton facility is operated.

  18. Analytically solvable driven time-dependent two-level quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Edwin; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2013-03-01

    Analytical solutions to the time-dependent Schrodinger equation describing a driven two-level system are invaluable to many areas of physics, but they are also extremely rare. Here, we present a simple algorithm based on a type of partial reverse-engineering that generates an unlimited number of exact analytical solutions for a general time-dependent Hamiltonian. We demonstrate this method by presenting several new exact solutions that are particularly relevant to qubit control in quantum computing applications. We further show that our formalism easily generates analytical control protocols for performing sweeps across energy level anti-crossings that execute perfect Landau-Zener interferometry and rapid adiabatic passage near the quantum speed limit. Work supported by LPS-CMTC, CNAM and IARPA

  19. Analytical solutions for a two-level system driven by a class of chirped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.

    2010-07-15

    We present analytical solutions for the problem of a two-level atom driven by a class of chirped pulses. The solutions are given in terms of Heun functions. By use of the appropriate chirping parameters, an enhancement of four orders of magnitude in the population transfer is obtained.

  20. Analytical characterization of high-level mixed wastes using multiple sample preparation treatments

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.G.; Baldwin, D.L.; Urie, M.W.; McKinley, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, is actively involved in performing analytical characterization of high-level mixed waste from Hanford`s single shell and double shell tank characterization programs. A full suite of analyses is typically performed on homogenized tank core samples. These analytical techniques include inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, total organic carbon methods and radiochemistry methods, as well as many others, all requiring some type of remote sample-preparation treatment to solubilize the tank sludge material for analysis. Most of these analytical methods typically use a single sample-preparation treatment, inherently providing elemental information only. To better understand and interpret tank chemistry and assist in identifying chemical compounds, selected analytical methods are performed using multiple sample-preparation treatments. The sample preparation treatments used at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for this work with high-level mixed waste include caustic fusion, acid digestion, and water leach. The type of information available by comparing results from different sample-prep treatments includes evidence for the presence of refractory compounds, acid-soluble compounds, or water-soluble compounds. Problems unique to the analysis of Hanford tank wastes are discussed. Selected results from the Hanford single shell ferrocyanide tank, 241-C-109, are presented, and the resulting conclusions are discussed.

  1. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1234 - Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum Security Standards... FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. A Appendix A to Part 1234—Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities Recommended Standards Chart Level III Perimeter Security Parking: Control of facility...

  2. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed.

  3. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1992-06-30

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

  4. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a five-level cascade system under Doppler broadening: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoa, Dinh Xuan; Van Trong, Pham; Van Doai, Le; Bang, Nguyen Huy

    2016-03-01

    We develop an analytical approach on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Doppler broadened medium consisting of five-level cascade systems excited by a strong coupling and weak probe laser fields. In a weak field limit of the probe light, EIT spectrum is interpreted as functions of controllable parameters of the coupling light and temperature of the medium. The theoretical interpretation of EIT spectrum is applied to the case of 85Rb atoms and compared with available experimental observation. Such an analytical interpretation provides quantitative parameters to control properties of the Doppler broadened EIT medium, and it is useful to find related applications.

  5. Analytically solvable two-level quantum systems and Landau-Zener interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Edwin

    2013-07-01

    A simple algorithm is presented based on a type of partial reverse engineering that generates an unlimited number of exact analytical solutions to the Schrödinger equation for a general time-dependent two-level Hamiltonian. I demonstrate this method by deriving exact solutions corresponding to fast control pulses that contain arbitrarily many tunable parameters. It is shown that the formalism is naturally suited to generating analytical control protocols that perform precise nonadiabatic rapid passage and Landau-Zener interferometry near the quantum speed limit. A general, exact formula for Landau-Zener interference patterns is derived.

  6. Analytical methodology for determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements. [pilot workload and acceptance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic analytical approach to the determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements is formulated. The approach is based upon the hypothesis that pilot acceptance level or opinion rating of a given system is inversely related to the degree of pilot involvement in the control task. A nonlinear simulation of the helicopter approach to landing task incorporating appropriate models for UH-1H aircraft, the environmental disturbances and the human pilot was developed as a tool for evaluating the pilot acceptance hypothesis. The simulated pilot model is generic in nature and includes analytical representation of the human information acquisition, processing, and control strategies. Simulation analyses in the flight director mode indicate that the pilot model used is reasonable. Results of the simulation are used to identify candidate pilot workload metrics and to test the well known performance-work-load relationship. A pilot acceptance analytical methodology is formulated as a basis for further investigation, development and validation.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    JG DOUGLAS; HK MEZNARICH, PHD; JR OLSEN; GA ROSS PHD; M STAUFFER

    2009-02-13

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-S46 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a ''blind'' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the SGRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 200Sa). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

    2008-09-30

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S&GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively

  9. An Experiential Research-Focused Approach: Implementation in a Nonlaboratory-Based Graduate-Level Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Chee-Seng

    2007-01-01

    A project is described which incorporates nonlaboratory research skills in a graduate level course on analytical chemistry. This project will help students to grasp the basic principles and concepts of modern analytical techniques and also help them develop relevant research skills in analytical chemistry.

  10. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, W.M.

    2011-12-19

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  11. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  12. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1234 - Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities A Appendix A to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY STANDARDS FOR RECORDS STORAGE FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  13. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G.

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  14. The Murmansk low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Penzin, R.A.; Tumparov, A.; Gussgard, K.; Dyer, R.A.; Ruksha, V.V.

    1996-09-01

    Since May 1994, Russian, Norway and the US have cooperated successfully to develop the design of the LLRW treatment facility. Among the other participating organizations are the Association for Advanced Technologies, the Royal norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The joint US/Norwegian/Russian Technical Team for the Design provide technical review and advice. A major objective of the design is to enable Russian to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters and to formally adhere to the London Convention permanent ban. Therefore, the modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s North Fleet and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The plant design utilizes novel technology for the filtration and treatment of the high saline waste streams, as well as waste streams for maintenance and decontamination activities. The discharge streams will meet national and international discharge limits for radionuclides. Following detailed design, the next phase is construction.

  15. Analytical theory of strongly correlated Wigner crystals in the lowest Landau level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Jain, Jainendra K.; Park, Kwon

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present an analytical theory of strongly correlated Wigner crystals (WCs) in the lowest Landau level (LLL) by constructing an approximate, but accurate effective two-body interaction for composite fermions (CFs) participating in the WCs. This requires integrating out the degrees of freedom of all surrounding CFs, which we accomplish analytically by approximating their wave functions by delta functions. This method produces energies of various strongly correlated WCs that are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation of the full CF crystal wave functions. We compute the compressibility of the strongly correlated WCs in the LLL and predict discontinuous changes at the phase boundaries separating different crystal phases.

  16. Level-2 Milestone 2351: Terascale Simulation Facility Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, A M

    2007-10-02

    This report documents the LLNL TSF upgrade ASC L2 milestone 2351: Terascale Simulation Facility upgrade, due Sept. 30, 2007. The full text of the milestone is included in Attachment 1. The stated goal of the milestone was: 'Complete a 3-MW expansion of electrical power for computing systems in the east computer room of the Terascale Simulation Facility (TSF) and complete the final connection of all air handlers that were delivered as part of the TSF line item'. In this report we detail the upgrade and cover the results of the process to accept the system by testing, adjusting, balancing and finally start-up of the system in accordance with the detailed project commissioning plan to be developed by the system engineers during the design phase of the project. The quarterly reports for the upgrade and the text of the project commissioning plan are included at the end of this document as Attachments 2 and 3.

  17. ANKA, a customer-oriented synchrotron radiation facility for microfabrication and analytical services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pea Anka Project Group; Buth, G.; Doyle, S.; Einfeld, D.; Hagelstein, M.; Hermle, S.; Huttel, E.; Krüssel, A.; Lange, M.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Mexner, W.; Moser, H. O.; Pellegrin, E.; Ristau, U.; Rossmanith, R.; Schaper, J.; Schieler, H.; Simon, R.; Steininger, R.; Voigt, S.; Walther, R.; Perez, F.; Pont, M.; Plesko, M.

    1998-03-01

    ANKA (Angströmquelle Karlsruhe) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility under construction at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Based on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring it will deliver photons predominantly in the hard X-ray range but it will also feature both XUV and infrared beamlines. In its first operational phase the radiation will be taken out of normal-conducting dipole bending magnets, while five free long straight sections are foreseen to accommodate insertion devices later on. ANKA has a novel mission, namely to provide synchrotron-radiation based services to industrial and other customers, in the fields of microfabrication and materials analysis. A limited liability company, ANKA GmbH, is being founded to operate the facility. Although commercial services to customers will represent more than half of the overall activity, these services will be complemented by providing beam time for research users.

  18. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-06-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for fresh water discharge. In this study, we investigate the influence of river discharge on tidal wave propagation in the Yangtze estuary with specific attention to residual water level slope. This is done by using a one-dimensional analytical model for tidal hydrodynamics accounting for the residual water level. We demonstrate the importance of the residual slope on tidal dynamics and use it to improve the prediction of the tidal propagation in estuaries (i.e., tidal damping, velocity amplitude, wave celerity and phase lag), especially when the influence of river discharge is significant. Finally, we develop a new inverse analytical approach for estimating fresh water discharge on the basis of tidal water level observations along the estuary, which can be used as a tool to obtain information on the river discharge that is otherwise difficult to measure in the tidal region.

  19. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-10-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for fresh water discharge. In this study, we investigate the influence of river discharge on tidal wave propagation in the Yangtze estuary with specific attention to residual water level slope. This is done by using a one-dimensional analytical model for tidal hydrodynamics accounting for the residual water level. We demonstrate the importance of the residual slope on tidal dynamics and use it to improve the prediction of the tidal propagation in estuaries (i.e. tidal damping, velocity amplitude, wave celerity and phase lag), especially when the influence of river discharge is significant. Finally, we develop a new inverse analytical approach for estimating fresh water discharge on the basis of tidal water level observations along the estuary, which can be used as a tool to obtain information on the river discharge that is otherwise difficult to measure in the tidal region.

  20. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1234 - Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Minimum Security Standards for.... 1234, App. A Appendix A to Part 1234—Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities Recommended Standards Chart Level III Perimeter Security Parking: Control of facility parking...

  1. An analytical hierarchy process for decision making of high-level-waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.H.C.; Jang, W.

    1995-12-01

    To prove the existence value of nuclear technology for the world of post cold war, demonstration of safe rad-waste disposal is essential. High-level-waste (HLW) certainly is the key issue to be resolved. To assist a rational and persuasive process on various disposal options, an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for the decision making of HLW management is presented. The basic theory and rationale are discussed, and applications are shown to illustrate the usefulness of the AHP. The authors wish that the AHP can provide a better direction for the current doomed situations of Taiwan nuclear industry, and to exchange with other countries for sharing experiences on the HLW management.

  2. Development of a frit 202 analytic standard for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.; Hardy, B.J.; Sproull, J.F.

    1997-03-30

    During the qualification of Frit 202 samples for the `DWPF Cold Runs`, the need for a reliable chemical frit standard became apparent. A standard was prepared by obtaining a quantity of Frit 202 and grinding into a fine powder. This material was homogenized as one slurry material volume, spray dried to prevent segregation, and hydraulically pressed into discs. These discs were fired and packaged into eleven sub-lots containing approximately 2,000 discs per sub-lot. A number of samples were obtained and analyzed by two analytic laboratories. The chemical analyses were carefully reviewed and evaluated by several statistical means. While there were several statistically significant variations between the sub-lots, it is believed that those variations are partially caused by the variability of the analytic method. These discs should provide a reliable standard for future chemical analyses of DWPF Frits similar in comparison to Frit 202. It is recommended that these discs be used as a standard material included with the representative frit sample to the independent chemical analysis laboratory, and the order of use of these standards be from sub-lot eleven to sub-lot four. It is further recommended that the NIST standard material (93a) be employed along with the 202 standard until confidence in the new standard is gained. The NIST standard should also be used when initial use of a new sub-lot is begun. this procedure should continue to the end of the DWPF program or such time as the chemical composition of the frit is extensively modified.

  3. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  4. Wound center facility billing: A retrospective analysis of time, wound size, and acuity scoring for determining facility level of service.

    PubMed

    Fife, Caroline E; Walker, David; Farrow, Wade; Otto, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Outpatient wound center facility reimbursement for Medicare beneficiaries can be a challenge to determine and obtain. To compare methods of calculating facility service levels for outpatient wound centers and to demonstrate the advantages of an acuity-based billing system (one that incorporates components of facility work that is non-reimbursable by procedure codes and that represents an activity-based costing approach to medical billing), a retrospective study of 5,098 patient encounters contained in a wound care-specific electronic medical record database was conducted. Approximately 500 patient visits to the outpatient wound center of a Texas regional hospital between April 2003 and November 2004 were categorized by service level in documentation and facility management software. Visits previously billed using a time-based system were compared to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' proposed three-tiered wound size-based system. The time-based system also was compared to an acuity-based scoring system. The Pearson correlation coefficient between billed level of service by time and estimated level of service by acuity was 0.442 and the majority of follow-up visits were billed as Level 3 and above (on a time level of 1 to 5) , confirming that time is not a surrogate for actual work performed. Wound size also was found to be unrelated to service level (Pearson correlation = 0.017) and 97% of wound areas were < 100 cm2. The acuity-based scoring system produced a near-normal distribution of results, producing more mid-range billings than extremes; no other method produced this distribution. Hospital-based outpatient wound centers should develop, review, and refine acuity score-based models on which to determine billed level of service. PMID:17264354

  5. Environmental Radio-Analytical Research in the Field of a New LILW Disposal Facility in Hungary - 12401

    SciTech Connect

    Janovics, Robert; Bihari, Arpad; Major, Zoltan; Molnar, Mihaly; Palcsu, Laszlo; Papp, Laszlo; Veres, Mihaly; Barnabas, Istvan; Laszlo, Zoltan

    2012-07-01

    The new Hungarian National Radioactive Waste Repository was established in the granite of the Moragy Block Mountains (Bataapati) to store low and intermediate level radioactive waste originating from Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Before the start of the operation of the facility the environmental characteristics of the site and its vicinity, i.e. the so-called zero level was determined. The determination of the zero level is inevitable as the evaluation of the measurement data in the course of the operation of nuclear facilities should mainly be related to this zero level. In the course of the monitoring activity environmental elements, i.e. air, soil, water (springs, streams, precipitation, fall-out, wash-out, plant and animal samples were investigated from several points of view. From the samples radiocarbon, tritium, Sr-90, gamma emitters, gross alpha, gross beta, and field gamma measurements were carried out. Results reported show that the state preceding the operation of the facility can approximately be considered as the Hungarian background data. (authors)

  6. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  7. Low Level RF System for Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; J. Hovater; Thomas Powers

    2003-05-01

    The Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) has been upgraded to test and commission SNS and CEBAF Energy Upgrade cryomodules. Part of the upgrade was to modernize the superconducting cavity instrumentation and control. We have designed a VXI based RF control system exclusively for the production testing of superconducting cavities. The RF system can be configured to work either in Phase Locked Loop (PLL) or Self Excited Loop (SEL) mode. It can be used to drive either SNS 805 MHz or CEBAF Energy Upgrade 1497 MHz superconducting cavities and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. The base design consists of RF-analog and digital sections. The RF-analog section includes a Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO), phase detector, I&Q modulator and ''low phase shift'' limiter. The digital section controls the analog section and includes ADC, FPGA, and DAC . We will discuss the design of the RF system and how it relates to the support of cavity testing.

  8. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  9. Tank 103, 219-S Facility at 222-S Laboratory, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-06-18

    This is the final report for the polychlorinated biphenyls analysis of Tank-103 (TK-103) in the 219-S Facility at 222-S Laboratory. Twenty 1-liter bottles (Sample numbers S98SO00074 through S98SO00093) were received from TK-103 during two sampling events, on May 5 and May 7, 1998. The samples were centrifuged to separate the solids and liquids. The centrifuged sludge was analyzed for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures. The results are discussed on page 6. The sample breakdown diagram (Page 114) provides a cross-reference of sample identification of the bulk samples to the laboratory identification number for the solids. The request for sample analysis (RSA) form is provided as Page 117. The raw data is presented on Page 43. Sample Description, Handling, and Preparation Twenty samples were received in the laboratory in 1-Liter bottles. The first 8 samples were received on May 5, 1998. There were insufficient solids to perform the requested PCB analysis and 12 additional samples were collected and received on May 7, 1998. Breakdown and sub sampling was performed on May 8, 1998. Sample number S98SO00084 was lost due to a broken bottle. Nineteen samples were centrifuged and the solids were collected in 8 centrifuge cones. After the last sample was processed, the solids were consolidated into 2 centrifuge cones. The first cone contained 9.7 grams of solid and 13.0 grams was collected in the second cone. The wet sludge from the first centrifuge cone was submitted to the laboratory for PCB analysis (sample number S98SO00102). The other sample portion (S98SO00103) was retained for possible additional analyses.

  10. Soft mean spherical approximation for dusty plasma liquids: Level of accuracy and analytic expressions

    SciTech Connect

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; Angelis, U. de

    2015-08-15

    The soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the study of the thermodynamics of dusty plasma liquids, the latter treated as Yukawa one-component plasmas. Within this integral theory method, the only input necessary for the calculation of the reduced excess energy stems from the solution of a single non-linear algebraic equation. Consequently, thermodynamic quantities can be routinely computed without the need to determine the pair correlation function or the structure factor. The level of accuracy of the approach is quantified after an extensive comparison with numerical simulation results. The approach is solved over a million times with input spanning the whole parameter space and reliable analytic expressions are obtained for the basic thermodynamic quantities.

  11. Analytical estimates of radial segregation in Bridgman growth from low-level steady and periodic accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.; Baugher, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Approximate analytical solutions are developed that are mathematically tractable but provide the elements of CFD models for estimating convective flows subjected to low-level accelerations. The estimates are applicable to dilute systems that have horizontal temperature gradients in the vertical Bridgman configuration. The Navier-Stokes momentum equation is solved in 1D and subsequently in 2D by the first-order perturbation method. The analysis used is the case of plane-front solidification of a dilute system in the vertical thermally stable configuration. The model is found to predict the degree of radial segregation within a factor of two for a range of material and processing parameters. The method provides detailed information on the effects of processing on solute distribution in the grown crystal which are of interest in the orbital experiments emphasizing the control of radial segregation.

  12. Accuracy of analytic energy level formulas applied to hadronic spectroscopy of heavy mesons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Forooz F.; Norbury, John W.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    Linear and harmonic potential models are used in the nonrelativistic Schroedinger equation to obtain article mass spectra for mesons as bound states of quarks. The main emphasis is on the linear potential where exact solutions of the S-state eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and the asymptotic solution for the higher order partial wave are obtained. A study of the accuracy of two analytical energy level formulas as applied to heavy mesons is also included. Cornwall's formula is found to be particularly accurate and useful as a predictor of heavy quarkonium states. Exact solution for all partial waves of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a harmonic potential is also obtained and compared with the calculated discrete spectra of the linear potential. Detailed derivations of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the linear and harmonic potentials are presented in appendixes.

  13. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  14. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  15. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-07-25

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples. The SB5 SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB5 Batch composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), to form the SB5 Blend composition. The results for any one particular element should not be used in any way to identify the form or speciation of a particular element in the sludge or used to estimate ratios of compounds in the sludge. A statistical comparison of the data validates the use of the DWPF CC method for SB5 Batch composition. However, the difficulty that was encountered in using the CC method for SB4 brings into question the adequacy of CC for the SB5 Blend. Also, it should be noted that visible solids remained in the final diluted solutions of all samples digested by this method at SRNL (8 samples total), which is typical for the DWPF CC method but not seen in the other methods. Recommendations to the DWPF for application to SB5 based on studies to date: (1) A dissolution study should be performed on the WAPS

  16. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter; R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  17. Taste clusters of music and drugs: evidence from three analytic levels.

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Mike; Uggen, Christopher; Lageson, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This article examines taste clusters of musical preferences and substance use among adolescents and young adults. Three analytic levels are considered: fixed effects analyses of aggregate listening patterns and substance use in US radio markets, logistic regressions of individual genre preferences and drug use from a nationally representative survey of US youth, and arrest and seizure data from a large American concert venue. A consistent picture emerges from all three levels: rock music is positively associated with substance use, with some substance-specific variability across rock sub-genres. Hip hop music is also associated with higher use, while pop and religious music are associated with lower use. These results are robust to fixed effects models that account for changes over time in radio markets, a comprehensive battery of controls in the individual-level survey, and concert data establishing the co-occurrence of substance use and music listening in the same place and time. The results affirm a rich tradition of qualitative and experimental studies, demonstrating how symbolic boundaries are simultaneously drawn around music and drugs. PMID:24433204

  18. RESULTS FOR THE MAY 19, 2010 INADVERTENT TRANSFER TO THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY SLURRY: SAMPLE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Cozzi, A.

    2010-08-17

    This report details the chemical analysis results for the characterization of the May 19, 2010 inadvertent transfer from the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). On May 19, 2010, the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF) inadvertently transferred approximately 1800 gallons of untreated low-level salt solution from the salt feed tank (SFT) to Cell F of Vault 4. The transfer was identified and during safe configuration shutdown, approximately 70 gallons of SFT material was left in the Saltstone hopper. After the shutdown, the material in the hopper was undisturbed, while the SFT has received approximately 1400 gallons of drain water from the Vault 4 bleed system. The drain water path from Vault 4 to the SFT does not include the hopper (Figure 1); therefore it was determined that the material remaining in the hopper was the most representative sample of the salt solution transferred to the vault. To complete item No.5 of Reference 1, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to analyze the liquid sample retrieved from the hopper for pH, and metals identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). SRNL prepared a report to complete item No.5 and determine the hazardous nature of the transfer. Waste Solidification Engineering then instructed SRNL to provide a more detailed analysis of the slurried sample to assist in the determination of the portion of Tank 50 waste in the hopper sample.

  19. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  20. Radiocarbon signal of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in nearby trees.

    PubMed

    Janovics, R; Kelemen, D I; Kern, Z; Kapitány, S; Veres, M; Jull, A J T; Molnár, M

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring series were collected from the vicinity of a Hungarian radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility and from a distant control background site, which is not influenced by the radiocarbon discharge of the disposal facility but it represents the natural regional (14)C level. The (14)C concentration of the cellulose content of tree rings was measured by AMS. Data of the tree ring series from the disposal facility was compared to the control site for each year. The results were also compared to the (14)C data of the atmospheric (14)C monitoring stations at the disposal facility and to international background measurements. On the basis of the results, the excess radiocarbon of the disposal facility can unambiguously be detected in the tree from the repository site. PMID:26704325

  1. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  2. Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F.

    2013-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

  3. Facility-Level Factors Influencing Retention of Patients in HIV Care in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Genberg, Becky; Braithwaite, Ronald Scott; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Kambugu, Andrew; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Somi, Geoffrey R.; Geng, Elvin H.; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Losses to follow-up (LTFU) remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA) Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1), 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval) of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7–25.6) and 16.7 (16.3–17.2) per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only), when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only), and when the facility was open ≤4 mornings per week (ART only). Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention. PMID:27509182

  4. Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2012-05-01

    The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

  5. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Transportation planning for a LLW disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement.

  6. Resident- and Facility-Level Predictors of Quality of Life in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Henning-Smith, Carrie; Kane, Robert L.; Lewis, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although there is substantial research on quality of care in nursing homes (NH), less is known about what contributes to quality of life (QOL) for NH residents. This study assesses multiple domains of QOL and examines facility- and resident-level correlates for different domains. Design and Methods: Data come from (a) self-reported resident interviews using a multidimensional measure of QOL; (b) resident clinical data from the Minimum Data Set; and (c) facility-level characteristics from Minnesota Department of Human Services. We used factor analysis to confirm domains of QOL, and then employed cross-sectional hierarchical linear modeling to identify significant resident- and facility-level predictors of each domain. Results: We examined six unique domains of QOL: environment, personal attention, food, engagement, negative mood, and positive mood. In multilevel models, resident-level characteristics were more reliable correlates of QOL than facility characteristics. Among resident characteristics, gender, age, marital status, activities of daily living, mood disorders, cognitive limitations, and length of stay consistently predicted QOL domains. Among facility characteristics, size, staff hours, quality of care, and percent of residents on Medicaid predicted multiple QOL domains. Implications: Examining separate domains rather than a single summary score makes associations with predictors more accurate. Resident characteristics account for the majority of variability in resident QOL. Helping residents maintain functional abilities, and providing an engaging social environment may be particularly important in improving QOL. PMID:24352532

  7. US Army facility for the consolidation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, S.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Murphy, B.L.; Gillings, J.C.; Hadley, R.T.; Lyso, O.M.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Murphy, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    A preliminary study of a waste consolidation facility for the Department of the Army's low-level radioactive waste was carried out to determine a possible site and perform a cost-benefit analysis. Four sites were assessed as possible locations for such a facility, using predetermined site selection criteria. To assist in the selection of a site, an evaluation of environmental issues was included as part of each site review. In addition, a preliminary design for a waste consolidation facility was developed, and facilities at each site were reviewed for their availability and suitability for this purpose. Currently available processes for volume reduction, as well as processes still under development, were then investigated, and the support and handling equipment and the staff needed for the safe operation of a waste consolidation facility were studied. Using current costs for the transportation and burial of low-level waste, a cost comparison was then made between waste disposal with and without the utilization of volume reduction. Finally, regulations that could affect the operation of a waste consolidation facility were identified and their impact was assessed. 11 references, 5 figures, 16 tables.

  8. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  9. Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation for the Proposed Bio Safety Level 3 (BSl-3) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T J; Nguyen, S N

    2003-09-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct a biosafety level (BSL-3) facility at Site 200 in Livermore, California. Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is a designation assigned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes Health (NIH) for handling infectious organisms based on the specific microorganisms and associated operations. Biosafety levels range from BSL-1 (lowest hazard) to BSL-4 (highest hazard). Details about the BSL-3 criteria are described in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s publication ''Biosafety Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories'' (BMBL), 4th edition (CDC 1999): The BSL-3 facility will be built in accordance with the required BMBL guidelines. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) for the proposed BSL-3 facility has been prepared in accordance with the current contractual requirements at LLNL. This includes the LLNL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (ES&H Manual) and applicable Work Smart Standards, including the biosafety standards, such as the aforementioned BMBL and the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules: The proposed BSL-3 facility is a 1,100 ft{sup 2}, one-story permanent prefabricated facility, which will have three individual BSL-3 laboratory rooms (one of which is an animal biosafety level-3 [ABSL-3] laboratory to handle rodents), a mechanical room, clothes-change and shower rooms, and small storage space (Figure 3.1). The BSL-3 facility will be designed and operated accordance with guidelines for BSL-3 laboratories established by the CDC and the NIH. No radiological, high explosives, fissile, or propellant material will be used or stored in the proposed BSL-3 facility. The BSL-3 facility will be used to develop scientific tools to identify and understand the pathogens of medical, environmental, and forensic importance. Microorganisms that are to be handled in this

  10. Optimal control of quantum dissipative dynamics: Analytic solution for cooling the three-level Λ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklarz, Shlomo E.; Tannor, David J.; Khaneja, Navin

    2004-05-01

    We study the problem of optimal control of dissipative quantum dynamics. Although under most circumstances dissipation leads to an increase in entropy (or a decrease in purity) of the system, there is an important class of problems for which dissipation with external control can decrease the entropy (or increase the purity) of the system. An important example is laser cooling. In such systems, there is an interplay of the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which is controllable, and the dissipative part of the dynamics, which is uncontrollable. The strategy is to control the Hamiltonian portion of the evolution in such a way that the dissipation causes the purity of the system to increase rather than decrease. The goal of this paper is to find the strategy that leads to maximal purity at the final time. Under the assumption that Hamiltonian control is complete and arbitrarily fast, we provide a general framework by which to calculate optimal cooling strategies. These assumptions lead to a great simplification, in which the control problem can be reformulated in terms of the spectrum of eigenvalues of ρ , rather than ρ itself. By combining this formulation with the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theorem we are able to obtain an equation for the globally optimal cooling strategy in terms of the spectrum of the density matrix. For the three-level Λ system, we provide a complete analytic solution for the optimal cooling strategy. For this system it is found that the optimal strategy does not exploit system coherences and is a “greedy” strategy, in which the purity is increased maximally at each instant.

  11. Optimal control of quantum dissipative dynamics: Analytic solution for cooling the three-level {lambda} system

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarz, Shlomo E.; Tannor, David J.; Khaneja, Navin

    2004-05-01

    We study the problem of optimal control of dissipative quantum dynamics. Although under most circumstances dissipation leads to an increase in entropy (or a decrease in purity) of the system, there is an important class of problems for which dissipation with external control can decrease the entropy (or increase the purity) of the system. An important example is laser cooling. In such systems, there is an interplay of the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which is controllable, and the dissipative part of the dynamics, which is uncontrollable. The strategy is to control the Hamiltonian portion of the evolution in such a way that the dissipation causes the purity of the system to increase rather than decrease. The goal of this paper is to find the strategy that leads to maximal purity at the final time. Under the assumption that Hamiltonian control is complete and arbitrarily fast, we provide a general framework by which to calculate optimal cooling strategies. These assumptions lead to a great simplification, in which the control problem can be reformulated in terms of the spectrum of eigenvalues of {rho}, rather than {rho} itself. By combining this formulation with the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theorem we are able to obtain an equation for the globally optimal cooling strategy in terms of the spectrum of the density matrix. For the three-level {lambda} system, we provide a complete analytic solution for the optimal cooling strategy. For this system it is found that the optimal strategy does not exploit system coherences and is a 'greedy' strategy, in which the purity is increased maximally at each instant.

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry -- A mature analytical method for industrial-level emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gravel, D.; Rilling, A.; Karfik, V.; Schmaeh, M.

    1997-12-31

    Monitoring extremely low limits of pollutants in the stack emissions of waste incinerators is required by German law (and recently by European Community regulations). This calls for the most advanced and innovative monitoring equipment. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers designed for use in industrial environments can now meet this need. The operating principle and construction of an FTIR-based continuous emissions multicomponent monitoring system will be explained. This FTIR spectrometer provides quantitative results of 9 chemical compounds simultaneously. This number can be increased by simple software addition. The hot/wet, extractive analytical method provides accurate results at extremely low concentration levels for pollutants like HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, even with up to 60 Vol% water vapor in the gas sample. The combination of FTIR spectrometry and modern chemometrics gives higher selectivity than any other analyzer. The excellent long-term stability allows extending the calibration interval to six months. The ruggedness of industrial grade FTIR Spectrometer and the simple design of the sampling and gas conditioning systems ensure extremely high availability. The performance of the FTIR spectrometer has been validated by an independent products testing organization, TUV Rheinland Germany. The testing includes a laboratory examination and a long term trial under real working conditions. As a result, the FTIR based system Cemas achieved the official permission for emission monitoring by the German Federal Ministry of Environment and Reactor Security. The experience and particular results obtained from the operation of more than 70 FTIR continuous emissions monitoring systems throughout the world will be presented.

  13. Patient safety in maternal healthcare at secondary and tertiary level facilities in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Choure, Ankita; Singh, Baljit

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is insufficient information on causes of unsafe care at facility levels in India. This study was conducted to understand the challenges in government hospitals in ensuring patient safety and to propose solutions to improve patient care. Materials and Methods: Desk review, in-depth interviews, and focused group discussions were conducted between January and March 2014. Healthcare providers and nodal persons for patient safety in Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of government health facilities from Delhi state of India were included. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methods and presented adopting the “health system approach.” Results: The patient safety was a major concern among healthcare providers. The key challenges identified were scarcity of resources, overcrowding at health facilities, poor communications, patient handovers, delay in referrals, and the limited continuity of care. Systematic attention on the training of care providers involved in service delivery, prescription audits, peer reviews, facility level capacity building plan, additional financial resources, leadership by institutional heads and policy makers were suggested as possible solutions. Conclusions: There is increasing awareness and understanding about challenges in patient safety. The available local information could be used for selection, designing, and implementation of measures to improve patient safety at facility levels. A systematic and sustained approach with attention on all functions of health systems could be beneficial. Patient safety could be used as an entry point to improve the quality of health care services in India. PMID:26985411

  14. Performance assessment monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II; Craig, P.M.; Styers, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    To develop a long-range plan for the disposal of the solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by these facilities, the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program was initiated. A key component of the program is selecting promising disposal technologies to be demonstrated at a scale sufficient to assess performance adequately. One technology selected for demonstration is the aboveground tumulus. The tumulus facility consists of a concrete pad on which the LLW is placed, a synthetic underpad liner, concrete disposal vaults in which the LLW is contained, and a multilayered cap to be constructed after the pad is filled. This paper describes the methodology being used to assess the performance of the tumulus in terms of environmental impacts and worker exposures. This assessment also will assist in determining monitoring needs during routine operations of future full-scale facilities.

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.180 - What illumination levels must Federal agencies maintain on Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What illumination levels must Federal agencies maintain on Federal facilities? 102-74.180 Section 102-74.180 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY...

  16. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  17. Effects of an off-stream watering facility on cattle behavior and instream E. coli levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive levels of fecal indicator bacteria are the leading cause of water quality impairment in Texas, and livestock with direct access to water bodies are potentially a significant source of these bacteria. To help address this source, the effect of providing alternative off-stream watering facil...

  18. 33 CFR 220.1 - Low level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments. 220.1 Section 220.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DAM AND LAKE PROJECTS § 220.1 Low...

  19. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the space power facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: The protoflight vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF), are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations are presented.

  20. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the Space Power Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: the 'protoflight' vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF) are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations, are presented.

  1. A Multi-Level Middle-Out Cross-Zooming Approach for Large Graph Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Cook, Kristin A.; Rohrer, Randall M.; Foote, Harlan P.; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-10-11

    This paper presents a working graph analytics model that embraces the strengths of the traditional top-down and bottom-up approaches with a resilient crossover concept to exploit the vast middle-ground information overlooked by the two extreme analytical approaches. Our graph analytics model is developed in collaboration with researchers and users, who carefully studied the functional requirements that reflect the critical thinking and interaction pattern of a real-life intelligence analyst. To evaluate the model, we implement a system prototype, known as GreenHornet, which allows our analysts to test the theory in practice, identify the technological and usage-related gaps in the model, and then adapt the new technology in their work space. The paper describes the implementation of GreenHornet and compares its strengths and weaknesses against the other prevailing models and tools.

  2. Analytical treatment of the continuous wave driving of a two-level atom without making the rotating wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Chris; Scully, Marlan O.

    2016-01-01

    In a straightforward manner, we utilize Floquet theory and adiabatic elimination to derive an analytic expression for a monochromatically driven two-level atom, without making the rotating wave approximation. We show that the counter-rotating terms dropped in the rotating wave approximation are responsible for three major effects. First an ac-Stark phase shift of the driven transition, second increased excited state population from far-detuned driving of the Lorentzian line, and third extra frequencies in the population dynamics that result in "wiggles." The analytic result agrees well with numerical simultations over a wide range of parameters.

  3. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Entry-Level Business Analytics Positions: A Multi-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cegielski, Casey G.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2016-01-01

    It is impossible to deny the significant impact from the emergence of big data and business analytics on the fields of Information Technology, Quantitative Methods, and the Decision Sciences. Both industry and academia seek to hire talent in these areas with the hope of developing organizational competencies. This article describes a multi-method…

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INTENSITY CALIBRATION FOR RAMAN ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL ANALYTES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern dispersive Raman spectroscopy offers unique advantages for the analysis of low-concentration analytes in aqueous solution. However, we have found that proper intensity calibration is critical for obtaining these benefits. This is true not only for producing spectra with ...

  5. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW (low-level waste) disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. A conceptual subsurface facility design for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.G., III; Bhattacharyya, K.K.; Segrest, A.M.

    1996-09-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the design, construction, operation and closure of a repository in which to permanently dispose of the nation`s high level nuclear waste. In addition to the objective of safely isolating the waste inventory, the repository must provide a safe working environment for its workforce, and protect the public. The conceptual design for this facility is currently being developed. Tunnel Boring Machine will be used to excavate 228 kilometers of tunneling to construct the facility over a 30 year period. The excavation operations will be physically separated from the waste emplacement operations, and each operation will have its own dedicated ventilation system. The facility is being designed to remain open for 150 years.

  7. Investigation of {sup 14}C release in an engineered low-level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, M.S.; Simonson, S.A.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1996-05-01

    Atmospheric releases of {sup 14}C from a generic engineered low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility and its radiological impacts are investigated. A computer model that describes microbial gas generation and the transport has been developed and used to analyze the generation of {sup 14}C contaminated gases and subsequent migration in a facility. Models are based on a chemical kinetic description of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of organic materials coupled with attending models of oxygen transport and consumption within waste containers in a facility. Effects of radiolysis on gas generation are addressed based on the estimated dose rate for class B and C wastes. Estimates predict that annual atmospheric release of {sup 14}C due to atmospheric pressure variations could range between {approximately}2.6 {times} 10{sup 8} and 5.5 {times} 10{sup 11} Bq as a result of microbial gas generation based on a volume of 48 000 m{sup 3} LLW disposed in a facility. The associated dose to a maximally exposed individual is estimated to be dominated by ingestion pathway and strongly depends on the fraction of the food imported from an uncontaminated outside area. Dose rates are expected to be <0.04 mSv/yr, considering a reasonable distance between the facility and the exposed population. The depletion through airborne releases of {sup 14}C inventory that is available for transport through other pathways is not expected to be a significant issue.

  8. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-02-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  9. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-05-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  10. Determination of natural and depleted uranium in urine at the ppt level: an interlaboratory analytical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ough, E A; Lewis, B J; Andrews, W S; Bennett, L G I; Hancock, R G V; D'Agastino, P A

    2006-05-01

    An analytical exercise was initiated in order to determine those procedures with the capability to measure total uranium and uranium (238U/235U) isotopic ratios in urine samples containing >0.02 microg U kg-1 urine. A host laboratory prepared six identical sets of twelve synthetic urine samples containing total uranium in the range of 25 to 770 ng U kg-1 urine and with 238U/235U isotopic ratios ranging from 138 (100% NU) to 215 (51% DU). Sets of samples were shipped to five testing laboratories (four based in Canada and one based in Europe). Each laboratory utilized one of the following analytical techniques: sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS), quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and instrumental/delayed neutron activation analysis (I/DNAA), in their analyses. PMID:16607181

  11. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  12. Fairness at the collective level: a meta-analytic examination of the consequences and boundary conditions of organizational justice climate.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Daniel S; Caleo, Suzette; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Horner, Margaret T; Bernerth, Jeremy B

    2012-07-01

    This article uses meta-analytic methods (k = 38) to examine the relationship between organizational justice climate and unit-level effectiveness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between justice and effectiveness is significant (ρ = .40) when both constructs are construed at the collective level. Our results also indicate that distributive justice climate was most strongly linked with unit-level performance (e.g., productivity, customer satisfaction), whereas interactional justice was most strongly related to unit-level processes (e.g., organizational citizenship behavior, cohesion). We also show that a number of factors moderate this relationship, including justice climate strength, the level of referent in the justice measure, the hierarchical level of the unit, and how criteria are classified. We elaborate on these findings and attempt to provide a clearer direction for future research in this area. PMID:22486364

  13. Analytical approach for determining the mean water level profile in an estuary with substantial fresh water discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huayang; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Jiang, Chenjuan; Zhao, Lili; Yang, Qingshu

    2016-03-01

    The mean water level in estuaries rises in the landward direction due to a combination of the density gradient, the tidal asymmetry, and the backwater effect. This phenomenon is more prominent under an increase of the fresh water discharge, which strongly intensifies both the tidal asymmetry and the backwater effect. However, the interactions between tide and river flow and their individual contributions to the rise of the mean water level along the estuary are not yet completely understood. In this study, we adopt an analytical approach to describe the tidal wave propagation under the influence of substantial fresh water discharge, where the analytical solutions are obtained by solving a set of four implicit equations for the tidal damping, the velocity amplitude, the wave celerity, and the phase lag. The analytical model is used to quantify the contributions made by tide, river, and tide-river interaction to the water level slope along the estuary, which sheds new light on the generation of backwater due to tide-river interaction. Subsequently, the method is applied to the Yangtze estuary under a wide range of river discharge conditions where the influence of both tidal amplitude and fresh water discharge on the longitudinal variation of the mean tidal water level is explored. Analytical model results show that in the tide-dominated region the mean water level is mainly controlled by the tide-river interaction, while it is primarily determined by the river flow in the river-dominated region, which is in agreement with previous studies. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the effect of the tide alone is most important in the transitional zone, where the ratio of velocity amplitude to river flow velocity approaches unity. This has to do with the fact that the contribution of tidal flow, river flow, and tide-river interaction to the residual water level slope are all proportional to the square of the velocity scale. Finally, we show that, in combination with extreme

  14. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Criticality safety criteria for license review of low-level waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Odegaarden, R.H.; Parks, C.V.; Fox, P.B.

    1995-03-01

    The handling and burial of specified quantities of special nuclear material (SNM) at low-level-waste (LLW) facilities require a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). With assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff, the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Low-Level-Waste and Decommissioning Projects Branch, has developed technical specifications for the nuclear criticality safety of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in LLW facilities. The objective of the development of these technical specifications was to establish a set of review criteria that are rigorously defensible that can be applied uniformly to all license applications, and that conservatively ensures that buried SNM will not pose a criticality safety concern.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  17. Assessment of Essential Newborn Care Services in Secondary-level Facilities from Two Districts of India

    PubMed Central

    Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L.; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S.; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts─two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (>75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (<50%). The findings

  18. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  19. 75 FR 1615 - Amended Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Falls, ID 83415, telephone (208) 526-5793. Correction In the Federal Register of January 4, 2010, in FR... Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact..., announcing an amended Record of Decision (ROD) for the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities...

  20. A Strategy for Quantifying Radioactive Material in a Low-Level Waste Incineration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    One of the methods proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the volume reduction and stabilization of a variety of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is incineration. Many commercial incinerators are in operation treating both non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. These can obtain volume reductions factors of 50 or more for certain wastes, and produce a waste (ash) that can be easily stabilized if necessary by vitrification or cementation. However, there are few incinerators designed to accommodate radioactive wastes. One has been recently built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC and is burning non-radioactive hazardous waste and radioactive wastes in successive campaigns. The SRS Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is RCRA permitted as a Low Chemical Hazard, Radiological facility as defined by DOE criteria (Ref. 1). Accordingly, the CIF must operate within specified chemical, radionuclide, and fissile material inventory limits (Ref. 2). The radionuclide and fissile material limits are unique to radiological or nuclear facilities, and require special measurement and removal strategies to assure compliance, and the CIF may be required to shut down periodically in order to clean out the radionuclide inventory which builds up in various parts of the facility.

  1. Semiparametric Modeling of Daily Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, Diana María; Galeano-Vasco, Luis Fernando; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia concentration (AMC) in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America). The objective of this study was to model daily AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on a daily basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001). The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s) and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. Temperatures above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the daily variations observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material). PMID:26812150

  2. Semiparametric Modeling of Daily Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, Diana María; Galeano-Vasco, Luis Fernando; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia concentration (AMC) in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America). The objective of this study was to model daily AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on a daily basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001). The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s) and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. Temperatures above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the daily variations observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material). PMID:26812150

  3. Education: a microfluidic platform for university-level analytical chemistry laboratories.

    PubMed

    Greener, Jesse; Tumarkin, Ethan; Debono, Michael; Dicks, Andrew P; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2012-02-21

    We demonstrate continuous flow acid-base titration reactions as an educational microfluidic platform for undergraduate and graduate analytical chemistry courses. A series of equations were developed for controlling and predicting the results of acid-base neutralisation reactions conducted in a microfluidic format, including the combinations of (i) a strong base and a strong acid, (ii) a strong base and a weak acid, and (iii) a strong base and a multiprotic acid. Microfluidic titrations yielded excellent repeatability. The small experimental footprint is advantageous in crowded teaching laboratories, and it offers limited waste and exposure to potentially hazardous acids and bases. This platform will help promote the utilisation of microfluidics at an earlier stage of students' careers. PMID:22237720

  4. Investigating Preterm Care at the Facility Level: Stakeholder Qualitative Study in Central and Southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gondwe, Austrida; Munthali, Alister; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Malawi is estimated to have one of the highest preterm birth rates in the world. However, care of preterm infants at facility level in Malawi has not been explored. We aimed to explore the views of health stakeholders about the care of preterm infants in health facilities and the existence of any policy protocol documents guiding the delivery of care to these infants. Methods We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with health stakeholders (11 service providers and 5 policy makers) using an interview guide and asked for any existing policy protocol documents guiding care for preterm infants in the health facilities in Malawi. The collected documents were reviewed and all the interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated. All data were analysed using content analysis approach. Results We identified four policy protocol documents and out of these, one had detailed information explaining the care of preterm infants. Policy makers reported that policy protocol documents to guide care for preterm infants were available in the health facilities but majority (63.6 %) of the service providers lacked knowledge about the existence of these documents. Health stakeholders reported several challenges in caring for preterm infants including lack of trained staff in preterm infant care, antibiotics, space, supervision and poor referral system. Conclusions Our study highlights that improving health care service provider knowledge of preterm infant care is an integral part in preterm child birth. Our findings suggests that policy makers and health decision makers should retain those trained in preterm new born care in the health facility's preterm unit. PMID:26976282

  5. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, T.R.

    2002-05-06

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  6. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Thomas Russell

    2002-08-01

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  7. Association between Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Levels and Residential Proximity to Solid-Waste Facilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiling; Nelson, David O; Hurley, Susan; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo; Wang, Yunzhu; Guo, Weihong; Bernstein, Leslie; Hertz, Andrew; Reynolds, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    As consumer products treated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reach the end of their life cycle, they often are discarded into solid-waste facilities, offering a potential reservoir for exposure. The likelihood of exposures to PBDEs by residents living near those sites rarely has been explored. This study collected blood samples from 923 female participants in the California Teachers Study in 2011-2013 and examined the association between participants' residential proximity to solid-waste facilities with potential release of PBDEs and serum levels of three congeners (BDE-47, BDE-100, and BDE-153). General linear regression analysis was used to examine the association, adjusting for age, race, body-mass index, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and urban residency. Compared to participants living >10 km from any selected site, those living within 2 km had 45% higher BDE-47 (95% CI: 5-100%) and BDE-100 (95% CI: 0-109%) levels, and those living between 2 and 10 km had 35% higher BDE-47 (95% CI: 0-82%) and 29% higher BDE-100 (95% CI: -9 to 82%) levels. No associations were found for BDE-153. Living close to some solid waste sites may be related to higher serum BDE-47 and BDE-100 levels. Studies with comprehensive exposure assessments are needed to confirm these initial observations. PMID:26906616

  8. Analytical Calculation of Energy levels of mono- and bilayer Graphene Quantum Dots Used as Light Absorber in Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamandani, Shahryar; Darvish, Ghafar; Faez, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper by solving Dirac equation, we present an analytical solution to calculate energy levels and wave functions of mono- and bilayer graphene quantum dots. By supposing circular quantum dots, we solve Dirac equation and obtain energy levels and band gap with relations in a new closed and practical form. The energy levels are correlated with a radial quantum number and radius of quantum dots. In addition to monolayer quantum dots, AA- and AB-stacked bilayer quantum dots are investigated and their energy levels and band gap are calculated as well. Also, we analyze the influence of the quantum dots size on their energy spectrum. It can be observed that the band gap decreases as quantum dots' radius increases. On the other hand, increase in the band gap is more in AB-stacked bilayer quantum dots. Using the obtained relations, the band gap is obtained in each state. Comparing the energy spectra obtained from the tight-binding approximation with those of our obtained relations shows that the behavior of the energies as function of the dot size is qualitatively similar, but in some cases, quantitative differences can be seen. As quantum dots radius increases, the analytical results approach to the tight-binding method results.

  9. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  10. An analytical description of the atomic information entropy in a multi-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obada, A.-S. F.; Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2008-05-01

    We construct a complete representation of the atomic information entropy of an arbitrary multi-level system. Our approach is applicable to all scenarios in which the quantum state shared by a single particle and fields is known. As illustrations we apply our findings to a single four-level atom strongly coupled to a cavity field and driven by a coherent laser field. In this framework, we discuss connections with entanglement frustration and entropic forms. We conclude by showing how the atomic information entropy can be extended to examine entanglement in multi-level atomic systems.

  11. Scoping analysis of toxic metal performance in DOE low-level waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D; Bougai, D.A.; Pohl, P.I.

    1996-03-01

    This study provides a scoping safety assessment for disposal of toxic metals contained in Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at six DOE sites that currently have low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities--Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Nevada Test Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The study has focused on the groundwater contaminant pathway, which is considered to be the dominant human exposure pathway from shallow land MLLW disposal. A simple and conservative transport analysis has been performed using site hydrological data to calculate site-specific ``permissible`` concentrations of toxic metals in grout-immobilized waste. These concentrations are calculated such that, when toxic metals are leached from the disposal facility by infiltrating water and attenuated in local ground-water system the toxic metal concentrations in groundwater below the disposal facility do not exceed the Maximum Contaminant Levels as stated in the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The analysis shows that and sites allow about I00 times higher toxic metal concentrations in stabilized waste leachate than humid sites. From the limited available data on toxic metal concentrations in DOE MLLW, a margin of protection appears to exist in most cases when stabilized wastes containing toxic metals are disposed of at the DOE sites under analysis. Possible exceptions to this conclusion are arsenic, chromium selenium, and mercury when disposed of at some humid sites such as the Oak Ridge Reservation. This analysis also demonstrates that the US Environmental Protection Agency`s prescriptive regulatory approach that defines rigid waste treatment standards does not inherently account for the variety of disposal environments encountered nationwide and may result in either underprotection of groundwater resources (at humid sites) or an excessive margin of protection (at and sites).

  12. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  13. Social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffle, R.W.; Traugott, M.J.; Stone, J.V.; McIntyre, P.D.; Davidson, C.C.; Jensen, F.V.; Coover, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This report presents findings from a social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan. Social assessments derive from direct interaction between researchers and study participants. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter One, Summary of Findings, focuses on key findings from the statewide telephone surveys and the in-depth ethnographic study conducted by the SNR/ISR study team. These and additional findings are discussed in greater detail in the three subsequent chapters. Chapter Two, Statewide Telephone Survey Findings, presents the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs statewide residents have regarding the LLRW project. Chapter Three, Statewide Demographic Findings, presents a detailed examination of differences among various demographic groups and includes regional analysis. Chapter Four, Hillsdale-area Ethnographic Study Findings, discusses perceived impacts of the proposed LLRW storage facility on local residents who mistakenly came to believe that their area had been specially selected as the location for the facility. Specifically, the chapter presents the development, spread, shape and persistence of what is termed a risk perception shadow in the greater Hillsdale area. Possible causes of the shadow also are discussed, and comparisons are made between statewide and Hillsdale-area survey populations. Chapter Five, Research Methods, presents a discussion of the social assessment research methods used to derive these findings.

  14. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  15. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  16. LOW LEVEL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AT MURMANSK, RUSSIA: FACILITY UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.; CZAJKOWSKI,C.; DYER,R.S.; SORLIE,A.

    2000-03-01

    Today there exist many almost overfilled storage tanks with liquid radioactive waste in the Russian Federation. This waste was generated over several years by the civil and military utilization of nuclear power. The current waste treatment capacity is either not available or inadequate. Following the London Convention, dumping of the waste in the Arctic seas is no longer an alternative. Waste is being generated from today's operations, and large volumes are expected to be generated from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines. The US and Norway have an ongoing co-operation project with the Russian Federation to upgrade and expand the capacity of a treatment facility for low level liquid waste at the RTP Atomflot site in Murmansk. The capacity will be increased from 1,200 m{sup 3}/year to 5,000 m{sup 3} /year. The facility will also be able to treat high saline waste. The construction phase will be completed the first half of 1998. This will be followed by a start-up and a one year post-construction phase, with US and Norwegian involvement for the entire project. The new facility will consist of 9 units containing various electrochemical, filtration, and sorbent-based treatment systems. The units will be housed in two existing buildings, and must meet more stringent radiation protection requirements that were not enacted when the facility was originally designed. The US and Norwegian technical teams have evaluated the Russian design and associated documentation. The Russian partners send monthly progress reports to US and Norway. Not only technical issues must be overcome but also cultural differences resulting from different methods of management techniques. Six to eight hour time differentials between the partners make real time decisions difficult and relying on electronic age tools becomes extremely important. Language difficulties is another challenge that must be solved. Finding a common vocabulary, and working through interpreters make the

  17. Current status of sharps waste management in the lower-level health facilities in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manyele, Samwel V; Mujuni, Churchil M

    2010-10-01

    Sharps waste is part of infectious medical waste, management of which is a critical problem in Tanzanian health facilities. This study aimed at assessing the current status of sharps waste management in lower level health facilities (LLHFs) in Ilala Municipality in Tanzania. In this study a sample of 135 LLHFs (103 dispensaries, 13 clinics, 11 laboratories, and 8 health centers) was involved. The average number of workers per facility was 10, with positively skewed probability density function (up to 80 workers). The average patient-to-workers ratio was 5.87. About 59% of the LLHFs improvised sharps waste containers (SWCs). Sharps waste was transported by hands in 77% of LLHFs leading to high risks of exposure to needle stick injuries. Boots, aprons and masks were among the personal protective equipment (PPE) missing in most LLHFs, while latex gloves that cannot protect workers from injuries caused by sharps waste were readily available. Most facilities stored sharps waste for about 72 hours (before treatment), which is beyond the recommended maximum storage time of 24 hours. About 39.3% of LLHFs utilized on-site single-chamber incinerators for sharps waste treatment, which are of poor design, have rusted mechanical parts, short and rusted chimneys, and without automatic flame ignition burners. It is concluded that sharps waste management in LLHFs is poor, which puts workers, the public and the environment at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens. It is, therefore, important that the municipality should establish a waste processing center which will collect and incinerate all sharps waste. PMID:24409634

  18. Elements of uncertainty in a radiological performance assessment of a Saltstone Disposal Facility for low level waste

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Little, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently conducting a radiological performance assessment for the Saltstone Disposal Facility at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Saltstone is a solidified, low-level waste form which contains very low levels of radionuclides but considerable levels of nitrate. The preliminary results of the performance assessment indicate that the final outcome will be very sensitive to the degradation scenario for the cover and containment system for this facility. The uncertainty in the results beyond several hundred years, arising from the choice of elements in this scenario, is extremely large due to the limited knowledge of the behavior of the clay and cementitious materials beyond this time frame. Design of low-level waste facilities should address this uncertainty, and policy makers and regulators should decide both what the tolerable level of uncertainty is and the length of time over which a facility's performance should be predictively evaluated. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. 21 CFR 530.22 - Safe levels and analytical methods for food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals... level for extralabel use of an approved human drug or an approved new animal drug when the agency...

  20. 21 CFR 530.22 - Safe levels and analytical methods for food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals... level for extralabel use of an approved human drug or an approved new animal drug when the agency...

  1. 21 CFR 530.22 - Safe levels and analytical methods for food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals... level for extralabel use of an approved human drug or an approved new animal drug when the agency...

  2. The contractor`s role in low-level waste disposal facility application review and licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Serie, P.J.; Dressen, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    The California Department of Health Services will soon reach a licensing decision on the proposed Ward Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. As the first regulatory agency in the country to address the 10 CFR Part 61 requirements for a new disposal facility, California`s program has broken new ground in its approach. Throughout the review process, the Department has relied on contractor support to augment its technical and administrative staff. A team consisting of Roy F. Weston, Inc., supported by ERM-Program Management Corp., Environmental Issues Management, Inc., and Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation, has worked closely with the Department in a staff extension role. The authors have been involved with the project in contractor project management roles since 1987, and continue to support the Department`s program as it proceeds to finalize its licensing process. This paper describes the selection process used to identify a contractor team with the needed skills and experience, and the makeup of team capabilities. It outlines the management, communication, and technical approaches used to assure a smooth agency-contractor function and relationship. It describes the techniques used to ensure that decisions and documents represented the Department credibly in its role as the regulatory and licensing agency under the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Agreement State program. The paper outlines the license application review process and activities, through preparation of licensing documentation and responses to public comments. Lessons learned in coordination of an agency-contractor team effort to review and license a low-level waste disposal facility are reviewed and suggestions made for approaching a similar license application review and licensing situation.

  3. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes.

  4. Severe Childhood Anaemia and Blood Transfusion in a Nigerian Secondary Level Facility.

    PubMed

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade; Fetuga, Bolanle; Olowonyo, Michael; Adekoya, Adesola; Adetola, Oluseyi; Ajetunmobi, Adebimpe

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the pattern and immediate outcome of severe childhood anaemia requiring blood transfusion at a secondary level of care in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of children hospitalized in a secondary health facility in Ogun State, Nigeria, with packed cell volume <20% and who received blood transfusion was done. Of the 253 children admitted between March 2013 and June 2014, 79 (31.2%) had severe anaemia and were transfused with blood. Two-thirds had multiple transfusions. Higher rates of blood transfusion were obtained among underweight children. Fever (98.7%), hypoglycaemia (65.8%) and tender liver (54.4%) were the leading co-morbidities. The case fatality rate was 21.5%. Respiratory distress, convulsions and altered sensorium were significantly associated with mortality. In conclusion, severe anaemia was associated with major morbidities and mortality at the secondary level of paediatric care in Nigeria. PMID:26637271

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  6. Analytical model of sea level elevation during a storm: Support for coastal flood risk assessment associated with cyclone passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Natan Zambroni; Calliari, Lauro Julio; Nicolodi, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Sea level oscillations are a result of continuous astronomic, oceanographic, and atmospheric interactions on different time and intensity scales. Thus, the collective action of forcing factors such as tide, wind, atmospheric pressure, and wave action may lead to elevated sea levels during cyclone events over the continental shelf, abruptly impacting adjacent coasts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of sea level rise and coastal flooding associated with the passage of cyclones in southern Brazil. An analytical model was developed based on extreme storm events from 1997 to 2008. The model identifies the impact of each forcing factor during temporary sea level rise. Through the development of a digital terrain model, it was possible to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding by superimposing the terrain model onto calculated sea levels. During storm events, sea level elevations ranged from 2 to 5 m and show wind as the major forcing factor, followed by swells waves, astronomical tide and finally atmospheric pressure.

  7. Multi-analyte approach for the determination of ng L(-1) levels of steroid hormones in unidentified aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Noppe, H; Verheyden, K; Gillis, W; Courtheyn, D; Vanthemsche, P; De Brabander, H F

    2007-03-14

    Since the 1970s, many analytical methods for the detection of illegal growth promoters, such as thyreostats, anabolics, beta-agonists and corticosteroids have been developed for a wide range of matrices of animal origin, including meat, fat, organ tissue, urine and faeces. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of ng L(-1) levels of estrogens, gestagens, androgens (EGAs) and corticosteroids in aqueous preparations (i.e. drinking water, drinking water supplements), commercially available on the 'black' market. For this, extraction was performed with Bakerbond C18 speedisk, a technique commonly used in environmental analysis. After fractionation, four fractions were collected using a methanol:water gradient program. Gas chromatography coupled to electron impact multiple mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS2) screening for the EGAs was carried out on the derivatized extracts. For the detection of corticosteroids, gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) was used after oxidation of the extracts. Confirmation was done by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2). The combined use of GC and LC coupled to MS enabled the identification and quantification of anabolics and corticosteroids at the low ng L(-1) level. This study demonstrated the occurrence of both androgens and corticosteroids in different commercial aqueous samples. PMID:17386692

  8. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  9. Letter Report for Analytical Results for five Swipe Samples from the Northern Biomedical Research Facility, Muskegon Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, Wade

    2013-12-17

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, received five swipe samples on December 10, 2013 from the Northern Biomedical Research Facility in Norton Shores, Michigan. The samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14 according to the NRC Form 303 supplied with the samples. The sample identification numbers are presented in Table 1 and the tritium and carbon-14 results are provided in Table 2. The pertinent procedure references are included with the data tables.

  10. Durability of a reinforced concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Arva, E. A.; Schulz, F. M.; Vazquez, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on a reinforced concrete specifically designed for this purpose, to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from data obtained with several techniques. Results obtained with corrosion sensors embedded in a concrete prototype are also included. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  11. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  12. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  13. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    SciTech Connect

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb; Vandergaast, Gary; Arey, Jimi

    2013-07-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow

  14. Use of engineered soils beneath low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, T.C.; Humphrey, D.N.; DeMascio, F.A.

    1993-03-01

    Current regulations are oriented toward locating low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities on sites that have a substantial natural soil barrier and are above the groundwater table. In some of the northern states, like Maine, the overburden soils are glacially derived and in most places provide a thin cover over bedrock with a high groundwater table. Thus, the orientation of current regulations can severely limit the availability of suitable sites. A common characteristic of many locations in glaciated regions is the rapid change of soil types that may occur and the heterogeneity within a given soil type. In addition, the bedrock may be fractured, providing avenues for water movement. A reliable characterization of these sites can be difficult, even with a detailed subsurface exploration program. Moreover, fluctuating groundwater and frost as well as the natural deposition processes have introduced macro features such as cracks, fissures, sand and silt seams, and root holes. The significant effect that these macro features have on the permeability and adsorptive capacity of a large mass is often ignored or poorly accounted for in the analyses. This paper will examine an alternate approach, which is to use engineered soils as a substitute for some or all of the natural soil and to treat the fractures in the underlying bedrock. The site selection would no longer be primarily determined by the natural soil and rock and could even be placed in locations with no existing soils. Engineered soils can be used for below- or aboveground facilities.

  15. Operational considerations in monitoring oxygen levels at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalenski, M. A.; Rowe, E. L.; Mcphee, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory monitoring of the level of oxygen in sample gas mixtures is a process which can be performed with accurate and repeatable results. Operations at the National Transonic Facility require the storage and pumping of large volumes of liquid nitrogen. To protect against the possibility of a fault resulting in a localized oxygen deficient atmosphere, the facility is equipped with a monitoring system with an array of sensors. During the early operational stages, the system produced recurrent alarms, none of which could be traced to a true oxygen deficiency. A thorough analysis of the system was undertaken with primary emphasis placed on the sensor units. These units sense the partial pressure of oxygen which, after signal conditioning, is presented as a % by volume indication at the system output. It was determined that many of the problems experienced were due to a lack of proper accounting for the partial pressure/% by volume relationship, with a secondary cause being premature sensor failure. Procedures were established to consider atmospherically induced partial pressure variations. Sensor rebuilding techniques were examined, and those elements contributing to premature sensor failure were identified. The system now operates with a high degree of confidence and reliability.

  16. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  17. An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

  18. Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson-Waters, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination.

  19. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  20. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Ordoñez, M.; Andrade, C.; Castellote, M.

    2011-04-01

    The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW), which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  1. SPECIAL ANALYSIS AIR PATHWAY MODELING OF E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.

    2011-08-30

    This Special Analysis (SA) was initiated to address a concern expressed by the Department of Energy's Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Review Team during their review of the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). Their concern was the potential for overlapping of atmospheric plumes, emanating from the soil surface above SRS LLW disposal facilities within the E-Area, to contribute to the dose received by a member of the public during the Institutional Control (IC) period. The implication of this concern was that the dose to the maximally-exposed individual (MEI) located at the SRS boundary might be underestimated during this time interval. To address this concern a re-analysis of the atmospheric pathway releases from E-Area was required. In the process of developing a new atmospheric release model (ARM) capable of addressing the LFRG plume overlap concern, it became obvious that new and better atmospheric pathway disposal limits should be developed for each of the E-Area disposal facilities using the new ARM. The scope of the SA was therefore expanded to include the generation of these new limits. The initial work conducted in this SA was to develop a new ARM using the GoldSim{reg_sign} program (GTG, 2009). The model simulates the subsurface vapor diffusion of volatile radionuclides as they release from E-Area disposal facility waste zones and migrate to the land surface. In the process of this work, many new features, including several new physical and chemical transport mechanisms, were incorporated into the model. One of the most important improvements was to incorporate a mechanism to partition volatile contaminants across the water-air interface within the partially saturated pore space of the engineered and natural materials through which vapor phase transport occurs. A second mechanism that was equally important was to incorporate a maximum concentration of 1.9E-07 Ci/m{sup 3} of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the air

  2. An Approach for the Analysis of Regulatory Analytes in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.; Miller, M.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04

    Radiation levels, salt concentration, and the oxidizing nature of the waste dictates modifications to the SW-846 methods. Modified methods will be used to meet target EQLs and QC currently in SW-846. Method modifications will be validated per SW-846 and HASQARD and will be documented consistent with WAC 173-303-910. The affect of modifications to holding times and storage conditions will be evaluated using techniques developed by Maskarinec and Bayne (1996). After validating the methods and performing the holding time study on a minimum of two Phase 1 candidate feed source tank wastes, DOE and Ecology will assess: whether different methods are needed, whether holding time/storage conditions should be altered, whether the high priority analyte list should be refined, and which additional tank waste needs to be characterized.

  3. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  4. Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on unconfined sloping island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnaux, R.

    2016-04-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater oceanic island lenses are provided for the cases of both strip and circular islands. Solutions are proposed for directly calculating the change in the thickness of the lens, the changes in volume and the changes in travel time of fresh groundwater within island aquifers. The solutions apply for homogenous aquifers recharged by surface infiltration and discharged by a down-gradient, fixed-head boundary. They also take into account the inland shift of the ocean due to land surface inundation, this shift being determined by the coastal slope of inland aquifers. The solutions are given for two simple island geometries: circular islands and strip islands. Base case examples are presented to illustrate, on one hand, the amplitude of the change of the fresh groundwater lens thickness and the volume depletion of the lens in oceanic island with sea-level rise, and on the other hand, the shortening of time required for groundwater to discharge into the ocean. These consequences can now be quantified and may help decision-makers to anticipate the effects of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater availability in oceanic island aquifers.

  5. Facility-Level Analysis of PET Scanning for Staging Among US Veterans With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Todd H.; Schultz, Ellen M.; Xu, Xiangyan; Ghaus, Sharfun J.; Provenzale, Dawn; Au, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: PET scanning has been shown in randomized trials to reduce the frequency of surgery without cure among patients with potentially resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined whether more frequent use of PET scanning at the facility level improves survival among patients with NSCLC in real-world practice. Methods: In this prospective cohort study of 622 US veterans with newly diagnosed NSCLC, we compared groups defined by the frequency of PET scan use measured at the facility level and categorized as low (< 25%), medium (25%-60%), or high (> 60%). Results: The median age of the sample was 69 years. Ninety-eight percent were men, 36% were Hispanic or nonwhite, and 54% had moderate or severe comorbidities. At low-, medium-, and high-use facilities, PET scan was performed in 13%, 40%, and 72% of patients, respectively (P < .0001). Baseline characteristics were similar across groups, including clinical stage based on CT scanning. More frequent use of PET scanning was associated with more frequent invasive staging (P < .001) and nonsignificant improvements in downstaging (P = .13) and surgery without cure (P = .12). After a median of 352 days of follow-up, 22% of the sample was still alive, including 22% at low- and medium-use facilities and 20% at high-use facilities. After adjustment and compared with patients at low-use facilities, the hazard of death was greater for patients at high-use facilities (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05-1.74) but not different for patients at medium-use facilities (adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.88-1.46). Conclusions: In this study of veterans with NSCLC, markedly greater use of PET scanning at the facility level was associated with more frequent use of invasive staging and possible improvements in downstaging and surgery without cure, but greater use of PET scanning was not associated with better survival. PMID:24306819

  6. Developing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Connecticut: Update on progress and new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gingerich, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Connecticut is a member of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact (Northeast LLRW Compact). The other member of the Northeast LLRW Compact is New Jersey. The Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission (Northeast Compact Commission), the Northeast LLRW Compact`s governing body, has designated both Connecticut and New Jersey as host states for disposal facilities. The Northeast Compact Commission has recommended that, for purposes of planning for each state`s facility, the siting agency for the state should use projected volumes and characteristics of the LLW generated in its own state. In 1987 Connecticut enacted legislation that assigns major responsibilities for developing a LLW disposal facility in Connecticut to the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS). The CHWMS is required to: prepare and revise, as necessary, a LLW Management Plan for the state; select a site for a LLW disposal facility; select a disposal technology to be used at the site; select a firm to obtain the necessary approvals for the facility and to develop and operate it; and serve as the custodial agency for the facility. This paper discusses progress in developing a facility.

  7. A simple analytical procedure to replace HPLC for monitoring treatment concentrations of chloramine-T on fish culture facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Verdel K.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of chloramine-T must be monitored during experimental treatments of fish when studying the effectiveness of the drug for controlling bacterial gill disease. A surrogate analytical method for analysis of chloramine-T to replace the existing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described. A surrogate method was needed because the existing HPLC method is expensive, requires a specialist to use, and is not generally available at fish hatcheries. Criteria for selection of a replacement method included ease of use, analysis time, cost, safety, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The most promising approach was to use the determination of chlorine concentrations as an indicator of chloramine-T. Of the currently available methods for analysis of chlorine, the DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) colorimetric method best fit the established criteria. The surrogate method was evaluated under a variety of water quality conditions. Regression analysis of all DPD colorimetric analyses with the HPLC values produced a linear model (Y=0.9602 X+0.1259) with an r2 value of 0.9960. The average accuracy (percent recovery) of the DPD method relative to the HPLC method for the combined set of water quality data was 101.5%. The surrogate method was also evaluated with chloramine-T solutions that contained various concentrations of fish feed or selected densities of rainbow trout. When samples were analyzed within 2 h, the results of the surrogate method were consistent with those of the HPLC method. When samples with high concentrations of organic material were allowed to age more than 2 h before being analyzed, the DPD method seemed to be susceptible to interference, possibly from the development of other chloramine compounds. However, even after aging samples 6 h, the accuracy of the surrogate DPD method relative to the HPLC method was within the range of 80–120%. Based on the data comparing the two methods, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  8. A simple analytical procedure to replace HPLC for monitoring treatment concentrations of chloramine-T on fish culture facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of chloramine-T must be monitored during experimental treatments of fish when studying the effectiveness of the drug for controlling bacterial gill disease. A surrogate analytical method for analysis of chloramine-T to replace the existing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described. A surrogate method was needed because the existing HPLC method is expensive, requires a specialist to use, and is not generally available at fish hatcheries. Criteria for selection of a replacement method included ease of use, analysis time, cost, safety, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The most promising approach was to use the determination of chlorine concentrations as an indicator of chloramine-T. Of the currently available methods for analysis of chlorine, the DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) colorimetric method best fit the established criteria. The surrogate method was evaluated under a variety of water quality conditions. Regression analysis of all DPD colorimetric analyses with the HPLC values produced a linear model (Y=0.9602 X+0.1259) with an r2 value of 0.9960. The average accuracy (percent recovery) of the DPD method relative to the HPLC method for the combined set of water quality data was 101.5%. The surrogate method was also evaluated with chloramine-T solutions that contained various concentrations of fish feed or selected densities of rainbow trout. When samples were analyzed within 2 h, the results of the surrogate method were consistent with those of the HPLC method. When samples with high concentrations of organic material were allowed to age more than 2 h before being analyzed, the DPD method seemed to be susceptible to interference, possibly from the development of other chloramine compounds. However, even after aging samples 6 h, the accuracy of the surrogate DPD method relative to the HPLC method was within the range of 80-120%. Based on the data comparing the two methods, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has

  9. Comparative vibration levels perceived among species in a laboratory animal facility.

    PubMed

    Norton, John N; Kinard, Will L; Reynolds, Randall P

    2011-09-01

    The current study was performed to determine the vibration levels that were generated in cages on a ventilated rack by common construction equipment in frequency ranges likely to be perceived by humans, rats, and mice. Vibration generated by the ventilated rack blower caused small but significant increases in some of the abdominal, thoracic, and head resonance frequency ranges (RFR) and sensitivity frequency ranges (SFR) in which each species is most likely to be affected by and perceive vibration, respectively. Vibration caused by various items of construction equipment at 3 ft from the cage were evaluated relative to the RFR and SFR of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. In addition, the vibration levels in the RFR and SFR that resulted from the use of a large jackhammer and were measured at various locations and distances in the facility and evaluated in terms of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. Taken together, the data indicate that a given vibration source generates vibration in frequency ranges that are more likely to affect rats and mice as compared with humans. PMID:22330711

  10. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively

  11. Multiple-pathways screening-level assessment of a hazardous waste incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Hetrick, D.M.; Dixon, E.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to make a preliminary determination of the relative importance of air, food, and water pathways to human exposure from hazardous materials released from incineration facilities. These results are to be used to determine where more research on food and water pathways may be warranted. Identical 150 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h rotary kiln incinerator facilities burning pesticide-related wastes were assumed to be sited in three different locations in the United States. The locations studied for air and food chain exposures were a southern California site (S-1) at 33/sup 0/ 20' latitude and 115/sup 0/ 30' longitude; a northern Midwest site (S-2) at 44/sup 0/ 55' latitude and 89/sup 0/ 50' longitude, and a central Midwest site (S-3) at 38/sup 0/ 20' latitude and 94/sup 0/ 20' longitude. These sites are in areas that lead the nation in production of leafy vegetables, milk, and beef, respectively, and were chosen to estimate possible worst-case population exposures from these foodstuffs. In the water pathways assessments, screening-level assessments were performed at sites S-1 and S-2. Major conclusions of this report are: for certain organic chemicals the food chain pathway may be an important contributor to total human exposure from incineration of hazardous wastes; for trichloroethylene, the drinking water pathway appears to be a small contributor to total human dose. The present assessment did not determine human exposure from chemicals leached into groundwater after release from a hazardous waste incinerator. 40 references, 19 tables.

  12. Statin Use and Its Facility-Level Variation in Patients With Diabetes: Insight From the Veterans Affairs National Database.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Akeroyd, Julia M; Ramsey, David J; Hira, Ravi S; Nambi, Vijay; Shah, Tina; Woodard, LeChauncy D; Winchester, David E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Petersen, Laura A; Virani, Salim S

    2016-04-01

    We sought to determine use of any and at least moderate-intensity statin therapy in a national sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), with the hypothesis that nationwide frequency and facility-level variation in statin therapy are suboptimal. We sampled patients with DM age 40 to 75 years receiving primary care between October 1, 2012, and September 30, 2013, at 130 parent facilities and associated community-based outpatient clinics in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. We examined frequency and facility-level variation in use of any or at least moderate-intensity statin therapy (mean daily dose associated with ≥30% low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering). In 911 444 patients with DM, 68.3% and 58.4% were receiving any and moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy, respectively. Patients receiving statin had higher burden of cardiovascular disease, were more likely to be on nonstatin lipid-lowering therapy and to receive care at a teaching facility, and had more frequent primary-care visits. Median facility-level uses of any and at least moderate-intensity statin therapy were 68.7% (interquartile range, 65.9%-70.8%) and 58.6% (interquartile range, 55.8%-61.4%), respectively. After adjusting for several patient-related and some facility-related characteristics, the median rate ratios for any and moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy were 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.22) and 1.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.24-1.33) respectively, indicating 20% to 29% variation in statin use between 2 identical patients receiving care at 2 random facilities. Statin use was suboptimal in a national sample of patients with DM with modest facility-level variation, likely indicating differences in statin-prescribing patterns. PMID:27059708

  13. An analytic approach for describing and prioritizing health inequalities at the local level in Canada: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Neudorf, Cory; Fuller, Daniel; Cushon, Jennifer; Glew, Riley; Turner, Hollie; Ugolini, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the health inequalities analytic approach used by the Saskatoon Health Region to examine health equity. Our aim was to develop a method that will enable health regions to prioritize action on health inequalities. Methods: Data from admissions to hospital, physician billing, reportable diseases, vital statistics and childhood immunizations in the city of Saskatoon were analyzed for the years ranging from 1995 to 2011. Data were aggregated to the dissemination area level. The Pampalon deprivation index was used as the measure of socioeconomic status. We calculated annual rates per 1000 people for each outcome. Rate ratios, rate differences, area-level concentration curves and area-level concentration coefficients quantified inequality. An Inequalities Prioritization Matrix was developed to prioritize action for the outcomes showing the greatest inequality. The outcomes measured were cancer, intentional self-harm, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental illness, heart disease, diabetes, injury, stroke, chlamydia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, high birth weight, low birth weight, teen abortion, teen pregnancy, infant mortality and all-cause mortality. Results: According to the Inequalities Prioritization Matrix, injuries and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the first and second priorities, respectively, that needed to be addressed related to inequalities in admissions to hospital. For physician billing, mental disorders and diabetes were high-priority areas. Differences in teen pregnancy and all-cause mortality were the most unequal in the vital statistics data. For communicable diseases, hepatitis C was the highest priority. Interpretation: Our findings show that health inequalities exist at the local level and that a method can be developed to prioritize action on these inequalities. Policies should consider health inequalities and adopt population-based and targeted actions to reduce inequalities. PMID:27022600

  14. Experimental and analytical study of loss-of-flow transients in EBR-II occurring at decay power levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.; Feldman, E.E.; Betten, P.R.; Planchon, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    A series of eight loss-of-flow (LOF) tests have been conducted in EBR-II to study the transition between forced and natural convective flows following a variety of loss-of-primary-pumping power conditions from decay heat levels. Comparisons of measurements and pretest/posttest predictions were made on a selected test. Good agreements between measurements and predictions was found prior to and just after the flow reaching its minimum, but the agreement is not as good after that point. The temperatures are consistent with the flow response and the assumed decay power. The measured results indicate that the flows of driver and the instrumented subassemblies are too much in the analytical model in the natural convective region. Although a parametric study on secondary flow, turbulent-laminar flow transition, heat transfer ability of the intermediate heat exchange at low flow and flow mixing in the primary tank has been performed to determine their effects on the flow, the cause of the discrepancy at very low flow level is still unknown.

  15. Environmental monitoring for a low-level radioactive waste management facility: Incinerator operations

    SciTech Connect

    Tries, M.A. |; Chabot, G.E.; Ring, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    An environmental monitoring program has been developed for Harvard University, Southborough campus, to access the local environmental concentrations of radionuclides released in incinerator effluents. The campus is host to the University`s low-level radioactive waste management facility, which consists of 6,000 drum capacity decay-storage buildings; a 250 drum capacity decay-storage freezer; and a controlled-air incinerator. Developmental considerations were based on the characteristics and use of the incinerator, which has a capacity of 8 tons per day and is operated at 5% of the time for the volume reduction of Type 0 and Type 4 wastes contaminated with a variety of radionuclides used in biomedical research-some in microsphere form. Monitoring was established for air, leafy vegetation, leaf-litter, and surface soil media. Field sampling was optimized regarding location and time based on the action of atmospheric, terrestrial, and biotic transport mechanisms. Preliminary results indicate transient concentrations of {sup 3}H and {sup 125}I in vegetation directly exposed to the dispersing plume. Measurable particulate depositions have not been observed. 52 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose

  17. Quality of care for under-fives in first-level health facilities in one district of Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Arifeen, S. E.; Bryce, J.; Gouws, E.; Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Hoque, D. M. E.; Chowdhury, E. K.; Yunus, M.; Begum, N.; Akter, T.; Siddique, A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The multi-country evaluation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE) is a global evaluation to determine the impact of IMCI on health outcomes and its cost-effectiveness. MCE studies are under way in Bangladesh, Brazil, Peru, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. The objective of this analysis from the Bangladesh MCE study was to describe the quality of care delivered to sick children under 5 years old in first-level government health facilities, to inform government planning of child health programmes. METHODS: Generic MCE Health Facility Survey tools were adapted, translated and pre-tested. Medical doctors trained in IMCI and these tools conducted the survey in all 19 health facilities in the study areas. The data were collected using observations, exit interviews, inventories and interviews with facility providers. FINDINGS: Few of the sick children seeking care at these facilities were fully assessed or correctly treated, and almost none of their caregivers were advised on how to continue the care of the child at home. Over one-third of the sick children whose care was observed were managed by lower-level workers who were significantly more likely than higher-level workers to classify the sick child correctly and to provide correct information on home care to the caregiver. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate an urgent need for interventions to improve the quality of care provided for sick children in first-level facilities in Bangladesh, and suggest that including lower-level workers as targets for IMCI case-management training may be beneficial. The findings suggest that the IMCI strategy offers a promising set of interventions to address the child health service problems in Bangladesh. PMID:15868016

  18. Multidisciplinary community mental health team staff's experience of a 'skills level' training course in cognitive analytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew R; Donnison, Jenny; Warnock-Parkes, Emma; Turpin, Graham; Turner, James; Kerr, Ian B

    2008-04-01

    This study sought to explore community mental health teams' (CMHTs) experiences of receiving an innovative introductory level training in cognitive analytic therapy (CAT). CMHTs are important providers of care for people with mental health problems. Although CMHTs have many strengths, they have been widely criticized for failing to have a shared model underlying practice. Inter-professional training which develops shared therapeutic models from which to plan care delivery is, therefore, essential. We have been developing such a training based on the psychotherapeutic principles of CAT. Twelve community mental health staff (six mental health social workers and six community psychiatric nurses) were interviewed by an independent interviewer following the completion of the training programme. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that the programme increased the participants' self-assessed therapeutic confidence and skill and fostered the development of a shared model within the team, although the training was also perceived as adding to workload. The results of this study suggest that whole-team CAT training may facilitate cohesion and also suggest that having some shared common language is important in enabling and supporting work with 'difficult' and 'complex' clients, for example, those with personality disorders. Further development of such training accompanied by rigorous evaluation should be undertaken. PMID:18307602

  19. Retention of mothers and infants in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme is associated with individual and facility-level factors in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Woelk, Godfrey B; Ndatimana, Dieudonne; Behan, Sally; Mukaminega, Martha; Nyirabahizi, Epiphanie; Hoffman, Heather J; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Ribakare, Muhayimpundu; Amzel, Anouk; Phelps, B Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate levels of retention at specified time periods along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade among mother-infant pairs as well as individual- and facility-level factors associated with retention. Methods A retrospective cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants attending five health centres from November 2010 to February 2012 in the Option B programme in Rwanda was established. Data were collected from several health registers and patient follow-up files. Additionally, informant interviews were conducted to ascertain health facility characteristics. Generalized estimating equation methods and modelling were utilized to estimate the number of mothers attending each antenatal care visit and assess factors associated with retention. Results Data from 457 pregnant women and 462 infants were collected at five different health centres (three urban and two rural facilities). Retention at 30 days after registration and retention at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-delivery were analyzed. Based on an analytical sample of 348, we found that 58% of women and 81% of infants were retained in care within the same health facility at 12 months post-delivery, respectively. However, for mother-infant paired mothers, retention at 12 months was 74% and 79% for their infants. Loss to facility occurred early, with 26% to 33% being lost within 30 days post-registration. In a multivariable model retention was associated with being married, adjusted relative risk (ARR): 1.26, (95% confidence intervals: 1.11, 1.43); antiretroviral therapy eligible, ARR: 1.39, (1.12, 1.73) and CD4 count per 50 mm3, ARR: 1.02, (1.01, 1.03). Conclusions These findings demonstrate varying retention levels among mother-infant pairs along the PMTCT cascade in addition to potential determinants of retention to such programmes. Unmarried, apparently healthy, HIV-positive pregnant women need additional support for programme retention. With the

  20. Evidence from facility level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most of the maternal and newborn deaths occur at birth or within 24 hours of birth. Therefore, essential lifesaving interventions need to be delivered at basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care facilities. Facilities provide complex interventions including advice on referrals, post discharge care, long-term management of chronic conditions along with staff training, managerial and administrative support to other facilities. This paper reviews the effectiveness of facility level inputs for improving maternal and newborn health outcomes. We considered all available systematic reviews published before May 2013 on the pre-defined facility level interventions and included 32 systematic reviews. Findings suggest that additional social support during pregnancy and labour significantly decreased the risk of antenatal hospital admission, intrapartum analgesia, dissatisfaction, labour duration, cesarean delivery and instrumental vaginal birth. However, it did not have any impact on pregnancy outcomes. Continued midwifery care from early pregnancy to postpartum period was associated with reduced medical procedures during labour and shorter length of stay. Facility based stress training and management interventions to maintain well performing and motivated workforce, significantly reduced job stress and improved job satisfaction while the interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change improved the desired practice. We found limited and inconclusive evidence for the impacts of physical environment, exit interviews and organizational culture modifications. At the facility level, specialized midwifery teams and social support during pregnancy and labour have demonstrated conclusive benefits in improving maternal newborn health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings is limited to high income countries. Future programs in resource limited settings should utilize these findings to implement relevant interventions tailored to their needs

  1. Contamination control and cleanliness level integrity for the Space Shuttle Orbiter PLB, payloads and facilities at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, D.

    1984-01-01

    The PLB, its cargo, and payload canister must satisfy the cleanliness requirements of visual clean (VC) level 1, 2, 3, or special as stated in NASA document SN-C-0005A. The specific level of cleanliness is chosen by the payload bay customer for their mission. During orbiter turnaround processing at KSC, the payload bay is exposed to the environments of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and the Payload Changeout Room (PCR). In supportive response to the orbiter payload bay/facility interface, it is necessary that the facility environment be controlled and monitored to protect the cleanliness/environmental integrity of the payload bay and its cargo. Techniques used to meet environmental requirements during orbiter processing are introduced.

  2. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price. PMID:22425189

  3. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-07-15

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  4. CONTAINMENT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AT THE DOE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.; Flach, G.

    2012-03-29

    As facilities look for permanent storage of toxic materials, they are forced to address the long-term impacts to the environment as well as any individuals living in affected area. As these materials are stored underground, modeling of the contaminant transport through the ground is an essential part of the evaluation. The contaminant transport model must address the long-term degradation of the containment system as well as any movement of the contaminant through the soil and into the groundwater. In order for disposal facilities to meet their performance objectives, engineered and natural barriers are relied upon. Engineered barriers include things like the design of the disposal unit, while natural barriers include things like the depth of soil between the disposal unit and the water table. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina is an example of a waste disposal unit that must be evaluated over a timeframe of thousands of years. The engineered and natural barriers for the SDF allow it to meet its performance objective over the long time frame. Some waste disposal facilities are required to meet certain standards to ensure public safety. These type of facilities require an engineered containment system to ensure that these requirements are met. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an example of this type of facility. The facility is evaluated based on a groundwater pathway analysis which considers long-term changes to material properties due to physical and chemical degradation processes. The facility is able to meet these performance objectives due to the multiple engineered and natural barriers to contaminant migration.

  5. National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Strategy for the Remote-Handled Low-level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Hinman

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to have disposal capability for remote-handled low level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the time the existing disposal facility is full or must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the INL Subsurface Disposal Area in approximately the year 2017.

  6. Conceptual aspects of fiscal interactions between local governments and federally-owned, high-level radioactive waste-isolation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Johnson, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines a number of ways to transfer revenues between a federally-owned high level radioactive waste isolation facility (hereafter simply, facility) and local governments. Such payments could be used to lessen fiscal disincentives or to provide fiscal incentives for communities to host waste isolation facilities. Two facility characteristics which necessitate these actions are singled out for attention. First, because the facility is federally owned, it is not liable for state and local taxes and may be viewed by communities as a fiscal liability. Several types of payment plans to correct this deficiency are examined. The major conclusion is that while removal of disincentives or creation of incentives is possible, plans based on cost compensation that fail to consider opportunity costs cannot create incentives and are likely to create disincentives. Second, communities other than that in which the facility is sited may experience costs due to the siting and may, therefore, oppose it. These costs (which also accrue to the host community) arise due to the element of risk which the public generally associates with proximity to the transport and storage of radioactive materials. It is concluded that under certain circumstances compensatory payments are possible, but that measuring these costs will pose difficulty.

  7. Analysis of the suitability of DOE facilities for treatment of commercial low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report evaluates the capabilities of the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) existing and proposed facilities to treat 52 commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed (LLMW) waste streams that were previously identified as being difficult-to-treat using commercial treatment capabilities. The evaluation was performed by comparing the waste matrix and hazardous waste codes for the commercial LLMW streams with the waste acceptance criteria of the treatment facilities, as identified in the following DOE databases: Mixed Waste Inventory Report, Site Treatment Plan, and Waste Stream and Technology Data System. DOE facility personnel also reviewed the list of 52 commercially generated LLMW streams and provided their opinion on whether the wastes were technically acceptable at their facilities, setting aside possible administrative barriers. The evaluation tentatively concludes that the DOE is likely to have at least one treatment facility (either existing or planned) that is technically compatible for most of these difficult-to-treat commercially generated LLMW streams. This conclusion is tempered, however, by the limited amount of data available on the commercially generated LLMW streams, by the preliminary stage of planning for some of the proposed DOE treatment facilities, and by the need to comply with environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act.

  8. Piping system response during high-level simulated seismic tests at the Heissdampfreaktor Facility: (SHAM Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Nitzel, M.E.

    1992-07-01

    The SHAM seismic research program studied the effects of increasing levels of seismic excitation on a full-scale, in situ nuclear piping system containing a naturally aged United States (US) 8-in. motor-operated gate valve. The program was conducted by Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe at the Heissdampfreaktor near Frankfurt, Germany. Participants included the United States, Germany, and England. Fifty-one experiments were conducted, with the piping supported by six different piping support systems, including a typical stiff US piping support system of snubbers and rigid struts. This report specifically addresses the tests conducted with the US system. The piping system withstood large displacements caused by overload snubber failures and local piping strains. Although some limit switch chatter was observed, the motor operator and valve functioned smoothly throughout the tests. The results indicate that sufficient safety margins exist when commonly accepted design methods are applied and that piping systems will likely maintain their pressure boundary in the presence of severe loading and the loss of multiple supports.

  9. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  10. Validating An Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    The Kepler Mission is developing an Analytic Completeness Model (ACM) to estimate detection completeness contours as a function of exoplanet radius and period for each target star. Accurate completeness contours are necessary for robust estimation of exoplanet occurrence rates.The main components of the ACM for a target star are: detection efficiency as a function of SNR, the window function (WF) and the one-sigma depth function (OSDF). (Ref. Burke et al. 2015). The WF captures the falloff in transit detection probability at long periods that is determined by the observation window (the duration over which the target star has been observed). The OSDF is the transit depth (in parts per million) that yields SNR of unity for the full transit train. It is a function of period, and accounts for the time-varying properties of the noise and for missing or deweighted data.We are performing flux-level transit injection (FLTI) experiments on selected Kepler target stars with the goal of refining and validating the ACM. “Flux-level” injection machinery inserts exoplanet transit signatures directly into the flux time series, as opposed to “pixel-level” injection, which inserts transit signatures into the individual pixels using the pixel response function. See Jie Li's poster: ID #2493668, "Flux-level transit injection experiments with the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer" for details, including performance statistics.Since FLTI is affordable for only a small subset of the Kepler targets, the ACM is designed to apply to most Kepler target stars. We validate this model using “deep” FLTI experiments, with ~500,000 injection realizations on each of a small number of targets and “shallow” FLTI experiments with ~2000 injection realizations on each of many targets. From the results of these experiments, we identify anomalous targets, model their behavior and refine the ACM accordingly.In this presentation, we discuss progress in validating and refining the ACM, and we

  11. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-05-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  12. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  13. GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study conducted using the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS) to analyze the criteria used for site selection for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of the analyses was to determine, based on predefined criteria, the areas on the INEL that best satisfied the criteria. The coverages used in this study were produced by importing the AutoCAD files that produced the maps for a pre site selection draft report into the GIS. The files were then converted to Arc/Info{reg_sign} GIS format. The initial analysis was made by considering all of the criteria as having equal importance in determining the areas of the INEL that would best satisfy the requirements. Another analysis emphasized four of the criteria as ``must`` criteria which had to be satisfied. Additional analyses considered other criteria that were considered for, but not included in the predefined criteria. This GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the IWPF and MLLWTF provides a logical, repeatable, and defensible approach to the determination of candidate locations for the facilities. The results of the analyses support the location of the Candidate Locations.

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  15. Global analytical potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of NH3 from high level ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Roberto; Sagui, Kenneth; Zheng, Jingjing; Thiel, Walter; Luckhaus, David; Yurchenko, Sergey; Mariotti, Fabio; Quack, Martin

    2013-08-15

    The analytical, full-dimensional, and global representation of the potential energy surface of NH(3) in the lowest adiabatic electronic state developed previously (Marquardt, R.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 8439–8451) is improved by adjustment of parameters to an enlarged set of electronic energies from ab initio calculations using the coupled cluster method with single and double substitutions and a perturbative treatment of connected triple excitations (CCSD(T)) and the method of multireference configuration interaction (MRCI). CCSD(T) data were obtained from an extrapolation of aug-cc-pVXZ results to the basis set limit (CBS), as described in a previous work (Yurchenko, S.N.; et al. J. Chem. Phys 2005, 123, 134308); they cover the region around the NH3 equilibrium structures up to 20,000 hc cm(–1). MRCI energies were computed using the aug-cc-pVQZ basis to describe both low lying singlet dissociation channels. Adjustment was performed simultaneously to energies obtained from the different ab initio methods using a merging strategy that includes 10,000 geometries at the CCSD(T) level and 500 geometries at the MRCI level. Characteristic features of this improved representation are NH3 equilibrium geometry r(eq)(NH(3)) ≈ 101.28 pm, α(eq)(NH(3)) ≈ 107.03°, the inversion barrier at r(inv)(NH(3)) ≈ 99.88 pm and 1774 hc cm(–1) above the NH(3) minimum, and dissociation channel energies 41,051 hc cm(–1) (for NH(3) → ((2)B(2))NH(2) + ((2)S(1/2))H) and 38,450 hc cm(–1) (for NH(3) → ((3)Σ(–))NH +((1)Σ(g)(+))H(2)); the average agreement between calculated and experimental vibrational line positions is 11 cm(–1) for (14)N(1)H(3) in the spectral region up to 5000 cm(–1). A survey of our current knowledge on the vibrational spectroscopy of ammonia and its isotopomers is also given. PMID:23688044

  16. Interfacial self-assembled functional nanoparticle array: a facile surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor for specific detection of trace analytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Ji, Ji; Li, Yixin; Liu, Baohong

    2014-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has proven to be promising for the detection of trace analytes; however, the precise nanofabrication of a specific and sensitive plasmonic SERS-active substrate is still a major challenge that limits the scope of its applications. In this work, gold nanoparticles are self-assembled into densely packed two-dimensional arrays at a liquid/liquid interface between dimethyl carbonate and water in the absence of template controller molecules. Both the simulation and experiment results show that the particles within these film-like arrays exhibit strong electromagnetic coupling and enable large amplification of Raman signals. In order to realize the level of sensing specificity, the surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is rationally tailored by incorporating an appropriate chemical moiety that specifically captures molecules of interest. The ease of fabrication and good uniformity make this platform ideal for in situ SERS sensing of trace targets in complex samples. PMID:24915488

  17. 6 CFR 27.205 - Determination that a chemical facility “presents a high level of security risk.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination that a chemical facility âpresents a high level of security risk.â 27.205 Section 27.205 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility...

  18. On the Relationship Between World Knowledge and Comprehension of Texts. Effects of Truth Values and Analytic Level of the Belief Structure. Number 468.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waern, Yvonne

    It is suggested that a reader's idea structure will affect processing of incoming information. Two aspects of the idea structure are further developed--the truth value aspect and the analytic level aspect. The idea structure can be characterized by ideas consisting of propositions which are considered to be more or less true or false (beliefs), or…

  19. Transparent tools for uncertainty analysis in high level waste disposal facilities safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Helmuth, Karl-Heinz; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-07-01

    In this paper some results of a further development of a technical cooperation project, initiated in 2004, between the CDTN/CNEN, The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission, and the STUK, The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, are presented. The objective of this project is to study applications of fuzzy logic, and artificial intelligence methods, on uncertainty analysis of high level waste disposal facilities safety assessment. Uncertainty analysis is an essential part of the study of the complex interactions of the features, events and processes, which will affect the performance of the HLW disposal system over the thousands of years in the future. Very often the development of conceptual and computational models requires simplifications and selection of over conservative parameters that can lead to unrealistic results. These results can mask the existing uncertainties which, consequently, can be an obstacle to a better understanding of the natural processes. A correct evaluation of uncertainties and their rule on data interpretation is an important step for the improvement of the confidence in the calculations and public acceptance. This study focuses on dissolution (source), solubility and sorption (sink) as key processes for determination of release and migration of radionuclides. These factors are affected by a number of parameters that characterize the near and far fields such as pH; temperature; redox conditions; and other groundwater properties. On the other hand, these parameters are also consequence of other processes and conditions such as water rock interaction; pH and redox buffering. Fuzzy logic tools have been proved to be suited for dealing with interpretation of complex, and some times conflicting, data. For example, although some parameters, such as pH and carbonate, are treated as independent, they have influence in each other and on the solubility. It is used the technique of fuzzy cognitive mapping is used for analysis of

  20. Source term model evaluations for the low-level waste facility performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, M.S.; Su, S.I.

    1995-12-31

    The estimation of release of radionuclides from various waste forms to the bottom boundary of the waste disposal facility (source term) is one of the most important aspects of LLW facility performance assessment. In this work, several currently used source term models are comparatively evaluated for the release of carbon-14 based on a test case problem. The models compared include PRESTO-EPA-CPG, IMPACTS, DUST and NEFTRAN-II. Major differences in assumptions and approaches between the models are described and key parameters are identified through sensitivity analysis. The source term results from different models are compared and other concerns or suggestions are discussed.

  1. FPI: FM Success through Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The APPA Facilities Performance Indicators (FPI) is perhaps one of the most powerful analytical tools that institutional facilities professionals have at their disposal. It is a diagnostic facilities performance management tool that addresses the essential questions that facilities executives must answer to effectively perform their roles. It…

  2. Low-level pest control: using ULV insecticides in commercial facilities.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol insecticides, including ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications, can be applied inside commercial milling and food storage facilities to control stored-product insects. However, there are few field trials in which tests have been done a manner that mimics insect exposure in these commercial site...

  3. Recent Advances in Analytical Methods on Lipoprotein Subclasses: Calculation of Particle Numbers from Lipid Levels by Gel Permeation HPLC Using "Spherical Particle Model".

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we developed an analytical method for determining the lipid levels and particle numbers in lipoprotein subclasses covering a wide size range from chylomicrons to small high density lipoproteins, by using gel permeation high-performance liquid chromatography (GP-HPLC). The challenges in analytical methods on lipoprotein subclasses have been addressed from 1980 by Hara and Okazaki using commercial TSK gel permeation columns. Later, the improvements in the hardware, separation and detection of lipoproteins, and the data processing software, using a Gaussian distribution approximation to calculate lipid levels of lipoprotein subclasses, have been extensively utilized in these analytical methods for over thirty years. In this review, we describe on the recent advances in analytical methods on lipoprotein subclasses based on various techniques, and the calculation of particle numbers from lipid levels by GPHPLC using the "spherical particle model". Free/ester ratio of cholesterol in particular lipoprotein subclass was accurately estimated from triglyceride, total cholesterol (free and esterified) and the size of the particle based on this model originally proposed by Shen and Kezdy. PMID:27041512

  4. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 3: Disposal technology and facility development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains ten papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: design and construction of a facility; alternatives to shallow land burial; the fate of tritium and carbon 14 released to the environment; defense waste management; engineered sorbent barriers; remedial action status report; and the disposal of mixed waste in Texas. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  5. Low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment at Murmansk, Russia: Technical design and review of facility upgrade and expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Diamante, J.M.; Duffey, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The governments of Norway and the US have committed their mutual cooperation and support the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to expand and upgrade the Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLRW) treatment system located at the facilities of the Russian company RTP Atomflot, in Murmansk, Russia. RTP Atomflot provides support services to the Russian icebreaker fleet operated by the MSCo. The objective is to enable Russia to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters. The proposed modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s Northern fleet, and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The three countries set up a cooperative review of the evolving design information, conducted by a joint US and Norwegian technical team from April through December, 1995. To ensure that US and Norwegian funds produce a final facility which will meet the objectives, this report documents the design as described by Atomflot and the Russian business organization, ASPECT, both in design documents and orally. During the detailed review process, many questions were generated, and many design details developed which are outlined here. The design is based on the adsorption of radionuclides on selected inorganic resins, and desalination and concentration using electromembranes. The US/Norwegian technical team reviewed the available information and recommended that the construction commence; they also recommended that a monitoring program for facility performance be instituted.

  6. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Appendix A, Environmental and regulatory planning and documentation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental & Regulatory Planning & Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL`s waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  7. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-08-30

    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  8. Demonstrating the use of web analytics and an online survey to understand user groups of a national network of river level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit; Braga, Joao; Arts, Koen; Ioris, Antonio; Han, Xiwu; Sripada, Yaji; van der Wal, Rene

    2016-04-01

    The number of local, national and international networks of online environmental sensors are rapidly increasing. Where environmental data are made available online for public consumption, there is a need to advance our understanding of the relationships between the supply of and the different demands for such information. Understanding how individuals and groups of users are using online information resources may provide valuable insights into their activities and decision making. As part of the 'dot.rural wikiRivers' project we investigated the potential of web analytics and an online survey to generate insights into the use of a national network of river level data from across Scotland. These sources of online information were collected alongside phone interviews with volunteers sampled from the online survey, and interviews with providers of online river level data; as part of a larger project that set out to help improve the communication of Scotland's online river data. Our web analytics analysis was based on over 100 online sensors which are maintained by the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). Through use of Google Analytics data accessed via the R Ganalytics package we assessed: if the quality of data provided by Google Analytics free service is good enough for research purposes; if we could demonstrate what sensors were being used, when and where; how the nature and pattern of sensor data may affect web traffic; and whether we can identify and profile these users based on information from traffic sources. Web analytics data consists of a series of quantitative metrics which capture and summarize various dimensions of the traffic to a certain web page or set of pages. Examples of commonly used metrics include the number of total visits to a site and the number of total page views. Our analyses of the traffic sources from 2009 to 2011 identified several different major user groups. To improve our understanding of how the use of this national

  9. A two-dimensional analytical model describing groundwater level fluctuations in an anisotropic and bending leaky aquifer system near estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hund-Der; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung

    2014-05-01

    Tide-induced head fluctuation in a two-dimensional estuarine aquifer system is complicated and rather important in dealing with many groundwater management or remediation problems. The conceptual model of the aquifer system we considered is anisotropic, multi-layered with a bending estuarine bank, and subject to the tidal fluctuation effects from both the sea shore and estuarine river. The solution of the model describing the groundwater head distribution in such a coastal aquifer system is developed based on the method of separation of variables and a coordinate transformation applied to the river boundary at the bend with an angle of arbitrary degree to the line perpendicular to the sea shore. The solutions by Sun (Sun H. A two-dimensional analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary, Water Resour. Res. 1997; 33:1429-35) as well as Tang and Jiao (Tang Z. and J. J. Jiao, A two-dimensional analytical solution for groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water, Hydrological Processes, 2001; 15: 573-585) can be shown to be special cases of the present solution if the degree of the bending angle is zero. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head distribution in response to estuarine boundary is examined and the influences of anisotropy, leakage, hydraulic parameters, and bending angle on the groundwater head fluctuation are investigated and discussed.

  10. Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joanne K; Witt, Matthew J; Johanning, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring devices were deployed at FaBTest in Falmouth Bay, UK, a marine renewable energy device testing facility during trials of a wave energy device. The area supports considerable commercial shipping and recreational boating along with diverse marine fauna. Noise monitoring occurred during (1) a baseline period, (2) installation activity, (3) the device in situ with inactive power status, and (4) the device in situ with active power status. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of the sound recording at FabTest during these different activity periods of a wave energy device trial. PMID:26610976

  11. EXPERIENCES FROM THE SOURCE-TERM ANALYSIS OF A LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL RADWASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Park,Jin Beak; Park, Joo-Wan; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Chang-Lak

    2003-02-27

    Enhancement of a computer code SAGE for evaluation of the Korean concept for a LILW waste disposal facility is discussed. Several features of source term analysis are embedded into SAGE to analyze: (1) effects of degradation mode of an engineered barrier, (2) effects of dispersion phenomena in the unsaturated zone and (3) effects of time dependent sorption coefficient in the unsaturated zone. IAEA's Vault Safety Case (VSC) approach is used to demonstrate the ability of this assessment code. Results of MASCOT are used for comparison purposes. These enhancements of the safety assessment code, SAGE, can contribute to realistic evaluation of the Korean concept of the LILW disposal project in the near future.

  12. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    PubMed

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE. PMID:22909989

  13. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files: Part 2, Low-level waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  14. Issues in the review of a license application for an above grade low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenberg, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    In December 1987, Nebraska was selected by the Central Interstate Compact (CIC) Commission as the host state for the construction of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. After spending a year in the site screening process, the Compact`s developer, US Ecology, selected three sites for detailed site characterization. These sites were located in Nemaha, Nuckolls and Boyd Counties. One year later the Boyd County site was selected as the preferred site and additional site characterization studies were undertaken. On July 29, 1990, US Ecology submitted a license application to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control (now Department of Environmental Quality-NDEQ). This paper will present issues that the NDEQ has dealt with since Nebraska`s selection as the host state for the CIC facility.

  15. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K.; Rajiniganth, M. P.; Arun, A. D.; Sahoo, P.; Satya Murty, S. A. V.

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ˜4 s, respectively.

  16. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.

    PubMed

    Praveen, K; Rajiniganth, M P; Arun, A D; Sahoo, P; Murty, S A V Satya

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ∼4 s, respectively. PMID:26931895

  17. Linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM Model for Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility - 13429

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kamboj, Sunita; Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments are crucial steps for the long-term radiological safety requirements of low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. How much concentration of radionuclides released from the near-field to biosphere and what radiation exposure levels of an individual can influence on the satisfactory performance of the LLW disposal facility and safety disposal environment. Performance assessment methodology for the radioactive waste disposal consists of the reactive transport modeling of safety-concerned radionuclides released from the near-field to the far-field, and the potential exposure pathways and the movements of radionuclides through the geosphere, biosphere and man of which the accompanying dose. Therefore, the integration of hydrogeochemical transport model and dose assessment code, HYDROGEOCHEM code and RESRAD family of codes is imperative. The RESRAD family of codes such as RESRAD-OFFSITE computer code can evaluate the radiological dose and excess cancer risk to an individual who is exposed while located within or outside the area of initial (primary) contamination. The HYDROGEOCHEM is a 3-D numerical model of fluid flow, thermal, hydrologic transport, and biogeochemical kinetic and equilibrium reactions in saturated and unsaturated media. The HYDROGEOCHEM model can also simulate the crucial geochemical mechanism, such as the effect of redox processes on the adsorption/desorption, hydrogeochemical influences on concrete degradation, adsorption/desorption of radionuclides (i.e., surface complexation model) between solid and liquid phase in geochemically dynamic environments. To investigate the safety assessment of LLW disposal facility, linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM model can provide detailed tools of confidence in the protectiveness of the human health and environmental impact for safety assessment of LLW disposal facility. (authors)

  18. Management of severely ill children at first-level health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa when referral is difficult.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, Eric A. F.; Peterson, Stefan; Gamatie, Youssouf; Kisanga, Felix S.; Mukasa, Gelasius; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Were, M. Wilson; Weber, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the main reasons for referral of infants and children from first-level health facilities to referral hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine what further supplies, equipment, and legal empowerment might be needed to manage such children when referral is difficult. METHODS: In an observational study at first-level health facilities in Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Niger, over 3-5 months, we prospectively documented the diagnoses and severity of diseases in children using the standardized Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. We reviewed the facilities for supplies and equipment and examined the legal constraints of health personnel working at these facilities. FINDINGS: We studied 7195 children aged 2-59 months, of whom 691 (9.6%) were classified under a severe IMCI classification that required urgent referral to a hospital. Overall, 226 children had general danger signs, 292 had severe pneumonia or very severe disease, 104 were severely dehydrated, 31 had severe persistent diarrhoea, 207 were severely malnourished, and 98 had severe anaemia. Considerably more ill were 415 young infants aged one week to two months: nearly three-quarters of these required referral. Legal constraints and a lack of simple equipment (suction pumps, nebulizers, and oxygen concentrators) and supplies (nasogastric tubes and 50% glucose) could prevent health workers from dealing more appropriately with sick children when referral was not possible. CONCLUSION: When referral is difficult or impossible, some additional supplies and equipment, as well as provision of simple guidelines, may improve management of seriously ill infants and children. PMID:12973645

  19. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location {number_sign}1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations {number_sign}3 and {number_sign}9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location {number_sign}5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.180 - What illumination levels must Federal agencies maintain on Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exist, Federal agencies must maintain illumination levels at— (a) 50 foot-candles at work station...) 30 foot-candles in work areas during working hours, measured at 30 inches above floor level; (c) 10 foot-candles, but not less than 1 foot-candle, in non-work areas, during working hours (normally...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.180 - What illumination levels must Federal agencies maintain on Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exist, Federal agencies must maintain illumination levels at— (a) 50 foot-candles at work station...) 30 foot-candles in work areas during working hours, measured at 30 inches above floor level; (c) 10 foot-candles, but not less than 1 foot-candle, in non-work areas, during working hours (normally...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.180 - What illumination levels must Federal agencies maintain on Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exist, Federal agencies must maintain illumination levels at— (a) 50 foot-candles at work station...) 30 foot-candles in work areas during working hours, measured at 30 inches above floor level; (c) 10 foot-candles, but not less than 1 foot-candle, in non-work areas, during working hours (normally...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.180 - What illumination levels must Federal agencies maintain on Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exist, Federal agencies must maintain illumination levels at— (a) 50 foot-candles at work station...) 30 foot-candles in work areas during working hours, measured at 30 inches above floor level; (c) 10 foot-candles, but not less than 1 foot-candle, in non-work areas, during working hours (normally...

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl levels in the Saginaw Confined Disposal Facility during disposal operations, Fall 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Pond water samples were collected from the Saginaw confined disposal facility (CDF), Saginaw, MI, during late summer and early fall 1987 and were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), suspended sediments and ammonia nitrogen. During this period, sediments from the Saginaw River was dredged and disposed in the Saginaw CDF. The perimeter dikes at the Saginaw CDF have a prepared limestone core that was designed to be permeable, Effluent monitoring is not practical because the discharge through permeable dikes is diffuse and is quickly diluted to background concentrations. This study, therefore, focused on collection of influent and pond water samples during disposal operations, and on the use of PCB concentrations in pond water samples to estimate the amount of PCB entering the dike and possibly being released from the CDF.

  6. Radon concentration and working level in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF)

    SciTech Connect

    Stiver, J.H.; Tung, Chao-Hsiung

    1995-06-01

    Radon-222 ({sup 222}Rn) and {sup 222}Rn progeny WL monitoring in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was initiated to support regulatory compliance. Measurements were taken over two periods, in Test Alcove No. 1 of the ESF, about 60 m from the tunnel entrance. For both periods, {sup 222}Rn concentration was less than 10% of the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) set forth in DOE Order 5480.11. Thus, these assessments were sufficient to demonstrate regulatory compliance. Based on these findings, quarterly {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny monitoring was initiated. Two systems each were employed for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny measurement. No significant differences were observed between the respective systems. An interesting finding was that at the time the measurements were taken, barometric pressure appeared to be the predominant factor controlling {sup 222}Rn concentration in the ESF. This was true even during periods of ventilation shutdown.

  7. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

  8. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.W.; Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C.

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  9. Temporal Variability of Upper-level Winds at the Eastern Range, Western Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan; Barbre, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Space launch vehicles incorporate upper-level wind profiles to determine wind effects on the vehicle and for a commit to launch decision. These assessments incorporate wind profiles measured hours prior to launch and may not represent the actual wind the vehicle will fly through. Uncertainty in the upper-level winds over the time period between the assessment and launch can be mitigated by a statistical analysis of wind change over time periods of interest using historical data from the launch range. Five sets of temporal wind pairs at various times (.75, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4-hrs) at the Eastern Range, Western Range and Wallops Flight Facility were developed for use in upper-level wind assessments. Database development procedures as well as statistical analysis of temporal wind variability at each launch range will be presented.

  10. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  11. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  12. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  13. A Facile Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method for the Determination of Uranyl Ion at Low Levels by Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Marcela Zanetti; Pires, Igor Matheus Ruiz; Diniz, Kristiany Moreira; Segatelli, Mariana Gava; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2015-08-01

    A facile and reliable UV-Vis spectrophotometric method associated with vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the determination of U(VI) at low levels in water samples. It was based on preconcentration of 24.0 mL sample at pH 8.0 in the presence of 7.4 µmol L(-1) 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, 1.0 mL of methanol as disperser solvent and 1.0 mL of chloroform as extraction solvent. A high preconcentration factor was achieved (396 times), thus providing a wide analytical curve from 6.9 up to 75.9 µg L(-1) (r=0.9982) and limits of detection and quantification of 0.40 and 1.30 µg L(-1), respectively. When necessary, EDTA or KCN can be used to remove interferences of foreign ions. The method was applied to the analysis of real water samples, such as tap, mineral and lake waters with good recovery values. PMID:25861913

  14. Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on groundwater resources in sloping coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnaux, R.

    2015-11-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise due to climate change on seawater intrusion in sloping-shore coastal unconfined aquifers are investigated. The study provides four closed-form analytical solutions for: (1) assessing the change in water-table elevation of coastal aquifers resulting from sea-level rise; (2) calculating the magnitude of the change of the saltwater inland toe migration within coastal aquifers in a context of sea-level rise; (3) measuring the change of groundwater travel times through coastal aquifers in a context of sea-level rise, and (4) calculating the change in the quantity (changes of volume) of coastal fresh groundwater resources in a context of sea-level rise. The solutions apply to Dupuit-flow type conditions considering one-dimensional horizontal flow for homogenous and isotropic unconfined aquifers recharged by constant surface infiltration and discharging to the ocean, under steady-state conditions and assuming a sharp interface of the saltwater/freshwater transition zone. Examples are provided to illustrate how to apply the new solutions and conduct sensitivity analyses of the critical parameters involved in the equations. Taking into account the angle of the shore slope, these solutions constitute new analytical tools aiming to better measure the effects of land-surface inundation and anticipate changes in groundwater resources in coastal aquifers in a context of climate change.

  15. Integrated Corrosion Facility for long-term testing of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, J.C.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    A long-term-testing facility, the Integrated Corrosion Facility (I.C.F.), is being developed to investigate the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials for high-level-radioactive waste packages for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Corrosion phenomena will be characterized in environments considered possible under various scenarios of water contact with the waste packages. The testing of the materials will be conducted both in the liquid and high humidity vapor phases at 60 and 90{degrees}C. Three classes of materials with different degrees of corrosion resistance will be investigated in order to encompass the various design configurations of waste packages. The facility is expected to be in operation for a minimum of five years, and operation could be extended to longer times if warranted. A sufficient number of specimens will be emplaced in the test environments so that some can be removed and characterized periodically. The corrosion phenomena to be characterized are general, localized, galvanic, and stress corrosion cracking. The long-term data obtained from this study will be used in corrosion mechanism modeling, performance assessment, and waste package design. Three classes of materials are under consideration. The corrosion resistant materials are high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys; the corrosion allowance materials are low-alloy and carbon steels; and the intermediate corrosion resistant materials are copper-nickel alloys.

  16. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  17. Low-level waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-10

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. LLW is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington.

  18. Spatial Analysis of the Level of Exposure to Seismic Hazards of Health Facilities in Mexico City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Although health facilities are essential infrastructure during disasters and emergencies, they are also usually highly vulnerable installations in the case of the occurrence of large and major earthquakes. Hospitals are one of the most complex critical facilities in modern cities and they are used as first response in emergency situations. The operability of a hospital must be maintained after the occurrence of a local strong earthquake in order to satisfy the need for medical care of the affected population. If a health facility is seriously damaged, it cannot fulfill its function when most is needed. In this case, hospitals become a casualty of the disaster. To identify the level of physical exposure of hospitals to seismic hazards in Mexico City, we analyzed their geographic location with respect to the seismic response of the different type of soils of the city from past earthquakes, mainly from the events that occurred on September 1985 (Ms= 8.0) and April 1989 (Ms= 6.9). Seismic wave amplification in this city is the result of the interaction of the incoming seismic waves with the soft and water saturated clay soils, on which a large part of Mexico City is built. The clay soils are remnants of the lake that existed in the Valley of Mexico and which has been drained gradually to accommodate the growing urban sprawl. Hospital facilities were converted from a simple database of names and locations into a map layer of resources. This resource layer was combined with other map layers showing areas of seismic microzonation in Mexico City. This overlay was then used to identify those hospitals that may be threatened by the occurrence of a large or major seismic event. We analyzed the public and private hospitals considered as main health facilities. Our results indicate that more than 50% of the hospitals are highly exposed to seismic hazards. Besides, in most of these health facilities we identified the lack of preventive measures and preparedness to reduce their

  19. Achieving production-level use of HEP software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uram, T. D.; Childers, J. T.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D.

    2015-12-01

    HEP's demand for computing resources has grown beyond the capacity of the Grid, and these demands will accelerate with the higher energy and luminosity planned for Run II. Mira, the ten petaFLOPs supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, is a potentially significant compute resource for HEP research. Through an award of fifty million hours on Mira, we have delivered millions of events to LHC experiments by establishing the means of marshaling jobs through serial stages on local clusters, and parallel stages on Mira. We are running several HEP applications, including Alpgen, Pythia, Sherpa, and Geant4. Event generators, such as Sherpa, typically have a split workload: a small scale integration phase, and a second, more scalable, event-generation phase. To accommodate this workload on Mira we have developed two Python-based Django applications, Balsam and ARGO. Balsam is a generalized scheduler interface which uses a plugin system for interacting with scheduler software such as HTCondor, Cobalt, and TORQUE. ARGO is a workflow manager that submits jobs to instances of Balsam. Through these mechanisms, the serial and parallel tasks within jobs are executed on the appropriate resources. This approach and its integration with the PanDA production system will be discussed.

  20. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  1. Measurement of outdoor noise levels adjacent to K-25 facility, ORGDP

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.W.

    1981-08-27

    In order to obtain baseline data on environmental sound for a report on the expected environmental effects of constructing an incinerator adjacent to the ORGDP, an abbreviated measurement program was carried out. Ten measurement locations were selected for the measurements, six being representative of the ORGDP fenceline, and four representative of the surrounding area. Measurements consisted of short-term octave-band measurements and one-half hour A-weighted exceedance levels. It had been previously determined that the influence of the K-25 plant on the noise environment tends to stabilize the minimum sound level in such a way that nighttime measurements would not be needed.

  2. 33 CFR 220.1 - Low level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DAM AND LAKE PROJECTS § 220.1 Low level... essentially emptying the lake, provide flexibility in future project operation for unanticipated needs, such... controlled spillways. Inflow into the lake during the drawdown period will be developed by obtaining...

  3. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  4. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  5. 33 CFR 220.1 - Low level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DAM AND LAKE PROJECTS § 220.1 Low level... responsibility for design of Civil Works projects. (c) Policy. It is the policy of the Chief of Engineers that... upon presentation of information in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Design...

  6. 33 CFR 220.1 - Low level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DAM AND LAKE PROJECTS § 220.1 Low level... responsibility for design of Civil Works projects. (c) Policy. It is the policy of the Chief of Engineers that... upon presentation of information in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Design...

  7. 33 CFR 220.1 - Low level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DAM AND LAKE PROJECTS § 220.1 Low level... responsibility for design of Civil Works projects. (c) Policy. It is the policy of the Chief of Engineers that... upon presentation of information in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Design...

  8. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  9. Orthogonal array design as a chemometric method for the optimization of analytical procedures. Part 5. Three-level design and its application in microwave dissolution of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Lan, W G; Wong, M K; Chen, N; Sin, Y M

    1995-04-01

    The theory and methodology of a three-level orthogonal array design as a chemometric method for the optimization of analytical procedures were developed. In the theoretical section, firstly, the matrix of a three-level orthogonal array design is described and orthogonality is proved by a quadratic regression model. Next, the assignment of experiments in a three-level orthogonal array design and the use of the triangular table associated with the corresponding orthogonal array matrix are illustrated, followed by the data analysis strategy, in which significance of the different factor effects is quantitatively evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique and the percentage contribution method. Then, a quadratic regression equation representing the response surface is established to estimate each factor that has a significant influence. Finally, on the basis of the quadratic regression equation established, the derivative algorithm is used to find the optimum value for each variable considered. In the application section, microwave dissolution for the determination of selenium in biological samples by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry is employed, as a practical example, to demonstrate the application of the proposed three-level orthogonal array design in analytical chemistry. PMID:7771675

  10. Approaches to consider covers and liners in a low-level waste disposal facility performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger; Phifer, Mark; Suttora, Linda

    2015-03-17

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several USDOE sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the USEPA in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. One task completed by the working group addressed approaches for considering the performance of covers and liners/leachate collection systems in the context of a performance assessment (PA). A document has been prepared which provides recommendations for a general approach to address covers and liners/leachate collection systems in a PA and how to integrate assessments with defense-in-depth considerations such as design, operations and waste acceptance criteria to address uncertainties. Specific information and references are provided for details needed to address the evolution of individual components of cover and liner/leachate collection systems. This information is then synthesized into recommendations for best practices for cover and liner system design and examples of approaches to address the performance of covers and liners as part of a performance assessment of the disposal system.

  11. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    SciTech Connect

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory’s proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam’s capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for

  12. Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L A; Poppenga, R J; Davidson, W R; Fischer, J R; Morgan, K A

    2001-08-01

    In May 1999, lead poisoning was diagnosed in a yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) found at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Glynn County, GA, based on detection of 6.2 and 90.0 ppm wet weight (WW) lead in the liver of the warbler and squirrel, respectively. From October 21--26, 1999, 72 wild animals (37 mammals and 35 birds), comprised of 22 different species, were collected from a 24-ha area surrounding the FLETC outdoor firearms shooting range complex to evaluate exposure to lead and other trace elements. Ten animals were used as controls (five mammals and five birds) and were collected from areas 1.5--3 km outside the shooting range area. Kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for lead, zinc, and other trace elements. Bird gizzards and white-tailed deer abomasums were examined grossly and radiographically to detect metallic objects. Twenty-four (33.3%) animals (11 species) had kidney or liver tissue lead levels > 1.00 ppm, and 12 of these (6 species) had levels > 2.00 ppm. Carcasses of one brown-thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contained lead fragments. Elevated liver tissue levels of zinc (111.0 ppm) were detected in one brown thrasher that also had elevated kidney and liver tissue lead levels. In February 2000, seven yellow-rumped warblers and one solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius) found dead near the FLETC firearms shooting range also were diagnosed with lead poisoning, with liver and kidney tissue lead levels from 1.77--11.6 and 4.55--17.8 ppm WW, respectively. This frequency of elevated tissue lead levels among the animals examined, in combination with confirmed lead toxicosis in both avian and mammalian species at FLETC, indicates significant lead exposure of local wild bird and mammal communities via bullets and fragments in and on the soil surface of the four outdoor ranges. Most FLETC firearms training is being shifted to new baffled ranges

  13. The Site Investigation Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste For Sub-Surface Disposal Facility In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, S.; Sasaki, T.

    2006-12-01

    [1.Concept of the sub-surface disposal facility] In Japan, the facilities of Low-Level Radioactive West (LLW) for near-surface disposal have already been in operation. Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has a plan of a new facility of LLW for sub-surface disposal with engineered barrier, for short "the sub-surface disposal facility".This facility can accept the relatively higher low-level waste from unclear power plant operation and in core materials from the decommissioning, estimated about 20 thousands cubic meter in total.In addition, this will accept transuranim (TRU) slightly contaminated waste from reprocessing plant operation and decommissioning. It shall be located at a sufficient depth enough to avoid normal human activities in future. [2.Site investigation] From 2001 to 2006,the site investigation on geology and hydrogeology has been performed in order to acquire the basic data for the design and the safety assessment for the sub-surface disposal facility.The candidate area is located at the site of JNFL, where Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture in the northern area of the Mainland of Japan.To confirm geology hydraulic conditions and geo-chemistry, 22 boring survey including 6 holes in swamp and marsh have been performed. The 1km long access tunnel (the entrance level EL 8.0m, incline of 1/10) to the altitude of EL -86m underground, around 100m depth from surface, has excavated. During excavating the tunnel, observation of geology, permeability tests, pore water pressure measurements and so on has been performed in situ.And the large size test cavern of 18m diameters was constructed at the end of the tunnel to demonstrate stability of the tunnel. Prior to the excavation, 3 measuring tunnels were excavated surrounding the test cavern to examine the excavation. [3.Geological features] The sedimentary rock called Takahoko formation at the Neogene period is distributed upper than EL-500m in the candidate area.The quaternary stratum about 10m in thickness is

  14. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-02-24

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections.

  15. Semi-analytic ray tracing method for time-efficient computing of transmission behavior of PCB level optical interconnects with varying core cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stübbe, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Optical interconnects on printed circuit board level are a promising choice to support high bandwidth for short distance interconnects. These interconnects consists of highly multimode step index waveguides with rectangular core cross sections. Therefore ray tracing is an excellent method to determine the optical path parameters, e.g. optical power, ray path lengths and local ray directions. Based on these parameters the step response, the transient transfer function and the coupling behavior can be calculated. Classical ray tracing methods calculates the optical path parameters of each ray by successively computing internal reflections until a termination condition is reached. Therefore the computing time depends on the number of internal reflections. If the optical waveguide consists of cascaded straight and curved segments, e. g. point-to-point interconnects, one can use the analytic ray tracing method to determine the optical path parameters. The whole path parameters of each ray are determined by one analytical computation. The computing time depends on the number of segments. The analytic ray tracing method is unusable to determine ray path parameters of segments with varying core cross sections, e.g. tapers, crossings, splitters and combiners.

  16. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  17. Background contamination by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in trace level high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Dupuy, A. E. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has resulted in the global distribution of these compounds via the atmosphere and their ubiquitous presence in ambient air. The background presence of these compounds in method blanks must be addressed when determining the exact concentrations of these and other congeners in environmental samples. In this study reliable procedures were developed to accurately define these background levels and assess their variability over the course of the study. The background subtraction procedures developed and employed increase the probability that the values reported accurately represent the concentrations found in the samples and were not biased due to this background contamination.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Arva, E. A.; Schulz, F. M.; Vazquez, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  19. A structural model analysis of public opposition to a high-level radioactive waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.; Burns, W.

    1991-09-01

    Studies show that most Nevada residents and almost all state officials oppose the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository project at Yucca Mountain. Surveys of the public show that individual citizens view the Yucca Mountain repository as having high risk; nuclear experts, in contrast, believe the risks are very low. Policy analysts have suggested that public risk perceptions may be reduced by better program management, increased trust in the federal government, and increased economic benefits for accepting a repository. The model developed in this study is designed to examine the relationship between public perceptions of risk, trust in risk management, and potential economic impacts of the current repository program using a confirmatory multivariate method known as covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that perceptions of potential economic gains have little relationship to opposition to the repository. On the other hand, risk perceptions and the level of trust in repository management are closely related to each other and to opposition. The impacts of risk perception and trust in management on opposition to the repository result from a combination of their direct influences as well as their indirect influences operating through perceptions that the repository would have serious negative impacts on the state`s economy due to stigmatization and reduced tourism.

  20. A new approach to the symmetric rectangular quantum well: Analytic determination of well width from energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouillant, C.; Alibert, C.

    1994-06-01

    Many articles on the determination of the energy levels of a symmetric rectangular quantum well (SRQW) have been published in this Journal over the past 20 years. Standard textbooks of quantum mechanics as well as research papers offer graphical solutions. Exercises on quantum well (QW) remain rather difficult for students, because transcendental equations must be solved with boundaries at which the solution will be discontinuous. Numerical solutions generally determine the energy (En), assuming that the thickness is known, for each level number n. In this note, we show that the width L of an SRQW can be expressed directly as a function of the energy En for n=0,1,2,3,... .

  1. Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility: part 1: radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Pourcelot, Laurent; Boulet, Béatrice; Cagnat, Xavier; Videau, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding its impact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods. PMID:25613358

  2. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. PMID:25461522

  3. The potential for criticality following disposal of uranium at low-level waste facilities: Uranium blended with soil

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; Hopper, C.M.; Naney, M.T.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop achievable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM), and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team`s approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some achievable scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via sorption or precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to {sup 235}U in the present scope of work. The outcome of the work indicates that criticality is possible given established regulatory limits on SNM disposal. However, a review based on actual disposal records of an existing site operation indicates that the potential for criticality is not a concern under current burial practices.

  4. Analysis of operating costs a Low-Level Mixed Waste Incineration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Loghry, S.L.; Salmon, R.; Hermes, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    By definition, mixed wastes contain both chemically hazardous and radioactive components. These components make the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes expensive and highly complex issues because the different regulations which pertain to the two classes of contaminants frequently conflict. One method to dispose of low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) is by incineration, which volatizes and destroys the organic (and other) hazardous contaminants and also greatly reduces the waste volume. The US Department of Energy currently incinerates liquid LLMW in its Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This incinerator has been fully permitted since 1991 and to date has treated approximately 7 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of liquid LLMW. This paper presents an analysis of the budgeted operating costs by category (e.g., maintenance, plant operations, sampling and analysis, and utilities) for fiscal year 1994 based on actual operating experience (i.e., a ``bottoms-up`` budget). These costs provide benchmarking guidelines which could be used in comparing incinerator operating costs with those of other technologies designed to dispose of liquid LLMW. A discussion of the current upgrade status and future activities are included in this paper. Capital costs are not addressed.

  5. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org. PMID:26528569

  6. Study of the respirable immission levels for a cyclist in Brussels' traffic using PIXE as analytical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Thiessen, L.; Verduyn, G.

    1990-04-01

    The respirable immission levels of 11 paniculate elements (i.e. Si, S, K., Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb) for a cyclist in Brussels' traffic were assessed. To this end, a personal aerosol sampler (in which the respirable size fraction was collected on a Nuclepore filter) was carried on about 180 bicycle trips between a private home in a Brussels' suburb and an institute in the city center. All filter samples were analyzed by PIXE. The respirable immission levels of S, Pb and Zn were related to the results from stationary total aerosol collectors which are operated on a routine basis at various locations in the greater Brussels area. It was found that the cyclist's respirable immission levels can quite well be predicted from the stationary data for S, only to some extent for Pb, and not really for Zn. The 3- to 5-element data sets from the stationary samplers (with levels for S, Zn, and Pb, and occasionally also for Mn and Cu) were examined for interstation and interelement correlations. It appeared that the interelement correlations at each station were weaker than the interstation correlations for each element. The data set with concentrations of 11 elements in the bicycle trip samples was subjected to absolute principal components analysis in order to assess the dominant sources of the elements and to apportion the elemental concentrations to the sources. Four source types (components) were identified, i.e. a traffic component, a mixed road dust/soil dust/coal fly ash source, a sulfate component, and a component which was tentatively assigned to a mixture of industrial and incinerator emissions. The traffic source was responsible for most of the Pb and Br, but it was also the major source for Cu and Fe; Si, Ca and Ti originated predominantly from the mixed dust source; the sulfate component was responsible for most of the S; and the contributions from the industrial/incinerator emissions were least pronounced.

  7. The association betweeen cancers and low level radiation: An evaluation of the epidemiological evidence at the Hanford Nuclear Weapons Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J. |

    1993-05-01

    Cancer has traditionally been linked to exposure to high doses of radiation, but there is considerable controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of low doses of ionizing radiation in humans. Over the past 30 years there have been 14 studies conducted on employees at the Hanford nuclear weapons facility to investigate the relationship between exposure to low doses of radiation and mortality due to cancer (1-14). Interest in this issue was originally stimulated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) which was trying to determine whether the linear extrapolation of health effects from high to low dose exposure was accurate. If the risk has been underestimated, then the maximum permissible occupational radiation exposure in the United States had been set too high. Because the health risk associated with low level radiation are unclear and controversial it seems appropriate to review the studies relating to Hanford at this time.

  8. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  9. A DOE contractor`s perspective of environmental monitoring requirements at a low-level waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ferns, T.W.

    1989-11-01

    Environmental monitoring at a low-level waste disposal facility (LLWDF) should, (1) demonstrate compliance with environmental laws; (2) detect any spatial or temporal environmental changes; and (3) provide information on the potential or actual exposure of humans and/or the environment to disposed waste and/or waste by-products. Under the DOE Order system the LLWDF site manager has more freedom of implementation for a monitoring program than either the semi-prescriptive NRC, or the prescriptive EPA hazardous waste programs. This paper will attempt to compare and contrast environmental monitoring under the different systems (DOE, NRC, and EPA), and determine if the DOE might benefit from a more prescriptive system.

  10. Estimate of Gaseous 14Carbon Concentrations Emanating from the Intermediate-Level Vault Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    {sup 14}Carbon-bearing resin waste will be disposed in the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Intermediate Level Vaults (ILV) located in E-Area on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This waste will be buried in a cementitious environment in the vadose zone, i.e., the subsurface zone above the aquifer. As the resin ages, and equilibrates with slowly infiltrating water, it is expected that the {sup 14}C will partition to the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. The objective of this task was to estimate the concentration of gaseous {sup 14}C in the waste pore space that is in contact with the resin leachate. The approach used to estimate this value was built largely around data generated from lysimeter studies that were conducted for 9 years. These lysimeters contained the same type of used resins (mixed-bed deionizer resins used in the purification of the heavy water moderator of SRS reactors) as are being disposed in the ILV. During the 9 year period, pore water {sup 14}C leaching concentrations were monitored to provide an excellent estimate of the long-term behavior of {sup 14}C release rates from the resins. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to calculate {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentrations. These calculations included the {sup 14}C pore water data from the lysimeter study, and data from a field study that was a natural analogue to a long-term cementitious environment (Khoury et al. 1992). The calculations predicted an extremely low {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration of 1.9 x 10{sup -7} Ci/m{sup 3} {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} in the air spaces above the resin leachate. This low concentrations is not surprising in light of both laboratory and field observations that concrete acts as a strong sorbent of CO{sub 2(g)}. This calculated {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration will now be included in future risk calculations.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  12. Development, validation, and application of a surrogate analyte method for determining N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamic acid levels in rat brain, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kohnosuke; Arai, Kotaro; Kawaura, Kazuaki; Hiyoshi, Tetsuaki; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi

    2015-10-15

    A bioanalytical strategy for the simple and accurate determination of endogenous substances in a variety of biological matrices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. The robust method described here uses two stable isotope-labeled compounds as a surrogate analyte and an internal standard to construct calibration curves with authentic matrices that can be applied to determine N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamic acid (NAAG) levels in rat brain, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a simple extraction and with a short analysis time of 4min. The validated lower limits of quantification were 1.00nmol/g for brain and 0.0100nmol/mL for plasma and CSF. Using this method, regional differences in NAAG levels in the brain as well as plasma and CSF levels that were much lower than those in the brain were successfully confirmed in treatment-naïve rats. Moreover, after the rats were treated with the intraventricular administration of a NAAG peptidase inhibitor, the NAAG levels increased rapidly and dramatically in the CSF and slightly in the plasma in a time-dependent manner, while the brain levels were not affected. Thus, the procedure described here was easily applied to the determination of NAAG in different matrices in the same manner as that used for xenobiotics, and this method would also be easily applicable to the accurate measurement of endogenous substances in a variety of biological matrices. PMID:26386976

  13. An analytical method for the measurement of trace level acidic and basic AMC using liquid-free sample traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Tyler M.; Zaloga, Emily C.; Chase, Katherine M.; Lobert, Jürgen M.

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of parts-per-trillion (ppt) level acidic and basic airborne molecular contamination (AMC) is essential for process protection and yield control in semiconductor photo-lithography and adjacent applications. Real-time monitoring solutions are highly desired, as they provide instantaneous and continuous measurement. However, even the most advanced monitors cannot achieve detection limits in the low parts-per-trillion (ppt) range and many restrictions apply for the detection of acidic AMC. High cost of ownership is another disadvantage. Discontinuous sampling with sample traps is capable of achieving ppt-level measurement, but the currently accepted methods use sample traps filled with de-ionized water (impingers) to capture soluble acidic and basic AMC. Several inherent disadvantages of these methods result in inconsistent data and increased detection limits. Some proprietary solid state solutions have been reported, but involve complex preparation, have high background signals and require 24-72 hour sample duration, or they are protected trade secrets that are not available as an industry standard. To eliminate these disadvantages, we developed a liquid-free sample trap that allows parts-per-quadrillion level (ppq) measurement of acidic and basic AMC within one work shift, typically a 4-6 hour sample period. The traps can easily be manufactured and prepared in small lab operations, are sealed and protected from the outside and operator handling in the field, have months of shelf life and show high capture efficiencies while minimizing reactions and artifacts. Capacity results for the liquid-free base trap using ammonia (NH3) as a test gas yielded more than 200 ppb-h at 100% capture efficiency without any moisture (simulating sampling of CDA or N2) and 350 ppb-h at 40% RH. The capacity results for sulfur dioxide (SO2) were highly dependent on moisture content of the sample gas and yielded 5 ppb-h at 90% capture efficiency and 0% RH, but increased

  14. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country`s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today`s standards. This report summarizes each site`s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US.

  15. Improved sampling and analytical techniques for characterization of very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.E.; Robinson, P.J.

    1989-11-01

    This paper summarizes the unique sampling methods that were utilized in a recently completed project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to perform accurate and precise radiological characterizations of several very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations. The waste types characterized during this project included dry active waste (DAW), oil, secondary-side ion exchange resin, and soil. Special precautions were taken to insure representative sampling of the DAW. This involved the initial direct, quantitative gamma spectrometric analyses of bulk quantities (208-liter drums) of DAW utilizing a specially constructed barrel scanner employing a collimated intrinsic germanium detector assembly. Subsamples of the DAW for destructive radiochemical analyses of the difficult-to-measure 10CF61 radionuclides were then selected which had the same isotopic composition (to within {+-}25%) as that measured for the entire drum of DAW. The techniques for accomplishing this sampling are described. Oil samples were collected from the top, middle and bottom sections of 208-liter drums for radiochemical analyses. These samples were composited to represent the entire drum of oil. The accuracy of this type of sampling was evaluated by comparisons with direct, quantitative assays of a number of the drums using the barrel scanning gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy of sampling drums of spent secondary-side ion exchange resin was evaluated by comparing the radionuclide contents of grab samples taken from the tops of the drums with direct assays performed with the barrel scanner. The results of these sampling evaluations indicated that the sampling methods used were generally adequate for providing a reasonably representative subsample from bulk quantities of DAW, oil, and resin. The study also identified a number of potential pitfalls, in sampling of these materials.

  16. FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

    2011-01-01

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008

  17. 40 CFR Table Jj-1 to Subpart Jj of... - Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Animal Population Threshold Level... Subpart JJ of Part 98—Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions Under Subpart JJ 1,2 Animal group Average annual animal population (Head) 3 Beef 29,300 Dairy...

  18. 40 CFR Table Jj-1 to Subpart Jj of... - Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Animal Population Threshold Level... Subpart JJ of Part 98—Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions Under Subpart JJ 1,2 Animal group Average annual animal population (Head) 3 Beef 29,300 Dairy...

  19. 40 CFR Table Jj-1 to Subpart Jj of... - Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Animal Population Threshold Level... Subpart JJ of Part 98—Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions Under Subpart JJ 1 2 Animal group Average annual animal population (Head) 3 Beef 29,300 Dairy...

  20. 40 CFR Table Jj-1 to Subpart Jj of... - Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with more than one animal group present refer to § 98.360 (2) to estimate the combined animal group... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Animal Population Threshold Level... Subpart JJ of Part 98—Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To...

  1. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  2. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G.

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from the more

  3. Multi-Country Analysis of Treatment Costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): Facility-Level ART Unit Cost Analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tagar, Elya; Sundaram, Maaya; Condliffe, Kate; Matatiyo, Blackson; Chimbwandira, Frank; Chilima, Ben; Mwanamanga, Robert; Moyo, Crispin; Chitah, Bona Mukosha; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Assefa, Yibeltal; Pillay, Yogan; Mayer, Sam; Shear, Lauren; Dain, Mary; Hurley, Raphael; Kumar, Ritu; McCarthy, Thomas; Batra, Parul; Gwinnell, Dan; Diamond, Samantha; Over, Mead

    2014-01-01

    Background Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. Methods & Findings In 2010–2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy) across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2–8% annual loss to follow-up or death) were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77–95% alive and on treatment). Conclusions This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation. PMID:25389777

  4. Comparison of facility-level methane emission rates from natural gas production well pads in the Marcellus, Denver-Julesburg, and Uintah Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omara, M.; Li, X.; Sullivan, M.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The boom in shale natural gas (NG) production, brought about by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, has yielded both economic benefits and concerns about environmental and climate impacts. In particular, leakages of methane from the NG supply chain could substantially increase the carbon footprint of NG, diminishing its potential role as a transition fuel between carbon intensive fossil fuels and renewable energy systems. Recent research has demonstrated significant variability in measured methane emission rates from NG production facilities within a given shale gas basin. This variability often reflect facility-specific differences in NG production capacity, facility age, utilization of emissions capture and control, and/or the level of facility inspection and maintenance. Across NG production basins, these differences in facility-level methane emission rates are likely amplified, especially if significant variability in NG composition and state emissions regulations are present. In this study, we measured methane emission rates from the NG production sector in the Marcellus Shale Basin (Pennsylvania and West Virginia), currently the largest NG production basin in the U.S., and contrast these results with those of the Denver-Julesburg (Colorado) and Uintah (Utah) shale basins. Facility-level methane emission rates were measured at 106 NG production facilities using the dual tracer flux (nitrous oxide and acetylene), Gaussian dispersion simulations, and the OTM 33A techniques. The distribution of facility-level average methane emission rate for each NG basin will be discussed, with emphasis on how variability in NG composition (i.e., ethane-to-methane ratios) and state emissions regulations impact measured methane leak rates. While the focus of this presentation will be on the comparison of methane leak rates among NG basins, the use of three complimentary top-down methane measurement techniques provides a unique opportunity to explore the

  5. Sensitivity of tidal motion in well-mixed estuaries to cross-sectional shape, deepening, and sea level rise. An analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensing, Erik; de Swart, Huib E.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.

    2015-07-01

    For well-mixed estuaries, key physical mechanisms are identified and quantified that cause changes in characteristics of the semi-diurnal sea surface elevation and lateral velocity due to modifications of the lateral bottom profile, channel deepening, and sea level rise. This is done by decomposing solutions of a new analytical model into components relating to different physical processes. The default geometry and parameter values are representative for the Ems estuary, with a converging width and a reflective landward boundary. The default Gaussian lateral bottom profile is modified to obtain profiles with the same cross-sectional area, but with a different skewness or steepness. Results show that a steeper lateral bottom profile leads to amplification of the sea surface elevation. The width convergence is shown to influence the resonance characteristics. Channel deepening and sea level rise result in amplification of the sea surface elevation until a resonance peak is reached. When flooding is incorporated, the amount of sea level rise at which maximum tidal amplification occurs is found to be about two times lower. When using a symmetric Gaussian bottom profile, the lateral tidal flow is determined by Coriolis deflection of longitudinal flow and lateral density gradients caused by differential salt advection. However, an additional lateral tidal flow component incorporating the effect of continuity related to sea level variations and longitudinal gradients in longitudinal flow is shown to become increasingly important for skewed lateral bottom profiles. Furthermore, the lateral flow due to the lateral density gradient is enhanced for bottom profiles with increased steepness.

  6. Analytical Versus Numerical Estimates of Water-Level Declines Caused by Pumping, and a Case Study of the Iao Aquifer, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Meyer, William

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons were made between model-calculated water levels from a one-dimensional analytical model referred to as RAM (Robust Analytical Model) and those from numerical ground-water flow models using a sharp-interface model code. RAM incorporates the horizontal-flow assumption and the Ghyben-Herzberg relation to represent flow in a one-dimensional unconfined aquifer that contains a body of freshwater floating on denser saltwater. RAM does not account for the presence of a low-permeability coastal confining unit (caprock), which impedes the discharge of fresh ground water from the aquifer to the ocean, nor for the spatial distribution of ground-water withdrawals from wells, which is significant because water-level declines are greatest in the vicinity of withdrawal wells. Numerical ground-water flow models can readily account for discharge through a coastal confining unit and for the spatial distribution of ground-water withdrawals from wells. For a given aquifer hydraulic-conductivity value, recharge rate, and withdrawal rate, model-calculated steady-state water-level declines from RAM can be significantly less than those from numerical ground-water flow models. The differences between model-calculated water-level declines from RAM and those from numerical models are partly dependent on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer system and the spatial distribution of ground-water withdrawals from wells. RAM invariably predicts the greatest water-level declines at the inland extent of the aquifer where the freshwater body is thickest and the potential for saltwater intrusion is lowest. For cases in which a low-permeability confining unit overlies the aquifer near the coast, however, water-level declines calculated from numerical models may exceed those from RAM even at the inland extent of the aquifer. Since 1990, RAM has been used by the State of Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management for establishing sustainable-yield values for the State?s aquifers. Data

  7. The cryogenic on-orbit liquid analytical tool (COOLANT) - A computer program for evaluating the thermodynamic performance of orbital cryogen storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. J.; Honkonen, S. C.; Williams, G. E.; Liggett, M. W.; Tucker, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    The United States plans to establish a permanent manned presence at the Space Station Freedom in low earth orbit (LEO) and then carry out exploration of the solar system from this base. These plans may require orbital cryogenic propellant storage depots. The COOLANT program has been developed to analyze the thermodynamic performance of these depots to support design tradeoff studies. It was developed as part of the Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study for NASA/MSFC. This paper discusses the program structure and capabilities of the COOLANT program. In addition, the results of an analysis of a 200,000 lbm hydrogen/oxygen storage depot tankset using COOLANT are presented.

  8. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with thyroid diseases with and without alanine aminotransferase levels above the upper tertile - Cross-sectional analytical study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nathanael de Oliveira E; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Colombo, Bruno da Silveira; Corrêa, Carina Gabriela; Hatanaka, Simone Aiko; Canalli, Maria Heloisa Büsi da Silva; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

    2016-04-01

    Objective Thyroid disease affects 6.6% of the general population. The liver is fundamental in metabolizing thyroid hormones, and hepatocytes are often affected in thyroid disease. We aimed to compare clinical and laboratory parameters among thyroid disease patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels above vs. below the upper tertile. Subjects and methods A retrospective cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the endocrinology clinic at Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital. Patients with thyroid disease between August 2012 and January 2014 were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected from medical records. Results One hundred patients were included, of which 14.0% were male, with a mean age of 49.1 ± 14.4 years. ALT levels ranged from 9 to 90 U/L, and the ALT upper tertile was defined as 0,64 times the upper normal limit (xUNL). Patients with ALT levels above the upper tertile exhibited a higher proportion of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), a higher mean abdominal circumference and a higher frequency of elevated TSH levels than did patients with ALT levels below the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis, ALT ≥ 0.64 (xUNL) was independently associated with abdominal circumference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.087, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0012-0167, P = 0.022). ALT (xUNL) correlated positively with total cholesterol (r = 0.213, P = 0.042). Conclusions In patients with thyroid diseases, it was observed that those with ALT above the upper tertile are associated with abdominal circumference and ALT levels correlate with total cholesterol. PMID:26331222

  9. Hospitalizations and Costs Incurred at the Facility Level after Scale-up of Malaria Control: Pre-Post Comparisons from Two Hospitals in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Alison B.; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Stillman, Kathryn; Gabert, Rose; Korde, Sonali; Nachbar, Nancy; Derriennic, Yann; Musau, Stephen; Hamazakaza, Petan; Zyambo, Khozya D.; Zyongwe, Nancy M.; Hamainza, Busiku; Thuma, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence on the impact of malaria control on the health system, particularly at the facility level. Using retrospective, longitudinal facility-level and patient record data from two hospitals in Zambia, we report a pre-post comparison of hospital admissions and outpatient visits for malaria and estimated costs incurred for malaria admissions before and after malaria control scale-up. The results show a substantial reduction in inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for malaria at both hospitals after the scale-up, and malaria cases accounted for a smaller proportion of total hospital visits over time. Hospital spending on malaria admissions also decreased. In one hospital, malaria accounted for 11% of total hospital spending before large-scale malaria control compared with < 1% after malaria control. The findings demonstrate that facility-level resources are freed up as malaria is controlled, potentially making these resources available for other diseases and conditions. PMID:24218409

  10. Hospitalizations and costs incurred at the facility level after scale-up of malaria control: pre-post comparisons from two hospitals in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Alison B; van Dijk, Janneke H; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Stillman, Kathryn; Gabert, Rose; Korde, Sonali; Nachbar, Nancy; Derriennic, Yann; Musau, Stephen; Hamazakaza, Petan; Zyambo, Khozya D; Zyongwe, Nancy M; Hamainza, Busiku; Thuma, Philip E

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence on the impact of malaria control on the health system, particularly at the facility level. Using retrospective, longitudinal facility-level and patient record data from two hospitals in Zambia, we report a pre-post comparison of hospital admissions and outpatient visits for malaria and estimated costs incurred for malaria admissions before and after malaria control scale-up. The results show a substantial reduction in inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for malaria at both hospitals after the scale-up, and malaria cases accounted for a smaller proportion of total hospital visits over time. Hospital spending on malaria admissions also decreased. In one hospital, malaria accounted for 11% of total hospital spending before large-scale malaria control compared with < 1% after malaria control. The findings demonstrate that facility-level resources are freed up as malaria is controlled, potentially making these resources available for other diseases and conditions. PMID:24218409

  11. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rachana; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007–08) data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM) and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women’s residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. “Inter-district” variation was 14 percent whereas “between-villages” variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and inaccessible

  12. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.

  13. Barriers and Facilitators of Compliance with Universal Precautions at First Level Health Facilities in Northern Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yousafzai, Mohammad Tahir; Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Rozi, Shafquat

    2015-01-01

    Aim We assessed the compliance at first level care facilities (FLCF) with universal precautions (UP) and its behavioral predictors using Health Belief Model (HBM). Methods A sample of FLCF from public clinic (PC), privately owned licensed practitioners’ clinic (LPC) and non-licensed practitioners’ clinic (NLPC) was obtained. Health Care Workers (HCW) who diagnose and prescribe medication was termed as Prescriber and that carries out prescriber’s order was defined Assistant. Compliance to UP was measured on 11 items Likert scale. HCW responded “always” or “often” to all items of UP were added to compute a binary variable of overall compliance. We used linear regression to assess association between HBM and UP score. Results We interviewed 485 HCW (75% prescribers) from 365 clinics; mean age 38±10.4 years. Overall, compliance to UP was 6.6%; 11.6% LPC, 5.3% PC, and 4.4% NLPC. Prescribers were less compliant than Assistants. Compliance with not recapping contaminated needle was poor (PC=32%, LPC=33%, NLPC=15%). Compliance with wearing gloves during blood or body fluid exposure was lowest (30%) at PC. Modes of transmission knowledge, self-efficacy and perceived benefits of safe practice, and susceptibility to blood borne infections were positively associated with UP score. Conclusion Higher perception of barriers and severity of blood borne infection result in lower compliance. PMID:26715918

  14. Materials evaluation in the WERF (Waste Experimental Reduction Facility) low-level radioactive waste incinerator off-gas system

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, G.R.; Dalton, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    Performances of alloys in a low-level radioactive, combustible waste incinerator were evaluated. Test coupons and an extracted heat exchanger tube were examined to provide information on alloy behavior in the off-gas system of this facility. Type 316 stainless steel, the alloy of which the heat exchanger is constructed, was most extensively examined. Coupons exposed upstream of the heat exchanger exhibited high temperature corrosion rates of /approximately/100 mpy (incinerator operation time). The rate observed from the heat exchanger tube was lower, /approximately/25 mpy. A 10 year lifetime would be expected based upon this mode of attack and continued similar operating parameters and waste composition. Other alloys were tested to identify potential replacement candidates. Alloys displaying lower metal loss rates at the location upstream of the heat exchanger included HDA 8727 (7 mpy), Alloy 800H (37 mpy), Haynes 230 (50 mpy), and Type 310 stainless steel (63 mpy). The relatively long term exposures (spanning over 4250 hrs of operation) and controlled waste composition makes this information pertinent to the waste incineration community as well as the WERF program. 15 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. A systematic method of accountability. Sound policies allow facilities to account for the level of charity care they provide.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, H H; Weiss, S J; Melichar, C

    1992-11-01

    Charity care policies can help hospitals accurately determine, define, and account for the level of charity care they provide. This information will help hospitals budget appropriately and measure trends that will ultimately affect the organization's viability. State governments, the federal government, and the Internal Revenue Service are more closely scrutinizing not-for-profit hospitals' tax-exempt status. As a result, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has revised its requirement to report on charity care. To meet the AICPA's requirement, healthcare providers must develop their own definition of charity and determine criteria for providing care free or at a reduced rate. Setting policies to support the organization's definition of charity is necessary for the development of internal systems that promote the early identification of individuals seeking healthcare who will be unable to pay for services. Several policy implications may result from the facility's charity care determination process. For example, patients exhibiting extreme hardship might still be eligible to receive charity care even though their income and assets exceed the hospital's income guidelines. An organization planning to develop a charity care policy must first thoroughly assess its current charity care practices and cost accounting capabilities. Obtaining input from all the departments involved in the development of the charity care policy is necessary to make the transition as smooth as possible. PMID:10122079

  16. DISPOSAL OF REACTOR DEIONIZER VESSELS HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH 14 CARBON IN THE INTERMEDIATE LEVEL VAULT FACILITY AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R; Daniel Kaplan, D

    2007-05-21

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors used deionizers to control the chemistry of the reactor moderator during their operation to produce nuclear materials primarily for the weapons program. These deionizers were removed from the reactors and stored as a legacy waste with no path to disposal due to the relatively high {sup 14}C contamination (i.e., on the order of 20 curies per deionizer for 48-50 deionizers) and the low disposal limit of 4.2 Ci previously established for the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). The ILV is considered most appropriate facility within which to dispose these items due to the method of solidifying waste items with cementitious material inside concrete vaults. In previous analyses the {sup 14}C ILV disposal limit was established at 4.2 Ci resulting from the use of a very conservative method to analyze the dose received from atmospheric releases of gaseous {sup 14}C. This investigation implemented a more rigorous evaluation of the physical and chemical processes influencing the release and migration of gaseous {sup 14}C (as CO{sub 2}) to obtain a more realistic estimate of atmospheric dose and to determine new ILV disposal limits.

  17. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of {sup 14}C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of {sup 3}H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, {sup 14}C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for {sup 3}H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities.

  18. Geochemical information for the West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1984-06-01

    Geochemical support activities for the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF) project included characterization of site materials, as well as measurement of radionuclide sorption and desorption isotherms and apparent concentration limit values under site-relevant laboratory test conditions. The radionuclide sorption and solubility information is needed as input data for the pathways analysis calculations to model expected radioactivity releases from emplaced waste to the accessible environment under various release scenarios. Batch contact methodology was used to construct sorption and desorption isotherms for a number of radionuclides likely to be present in waste to be disposed of at the site. The sorption rates for uranium and europium were rapid (> 99.8% of the total radionuclide present was adsorbed in approx. 30 min). With a constant-pH isotherm technique, uranium, strontium, cesium, and curium exhibited maximum Rs values of 4800 to > 30,000 L/kg throughout the pH range 5 to 7. Sorption ratios were generally lower at higher or lower pH levels. Retardation factors for uranium, strontium, and cesium, explored by column chromatographic tests, were consistent with the high sorption ratios measured in batch tests for these radionuclides. The addition of as little as 0.01 M organic reagent capable of forming strong soluble complexes with metals (e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid) was found to reduce the sorption ratio for uranium by as much as two orders of magnitude. Substitution of an actual low-level waste site trench water for groundwater in these tests was found to give a similar reduction in the sorption ratio.

  19. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility: Application of an infiltration evaluation methodology. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    This report provides an analysis of infiltration and percolation at a hypothetical low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility was carried out. The analysis was intended to illustrate general issues of concern in assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. Among the processes considered in the analysis were precipitation, runoff, information, evaporation, transpiration, and redistribution. The hypothetical facility was located in a humid environment characterized by frequent and often intense precipitation events. The facility consisted of a series of concrete vaults topped by a multilayer cover. Cover features included a sloping soil surface to promote runoff, plant growth to minimize erosion and promote transportation, a sloping clay layer, and a sloping capillary barrier. The analysis within the root zone was carried out using a one-dimensional, transient simulation of water flow. Below the root zone, the analysis was primarily two-dimensional and steady-state.

  20. Levels and variations in the quality of facility-based antenatal care in Kenya: evidence from the 2010 service provision assessment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elizabeth; Madhavan, Supriya; Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Quality of care is emerging as an important concern for low- and middle-income countries working to expand and improve coverage. However, there is limited systematic, large-scale empirical guidance to inform policy design. Our study operationalized indicators for six dimensions of quality of care that are captured in currently available, standardized Service Provision Assessments. We implemented these measures to assess the levels and heterogeneity of antenatal care in Kenya. Using our indicator mix, we find that performance is low overall and that there is substantial variation across provinces, management authority and facility type. Overall, facilities performed highest in the dimensions of efficiency and acceptability/patient-centeredness, and lowest on effectiveness and accessibility. Public facilities generally performed worse or similarly to private or faith-based facilities. We illustrate how these data and methods can provide readily-available, low-cost decision support for policy. PMID:26879091

  1. Levels and variations in the quality of facility-based antenatal care in Kenya: evidence from the 2010 service provision assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elizabeth; Madhavan, Supriya; Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Quality of care is emerging as an important concern for low- and middle-income countries working to expand and improve coverage. However, there is limited systematic, large-scale empirical guidance to inform policy design. Our study operationalized indicators for six dimensions of quality of care that are captured in currently available, standardized Service Provision Assessments. We implemented these measures to assess the levels and heterogeneity of antenatal care in Kenya. Using our indicator mix, we find that performance is low overall and that there is substantial variation across provinces, management authority and facility type. Overall, facilities performed highest in the dimensions of efficiency and acceptability/patient-centeredness, and lowest on effectiveness and accessibility. Public facilities generally performed worse or similarly to private or faith-based facilities. We illustrate how these data and methods can provide readily-available, low-cost decision support for policy. PMID:26879091

  2. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determine Site Suitability for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Facility.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charles A; Matthews, Kennith; Pulsipher, Allan; Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable product of using radioactive material in education and research activities, medical applications, energy generation, and weapons production. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) makes up a majority of the radioactive waste produced in the United States. In 2010, over two million cubic feet of LLW were shipped to disposal sites. Despite efforts from several states and compacts as well as from private industry, the options for proper disposal of LLW remain limited. New methods for quickly identifying potential storage locations could alleviate current challenges and eventually provide additional sites and allow for adequate regional disposal of LLW. Furthermore, these methods need to be designed so that they are easily communicated to the public. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based method was developed to determine suitability of potential LLW disposal (or storage) sites. Criteria and other parameters of suitability were based on the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements as well as supporting literature and reports. The resultant method was used to assess areas suitable for further evaluation as prospective disposal sites in Louisiana. Criteria were derived from the 10 minimum requirements in 10 CFR Part 61.50, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 0902, and studies at existing disposal sites. A suitability formula was developed permitting the use of weighting factors and normalization of all criteria. Data were compiled into GIS data sets and analyzed on a cell grid of approximately 14,000 cells (covering 181,300 square kilometers) using the suitability formula. Requirements were analyzed for each cell using multiple criteria/sub-criteria as well as surrogates for unavailable datasets. Additional criteria were also added when appropriate. The method designed in this project proved to be sufficient for initial screening tests in determining the most suitable areas for prospective disposal (or storage

  3. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationships Between the Five-Factor Model and DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders: A Facet Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research have suggested that the personality disorders contained within the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) can be understood as maladaptive variants of the personality traits included within the five-factor model (FFM). The current meta-analysis of FFM personality disorder research both replicated and extended the 2004 work of Saulsman and Page (The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1055-1085) through a facet-level analysis that provides a more specific and nuanced description of each DSM-IV-TR personality disorder. The empirical FFM profiles generated for each personality disorder were generally congruent at the facet level with hypothesized FFM translations of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders. However, notable exceptions to the hypotheses did occur and even some findings that were consistent with FFM theory could be said to be instrument specific. PMID:18708274

  4. The Impact of Physical Facilities on Students' Level of Motivation and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, Comfort Olufunke; Adesua, Veronica Olubunmi

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the relevance of physical facilities in enhancing the level of motivation and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The population consists of all senior secondary students in South West Nigeria. The sample for the study include one thousand…

  5. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10/sup 16/ Bq (7.5 x 10/sup 5/ Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation of the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant /sup 90/Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations. The facility also falls under the provisions of part 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act pertaining to corrective actions. Nationally, there is an uncertain outlook for the disposal of wastes by underground injection. All wells used for the injection of hazardous wastes (Class I wells) are being reviewed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Women's Education Level, Maternal Health Facilities, Abortion Legislation and Maternal Deaths: A Natural Experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X.; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Methods Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957–2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. Results During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (−13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (−1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (−69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Conclusion Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of

  7. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  8. A new validated analytical method for the determination of tributyltin in water samples at the quantification level set by the European Union.

    PubMed

    Devos, Christophe; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2012-10-26

    According to recent directives of the European Union (EU), limits of quantification (LOQ) for the determination of tributyltin (TBT) in surface waters should be ca. 60 pg/L (ppq). This put very stringent requirements on analytical methodologies; definitely when they have to be applied in a routine environment. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by thermal desorption (TD) and capillary gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) can provide accurate and precise data at the 2 ng/L level (ppt). For lower concentrations, matrix and reagent interferences together with contamination may provide too high TBT values. A two-dimensional heart-cut GC method was developed to fractionate TBT from interferences. The GC-GC-MS/MS method shows excellent linearity in the range 50 pg/L-4 ng/L, good repeatability (RSD<20% at 200 pg/L), and a limit of detection of 11 pg/L. The method performance is demonstrated with representative samples i.e. harbor water and waste water samples. PMID:22889600

  9. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF): The vitrification of high-level nuclear waste. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a production-scale facility and the world`s largest plant for the vitrification of high-level radioactive nuclear wastes (HLW) located in the United States. Initially based on the selection of borosilicate glass as the reference waste form, the citations present the history of the development including R&D projects and the actual construction of the production facility at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP). (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  11. Effects of treatment in the levels of circulating cytokines and growth factors in cystic fibrosis and dialyzed patients by multi-analytical determination with a biochip array platform.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, Amedea Silvia; Colombo, Carla; Torresani, Erminio; Fortunato, Francesca; Biffi, Arianna; Cariani, Lisa; Daccò, Valeria; Carbone, Annalucia; Edefonti, Alberto; Paglialonga, Fabio; Conese, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases need non-invasive sensitive, reliable and predictive clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring therapy. Since inflammation is a complex phenomenon, simultaneous evaluation of different analytes in the same sample may help in defining this complexity and in developing specific anti-inflammatory intervention strategies. In this study, we used a biochip array system capable of measuring 12 cytokines and growth factors (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1 α, IL-1 β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, VEGF, and EGF) in three groups: 97 control subjects; 24 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients before and during the antibiotic treatment (6 and 15days) for acute pulmonary exacerbation as well as 15days after the withdrawal of therapy; 22 children and young adults on chronic hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and at the end of a standard HD session. CF patients in acute exacerbation displayed higher IL-2, IL-6, VEGF and MCP-1 levels than the control subjects. IL-6 significantly decreased during therapy (P<0.01) but not 15days after the withdrawal of therapy. IL-8 and EGF levels were significantly lower after 15days from the interruption of therapy (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively). Regression analysis showed that IL-4 and IL-6 correlated with the amelioration of the respiratory function during therapy. Patients on HD displayed higher IL-6 but lower IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IFN-γ and EGF levels than control subjects. Serum levels of IL-8, IL-10 and IFN-γ were significantly higher at the end of the HD session (P<0.05 for all three). A biochip array allowed to define a pattern of cytokines/growth factors associated with an acute exacerbation in CF patients and IL-4 and IL-6 as predictors of response to therapy. In younger HD patients, we identified a biomarker pattern which is different from that of older patients. Finally, further studies are warranted to examine the role of these biomarkers in the pathogenesis of complications in HD patients. PMID:23608195

  12. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  13. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  14. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  15. Source inventory for Department of Energy solid low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: What it means and how to get one of your own

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    In conducting a performance assessment for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility, one of the important considerations for determining the source term, which is defined as the amount of radioactivity being released from the facility, is the quantity of radioactive material present. This quantity, which will be referred to as the source inventory, is generally estimated through a review of historical records and waste tracking systems at the LLW facility. In theory, estimating the total source inventory for Department of Energy (DOE) LLW disposal facilities should be possible by reviewing the national data base maintained for LLW operations, the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS), or through the annual report that summarizes the SWIMS data, the Integrated Data Base (IDB) report. However, in practice, there are some difficulties in making this estimate. This is not unexpected, since the SWIMS and the IDB were not developed with the goal of developing a performance assessment source term in mind. The practical shortcomings using the existing data to develop a source term for DOE facilities will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  17. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This information will be

  18. Improving antimicrobial use among health workers in first-level facilities: results from the multi-country evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Amaral, João; Pariyo, George; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Fontaine, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) case management training on the use of antimicrobial drugs among health-care workers treating young children at first-level facilities. Antimicrobial drugs are an essential child-survival intervention. Ensuring that children younger than five who need these drugs receive them promptly and correctly can save their lives. Prescribing these drugs only when necessary and ensuring that those who receive them complete the full course can slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data collected through observation-based surveys in randomly selected first-level health facilities in Brazil, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania were statistically analysed. The surveys were carried out as part of the multi-country evaluation of IMCI effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE). FINDINGS: Results from three MCE sites show that children receiving care from health workers trained in IMCI are significantly more likely to receive correct prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs than those receiving care from workers not trained in IMCI.They are also more likely to receive the first dose of the drug before leaving the health facility, to have their caregiver advised how to administer the drug, and to have caregivers who are able to describe correctly how to give the drug at home as they leave the health facility. CONCLUSIONS: IMCI case management training is an effective intervention to improve the rational use of antimicrobial drugs for sick children visiting first-level health facilities in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:15508195

  19. Do Drug Treatment Facilities Increase Clients’ Exposure to Potential Neighborhood-Level Triggers for Relapse? A Small-Area Assessment of a Large, Public Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Research on drug treatment facility locations has focused narrowly on the issue of geographic proximity to clients. We argue that neighborhood conditions should also enter into the facility location decision and illustrate a formal assessment of neighborhood conditions at facilities in a large, metropolitan area, taking into account conditions clients already face at home. We discuss choice and construction of small-area measures relevant to the drug treatment context, including drug activity, disadvantage, and violence as well as statistical comparisons of clients’ home and treatment locations with respect to these measures. Analysis of 22,707 clients discharged from 494 community-based outpatient and residential treatment facilities that received public funds during 1998–2000 in Los Angeles County revealed no significant mean differences between home and treatment neighborhoods. However, up to 20% of clients are exposed to markedly higher levels of disadvantage, violence, or drug activity where they attend treatment than where they live, suggesting that it is not uncommon for treatment locations to increase clients’ exposure to potential environmental triggers for relapse. Whereas on average both home and treatment locations exhibit higher levels of these measures than the household locations of the general population, substantial variability in public treatment clients’ home neighborhoods calls into question the notion that they hail exclusively from poor, high drug activity areas. Shortcomings of measures available for neighborhood assessment of treatment locations and implications of the findings for other areas of treatment research are also discussed. PMID:16736365

  20. 76 FR 35137 - Vulnerability and Threat Information for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... facilities. The draft regulatory basis was published for comment in the Federal Register (FR) on December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66589). This meeting will be closed under exemptions 3.a and 3.b of the Commission's policy... on Enhancing Public Participation in NRC Meetings,'' (67 FR 36920), May 28, 2002. DATES:...

  1. A SCREENING LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE INDIRECT IMPACTS FROM THE COLUMBUS WASTE TO ENERGY FACILITY IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing for emissions of dioxins from the stack of the Columbus, Ohio Waste to Energy (WTE) municipal solid waste combustion facility in 1992 implied that dioxin concentrations in stack gas averaged 328 ng TEQ/m3. The incinerator had been in operation since the early 1980s. In ...

  2. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Executive summary: Volume 1, Program summary information; Volume 2, Waste stream technical summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL`s waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  3. RADIONUCLIDE DATA PACKAGE FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CALCULATIONS RELATED TO THE E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J

    2007-03-20

    The Savannah River Site disposes of low-level radioactive waste within on-site engineered disposal facilities. The Savannah River Site must demonstrate that these disposals meet the requirements of DOE Order 435 . 1 through a process known as performance assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the radionuclide -specific data needed for the PA calculations . This work is part of an on-going program to periodically review and update existing PA work as new data becomes available. Revision of the E -Area Low-Level Waste Facility PA is currently underway. The number of radionuclides selected to undergo detailed analysis in the PA is determined by a screening process. The basis of this process is described. Radionuclide-specific data for half-lives, decay modes, daughters, dose conversion factors and groundwater concentration limits are presented with source references and methodologies.

  4. Analytical Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  5. Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter; Arthur S. Rood

    2010-09-01

    An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources

  6. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Technical support to environmental restoration division for groundwater level monitoring effort at entombed Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. Final report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-15

    This report provides an interim summary of information from a water-level monitoring program. The information was collected by the US Geological Survey (USGS) over a 6-month period. The monitoring program between the US DOE and the USGS was set up to measure water levels in 16 observation wells at the Hallam Nuclear Facility in Hallam, Nebraska. The summary of USGS data includes: (1) a description of the USGS monitoring program; (2) a description of the collection of continuous water-level data; (3) a description of the collection of monthly water-level data; (4) table of observation well number, latitude, longitude, and depth; (5) table of monthly ground-water levels data; (6) table of recorder wells, rainfall, and barometric pressure values; (7) table of recorder well, rainfall, and barometric pressure daily values; and (8) hydrographs of selected wells. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Issues and Recommendations Arising from the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Composite Analysis - 13374

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, Arthur S.; Schafer, Annette L.; Sondrup, A. Jeff

    2013-07-01

    Development of the composite analysis (CA) for the Idaho National Laboratory's (INLs) proposed remote-handled (RH) low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility has underscored the importance of consistency between analyses conducted for site-specific performance assessments (PAs) for LLW disposal facilities, sites regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) [1], and residual decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) inventories. Consistency is difficult to achieve because: 1) different legacy sources and compliance time-periods were deemed important for each of the sites evaluated at INL (e.g., 100 years for CERCLA regulated facilities vs. 1,000 years for LLW disposal facilities regulated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 [2]); 2) fate and transport assumptions, parameters, and models have evolved through time at the INL including the use of screening-level parameters vs. site-specific values; and 3) evaluation objectives for the various CERCLA sites were inconsistent with those relevant to either the PA or CA including the assessment of risk rather than effective dose. The proposed single site-wide CA approach would provide needed consistency, allowing ready incorporation of new information and/or facilities in addition to being cost effective in terms of preparation of CAs and review by the DOE. A single site-wide CA would include a central database of all existing INL sources, including those from currently operating LLW facilities, D and D activities, and those from the sites evaluated under CERCLA. The framework presented for the INL RH-LLW disposal facility allows for development of a single CA encompassing air and groundwater impacts. For groundwater impacts, a site-wide MODFLOW/MT3D-MS model was used to develop unit-response functions for all potential sources providing responses for a grid of receptors. Convolution and superposition of the response functions are used to compute groundwater

  9. Analytical sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    Both a self instruction manual and a cookbook'' guide to field and laboratory analytical procedures, this book provides an essential reference for non-specialists. With a minimum of mathematics and virtually no theory, it introduces practitioners to easy, inexpensive options for sample collection and preparation, data acquisition, analytic protocols, result interpretation and verification techniques. This step-by-step guide considers the advantages and limitations of different procedures, discusses safety and troubleshooting, and explains support skills like mapping, photography and report writing. It also offers managers, off-site engineers and others using sediments data a quick course in commissioning studies and making the most of the reports. This manual will answer the growing needs of practitioners in the field, either alone or accompanied by Practical Sedimentology, which surveys the science of sedimentology and provides a basic overview of the principles behind the applications.

  10. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 1: Licensing strategy and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  11. Characterization of Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1993-12-01

    High-level radioactive waste may be immobilized in borosilicate glass at the West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Aiken, South Carolina, and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), Richland, Washington. The vitrified waste form will be stored in stainless steel canisters before its eventual transfer to a geologic repository for long-term disposal. Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) (DOE 1993), Section 1.1.2 requires that the waste form producers must report the measured chemical composition of the vitrified waste in their production records before disposal. Chemical analysis of glass waste forms is receiving increased attention due to qualification requirements of vitrified waste forms. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been supporting the glass producers` analytical laboratories by a continuing program of multilaboratory analytical testing using interlaboratory ``round robin`` methods. At the PNL Materials Characterization Center Analytical Round Robin 4 workshop ``Analysis of Nuclear Waste Glass and Related Materials,`` January 16--17, 1990, Pleasanton, California, the meeting attendees decided that simulated nuclear waste analytical reference glasses were needed for use as analytical standards. Use of common standard analytical reference materials would allow the glass producers` analytical laboratories to calibrate procedures and instrumentation, to control laboratory performance and conduct self-appraisals, and to help qualify their various waste forms.

  12. BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION BY COPLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN TRACE LEVEL HIGH RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY (HRGC/HRMS) ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  13. Extraction and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 from Beverages Containing Cranberry Juice: A College-Level Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Henry F., III; Rizzo, Jacqueline; Zimmerman, Devon C.; Usher, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical separation experiment can be an interesting addition to an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. We have developed an experiment to extract FD&C Red Dye #40 from beverages containing cranberry juice. After extraction, the dye is quantified using colorimetry. The experiment gives students hands-on experience in using solid…

  14. A Review of Level 2 Parent-Report Instruments Used to Screen Children Aged 1.5-5 for Autism: A Meta-Analytic Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Justin; Strand, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized meta-analytic procedures to estimate the diagnostic validity of instruments used to screen young children, ages 1.5-5 years, for autism. Five scales met inclusion criteria, and data from 18 studies contributed the meta-analysis. Results revealed that 4 of 5 scales met criteria for "good" validity, including two…

  15. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  16. Measurement and analysis of 8-hour time-weighted average sound pressure levels in a vivarium decontamination facility.

    PubMed

    Pate, William; Charlton, Michael; Wellington, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Occupational noise exposure is a recognized hazard for employees working near equipment and processes that generate high levels of sound pressure. High sound pressure levels have the potential to result in temporary or permanent alteration in hearing perception. The cleaning of cages used to house laboratory research animals is a process that uses equipment capable of generating high sound pressure levels. The purpose of this research study was to assess occupational exposure to sound pressure levels for employees operating cage decontamination equipment. This study reveals the potential for overexposure to hazardous noise as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit and consistent surpassing of the OSHA action level. These results emphasize the importance of evaluating equipment and room design when acquiring new cage decontamination equipment in order to minimize employee exposure to potentially hazardous noise pressure levels. PMID:23566325

  17. MANAGEMENT PRE-START REVIEW FINAL REPORT FOR THE BIOSAFETY LEVEL 3 (BSL-3) FACILITY (B368) LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R; O'brien, J; Owens, T; Salvo, V; Sassone, D; Tuholski, S J; Tsan, S

    2006-07-25

    A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Management Pre-Start Review (MPR) Team was formed to independently verify the operational readiness of Building 368 (B368) Biosafety Level III (BSL-3) Facility to conduct research with biological pathogens and toxins including those considered Select Agents. Review objectives and criteria were developed from the DOE/NNSA and LLNL requirements. These were provided in the Implementation Plan for the Biosafety Level III (BSL-3) Facility Management Pre-Start Review (BSL-3 MPR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that was reviewed and approved by DOE/NNSA-LSO. The formal part of the LLNL MPR for the BSL-3 Facility was begun in August of 2005 but work on the MPR was stopped in October of 2005 due to the need for LLNL to reassess organizational and operational controls and respond to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inquiries related to a shipping incident involving select agents. The MPR was restarted in mid-June of 2006. Preliminary facility tours and familiarization with project documents took place in June of 2005. The Independent Management Review Team consists of seven members led by a Team Leader with expertise in management, operations, and safety basis experience with biosafety laboratories. Other team members have expertise in electrical engineering, security, environmental/waste management/regulatory compliance, biosafety/industrial hygiene/medical, structural engineering, and mechanical engineering. The MPR Team reviewed various documents, including authorization basis, safety, emergency preparedness, and various operations, configuration, and management plans. They also reviewed building plans, equipment repair/maintenance documents, training records, and many standard operating procedures. The MPR resulted in three Pre-Start Findings, one Post-Start/Critical Finding, and four observations which are shown on Tables 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Based upon this review the Team feels that the B368

  18. Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, J.E.

    1999-04-28

    Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses

  19. Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find a pressing…

  20. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.

  1. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  2. Development and Testing of a High Level Axial Array Duct Sound Source for the NASA Flow Impedance Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marty E.; Fuller, Chris R.; Jones, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this report both a frequency domain method for creating high level harmonic excitation and a time domain inverse method for creating large pulses in a duct are developed. To create controllable, high level sound an axial array of six JBL-2485 compression drivers was used. The pressure downstream is considered as input voltages to the sources filtered by the natural dynamics of the sources and the duct. It is shown that this dynamic behavior can be compensated for by filtering the inputs such that both time delays and phase changes are taken into account. The methods developed maximize the sound output while (i) keeping within the power constraints of the sources and (ii) maintaining a suitable level of reproduction accuracy. Harmonic excitation pressure levels of over 155dB were created experimentally over a wide frequency range (1000-4000Hz). For pulse excitation there is a tradeoff between accuracy of reproduction and sound level achieved. However, the accurate reproduction of a pulse with a maximum pressure level over 6500Pa was achieved experimentally. It was also shown that the throat connecting the driver to the duct makes it difficult to inject sound just below the cut-on of each acoustic mode (pre cut-on loading effect).

  3. Norovirus Contamination Levels in Ground Water Treatment Systems Used for Food-Catering Facilities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea. PMID:23820792

  4. A Descriptive Study to Determine the Level of Crisis Preparedness Frontline Leaders Are Trained to Perform during an Exploding Crisis in Los Angeles County Healthcare Facilities, Providing Emergency Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbaley, Salomay Rose

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of crisis leadership preparedness facility administrators report frontline healthcare leaders are trained to perform during an exploding crisis in Los Angeles County healthcare facilities, providing emergency services. Methodology: This was a mixed method descriptive study. The…

  5. Engineered soils for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Effects of additives on the adsorptive behavior and hydraulic conductivity of natural soils

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, L.E.; Humphrey, D.N.; DeMascio, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    The siting of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires locations having suitable soil materials beneath the proposed facility. These soils should be selected or designed to control water infiltration and ponding and enhance adsorption of radionuclides. This paper has investigated the effect of four soil additives on the hydraulic conductivity and adsorption characteristics of two natural soils, a glacial till and marine clay. The additives studied in this paper were andisol, bentonite, clinoptilolite and hematite. The results of the hydraulic conductivity testing indicated that remolding and recompacting the soils produced a more homogeneous soil having lower hydraulic conductivities. Comparison of the hydraulic conductivity and adsorptive behavior of the background soils, the additives, and mixtures of background soils and additives indicated that andisol and clinoptilolite provided the most improvement with respect to increasing adsorption capacity for iodide and strontium, respectively, with little effect on the hydraulic conductivity. The extent of adsorption and the effects of the additives on adsorption were highly pH dependent. The impact of the additives was most significant at acidic pH for both strontium and iodide adsorption because at high pH iodide adsorption was minimal for any of the materials tested and all of the background soils adsorbed a significant amount of strontium at high pH. These results suggest that engineered soils, comprised of a mixture of soil and additives, when used below a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility can enhance the ability of a site to retard off-site migration of radionuclides. 40 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cotthem, Alain; Van Humbeeck, Hughes

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  7. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems for fiscal year 1995 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is the third annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17&D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW System as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that led to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5.

  8. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D.; Sonntag, T.; Sundquist, J.

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  9. User`s Manual for the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 Computer Codes: Models for Evaluating Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Source Terms (Version 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.; Tharp, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 computer codes calculate source terms (i.e. radionuclide release rates) for performance assessments of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. SOURCE1 is used to simulate radionuclide releases from tumulus-type facilities. SOURCE2 is used to simulate releases from silo-, well-, well-in-silo-, and trench-type disposal facilities. The SOURCE codes (a) simulate the degradation of engineered barriers and (b) provide an estimate of the source term for LLW disposal facilities. This manual summarizes the major changes that have been effected since the codes were originally developed.

  10. Effects of Facility Developments and Encounter Levels on Perceptions of Settings, Crowding, and Norms in a Korean Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo; Needham, Mark D.

    2014-02-01

    This article examines potential effects of two physical developments (presence or absence of an aerial tramway, a road vs. a trail) and one social variable (increasing encounters with other people) on individuals' perceptions of settings (i.e., perceived settings), crowding, and acceptance of encounters (i.e., norms) in Mudeungsan Provincial Park in South Korea, where there have been proposals for a new aerial tramway. Data were obtained from 241 students at Chonnam National University, almost all of whom had previously visited this park (e.g., 66 % visited at least one of the two study locations in this park, 55 % visited this park in the past 12 months). Simulated photographs showed encounter levels (1 or 15 hikers), the presence or absence of a tramway, and a road versus a trail. Respondents encountering low numbers of other people felt less crowded, considered these use levels to be more acceptable, and perceived the area as more pristine and less developed. Locations containing an aerial tramway were perceived as more developed and less natural, and higher encounter levels were considered to be more acceptable at these locations. Whether settings contained a road or a trail did not influence perceived settings, crowding, or norms. Implications of these findings for future research and management of parks and related outdoor settings are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Robert

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call

  12. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  13. A manual for applying the allowable residual contamination level method for decommissioning facilities on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Piepel, G.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes the modifications that have been made to enhance the original Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method to make it more applicable to site-specific analyses. This version considers the mixture of radionuclides present at the time of site characterization, the elapsed time after decommissioning when exposure to people could occur, and includes a calculation of the upper confidence limit of the potential dose based on sampling statistics that are developed during the site characterization efforts. The upper confidence limit of potential exposure can now be used for comparison against applicable radiation dose limits (i.e., 25 mrem/yr at Hanford). The level of confidence can be selected by the user. A wide range of exposure scenarios were evaluated; the rationale used to select the most limiting scenarios is explained. The radiation dose factors used for the inhalation and ingestion pathways were also updated to correspond with the radiation dosimetry methods utilized in the International Commission of Radiological Protection Publications 26 and 30 (ICRP 1977; 1979a,b, 1980, 1981, 1982a,b). This simplifies the calculations, since ''effective whole body'' doses are now calculated, and also brings the dosimetry methods used in the ARCL method in conformance with the rationale used by DOE in developing the 25 mrem/yr limit at Hanford. 46 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Performance Assessment of Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Using Coupled Unsaturated Flow and Reactive Transport Simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, Pete P.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ventura, Giancarlo; Risoluti, Piero N.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; McGrail, B. P.; Cragnolino, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in development of reactive chemical transport simulators have made it possible to use these tools in performance assessments (PAs) for nuclear waste disposal. Reactive transport codes were used to evaluate the impacts of design modifications on the performance of two shallow subsurface disposal systems for low-level radioactive waste. The first disposal system, located at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington, is for disposal of low-level waste glass. Glass waste blocks will be disposed in subsurface trenches, surrounded by backfill material. The effect of different waste package sizes and layering on technetium release to the vadose zone had a small impact on release rates. The second disposal system involves a hypothetical repository for low-activity waste in Italy. A model of uranium release from a grout waste form was developed using the STORM reactive transport code. Uranium is predicted to be relatively insoluble for several hundred years under the high-pH environment of the cement pore water. The effect of using different filler materials between the waste packages on uranium flux to the vadose zone proved to have a negligible impact on release rates.

  15. An Application of the SSHAC Level 3 Process to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Nuclear Facilities at the Hanford Site, Eastern Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith , Kevin J.; Bommer, Julian J.; Bryce, Robert W.; Mcduffie, Stephen M.; Lisle, Greg A.

    2013-08-22

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the electric utility Energy Northwest, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) within the framework of a SSHAC Level 3 procedure (Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee; Budnitz et al., 1997). Specifically, the project is being conducted following the guidelines and requirements specified in NUREG-2117 (USNRC, 2012b) and consistent with approach given in the American Nuclear Standard ANSI/ANS-2.29-2008 Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The collaboration between DOE and Energy Northwest is spawned by the needs of both organizations for an accepted PSHA with high levels of regulatory assurance that can be used for the design and safety evaluation of nuclear facilities. DOE committed to this study after performing a ten-year review of the existing PSHA, as required by DOE Order 420.1C. The study will also be used by Energy Northwest as a basis for fulfilling the NRC’s 10CFR50.54(f) requirement that the western US nuclear power plants conduct PSHAs in conformance with SSHAC Level 3 procedures. The study was planned and is being carried out in conjunction with a project Work Plan, which identifies the purpose of the study, the roles and responsibilities of all participants, tasks and their associated schedules, Quality Assurance (QA) requirements, and project deliverables. New data collection and analysis activities are being conducted as a means of reducing the uncertainties in key inputs to the PSHA. It is anticipated that the results of the study will provide inputs to the site response analyses at multiple nuclear facility sites within the Hanford Site and at the Columbia Generating Station.

  16. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions.

  17. Conversion of the chemical process cell at West Valley to a high-level-waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A. )

    1989-11-01

    A former spent-fuel dissolver cell has been decontaminated at the West Valley demonstration project to provide a shielded storage area for the temporary storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW). The cell, called the chemical process cell (CPC), contained two chopped fuel dissolvers, three waste and recycle evaporators, and three accountability tanks. The cell is 28 m (93 ft) long, 6.7 m (22 ft) wide, 13 m (43 ft) high and is serviced by two overhead, remotely operated bridge cranes. Engineering work is under way to design a storage rack system, decay heat coolers, waste solution rerouting jumpers, and reliability and service upgrades for the remotely operated bridge cranes.

  18. Cultural Resource Protection Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, Brenda Ringe; Gilbert, Hollie Kae

    2015-05-01

    This plan addresses cultural resource protection procedures to be implemented during construction of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The plan proposes pre-construction review of proposed ground disturbing activities to confirm avoidance of cultural resources. Depending on the final project footprint, cultural resource protection strategies might also include additional survey, protective fencing, cultural resource mapping and relocation of surface artifacts, collection of surface artifacts for permanent curation, confirmation of undisturbed historic canal segments outside the area of potential effects for construction, and/or archaeological test excavations to assess potential subsurface cultural deposits at known cultural resource locations. Additionally, all initial ground disturbing activities will be monitored for subsurface cultural resource finds, cultural resource sensitivity training will be conducted for all construction field personnel, and a stop work procedure will be implemented to guide assessment and protection of any unanticipated discoveries after initial monitoring of ground disturbance.

  19. Cultural approach to the perception of risk. Analyzing concern about siting of a high-level nuclear waste facility in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Litmanen, T.

    1996-12-31

    The study of local residents` attitudes toward siting a high-level nuclear waste facility in Finland took place in three municipalities (Eurajoki, Kuhmo and Agnekoski), which are being considered possible host communities for the plant. The survey showed that the NIMBY phenomenon is a common reaction in two of the three municipalities, and in the third a polarization of opinions into two opposing camps is evident. The analysis of the data indicates that the opposition consist of people who have less education, less knowledge about the facility, lower incomes, and a lower occupational status. The social base of the proponents is the opposite. The persons most critical towards the possible siting can be found among women, older people, voters of the Greens, retired persons and farmers. People who welcome nuclear waste in their vicinity can be found among men, the middle-aged, voters of the Conservative Party and business owners. The study of the perception of possible negative impacts (health and safety, environmental, economic and social) showed that residents in Kuhmo and Adnekoski were more concerned about possible hazards than the residents of Eurajoki. According to the cultural approach, these findings must be contextualized. Eurajoka, which holds more favorable attitudes than Kuhmo and Agnekoski, hosts a nuclear power plant. In the two other communities the opposition is greater, because the residents are unfamiliar with nuclear technology. The thesis of the paper is that in order to understand different opinions about the facility, one must understand the cultural logic of risk perception. People evaluate the risk as individuals, but also as members of different reference groups and in the context of local, national and international circumstances.

  20. Stress perceptions of soldiers participating in training at the Chemical Defense Training Facility: The mediating effects of motivation, experience, and confidence level. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fatkin, L.T.; Hudgens, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and funded by the Physiological and Psychological Effects of the Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Environment and Sustained Operations on Systems in Combat (P2NBC2) program to assess the psychological reactions of soldiers in mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) IV participating in training in a simulated chemical agent environment and in a toxic agent environment. A total of 155 soldiers who participated in the basic course (junior enlisted) and the advanced courses (officer and noncommissioned officer NCO groups) as part of their military occupational specialty (MOS) training volunteered for the study. The junior enlisted group reported significant increases in anxiety during four sessions as they approached the toxic agent portion of the training. The more experienced groups showed a small, but significant increase in anxiety during sessions. Their level of hostility, a component of stress that usually relates to levels of personal frustration, decreased significantly from the time of their initial testing to just before the training began. Since the initial session occurred 1 to 2 weeks before the U.S. Army Chemical Defense Training Facility (CDTF) training, the elevated frustration level may be a reflection of their overall experiences within the intensive chemical defense training program. A significant drop in reported fatigue between the pre- and post-training sessions may indicate a certain level of vigilance gained by participating in the training.

  1. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure (TROPLVL-(vegetation)), and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Temporal Variability of Upper-level Winds at the Eastern Range, Western Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Space launch vehicle commit-to-launch decisions include an assessment of the upper-level (UL) atmospheric wind environment to assess the vehicle's controllability and structural integrity during ascent. These assessments occur at predetermined times during the launch countdown based on measured wind data obtained prior to the assessment. However, the pre-launch measured winds may not represent the wind environment during the vehicle ascent. Uncertainty in the UL winds over the time period between the assessment and launch can be mitigated by a statistical analysis of wind change over time periods of interest using historical data from the launch range. Without historical data, theoretical wind models must be used, which can result in inaccurate wind placards that misrepresent launch availability. Using an overconservative model could result in overly restrictive vehicle wind placards, thus potentially reducing launch availability. Conversely, using an under-conservative model could result in launching into winds that might damage or destroy the vehicle. A large sample of measured wind profiles best characterizes the wind change environment. These historical databases consist of a certain number of wind pairs, where two wind profile measurements spaced by the time period of interest define a pair.

  3. Application of Analytical Heat Transfer Models of Multi-layered Natural and Engineered Barriers in Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories - 12435

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Harris R.; Blink, James A.; Fratoni, Massimiliano; Sutton, Mark; Ross, Amber D.

    2012-07-01

    A combination of transient heat transfer analytical solutions for a finite line source, a series of point sources, and a series of parallel infinite line sources were combined with a quasi-steady-state multi-layered cylindrical solution to simulate the temperature response of a deep geologic radioactive waste repository with multi-layered natural and engineered barriers. This evaluation was performed to provide information to scientists and decision makers to compare candidate geologic media for a repository (crystalline rock [granite], clay, salt, and deep borehole), and to provide input for the future evaluation of the trade-off between pre-emplacement surface storage time, waste package size, and repository footprint. This approach was selected in favor of the finite element solution typically used to analyze the temperature response because it allowed rapid comparison of a large number of alternative disposal options and design configurations. More than 100 combinations of waste form, geologic environment, repository design configuration, and surface storage times were analyzed and compared. The analytical solution approach used to analyze the repository temperature response allowed rapid comparison of a large number of alternative disposal options and design configurations. More than 100 combinations of waste form, geologic environment, repository design configuration, and surface storage times were analyzed and compared. This approach allowed investigation of the sensitivity of the results to combinations of parameters that show that there is much flexibility to be gained in terms of spent fuel management options by varying a few key parameters. This initial analysis used representative design concepts and thermal constraints based on international design concepts, and it also included waste forms representing future fuel cycles with high burnup fuels. Unlike repository designs with large open tunnels and pre-closure ventilation, all of the disposal concepts

  4. High level expression and facile purification of recombinant silk-elastin-like polymers in auto induction shake flask cultures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silk-elastin-like polymers (SELPs) are protein-based polymers composed of repetitive amino acid sequence motifs found in silk fibroin (GAGAGS) and mammalian elastin (VPGVG). These polymers are of much interest, both from a fundamental and applied point of view, finding potential application in biomedicine, nanotechnology and as materials. The successful employment of such polymers in such diverse fields, however, requires the ready availability of a variety of different forms with novel enhanced properties and which can be simply prepared in large quantities on an industrial scale. In an attempt to create new polymer designs with improved properties and applicability, we have developed four novel SELPs wherein the elastomer forming sequence poly(VPGVG) is replaced with a plastic-like forming sequence, poly(VPAVG), and combined in varying proportions with the silk motif. Furthermore, we optimised a simplified production procedure for these, making use of an autoinduction medium to reduce process intervention and with the production level obtained being 6-fold higher than previously reported for other SELPs, with volumetric productivities above 150 mg/L. Finally, we took advantage of the known enhanced stability of these polymers in developing an abridged, non-chromatographic downstream processing and purification protocol. A simple acid treatment allowed for cell disruption and the obtention of relative pure SELP in one-step, with ammonium sulphate precipitation being subsequently used to enable improved purity. These simplified production and purification procedures improve process efficiency and reduce costs in the preparation of these novel polymers and enhances their potential for application. PMID:23384239

  5. VERDE Analytic Modules

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates servedmore » within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  6. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  7. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff`s review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission`s regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements.

  8. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  9. A layered magnetic iron/iron oxide nanoscavenger for the analytical enrichment of ng-L(-1) concentration levels of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Karatapanis, Andreas E; Petrakis, Dimitrios E; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2012-05-13

    Magnetically driven separation techniques have received considerable attention in recent decade because of their great potential application. In this study, we investigate the application of an unmodified layered magnetic Fe/Fe(2)O(3) nanoscavenger for the analytical enrichment and determination of sub-parts per billion concentrations of Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Cr(VI) and As(V) from water samples. The synthesized nanoscavenger was characterized by BET, TGA, XRD and IR and the parameters influencing the extraction and recovery of the preconcentration process were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The possible mechanism of the enrichment of heavy metals on Fe/Fe(2)O(3) was proposed, which involved the dominant adsorption and reduction. The nanoscale size offers large surface area and high reactivity of sorption and reduction reactions. The obtained limits of detection for the metals studied were in the range of 20-125 ng L(-1) and the applicability of the nanomaterial was verified using a real sample matrix. The method is environmentally friendly as only 15 mg of nanoscavenger are used, no organic solvent is required for the extraction and the experiment is performed without the need for filtration or preparation of packed preconcentration columns. PMID:22541009

  10. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  11. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  12. Analytical performance of a highly sensitive C-reactive protein-based immunoassay and the effects of laboratory variables on levels of protein in blood.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Najib; Fahey, John L; Detels, Roger; Butch, Anthony W

    2003-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant whose levels increase in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Elevated levels in serum are observed after trauma, tissue necrosis, infection, surgery, and myocardial infarction and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. CRP levels are also elevated in noninflammatory states, such as obesity, sleep disturbances, depression, chronic fatigue, aging, and physical inactivity. In this study, the performance of a highly sensitive CRP enzyme immunoassay was evaluated, along with common laboratory variables (specimen type, processing time, and storage conditions) that may influence measured blood concentrations of CRP. The measurement range of the assay was from 0.4 to 50 microg/liter. Total imprecision (coefficient of variation) ranged from 8.1 to 11.4%. CRP levels obtained with the enzyme immunoassay were highly correlated with those obtained with an automated immunonephelometric assay. Comparable results were obtained for plasma (heparin and EDTA treated) and serum samples, and levels were unaffected by delays in sample processing and storage temperature. CRP levels were also unaffected by up to seven freeze-thaw cycles. The median CRP concentration in healthy adults was determined to be 0.94 mg/liter, with a 95% working reference interval of 0 to 6.9 mg/liter. In view of these data, we recommend that serial serum or plasma samples for CRP should be stored at 4 degrees C for short periods of time or at -70 degrees C for longer periods and tested within the same run to minimize interassay variability. PMID:12853400

  13. Description of the US Geological Survey`s water level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, September 1993--February 1994; Description of the collection of continuous water-level data; Description of the collection of monthly water-level data

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-15

    The US Department of Energy and the US Department of the Interior agreed to monitor water-level data in 16 observation wells located at Hallam Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. The data collection period began in September 1993 and continued through August 1994. This report contains the interim summary representing six months of data collection. Specific sections include the following: description of the US Geological Survey`s monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility (Sept. 1993 to Feb. 1994); description of the collection of continuous water-level data; description of the collection of monthly water-level data; table of observation well number, latitude, longitude, and depth; table of monthly ground-water levels data; table of recorder wells, rainfall, and barometric pressure unit values; and table of recorder well, rainfall, and barometric daily values; hydrographs of selected wells.

  14. Tandem Level II and Level III field analyses for in-field decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, D.E.; Christenson, J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to provide cost-effective and timely analytical support for a site investigation in central Pennsylvania, Environmental Resources Management, Inc. (ERM) used its mobile analytical service, the ERM-FAST{reg_sign} service to perform on-site soil analyses targeting both Level II and Level III data quality objectives. Of specific concern were volatile organic compounds. The soil concentration levels of these contaminants of interest were required on a rapid-turnaround basis in order to make decisions regarding subsequent boring locations and other analytical logistics. The strategy and analytical systems used for this investigation provided cost-effective, quick-turnaround results that would not have been possible through routine fixed-facility analyses.

  15. Holistic versus Analytic Processing: Evidence for a Different Approach to Processing of Chinese at the Word and Character Levels in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Phil D.; Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong

    2010-01-01

    Among 30 Hong Kong Chinese fourth graders, sensitivities to character and word constructions were examined in judgment tasks at each level. There were three conditions across both tasks: the real condition, consisting of either actual two-character compound Chinese words or real Chinese compound characters; the reversed condition, with either the…

  16. Analytic representation of the proton-proton and proton-nucleus cross-sections and its application to the sea-level spectrum and charge ratio of muons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Golden, R. L.; Stephens, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    We have calculated the sea-level differential muon momentum spectrum and their charge ratio from 1 GeV/c to 5000 GeV/c, using all of the available accelerator data. We find an excellent agreement between our calculation and the existing experimental data. We see no need, at present, to invoke any change either in the cosmic-ray chemical composition or in the nature of the hadron-nucleus interaction at hadron energies above 1500 GeV.

  17. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Review of U.S. Department of Energy Non-High Level Waste Determination for Idaho National Laboratory Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, C.S.; Yin, X.; Camper, L.W.; Whited, A.R.; Dinwiddie, C.L.; Howard, L.D.; Pabalan, R.T.; Pickett, D.

    2007-07-01

    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) authorized the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether certain radioactive waste related to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is not high-level-waste (HLW). The NDAA applies to DOE facilities in the States of South Carolina and Idaho. DOE must consult with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of its waste determination. NRC must coordinate with the affected state to monitor DOE's disposal actions to assess compliance with 10 CFR 61, Subpart C, performance objectives. The performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C, contain requirements for protection of the public, inadvertent intruders, individuals during operations, and stability of the disposal site after closure. In September 2005, DOE submitted to NRC a draft non-HLW determination for waste incidental to reprocessing, including sodium-bearing waste [note: Sodium-bearing waste is a generic term used to describe radioactive wastes comprised of second- and third-cycle extraction fluid and decontamination fluids. This waste contains less activity and generally poses less risk than first-cycle extraction fluid (first-cycle extraction fluid contains most of the fission products)] (SBW) stored in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center tank farm facility (INTEC TFF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). DOE plans to grout the underground tanks and concrete vaults that house these tanks to stabilize the waste in situ. DOE prepared a waste determination to demonstrate compliance with NDAA criteria, including a supporting performance assessment to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. To carry out its consultative role required by the NDAA, NRC uses a risk-informed, performance-based approach in its review of DOE waste determinations and performance assessments to focus on the key natural and engineered system features needed to support its compliance

  18. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section 9 and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review or approval. The initial issue of this document in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. The current revision of this document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA, and it summarizes the progress that has been made over the past year. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System, the objectives of the FFA, the organization that has been established to bring the system into compliance, and the plans for achieving compliance. Chapters 2 through 7 of this report contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress.

  19. Nonlocal effects in double fishnet metasurfaces nanostructured at deep subwavelength level as a path toward simultaneous sensing of multiple chemical analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasković, Dragan; Obradov, Marko; Jakšić, Olga; Jakšić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Nanoplasmonic devices are among the most sensitive chemical sensors, with sensitivities reaching the single-molecule level. An especially convenient class of such sensors is that based on metasurfaces with subwavelength nanoholes, examples being extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnet structures. Such structures ensure operation both in transmission and reflection mode and ensure high sensitivities and excellent coupling with external readout. In this paper we consider the possibility to tailor the response of aperture-based sensor structures by modifying the geometry of nanoholes at the deep subwavelength level through ensuring controlled use of nonlocal effects. We investigate the case where nonlocality is achieved by modifying the basic metamaterial fishnet structure (a metal-dielectric-metal sandwich with rectangular openings) by superposing additional subwavelength patterns, ensuring the appearance of new optical modes. The obtained unit cell superstructure will have multiple tailorable spectral peaks that will increase the selectivity at different wavelengths. The finite elements method was used for simulations of the proposed structures. As an example, we applied our results to the case of a benzene sensor, showing that its spectral properties and selectivity can be tuned by modifying geometry at a deep subwavelength scale. The obtained custom-designed spectral selectivity is convenient for multianalyte chemical sensing using a single structure.

  20. Identification of fentanyl derivatives at trace levels with nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2, 3): analytical method and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Rittgen, Jan; Pütz, Michael; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    The identification of fentanyl derivatives at trace levels employing capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS(n) , n = 2, 3) is presented. The studied synthetic opioid fentanyl and its derivatives have an exceeding analgesic potency which can be up to 8000 times higher that of morphine. Apart from their therapeutical applications, there is an abuse of them in the drug scene as a heroin substitute. The identification of these opioids at trace levels is of further significant forensic interest with respect to recent seizures of clandestine fentanyl laboratories in Germany. In this work, a nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE)-ESI-MS(n) procedure was developed for the separation and identification of six fentanyl derivatives including fentanyl, cis- and trans-methylfentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and carfentanil. Their fragmentation pattern in MS(n) experiments were investigated as well as the influence of the sheath-liquid mixture and the influence of the inside diameter of the fused silica capillary on the peak shape and the signal to noise ratio. Method validation included determination of the detection limits (about 1-2 nmol/L) and the repeatability of migration time (at most 0.07% relative standard deviation). The NACE-MS procedure was successfully applied for the analysis of real samples from seizures in illegal fentanyl laboratories. PMID:22736362

  1. Competing on talent analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise. PMID:20929194

  2. Competing on analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated. PMID:16447373

  3. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated.

  4. Thirty years of research on the level of service scales: a meta-analytic examination of predictive accuracy and sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Stockdale, Keira C; Wormith, J Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of the Level of Service (LS) scales, their predictive accuracy and group-based differences in risk/need, across 128 studies comprising 151 independent samples and a total of 137,931 offenders. Important potential moderators were examined including ethnicity, gender, LS scale variant, geographic region, and type of recidivism used to measure outcome. Results supported the predictive accuracy of the LS scales and their criminogenic need domains for general and violent recidivism overall, and among broad subgroups of interest, including females and ethnic minorities. Although results indicated that gender and ethnicity were not substantive sources of effect size variability, significant differences in effect size magnitude were found when analyses were conducted by geographic region. Canadian samples consistently demonstrated the largest effect sizes, followed by studies conducted outside North America, and then studies conducted in the United States. This pattern was observed irrespective of gender, ethnicity, LS domain, LS variant, or type of recidivism outcome, suggesting geographic region may be an important source of effect size variation. We discuss possible factors underlying this pattern of results and identify areas for future research. PMID:24274046

  5. Analytical study of the effects of the Low-Level Jet on moisture convergence and vertical motion fields at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, X.; Zhong, S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Stage, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) is located in a region that is strongly affected by a prominent meteorological phenomenon--the Great Plains Low-Level Jet (LLJ). Observations have shown that the LLJ plays a vital role in spring and summertime cloud formation and precipitation over the Great Plains. An improved understanding of the LLJ characteristics and its impact on the environment is necessary for addressing the fundamental issue of development and testing of radiational transfer and cloud parameterization schemes for the general circulation models (GCMs) using data from the SGP CART site. A climatological analysis of the summertime LLJ over the SGP has been carried out using hourly observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wind Profiler Demonstration Network and from the ARM June 1993 Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The hourly data provide an enhanced temporal and spatial resolution relative to earlier studies which used 6- and 12-hourly rawinsonde observations at fewer stations.

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  7. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process. PMID:25297350

  8. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Although the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) addresses the entire Oak Ridge Reservation, specific requirements are set forth for the liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks and their associated piping and equipment, tank systems, at ORNL. The stated objected of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment and detection of releases, and source control are maintained pending final remedial action at the site. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service. It also requires the LLLW tank systems that do not meet the design and performance requirements established for secondary containment and leak detection be either upgraded or replaced. The FFA establishes a procedural framework for implementing the environmental laws. For the LLLW tank systems, this framework requires the specified plans and schedules be submitted to EPA and TDEC for approval within 60 days, or in some cases, within 90 days, of the effective date of the agreement.

  9. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Although the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) addresses the entire Oak Ridge Reservation, specific requirements are set forth for the liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks and their associated piping and equipment, tank systems, at ORNL. The stated objected of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment and detection of releases, and source control are maintained pending final remedial action at the site. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service. It also requires the LLLW tank systems that do not meet the design and performance requirements established for secondary containment and leak detection be either upgraded or replaced. The FFA establishes a procedural framework for implementing the environmental laws. For the LLLW tank systems, this framework requires the specified plans and schedules be submitted to EPA and TDEC for approval within 60 days, or in some cases, within 90 days, of the effective date of the agreement.

  10. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  11. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Low-Activity Waste Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2003-02-14

    This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes containing a high concentration of I-129 in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vaults at the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These wastes were analyzed by computer modeling incorporating a laboratory-measured I-129 Kd. A Kd represents partitioning of a contaminant between solid particles (i.e., the waste) and liquid that can transport the contaminant. These wastes exhibited high Kds indicating a slow release rate that typically is manifested as low aquifer concentrations and high vault-inventory limits. This SA applies to ER and ETF wastes and any type of future waste that contains a high concentration of I-129. This SA was prepared to meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE 1999). Because the Performance Assessment (PA, McDowell-Boyer, et al., 2000) analyzes generic wastes, this report focuses on wastes with a high I-129 concentration. Common information from the PA is not duplicate d in this report.

  12. General description of the hydrology and burial trenches at the low-level radioactive waste burial facility near Barnwell, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Barnwell low-level radioactive solid waste burial site is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina, 5 miles west of the city of Barnwell. Approximately 1,050 feet of stratified gravel, sand, silt, clay, and limestone, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene, underlie the burial site. Ground water within the study area occurs under water table, semi-confined, and artesian conditions. Overland flow and most precipitation that recharges the ground-water system at the burial site is discharged to Marys Branch Creek. This creek originates as a spring about 3,000 feet south of the burial site and flows to the southwest into lower Three Runs. Lower Three Runs discharges into the Savannah River. Waste shipments to the site were reduced from 200,000 cubic feet per month for the period 1971 to 1979 to 100,000 cubic feet per month by October 1981. The wastes consist of both nonfuel cycle and nuclear fuel-cycle wastes. The standard trench dimensions at the burial site are 100 feet wide by 1,000 feet long and 22 feet deep. Trench bottoms are a minimum of 5 feet above the water table. Seven soil mapping units occur at the waste disposal facility. The three major soil types are all well drained and cover approximately 84 percent of the study area. (USGS)

  13. Evaluation of trench subsidence and stabilization at Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Technical report (final) 15 Oct 80-30 Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Kahle, R.; Rowlands, J.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of trench subsidence and possible future stabilization techniques at the Sheffield Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, Sheffield, Illinois. The investigation was based on a review, analysis and summary of available surface maintenance records on the site, and other data obtained from the site operator, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety. Analyses were performed to determine subsidence trends and project future subsidence for 21 trenches into which the wastes were placed. The types of subsidence, potholes, sudden slumps, and long term area settlement were evaluated to develop future projections. The mechanisms evaluated as causing subsidence and settlement were: piping and settlement of the trench backfill soil into voids, consolidation of the trench backfill soil, and deterioration of the waste containers and wastes by corrosion and biodegradation. The engineering feasibility and costs of potential trench stabilization techniques were developed. Recommendations were made for stabilization, final capping, and future monitoring of each trench.

  14. Let's Talk... Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  15. Summer-Long Grazing of High vs. Low Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-Infected Tall Fescue by Growing Beef Steers Results in Distinct Temporal Blood Analyte Response Patterns, with Poor Correlation to Serum Prolactin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua J.; Lindemann, Merlin D.; Boling, James A.; Matthews, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the effects of fescue toxicosis on developing Angus-cross steer growth, carcass, hepatic mRNA, and protein expression profiles of selected serum proteins, and blood clinical and chemical profiles, after summer-long grazing (85 days) of high endophyte (HE)- vs. low endophyte (LE)-infected fescue pastures. We now report the temporal development of acute, intermediate, and chronic responses of biochemical and clinical blood analytes determined at specified time intervals (period 1, day 0–36; period 2, day 37–58; and period 3, day 59–85). Throughout the trial, the alkaloid concentrations of the HE forage was consistently 19–25 times greater (P ≤ 0.002) than the concentration in the LE forage, and HE vs. LE steers had continuously lower (P ≤ 0.049) serum prolactin (85%), cholesterol (27%), and albumin (5%), but greater red blood cells (7%). The HE steers had decreased (P = 0.003) ADG only during period 1 (−0.05 vs. 0.4 kg/day). For period 1, HE steers had reduced (P ≤ 0.090) numbers of eosinophils (55%) and lymphocytes (18%), serum triglyceride (27%), and an albumin/globulin ratio (9%), but an increased bilirubin concentration (20%). During period 2, serum LDH activities were 18% lower (P = 0.022) for HE vs. LE steers. During period 3, serum levels of ALP (32%), ALT (16%), AST (15%), creatine kinase (35%), glucose (10%), and LDH (23%) were lower (P ≤ 0.040) for HE steers. Correlation analysis of serum prolactin and other blood analytes revealed that triglycerides (P = 0.042) and creatinine (P = 0.021) were moderately correlated (r ≤ 0.433) with HE serum prolactin. In conclusion, three HE-induced blood analyte response patterns were identified: continually altered, initially altered, and subsequently “recovered,” or altered only after long-term exposure. Blood analytes affected by length of grazing HE vs. LE forages were either not or poorly correlated with serum prolactin. These data

  16. On-line solid-phase enrichment coupled to packed reactor flow injection analysis in a green analytical procedure to determine low levels of folic acid using fluorescence detection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of folic acid (FA) is not an easy task because of its presence in lower concentrations, its lower stability under acidic conditions, and its sensitiveness against light and high temperature. The present study is concerned with the development and validation of an automated environmentally friendly pre-column derivatization combined by solid-phase enrichment (SPEn) to determine low levels of FA. Results Cerium (IV) trihydroxyhydroperoxide (CTH) as a packed oxidant reactor has been used for oxidative cleavage of FA into highly fluorescent product, 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine-6-carboxylic acid. FA was injected into a carrier stream of 0.04 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.4 at a flow-rate of 0.25 mL/min. The sample zone containing the analyte was passed through the CTH reactor thermostated at 40°C, and the fluorescent product was trapped and enriched on a head of small ODS column (10 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size). The enriched product was then back-flush eluted by column-switching from the small ODS column to the detector with a greener mobile phase consisting of ethanol and phosphate buffer (0.04M, pH 3.4) in the ratio of 5:95 (v/v). The eluent was monitored fluorimetrically at emission and excitation wavelengths of 463 and 367 nm, respectively. The calibration graph was linear over concentrations of FA in the range of 1.25-50 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.49 ng/mL. Conclusion A new simple and sensitive green analytical procedure including on-line pre-column derivatization combined by SPEn has been developed for the routine quality control and dosage form assay of FA at very low concentration level. The method was a powerful analytical technique that had excellent sensitivity, sufficient accuracy and required relatively simple and inexpensive instrumentation. PMID:23234331

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding on NASA Centers and Facilities by Implementing Terrestrial Laser Scanning Surveys to Improve Coastal Digital Elevation and Inundation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Williams, K.; Meertens, C.; Lestak, L.; Masters, D.

    2014-12-01

    Sea level is rising in response to climate change. Currently the global mean rate is a little over 3 mm/year, but it is expected to accelerate significantly over this century. This will have a profound impact on coastal populations and infrastructure, including NASA centers and facilities. A detailed study proposed by the University of Colorado's Center for Astrodynamics Research on the impact of sea level rise on several of NASA's most vulnerable facilities was recently funded by NASA. Individual surveys at several high-risk NASA centers were conducted and used as case studies for a broader investigation that needs to be done for coastal infrastructure around the country. The first two years of this study included implementing and conducting a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and GPS survey at Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, and Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. We are currently using airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) data to construct detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) of the facilities that we have assessed. The TLS data acquired at each center provides a very dense point cloud that is being used to improve the detail and accuracy of the digital elevation models currently available. We are also using GPS data we acquired at each center to assess the rate of vertical land movement at the facilities and to tie the DEM to tide gauges and other reference points. With completed, detailed DEMs of the topography and facilities at each center, a series of simple inundation models will then be applied to each area. We will use satellite altimeter data from TOPEX, Jason-1, and Jason-2 to assess the sea level changes observed near these NASA facilities over the last 20 years along with sea level projections from global climate models (GCMs) and semi-empirical projections to make detailed maps

  18. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  19. Waste sampling and characterization facility (WSCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex consists of the main structure (WSCF) and four support structures located in the 600 Area of the Hanford site east of the 200 West area and south of the Hanford Meterology Station. WSCF is to be used for low level sample analysis, less than 2 mRem. The Laboratory features state-of-the-art analytical and low level radiological counting equipment for gaseous, soil, and liquid sample analysis. In particular, this facility is to be used to perform Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 sample analysis in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Protocols, room air and stack monitoring sample analysis, waste water treatment process support, and contractor laboratory quality assurance checks. The samples to be analyzed contain very low concentrations of radioisotopes. The main reason that WSCF is considered a Nuclear Facility is due to the storage of samples at the facility. This maintenance Implementation Plan has been developed for maintenace functions associate with the WSCF.

  20. The assess facility descriptor module

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.E.; Winblad, A.; Key, B.; Walker, S.; Renis, T.; Saleh, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Facility Descriptor (Facility) module is part of the Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security (ASSESS). Facility is the foundational software application in the ASSESS system for modelling a nuclear facility's safeguards and security system to determine the effectiveness against theft of special nuclear material. The Facility module provides the tools for an analyst to define a complete description of a facility's physical protection system which can then be used by other ASSESS software modules to determine vulnerability to a spectrum of insider and outsider threats. The analyst can enter a comprehensive description of the protection system layout including all secured areas, target locations, and detailed safeguards specifications. An extensive safeguard component catalog provides the reference data for calculating delay and detection performance. Multiple target locations within the same physical area may be specified, and the facility may be defined for two different operational states such as dayshift and nightshift. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  2. National Facilities Study. Volume 1: Facilities Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The inventory activity was initiated to solve the critical need for a single source of site specific descriptive and parametric data on major public and privately held aeronautics and aerospace related facilities. This a challenging undertaking due to the scope of the effort and the short lead time in which to assemble the inventory and have it available to support the task group study needs. The inventory remains dynamic as sites are being added and the data is accessed and refined as the study progresses. The inventory activity also included the design and implementation of a computer database and analytical tools to simplify access to the data. This volume describes the steps which were taken to define the data requirements, select sites, and solicit and acquire data from them. A discussion of the inventory structure and analytical tools is also provided.

  3. Regional Radiological Security Partnership in Southeast Asia – Increasing the Sustainability of Security Systems at the Site-Level by Using a Model Facility Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, Travis L.; Dickerson, Sarah; Ravenhill, Scott D.; Murray, Allan; Morris, Frederic A.; Herdes, Gregory A.

    2009-10-07

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP is to cooperate with countries in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need and developing national programs to protect and control such materials, improve the security of such materials, and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. The RRSP has utilized many tools to meet those objectives including: provision of physical protection upgrades, awareness training, physical protection training, regulatory development, locating and recovering orphan sources, and most recently - development of model security procedures at a model facility. This paper discusses the benefits of establishing a model facility, the methods employed by the RRSP, and three of the expected outcomes of the Model Facility approach. The first expected outcome is to increase compliance with source security guidance materials and national regulations by adding context to those materials, and illustrating their impact on a facility. Second, the effectiveness of each of the tools above is increased by making them part of an integrated system. Third, the methods used to develop the model procedures establishes a sustainable process that can ultimately be transferred to all facilities beyond the model. Overall, the RRSP has utilized the Model Facility approach as an important tool to increase the security of radioactive sources, and to position facilities and countries for the long term secure management of those sources.

  4. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  5. Characterization of mixed waste for shipment to TSD Facilities Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Goyal, K.

    1995-12-31

    In compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is striving to ship its low-level mixed waste (LLMW) off-site for treatment and disposal. In order to ship LLMW off site to a commercial facility, LANL must request exemption from the DOE Order 5820.2A requirement that LLMW be shipped only to Department of Energy facilities. Because the process of obtaining the required information and approvals for a mixed waste shipment campaign can be very expensive, time consuming, and frustrating, a well-planned program is necessary to ensure that the elements for the exemption request package are completed successfully the first time. LANL has developed such a program, which is cost- effective, quality-driven, and compliance-based. This program encompasses selecting a qualified analytical laboratory, developing a quality project-specific sampling plan, properly sampling liquid and solid wastes, validating analytical data, documenting the waste characterization and decision processes, and maintaining quality records. The products of the program are containers of waste that meet the off-site facility`s waste acceptance criteria, a quality exemption request package, documentation supporting waste characterization, and overall quality assurance for the process. The primary goal of the program is to provide an avenue for documenting decisions, procedures, and data pertinent to characterizing waste and preparing it for off-site treatment or disposal.

  6. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  7. Analyticity without Differentiability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  8. Comparison of predicted ground-level airborne radionuclide concentrations to measured values resulting from operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    A comparison study of measured and predicted downwind radionuclide concentrations from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was performed. The radionuclide emissions consist primarily of the radioisotopes 11C, 13N, and 150. The gases, vented to the outside environment by a stack located at the facility, potentially increase the radiation exposure at the facility boundary. Emission rate, meteorological, and radiation monitoring station data were collected between September 26, 1992 and October 3, 1992. The meteorological and emission data were input to the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88-PC) computer code. The downwind radionuclide air concentrations predicted by the code were compared to the air concentrations measured by the monitoring stations. The code was found to slightly over-predict downwind concentrations during unstable atmospheric conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions, the code was not useful for predicting downwind air concentrations. This is thought to be due to an underestimation of horizontal dispersion.

  9. Interface control document between Analytical Services and Solid Waste Disposal Division

    SciTech Connect

    Venetz, T.J.

    1995-01-30

    This interface control document (ICD) between Analytical Services and Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) establishes a baseline description of the support needed and the wastes that will require management as part of the interface between the two divisions. It is important that each division has a clear understanding of the other division`s expectations regarding levels and type of support needed. This ICD deals with the waste sampling support needed by SWD and the waste generated by the specified analytical laboratories. The baseline description of wastes includes waste volumes, characteristics and shipping schedules, which will be used to plan the proper support requirements. The laboratories included in this document are 222-S Laboratory Facility, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) and the Chemical Engineering Laboratory. These three facilities provide support to the entire site and are not associated with one major program/facility. The laboratories associated with major facilities or programs such as Engineering/Environmental Development Laboratory at K Basins Operation are not within the scope of this document.

  10. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy eenvironmental management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S.M.; Conzelmann, G.; Gillette, J.L.; Kier, P.H.; Poch, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative.

  11. Modular Design of Processing and Storage Facilities for Small Volumes of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste including Disused Sealed Sources - 12372

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, David R.; Kumar Samanta, Susanta; Drace, Zoran

    2012-07-01

    There are a number of IAEA Member States generating relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in application of nuclear techniques in medicine, industry and research and in nuclear research centres having small research reactors. At present many of these Member States do not have facilities for processing and storing their radioactive wastes; notably in those countries with small quantities of generated radioactive wastes. In other Member States the existing waste processing and storage facilities (WPSF) are in need of varying degrees of upgrading in order to address new waste streams, incorporate new waste processing technologies, or expand interim storage capacities. The IAEA has developed a modular design approach for a WPSF that is based on a variety of modules for different waste stream treatment and conditioning processes. The modular WPSF design is elaborated in a substantial Design Engineering Package that will be published by IAEA as a technical report. The Design Engineering Package enables users to select the optimum waste processing and storage modules to meet their needs, and to specify the requirements for procurement of individual modules and their integration into a waste processing and storage facility. The Design Engineering Package is planned for publication by the IAEA in 2012 and is presented as: - A Design Engineering Package Summary document. - A supporting CD that contains: - Process module general specifications. - Process module interface specifications. - Design Engineering Package for process modules. - Sample technical specifications for design and construction of modular processing facility. - Design Engineering Package for storage modules. (authors)

  12. The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, S.L.; Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

  13. Distilling Complex Model Results into Simple Models for use in Assessing Compliance with Performance Standards for Low Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur S. Rood

    2007-02-01

    Assessing the long term performance of waste disposal facility requires numerical simulation of saturated and unsaturated groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Complex numerical models have been developed to try to realistically simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. These models provide important information about system behavior and identify important processes, but may not be practical for demonstrating compliance with performance standards because of excessively long computer simulation times and input requirements. Two approaches to distilling the behavior of a complex model into simpler formulations that are practical for demonstrating compliance with performance objectives are examined in this paper. The first approach uses the information obtained from the complex model to develop a simple model that mimics the complex model behavior for stated performance objectives. The simple model may need to include essential processes that are important to assessing performance, such as time-variable infiltration and waste emplacement rates, subsurface heterogeneity, sorption, decay, and radioactive ingrowth. The approach was applied to a Low-Level Waste disposal site at the Idaho National Laboratory where a complex three dimensional vadose zone model was developed first to understand system behavior and important processes. The complex model was distilled down to a relatively simple one-dimensional vadose zone model and three-dimensional aquifer transport model. Comparisons between the simple model and complex model of vadose zone fluxes and groundwater concentrations showed relatively good agreement between the models for both fission and activation products (129I, 36Cl, 99Tc) and actinides (238U, 239Pu, 237Np). Application of the simple model allowed for Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis and simulations of numerous disposal and release scenarios. The second approach investigated was the response surface model. In the response surface model approach

  14. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  15. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  16. Analytical Chemistry in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Mary A.; Ullman, Alan H.

    1988-01-01

    Clarifies the roles of a practicing analytical chemist in industry: quality control, methods and technique development, troubleshooting, research, and chemical analysis. Lists criteria for success in industry. (ML)

  17. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  19. Analytical chemistry: Sweet solution to sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, Samuel K.; Chin, Curtis D.

    2011-09-01

    Glucose meters allow rapid and quantitative measurement of blood sugar levels for diabetes sufferers worldwide. Now a new method allows this proven technology to be used to quantify a much wider range of analytes.

  20. RCRA FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent facilities that are regulated by the EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Facilities regulated under RCRA generate, dispose of, treate or transport hazardous waste. RCRA is a law enacted by Congress in 1976 and amended in 1984 to include ...

  1. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarick, Richard T.

    1998-12-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

  2. Establishing and maintaining a facility representative program at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this standard is to help ensure that DOE Facility Representatives are selected based on consistently high standards and from the best qualified candidates, that they receive the necessary training, and that their duties are well understood and documented. The standard defines the duties, responsibilities, and qualifications for Facility Representatives, based on facility hazard classification; risks to workers, the public, and the environment; and the operational activity level. Guidance provided includes: (1) an approach for determining the required facility coverage; (2) the duties, responsibilities, and authorities of a Facility Representative; (3) training and qualifications expected of a Facility Representative; and (4) elements necessary for successful Facility Representative Programs at DOE Field Offices. This guidance was written primarily to address nuclear facilities. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Process Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, James B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses process analytical chemistry as a discipline designed to supply quantitative and qualitative information about a chemical process. Encourages academic institutions to examine this field for employment opportunities for students. Describes the five areas of process analytical chemistry, including off-line, at-line, on-line, in-line, and…

  4. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  5. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  6. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  7. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  8. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  9. Teaching the Analytical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  10. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  11. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  12. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  13. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  14. Proposed construction and operation of a Low Level Radioactive Waste Metal Melting Facility affecting TVA Tract No. XWBR-688IE, Watts Bar Reservoir for Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. , Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group, Incorporated (SEG), a wholly owned subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, has proposed to construct and operate a Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Metal Melting Facility (MMF) on TVA Tract No. XWBR-688IE, Parcel 1, Roane County, Tennessee. The MMF would be located on the grounds of SEG's existing facility, on a recently filled area adjacent to SEG's existing process and incinerator buildings. The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to determine the environmental impacts associated with approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request by SEG for TVA's approval of the MMF. This EA will assess these impacts to determine if the proposed development, with identified mitigation, could reasonably proceed without significant adverse effects on the environment, based on the information provided by SEG.

  15. National Transonic Facility model and model support vibration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Gloss, Blair B.

    1990-01-01

    Vibrations of models and model support system were encountered during testing in the National Transonic Facility. Model support system yaw plane vibrations have resulted in model strain gage balance design load limits being reached. These high levels of vibrations resulted in limited aerodynamic testing for several wind tunnel models. The yaw vibration problem was the subject of an intensive experimental and analytical investigation which identified the primary source of the yaw excitation and resulted in attenuation of the yaw oscillations to acceptable levels. This paper presents the principal results of analyses and experimental investigation of the yaw plane vibration problems. Also, an overview of plans for development and installation of a permanent model system dynamic and aeroelastic response measurement and monitoring system for the National Transonic Facility is presented.

  16. P-23 Highlights 6/10/12: Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility Refurbishment completed at U1A tunnel in Nevada NNSS meeting Level 2 milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Deyoung, Anemarie; Smith, John R.

    2012-05-03

    A moratorium was placed on U.S. underground nuclear testing in 1992. In response, the Stockpile Stewardship Program was created to maintain readiness of the existing nuclear inventory through several efforts such as computer modeling, material analysis, and subcritical nuclear experiments (SCEs). As in the underground test era, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site, provides a safe and secure environment for SCEs by the nature of its isolated and secure facilities. A major tool for SCE diagnosis installed in the 05 drift laboratory is a high energy x-ray source used for time resolved imaging. This tool consists of two identical sources (Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2) and is called the Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility (Figs. 2-6). Each Cygnus machine has 5 major elements: Marx Generator, Pulse Forming Line (PFL), Coaxial Transmission Line (CTL), 3-cell Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA), and Rod Pinch Diode. Each machine is independently triggered and may be fired in separate tests (staggered mode), or in a single test where there is submicrosecond separation between the pulses (dual mode). Cygnus must operate as a single shot machine since on each pulse the diode electrodes are destroyed. The diode is vented to atmosphere, cleaned, and new electrodes are inserted for each shot. There is normally two shots per day on each machine. Since its installation in 2003, Cygnus has participated in: 4 Subcritical Experiments (Armando, Bacchus, Barolo A, and Barolo B), a 12 shot plutonium physics series (Thermos), and 2 plutonium step wedge calibration series (2005, 2011), resulting in well over 1000 shots. Currently the Facility is in preparation for 2 SCEs scheduled for this calendar year - Castor and Pollux. Cygnus has performed well during 8 years of operations at NNSS. Many improvements in operations and performance have been implemented during this time. Throughout its service at U1a, major maintenance and replacement of many hardware items

  17. Advances in multiple analyte profiling.

    PubMed

    Salas, Virginia M; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry A

    2008-01-01

    The advent of multiparameter technology has been driven by the need to understand the complexity in biological systems. It has spawned two main branches, one in the arena of high-content measurements, primarily in microscopy and flow cytometry where it has become commonplace to analyze multiple fluorescence signatures arising from multiple excitation sources and multiple emission wavelengths. Microscopy is augmented by topographical content that identifies the source location of the signature. The other branch involves multiplex technology. Here, the intent is to measure multiple analytes simultaneously. A key feature of multiplexing is an address system for the individual analytes. In planar arrays the address system is spatial, in which affinity reactions occur at defined locations. In suspension arrays, the address is encoded as a fluorescent signature in the particle assigned to a specific reaction or analyte. Several hybrid systems have also been developed for multiplexing. In the commercial regime, the most widespread applications of multiplexing are currently in the areas of genome and biomarker analysis. Planar chips with fixed arrays are now available to probe the entire genome at the level of message expression and large segments of the genome at the level of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In contrast, suspension arrays provide the potential for probing segments of the genome in a customized way, using capture tags that locate specific oligonucleotide sequences to specific array elements. PMID:18429493

  18. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  19. Facility Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ben E.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews recommendations on policies for leasing surplus school space made during the Council of Educational Facility Planners/International conference. A case study presentation of a Seattle district's use of lease agreements is summarized. (MJL)

  20. Production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a cross section of different solutions to the many unique production problems operators face. Sections address benefit vs. cost options for production facility designs, oil and gas separation processes and equipment, oil treating and desalting systems, and water treating methods and equipment. Papers were selected to give an overall view of factors involved in optimizing the design of cost-effective production facilities.

  1. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  2. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  3. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  4. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Enhancing a Facility-Level Model for Proliferation Resistance Assessment of a Nuclear Enegry System

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-10-26

    The Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment project (PL09-UtilSocial) investigates the use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessments, including nonproliferation assessments, Proliferation Resistance (PR) assessments, safeguards assessments, and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about a host State and its posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system (NES) to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This objective of this project is to find and integrate social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social, and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation; and to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment. This report describes a modeling approach and how it might be used to support a location-specific assessment of the PR assessment of a particular NES. The report demonstrates the use of social modeling to enhance an existing assessment process that relies on primarily technical factors. This effort builds on a literature review and preliminary assessment performed as the first stage of the project and compiled in PNNL-18438. [ T his report describes an effort to answer questions about whether it is possible to incorporate social modeling into a PR assessment in such a way that we can determine the effects of social factors on a primarily technical assessment. This report provides: 1. background information about relevant social factors literature; 2. background information about a particular PR assessment approach relevant to this particular demonstration; 3. a discussion of social modeling undertaken to find and characterize social factors that are relevant to the PR assessment of a nuclear facility in a specific location; 4. description of an enhancement concept that integrates social factors into an existing, technically

  5. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: Facile development of gas sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushi, Arti D.; Gaikwad, S.; Deshmukh, M.; Patil, H.; Bodkhe, G.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2016-05-01

    In the present investigation, research efforts were directed towards the facile fabrication of sensor devices for the detection of gaseous analytes. Single Wall Carbon nanotubes, the highest prominent representative of functional nanomaterials, were employed for the sensor development. High surface to volume ratio of CNTs facilitate to improve overall sensor performance. To achieve enhanced sensing characteristics, CNTs were functionalized with tetraphenyl porphyrin. Fabricated sensor devices were subjected to the structural, electrical as well as sensing characteristics. Observed results infer that the fabricated sensor shows excellent sensing characteristics towards propanone below their PEL level.

  6. Hanford analytical sample projections 1996--2001

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, S.M.

    1996-06-26

    This document summarizes the biannual Hanford sample projections for fiscal years 1996 to 2001. Sample projections are based on inputs submitted to Analytical Services covering Environmental Restoration, Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Solid Waste, Liquid Effluents, Spent Nuclear Fuels, Transition Projects, Analytical Services, Site Monitoring, and Industrial Hygiene. This information will be used by Hanford Analytical Services to assure that laboratories and resources are available and effectively utilized to meet these documented needs. Sample projections are categorized by radiation level, protocol, sample matrix and Program. Analyses requirements are also presented.

  7. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  8. High levels, partitioning and fish consumption based water guidelines of perfluoroalkyl acids downstream of a former firefighting training facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fowler, Craig; Day, Sarah; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Drouillard, Ken G; Morse, Dave

    2016-09-01

    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been observed at locations in/around/downstream of the sites where PFOS-based firefighting foam was used repeatedly for a prolonged period. In this study, we conducted a detailed investigation of PFAA contamination in the Lake Niapenco area in Ontario, Canada, where among the highest ever reported levels of PFOS were recently measured in amphipods, fish and snapping turtle plasma. Levels and distribution of PFAAs in water, sediment and fish samples collected from the area varied widely. An upstream pond beside a former firefighting training area (FFTA) was confirmed as the source of PFAAs even 20years after the last use of the foam at the FFTA. Recent PFOS concentration in water (~60ng/L) at Lake Niapenco, about 14km downstream of the pond, was still 3-7× higher than the background levels. For PFOS, Log KD ranged 1.3-2.5 (mean±SE: 1.7±0.1), Log BAFs ranged 2.4-4.7 (3.4±0.05), and Log BSAFs ranged 0.7-2.9 (1.7±0.05). Some fish species-specific differences in BAF and BSAF were observed. At Log BAF of 4.7, fish PFOS levels at Lake Niapenco could reach 15,000ng/g, 100× greater than a "do not eat" advisory benchmark, without exceeding the current drinking water guideline of 300ng/L. A fish consumption based water guideline was estimated at 1-15ng/L, which is likely applicable worldwide given that the Log BAFs observed in this study were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. It appears that PFAA in the downstream waters increased between 2011 and 2015; however, further monitoring is required to confirm this trend. PMID:27302846

  9. Modelling pedestrian travel time and the design of facilities: a queuing approach.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khalidur; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Kabir Chowdhury, Md Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities. PMID:23691055

  10. Modelling Pedestrian Travel Time and the Design of Facilities: A Queuing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdul Ghani, Noraida; Abdulbasah Kamil, Anton; Mustafa, Adli; Kabir Chowdhury, Md. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities. PMID:23691055

  11. Data Management Facility Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, Nicole N

    2014-06-30

    The Data Management Facility (DMF) is the data center that houses several critical Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility services, including first-level data processing for the ARM Mobile Facilities (AMFs), Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Southern Great Plains (SGP), and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, as well as Value-Added Product (VAP) processing, development systems, and other network services.

  12. Early Test Facilities and Analytic Methods for Radiation Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting held in Chicago, Illinois on November 15 20,1992. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the 50th anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction, which occurred, not coincidentally, in Chicago. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting.

  13. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  14. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  15. Planning Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  16. Existing technology transfer report: analytical capabilities. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    The overall objective of the on-going analytical efforts was to develop in-house expertise and analytical capability for the analysis of coal and coal-derived products in support of SRC-I process technology. The approach taken and work accomplished involved: identification of test methods and associated equipment; review and implementation of analytical facility plan; evaluation of existing instrumentation; evaluation and purchase of new instruments; training of laboratory personnel; validation or development of analytical methods; development of standard product work-up methods; and development of analytical protocol for detailed characterization of SRC-I solid and liquid products. Expertise in analytical chemistry was developed by organizing historical knowledge and assimilating new knowledge as it became available from inside and outside research facilities and the chemical literature. The data were then used to define analytical methods, instrumentation, space, staff needed to create a functional coal analysis laboratory. This report summarizes the direction and progress of the analytical development efforts during the period 1974 to 1980. 2 references, 5 figures.

  17. Letter of Intent for RPP Characterization Program Process Engineering and Hanford Analytical Services and Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-02-25

    The Characterization Project level of success achieved by the River Protection Project (RPP) is determined by the effectiveness of several organizations across RPP working together. The requirements, expectations, interrelationships, and performance criteria for each of these organizations were examined in order to understand the performances necessary to achieve characterization objectives. This Letter of Intent documents the results of the above examination. It formalizes the details of interfaces, working agreements, and requirements for obtaining and transferring tank waste samples from the Tank Farm System (RPP Process Engineering, Characterization Project Operations, and RPP Quality Assurance) to the characterization laboratory complex (222-S Laboratory, Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford Analytical Service Program) and for the laboratory complex analysis and reporting of analytical results.

  18. Analytical and Computational Aspects of Collaborative Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    Bilevel problem formulations have received considerable attention as an approach to multidisciplinary optimization in engineering. We examine the analytical and computational properties of one such approach, collaborative optimization. The resulting system-level optimization problems suffer from inherent computational difficulties due to the bilevel nature of the method. Most notably, it is impossible to characterize and hence identify solutions of the system-level problems because the standard first-order conditions for solutions of constrained optimization problems do not hold. The analytical features of the system-level problem make it difficult to apply conventional nonlinear programming algorithms. Simple examples illustrate the analysis and the algorithmic consequences for optimization methods. We conclude with additional observations on the practical implications of the analytical and computational properties of collaborative optimization.

  19. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  20. Analytical Services Management System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standardmore » chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.« less

  1. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  2. Social Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers. Online social…

  3. Challenges for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Kielman, Joseph

    2009-09-23

    Visual analytics has seen unprecedented growth in its first five years of mainstream existence. Great progress has been made in a short time, yet great challenges must be met in the next decade to provide new technologies that will be widely accepted by societies throughout the world. This paper sets the stage for some of those challenges in an effort to provide the stimulus for the research, both basic and applied, to address and exceed the envisioned potential for visual analytics technologies. We start with a brief summary of the initial challenges, followed by a discussion of the initial driving domains and applications, as well as additional applications and domains that have been a part of recent rapid expansion of visual analytics usage. We look at the common characteristics of several tools illustrating emerging visual analytics technologies, and conclude with the top ten challenges for the field of study. We encourage feedback and collaborative participation by members of the research community, the wide array of user communities, and private industry.

  4. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  5. Analytical Instrument Obsolescence Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggin, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The threat of instrument obsolescence and tight federal budgets have conspired to threaten the existence of research analytical laboratories. Despite these and other handicaps most existing laboratories expect to keep operating in support of basic research, though there may be serious penalties in the future unless funds are forthcoming. (Author)

  6. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  7. A Variable Trajectory Plume Segment Model to Assess Ground-Level Air Concentrations and Depositions of Routine Effluent Releases from Nuclear Power Facilities.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-05-27

    Version: 00 MESODIF-II, which embodies a variable trajectory plume segment atmospheric transport model, is designed to predict normalized air concentrations and deposition of radioactive, but otherwise non-reactive, effluents released from one or two levels over the same position in an xy-plane. In such a model, calculated particle trajectories vary as synoptic scale wind varies. At all sampling times, the particles are connected to form a segmented plume centerline. The lateral and vertical dimensions of themore » plume are determined by a parameterization of turbulence scale diffusion. The impetus for the development of this model arose from the need of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess radiological effects resulting from routine nuclear power reactor operations, as outlined in U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.111.« less

  8. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  9. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  10. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  11. A review of geoscience characteristics and disposal experience at the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1989-08-01

    The West Valley Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal site is located about 48 km south of Buffalo, New York. Operation of the site began in 1961 by Nuclear Fuels Service and was terminated in 1975. The disposal trenches at the site are excavated about 5 m into glacial till that has a thickness of about 28 m. About 65,000 m{sup 3} of the waste containing approximately 710,000 Ci were disposed at the site during the operational period. Ground-water movement through the till is predominantly downward as indicated by measurements and numerical simulation of hydraulic head. Radionuclides do not appear to have migrated more than 3 m either laterally or vertically from the waste disposal trenches. Numerical simulations of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C migration are able to reproduce the observed concentration in the till beneath selected trenches. Uncertainty remains with respect to the continuity and heterogeneity of the hydrostratigraphic units and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity. More work is needed to better define the waste inventory and any long-term changes that might be expected. Erosion poses a potential threat to the long-term integrity of the disposal area. 56 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. MAR flow mapping of Analytical Chemistry Operations (Preliminary Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-06-13

    The recently released Supplemental Directive, NA-1 SD 1027, updates the radionuclide threshold values in DOE-STD-1027-92 CN1 to reflect the use of modern parameters for dose conversion factors and breathing rates. The directive also corrects several arithmetic errors within the original standard. The result is a roughly four-fold increase in the amount of weapons-grade nuclear material allowed within a designated radiological facility. Radiological laboratory space within the recently constructed Radiological Laboratory Office and Utility Building (RLUOB) is slated to house selected analytical chemistry support activities in addition to small-scale actinide R&D activities. RLUOB is within the same facility operations envelope as TA-55. Consolidation of analytical chemistry activities to RLUOB and PF-4 offers operational efficiency improvements relative to the current pre-CMRR plans of dividing these activities between RLUOB, PF-4, and CMR. RLUOB is considered a Radiological Facility under STD-1027 - 'Facilities that do not meet or exceed Category 3 threshold criteria but still possess some amount of radioactive material may be considered Radiological Facilities.' The supplemental directive essentially increases the allowable material-at-risk (MAR) within radiological facilities from 8.4 g to 38.6 g for {sup 239}Pu. This increase in allowable MAR provides a unique opportunity to establish additional analytical chemistry support functions in RLUOB without negatively impacting either R&D activities or facility operations. Individual radiological facilities are tasked to determine MAR limits (up to the Category 3 thresholds) appropriate to their operational conditions. This study presents parameters that impact establishing MAR limits for RLUOB and an assessment of how various analytical chemistry support functions could operate within the established MAR limits.

  13. High vacuum facility for hydrazine thruster testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, Patrick F.

    1990-01-01

    An ongoing modification is described of a large vacuum chamber to accommodate the ignition of an arcjet hydrazine thruster while maintaining a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less. The vacuum facility consists of a 20 ft stainless steel vacuum tank with an internal LN2 shroud, four 35 in. cryopumps and an 8 in. turbopump. To maintain a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less, 900 sq ft of liquid helium (LHe) shroud surface was installed to maintain the vacuum level and pumping requirements. A vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less will allow the hydrazine thrust to exit the thruster nozzle and radiate into a space type environment so that the plume flow field can be analyzed and compared to the analytical model density distribution profile. Some other arcjet thruster characteristics measured are the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and exhaust contamination. This data is used to evaluate if the arcjet thruster with its high specific impulse in comparison to current chemical propulsion thruster can be used for the next generation of communication satellites.

  14. Analytical caustic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  15. Requirements for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-03-01

    It is important to have a clear understanding of how traditional Business Intelligence (BI) and analytics are different and how they fit together in optimizing organizational decision making. With tradition BI, activities are focused primarily on providing context to enhance a known set of information through aggregation, data cleansing and delivery mechanisms. As these organizations mature their BI ecosystems, they achieve a clearer picture of the key performance indicators signaling the relative health of their operations. Organizations that embark on activities surrounding predictive analytics and data mining go beyond simply presenting the data in a manner that will allow decisions makers to have a complete context around the information. These organizations generate models based on known information and then apply other organizational data against these models to reveal unknown information.

  16. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  17. Analytic holographic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Christopher P.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate a holographic superconductor that admits an analytic treatment near the phase transition. In the dual 3+1-dimensional field theory, the phase transition occurs when a scalar operator of scaling dimension two gets a vacuum expectation value. We calculate current-current correlation functions along with the speed of second sound near the critical temperature. We also make some remarks about critical exponents. An analytic treatment is possible because an underlying Heun equation describing the zero mode of the phase transition has a polynomial solution. Amusingly, the treatment here may generalize for an order parameter with any integer spin, and we propose a Lagrangian for a spin-two holographic superconductor.

  18. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  19. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  20. Existing technology transfer report: analytical capabilities. Appendix B. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    The overall objective of the on-going analytical efforts was to develop in-house expertise and analytical capability for the analysis of coal and coal-derived products in support of SRC-I process technology. The approach taken and work accomplished involved: identification of test methods and associated equipment; review and implementation of analytical facility plan; evaluation of existing instrumentation; evaluation and purchase of new instruments; training of laboratory personnel; validation or development of analytical methods; development of standard product work-up methods and development of analytical protocol for detailed characterization of SRC-I solid and liquid products. This volume contains Appendix B with the following attachments: solvent separation procedure A; Wilsonville solvent separation procedure, distillation separation procedure; solvent separation modified Wilsonville Procedure W; statistical comparison of 3 solvent separation procedures; methods development for column chromatography, and application of gas chromatography to characterization of a hydrogen donor solvent; and high performance liquid chromatographic procedure.