Science.gov

Sample records for levelized life-cycle costs

  1. Life Cycle Costing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  2. Life cycle costs for disposal and assured isolation of low-level radioactive waste in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, B.; Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents life cycle costs for a low-level radioactive disposal facility and a comparable assured isolation facility. Cost projections were based on general plans and assumptions, including volume projections and operating life, provided by the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, for a facility designed to meet the State`s needs. Life cycle costs include the costs of pre-construction activities, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure institutional control. In order to provide a better basis for understanding the relative magnitude of near-term costs and future costs, the results of present value analysis of ut-year costs are provided.

  3. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter; R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  4. BICYCLE: a computer code for calculating levelized life-cycle costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    This report serves as a user's manual for the BICYCLE computer code. BICYCLE was specifically designed to calculate levelized life-cycle costs for plants that produce electricity, heat, gaseous fuels, or liquid fuels. Included in this report are (1) derivations of the equations used by BICYCLE, (2) input instructions, (3) sample case input, and (4) sample case output.

  5. BICYCLE II: a computer code for calculating levelized life-cycle costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes the BICYCLE computer code. BICYCLE was specifically designed to calculate levelized life-cycle costs for plants that produce electricity, heat, gaseous fuels, or liquid fuels. Included are (1) derivations of the equations used by BICYCLE, (2) input instructions, (3) sample case input, and (4) sample case output.

  6. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  7. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  8. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  9. Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

    1999-08-01

    This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis task summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1980-01-01

    The DSN life cycle cost (LCC) analysis methodology was completed. The LCC analysis methodology goals and objectives are summarized, as well as the issues covered by the methodology, its expected use, and its long range implications.

  11. Life cycle cost based program decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, James S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: background (space propulsion facility assessment team final report); changes (Advanced Launch System, National Aerospace Plane, and space exploration initiative); life cycle cost analysis rationale; and recommendation to panel.

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, consumptive water use and levelized costs of unconventional oil in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan

    Conventional petroleum production in many countries that supply U.S. crude oil as well as domestic production has declined in recent years. Along with instability in the world oil market, this has stimulated the discussion of developing unconventional oil production, e.g., oil sands and oil shale. Expanding the U.S. energy mix to include oil sands and oil shale may be an important component in diversifying and securing the U.S. energy supply. At the same time, life cycle GHG emissions of these energy sources and consumptive water use are a concern. In this study, consumptive water use includes not only fresh water use but entire consumptive use including brackish water and seawater. The goal of this study is to determine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and consumptive water use of synthetic crude oil (SCO) derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale to be compared with U.S. domestic crude oil, U.S. imported crude oil, and coal-to-liquid (CTL). Levelized costs of SCO derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale were also estimated. The results of this study suggest that CTL with no carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and current electricity grid mix is the worst while crude oil imported from United Kingdom is the best in GHG emissions. The life cycle GHG emissions of oil shale surface mining, oil shale in-situ process, oil sands surface mining, and oil sands in-situ process are 43% to 62%, 13% to 32%, 5% to 22%, and 11% to 13% higher than those of U.S. domestic crude oil. Oil shale in-situ process has the largest consumptive water use among alternative fuels, evaluated due to consumptive water use in electricity generation. Life cycle consumptive water use of oil sands in-situ process is the lowest. Specifically, fresh water consumption in the production processes is the most concern given its scarcity. However, disaggregated data on fresh water consumption in the total water consumption of each fuel production process is not available

  13. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, consumptive water use and levelized costs of unconventional oil in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan

    Conventional petroleum production in many countries that supply U.S. crude oil as well as domestic production has declined in recent years. Along with instability in the world oil market, this has stimulated the discussion of developing unconventional oil production, e.g., oil sands and oil shale. Expanding the U.S. energy mix to include oil sands and oil shale may be an important component in diversifying and securing the U.S. energy supply. At the same time, life cycle GHG emissions of these energy sources and consumptive water use are a concern. In this study, consumptive water use includes not only fresh water use but entire consumptive use including brackish water and seawater. The goal of this study is to determine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and consumptive water use of synthetic crude oil (SCO) derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale to be compared with U.S. domestic crude oil, U.S. imported crude oil, and coal-to-liquid (CTL). Levelized costs of SCO derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale were also estimated. The results of this study suggest that CTL with no carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and current electricity grid mix is the worst while crude oil imported from United Kingdom is the best in GHG emissions. The life cycle GHG emissions of oil shale surface mining, oil shale in-situ process, oil sands surface mining, and oil sands in-situ process are 43% to 62%, 13% to 32%, 5% to 22%, and 11% to 13% higher than those of U.S. domestic crude oil. Oil shale in-situ process has the largest consumptive water use among alternative fuels, evaluated due to consumptive water use in electricity generation. Life cycle consumptive water use of oil sands in-situ process is the lowest. Specifically, fresh water consumption in the production processes is the most concern given its scarcity. However, disaggregated data on fresh water consumption in the total water consumption of each fuel production process is not available

  14. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  15. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  16. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the present values of— (a) Investment costs, less...

  17. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  18. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the present values of— (a) Investment costs, less...

  19. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  20. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  1. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  2. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  3. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  4. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  5. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  6. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  7. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  8. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  9. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  10. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  11. Automation life-cycle cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gathmann, Thomas P.; Reeves, Arlinda J.; Cline, Rick; Henrion, Max; Ruokangas, Corinne

    1992-01-01

    The problem domain being addressed by this contractual effort can be summarized by the following list: Automation and Robotics (A&R) technologies appear to be viable alternatives to current, manual operations; Life-cycle cost models are typically judged with suspicion due to implicit assumptions and little associated documentation; and Uncertainty is a reality for increasingly complex problems and few models explicitly account for its affect on the solution space. The objectives for this effort range from the near-term (1-2 years) to far-term (3-5 years). In the near-term, the envisioned capabilities of the modeling tool are annotated. In addition, a framework is defined and developed in the Decision Modelling System (DEMOS) environment. Our approach is summarized as follows: Assess desirable capabilities (structure into near- and far-term); Identify useful existing models/data; Identify parameters for utility analysis; Define tool framework; Encode scenario thread for model validation; and Provide transition path for tool development. This report contains all relevant, technical progress made on this contractual effort.

  12. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discount rate annually provided by DOE under 10 CFR part 436. The energy cost escalation rates must not... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy... life-cycle cost analysis, which may not exceed 15 years, shall be the useful life of the...

  13. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discount rate annually provided by DOE under 10 CFR part 436. The energy cost escalation rates must not... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy... life-cycle cost analysis, which may not exceed 15 years, shall be the useful life of the...

  14. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discount rate annually provided by DOE under 10 CFR part 436. The energy cost escalation rates must not... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy... life-cycle cost analysis, which may not exceed 15 years, shall be the useful life of the...

  15. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discount rate annually provided by DOE under 10 CFR part 436. The energy cost escalation rates must not... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy... life-cycle cost analysis, which may not exceed 15 years, shall be the useful life of the...

  16. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discount rate annually provided by DOE under 10 CFR part 436. The energy cost escalation rates must not... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy... life-cycle cost analysis, which may not exceed 15 years, shall be the useful life of the...

  17. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  18. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing....

  19. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing....

  20. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  1. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  2. Life cycle cost estimating of waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.; Waldman, M.

    1994-12-31

    Waste Management Facilities cost Information (WMFCI) provides a modular cost method for estimating planning-level life-cycle costs of waste management alternatives. This methodology includes over 120 cost modules that cover a variety of treatment, storage, disposal, and support facility options. The WMFCI method can be used to estimate virtually every technology option and related facilities needed by the Department of Energy for cradle-to-grave management of hazardous, radioactive, mixed waste, and spent nuclear fuel. Various waste streams covered by the WMFCI are low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha contaminated LLW, alpha contaminated MLLW, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case wastes, and hazardous wastes. The methodology also contains cost versus capacity relationships for each cost module to aid in estimating various waste management configurations.

  3. Research requirements to reduce civil helicopter life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of the high cost of helicopter development, production, operation, and maintenance is defined and the cost drivers are identified. Helicopter life cycle costs would decrease by about 17 percent if currently available technology were applied. With advanced technology, a reduction of about 30 percent in helicopter life cycle costs is projected. Technological and managerial deficiencies which contribute to high costs are examined, basic research and development projects which can reduce costs include methods for reduced fuel consumption; improved turbine engines; airframe and engine production methods; safety; rotor systems; and advanced transmission systems.

  4. Life cycle costs for chemical process pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Urwin, B.; Blong, R.; Jamieson, C.; Erickson, B.

    1998-01-01

    Though construction and startup costs are always a concern, proper investment in equipment and installation will save money down the line. This is particularly important for heavily used items, such as centrifugal pumps, one of the workhouses of the chemical process industries (CPI). By properly sizing and installing a centrifugal pump, the life and efficiency of the pump can be increased. At the same time, maintenance costs can be reduced. When considering a new pump, there are several areas that require attention. The first is the baseplate design. The impeller is another area of concern. The seal chamber, the third area of importance, must be designed for proper heat dissipation and lubrication of seal faces. Lastly, the power end must be considered. Optimum bearing life, effective oil cooling and minimum shaft deflection are all vital. The paper discusses installation costs, operating cost, maintenance cost, seal environment, and extended bearing life.

  5. Constellation Program Life-cycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andy; Rose, Heidi; Wood, James

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.

  6. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, Philip M.; Ross, Steven B.; Biwer, Bruce

    1999-12-17

    This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

  7. Optimizing conceptual aircraft designs for minimum life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.

    1989-01-01

    A life cycle cost (LCC) module has been added to the FLight Optimization System (FLOPS), allowing the additional optimization variables of life cycle cost, direct operating cost, and acquisition cost. Extensive use of the methodology on short-, medium-, and medium-to-long range aircraft has demonstrated that the system works well. Results from the study show that optimization parameter has a definite effect on the aircraft, and that optimizing an aircraft for minimum LCC results in a different airplane than when optimizing for minimum take-off gross weight (TOGW), fuel burned, direct operation cost (DOC), or acquisition cost. Additionally, the economic assumptions can have a strong impact on the configurations optimized for minimum LCC or DOC. Also, results show that advanced technology can be worthwhile, even if it results in higher manufacturing and operating costs. Examining the number of engines a configuration should have demonstrated a real payoff of including life cycle cost in the conceptual design process: the minimum TOGW of fuel aircraft did not always have the lowest life cycle cost when considering the number of engines.

  8. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  9. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  10. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  11. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  12. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  13. Life-cycle costs of high-performance cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R.; Burger, D.; Reiter, L.

    1985-01-01

    A life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells was presented. Although high efficiency cells produce more power, they also cost more to make and are more susceptible to array hot-spot heating. Three different computer analysis programs were used: SAMICS (solar array manufacturing industry costing standards), PVARRAY (an array failure mode/degradation simulator), and LCP (lifetime cost and performance). The high efficiency cell modules were found to be more economical in this study, but parallel redundancy is recommended.

  14. Airlift deployment analysis system life cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Das, S. ); Worthington, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters, Military Airlift Command (HQ MAC) with planning, scheduling, and analysis tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. This Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis identifies cost factors impacting ADANS during its life cycle. This analysis lists exact costs when known and reasonable estimates of other costs. This report states costs in fiscal year (FY) dollars for costs already expended (FY86--FY89) and in FY90 dollars for projected costs. Factors that could have a substantial impact on the ADANS life cycle development and maintenance costs are noted. The development effort will conclude in FY92. This LCC analysis covers a 15-year period from FY86--FY00. The total costs of ADANS is projected to be approximately $60 million. Of this total, about 20% is for development of functional capability, about 9% for development of the cross-cutting subsystems, and about 71% for program and system support. The total Oak Ridge National Laboratory development cost for FY86--FY92 is about $27.5 million; the total cost for HQ MAC is about 32.5 million. 32 tabs.

  15. Life cycle cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents progress to date by the University of Dayton on the development of a life cycle cost model for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of a life cycle cost model. Cost categories are initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. The focus will be on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the life cycle costing model include continual support and upgrade of the R&M model. The primary result of the completed research will be a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely cost analysis in support of the conceptual design activities. The major objectives of this research are: to obtain and to develop improved methods for estimating manpower, spares, software and hardware costs, facilities costs, and other cost categories as identified by NASA personnel; to construct a life cycle cost model of a space transportation system for budget exercises and performance-cost trade-off analysis during the conceptual and development stages; to continue to support modifications and enhancements to the R&M model; and to continue to assist in the development of a simulation model to provide an integrated view of the operations and support of the proposed system.

  16. LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS FOR CONDENSATE RECEIVING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Russell E. Flye

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the life-cycle costs of several options relevant to the Condensate Removal System serving the Compressed Air System (CAS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The best option (least present value) will be selected as the preferred configuration to construct.

  17. Economic analysis of life cycle costing irrigation pipe network design

    SciTech Connect

    Bliesner, R.D.; Keller, J.; Watters, G.Z.; Cone, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Three irrigation systems (solid set sprinkle, trickle and center pivot) were designed using a computerized life cycle costing irrigation pipe network design program for economic life cycles of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years with irrigation demand, interest plus profit, initial energy cost and energy inflation held constant. A comparative economic analysis was made of the designs to determine the impact of economic life cycle on energy usage, capital cost, total annual cost over the system life and annual cost over loan period for the three system types. Since farmers can rarely borrow money for the full economic life of the system, the annual cost over the loan term of a more expensive, energy efficient system may not be affordable. A procedure for examining the extra cash flow required and energy saved by designing for the full economic life as opposed to designing for the shorter loan term is presented as well as one possible method of determining a tax incentive program to encourage the design of more energy efficient systems. For the economic parameters used, a relatively small tax incentive produces a significant energy savings. However, different values for the economic parameters could significantly change the results.

  18. Minimizing life cycle cost for subsonic commercial aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.S. )

    1990-02-01

    A methodology is presented which facilitates the identification of that aircraft design concept which will incur the lowest life-cycle costs (LCCs) while meeting mission requirements. The methodology consists of an LCC module whose constituent elements calculate the costs associated with R D, testing, evaluation, and production, as well as direct and indirect operating costs, in conjunction with the Flight Optimization System conceptual design/analysis code. Provision is made in the methodology for sensitivities to advanced technologies for the subsonic commercial aircraft in question, which are optimized with respect to minimum gross weight, fuel consumption, acquisition cost, and direct operating cost. 12 refs.

  19. Minimizing life cycle cost for subsonic commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology is presented which facilitates the identification of that aircraft design concept which will incur the lowest life-cycle costs (LCCs) while meeting mission requirements. The methodology consists of an LCC module whose constituent elements calculate the costs associated with R&D, testing, evaluation, and production, as well as direct and indirect operating costs, in conjunction with the 'Flight Optimization System' conceptual design/analysis code. Provision is made in the methodology for sensitivities to advanced technologies for the subsonic commercial aircraft in question, which are optimized with respect to minimum gross weight, fuel consumption, acquisition cost, and direct operating cost.

  20. Error Cost Escalation Through the Project Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the project matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a project life cycle. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical project method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having project characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the project life cycle. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units

  1. Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Paul R; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Eckerle, Kevin; Hendryx, Michael; Stout Iii, Benjamin M; Heinberg, Richard; Clapp, Richard W; May, Beverly; Reinhart, Nancy L; Ahern, Melissa M; Doshi, Samir K; Glustrom, Leslie

    2011-02-01

    Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered "externalities." We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world. PMID:21332493

  2. Probabilistic Life Cycle Cost Model for Repairable System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, H. Y.; Osman, Sabtuni

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, Life cycle cost (LCC) has been predicted in a deterministic approach, however; this method is not capable to consider the uncertainties in the input variables. In this paper, a probabilistic approach using Adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to estimate the LCC of repairable systems. The developed model could handle the uncertainties of input variables in the estimation of LCC. The numerical analysis shows that the acquisition and downtime cost could have a high effect towards the LCC compared to repair cost. The developed model could also provide more precise quantitative information for decision making process.

  3. Life-cycle cost analysis of advanced design mixer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    This analysis provides cost justification for the Advanced Design Mixer Pump program based on the cost benefit to the Hanford Site of 4 mixer pump systems defined in terms of the life-cycle cost.A computer model is used to estimate the total number of service hours necessary for each mixer pump to operate over the 20-year retrieval sequence period for single-shell tank waste. This study also considered the double-shell tank waste retrieved prior to the single-shell tank waste which is considered the initial retrieval.

  4. Life cycle cost evaluation of the digital opacity compliance system.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Olivas, Arthur C

    2010-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established EPA Reference Method 9 (Method 9) as the preferred enforcement approach for verifying compliance with federal visible opacity standards. While Method 9 has an extensive history of successful employment, reliance on human observers to quantify visible emissions is inherently subjective, a characteristic that exposes Method 9 results to claims of inaccuracy, bias and, in some cases, outright fraud. The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS), which employs commercial-off-the-shelf digital photography coupled with simple computer processing, is a new approach for quantifying visible opacity. The DOCS technology has been previously demonstrated to meet and, in many cases, surpass the Method 9 accuracy and reliability standards (McFarland et al., 2006). Beyond its performance relative to Method 9, DOCS provides a permanent visual record of opacity, a vital feature in legal compliance challenges. In recent DOCS field testing, the opacity analysis of two hundred and forty one (241) regulated air emissions from the following industrial processes: 1) industrial scrubbers, 2) emergency generators, 3) asphalt paving, 4) steel production and 5) incineration indicated that Method 9 and DOCS were statistically equivalent at the 99% confidence level. However, a life cycle cost analysis demonstrated that implementation of DOCS could potentially save a facility $15,732 per trained opacity observer compared to utilization of Method 9. PMID:20022420

  5. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  6. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  7. Estimating the Life Cycle Cost of Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A space system's Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes design and development, launch and emplacement, and operations and maintenance. Each of these cost factors is usually estimated separately. NASA uses three different parametric models for the design and development cost of crewed space systems; the commercial PRICE-H space hardware cost model, the NASA-Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM), and the Advanced Missions Cost Model (AMCM). System mass is an important parameter in all three models. System mass also determines the launch and emplacement cost, which directly depends on the cost per kilogram to launch mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The launch and emplacement cost is the cost to launch to LEO the system itself and also the rockets, propellant, and lander needed to emplace it. The ratio of the total launch mass to payload mass depends on the mission scenario and destination. The operations and maintenance costs include any material and spares provided, the ground control crew, and sustaining engineering. The Mission Operations Cost Model (MOCM) estimates these costs as a percentage of the system development cost per year.

  8. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  9. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  10. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  11. Life cycle cost analysis of aging aircraft airframe maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperry, Kenneth Robert

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between an aircraft's age and its annual airframe maintenance costs. Common life cycle costing methodology has previously not recognized the existence of this cost growth potential, and has therefor not determined the magnitude nor significance of this cost element. This study analyzed twenty-five years of DOT Form 41-airframe maintenance cost data for the Boeing 727, 737, 747 and McDonnell Douglas DC9 and DC-10 aircraft. Statistical analysis included regression analysis, Pearson's r, and t-tests to test the null hypothesis. Findings and conclusion. Airframe maintenance cost growth was confirmed to be increasing after an aircraft's age exceeded its designed service objective of approximately twenty-years. Annual airframe maintenance cost growth increases were measured ranging from 3.5% annually for a DC-9, to approximately 9% annually for a DC-10 aircraft. Average measured coefficient of determination between age and airframe maintenance, exceeded .80, confirming a strong relationship between cost: and age. The statistical significance of the difference between airframe costs sampled in 1985, compared to airframe costs sampled in 1998 was confirmed by t-tests performed on each subject aircraft group. Future cost forecasts involving aging aircraft subjects must address cost growth due to aging when attempting to model an aircraft's economic service life.

  12. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In making a determination that a covered product is not life-cycle cost-effective, an agency should rely...

  13. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  14. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  15. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  16. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  17. Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

    1996-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the NEPA and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report. Specifically, costs for high-level waste are found in this section, as well as supplemental costs for additional low-level waste and hazardous waste alternatives.

  18. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  19. 7 CFR 3201.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle...

  2. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicles, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The design, performance, and programmatic definition of shuttle derived launch vehicles (SDLV) established by two different contractors were assessed and the relative life cycle costs of space transportation systems using the shuttle alone were compared with costs for a mix of shuttles and SDLV's. The ground rules and assumptions used in the evaluation are summarized and the work breakdown structure is included. Approaches used in deriving SDLV costs, including calibration factors and historical data are described. Both SDLV cost estimates and SDLV/STS cost comparisons are summarized. Standard formats are used to report comprehensive SDLV life cycle estimates. Hardware cost estimates (below subsystem level) obtained using the RCA PRICE 84 cost model are included along with other supporting data.

  3. Life cycle cost analysis for the Plasma Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes-Smith, P.

    1994-03-01

    This document is a draft version. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program requested that the Systems Analysis Group investigate the cost effectiveness of using the Plasma Arc Furnace (PAF) module in place of specified thermal and final forms treatment equipment in the baseline Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) study as performed by Bechtel Corporation, September 1992. The attached estimates are based on the process equipment and facilities cost data contained in the Bechtel study. The PAF process equipment and facilities cost data were developed using independent cost estimates for the equipment list provided by SAIC, Waste Management and Technology Division, in cooperation with the Pollution Prevention and Systems Analysis Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Division. In order to develop the total life cycle cost estimate comparison for this study, it was necessary to use a common base for comparison. Although it was felt that the Bechtel MWTP study did not fully reflect the optimum size for the thermal and final forms treatment equipment, it was the best available data at the time.

  4. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  5. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius. PMID:23240194

  7. Evaluation of the developing DSN life-cycle cost standard practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1978-01-01

    The DSN is developing a life-cycle cost standard practice by comparison to those of industry and the Department of Defense. Results show that the DSN uses the accepted concept of life-cycle costing, tailoring the concept to DSN specific needs, but does not push the concept past the point of prevailing theory.

  8. Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach.

    PubMed

    Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Colosi, Lisa M; White, Mark A; Clarens, Andres F

    2012-12-01

    Algae are an attractive energy source, but important questions still exist about the sustainability of this technology on a large scale. Two particularly important questions concern the method of cultivation and the type of algae to be used. This present study combines elements of life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate open pond (OP) systems and horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) for the cultivation of freshwater (FW) or brackish-to-saline water (BSW) algae. Based on the LCA, OPs have lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than PBRs; e.g., 32% less energy use for construction and operation. According to the LCC, all four systems are currently financially unattractive investments, though OPs are less so than PBRs. BSW species deliver better energy and GHG performance and higher profitability than FW species in both OPs and PBRs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that improvements in critical cultivation parameters (e.g., CO(2) utilization efficiency or algae lipid content), conversion parameters (e.g., anaerobic digestion efficiency), and market factors (e.g., costs of CO(2) and electricity, or sale prices for algae biodiesel) could alter these results. PMID:23117186

  9. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  10. Survey of life-cycle costs of glass-paper HEPA filters. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.; Bergman, W.; Gilbert, H.

    1992-12-01

    We have conducted a survey of the major users of glass-paper HEPA filters in the DOE complex to ascertain the life cycle costs of these filters. Purchase price of the filters is only a minor portion of the costs; the major expenditures are incurred during the removal and disposal of contaminated filters. Through a combination of personal interviews, site visits and completion of questionnaires, we have determined the costs associated with the use of HEPA filters in the DOE complex. The total approximate, life-cycle cost for a glass-paper HEPA filter is $3,000 for one considered low-level waste (LLW), $11,780 for transuranic (TRU) and $15,000 for high-level waste (HLW). The weighted-average cost for a standard HEPA fitter in the complex is $4,753. Although the cost estimate represents an average for all sizes and types of HEPA filters used in DOE facilities, the majority of the fitters are 2 ft {times} 2 ft {times} l ft filters with wooden frames, deep pleated glass-fiber media, and an adhesive sealant.

  11. Survey of life-cycle costs of glass-paper HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.; Bergman, W.; Gilbert, H.

    1992-12-01

    We have conducted a survey of the major users of glass-paper HEPA filters in the DOE complex to ascertain the life cycle costs of these filters. Purchase price of the filters is only a minor portion of the costs; the major expenditures are incurred during the removal and disposal of contaminated filters. Through a combination of personal interviews, site visits and completion of questionnaires, we have determined the costs associated with the use of HEPA filters in the DOE complex. The total approximate, life-cycle cost for a glass-paper HEPA filter is $3,000 for one considered low-level waste (LLW), $11,780 for transuranic (TRU) and $15,000 for high-level waste (HLW). The weighted-average cost for a standard HEPA fitter in the complex is $4,753. Although the cost estimate represents an average for all sizes and types of HEPA filters used in DOE facilities, the majority of the fitters are 2 ft [times] 2 ft [times] l ft filters with wooden frames, deep pleated glass-fiber media, and an adhesive sealant.

  12. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis

  13. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Highlights Hydrogen's Potential for Electrical Energy Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in analyzing life-cycle costs for hydrogen storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  14. Body-in-white material systems: A life-cycle cost comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieffenbach, Jeff R.; Mascarin, Anthony E.

    1993-06-01

    To be competitive in the global automobile industry, it is no longer enough to understand manufacturing cost alone. The growing emphasis on environmental impact has forced life-cycle cost issues to the forefront. This article defines the life cycle of automotive structures and exterior panels—the body-in-white—to include manufacturing, operation, and post-use. These body-in-white life-cycle costs are assessed for a midsize, four-door sedan using an implementation of a technique called technical cost modeling. This article describes the life-cycle cost-assessment methodology and applies it for alternative body-in-white structure and exterior panel materials. These include steel stampings; aluminum stampings, extrusions, and castings; and resin/glass composite and thermoplastic moldings. The life-cycle costs are presented and analyzed for varying manufacturing scenarios. Although life-cycle costs currently do not drive the decision-making process in the automotive industries, legislative and consumer pressures could one day give them added weight.

  15. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: A life-cycle costing approach

    SciTech Connect

    Massarutto, Antonio; Carli, Alessandro de; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The study aims at assessing economic performance of alternative scenarios of MSW. > The approach is the life-cycle costing (LCC). > Waste technologies must be considered as complementary into an integrated strategy. - Abstract: A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  16. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  17. Energy and life-cycle cost analysis of a six-story office building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turiel, I.

    1981-10-01

    An energy analysis computer program, DOE-2, was used to compute annual energy use for a typical office building as originally designed and with several energy conserving design modifications. The largest energy use reductions were obtained with the incorporation of daylighting techniques, the use of double pane windows, night temperature setback, and the reduction of artificial lighting levels. A life-cycle cost model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the design modifications discussed. The model incorporates such features as inclusion of taxes, depreciation, and financing of conservation investments. The energy conserving strategies are ranked according to economic criteria such as net present benefit, discounted payback period, and benefit to cost ratio.

  18. Digital Avionics Information System Preliminary Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis. Final Report (November 1974-May 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Gary K.; Dieterly, Duncan L.

    The results of a study to evaluate the potential life-cycle costs and cost savings that could be realized by applying the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept to future avionic systems were presented. The tasks evaluated included selection of program elements for costing, selection of DAIS installation potential, definition of a…

  19. Analysis of the seismic performance of isolated buildings according to life-cycle cost.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yu; Han, Jian-Ping; Li, Yong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator of seismic performance based on life-cycle cost of a building. It is expressed as a ratio of lifetime damage loss to life-cycle cost and determines the seismic performance of isolated buildings. Major factors are considered, including uncertainty in hazard demand and structural capacity, initial costs, and expected loss during earthquakes. Thus, a high indicator value indicates poor building seismic performance. Moreover, random vibration analysis is conducted to measure structural reliability and evaluate the expected loss and life-cycle cost of isolated buildings. The expected loss of an actual, seven-story isolated hospital building is only 37% of that of a fixed-base building. Furthermore, the indicator of the structural seismic performance of the isolated building is much lower in value than that of the structural seismic performance of the fixed-base building. Therefore, isolated buildings are safer and less risky than fixed-base buildings. The indicator based on life-cycle cost assists owners and engineers in making investment decisions in consideration of structural design, construction, and expected loss. It also helps optimize the balance between building reliability and building investment. PMID:25653677

  20. Analysis of the Seismic Performance of Isolated Buildings according to Life-Cycle Cost

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yu; Han, Jian-ping; Li, Yong-tao

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator of seismic performance based on life-cycle cost of a building. It is expressed as a ratio of lifetime damage loss to life-cycle cost and determines the seismic performance of isolated buildings. Major factors are considered, including uncertainty in hazard demand and structural capacity, initial costs, and expected loss during earthquakes. Thus, a high indicator value indicates poor building seismic performance. Moreover, random vibration analysis is conducted to measure structural reliability and evaluate the expected loss and life-cycle cost of isolated buildings. The expected loss of an actual, seven-story isolated hospital building is only 37% of that of a fixed-base building. Furthermore, the indicator of the structural seismic performance of the isolated building is much lower in value than that of the structural seismic performance of the fixed-base building. Therefore, isolated buildings are safer and less risky than fixed-base buildings. The indicator based on life-cycle cost assists owners and engineers in making investment decisions in consideration of structural design, construction, and expected loss. It also helps optimize the balance between building reliability and building investment. PMID:25653677

  1. Research on the Application of Life Cycle Cost Management in the Civil Aircraft Assembly Line Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawei, Lian; Xuefeng, Zhao

    Based on the investigation of airplane enterprises, the paper defines the life cycle of the airplane's assembly line in a reasonable way. It takes the model of project list in the stage of bidding to make it more actual. Regarding the airplane's assembly line, it also applies the equipments life cycle management theory into the using stage so that we can control the using cost more effectively. The paper uses the Crystal Ball to analyze the risk factors of the airplane's assembly line and improves the investment budget's accuracy.

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael; Halkyard, John

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  3. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated. PMID:26978648

  4. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    Designed to identify and quantify the potential impacts of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) on weapon system personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC), this study postulated a typical close-air-support (CAS) mission avionics suite to serve as a basis for comparing present day and DAIS configuration specifications. The purpose…

  5. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  6. Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; England, J.L.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-12-31

    A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective approach in response to SRS mission changes. A key parameter included in the LCC analysis was the cost of the disposal vaults required for the final stabilized wasteform(s) . The analysis indicated that volume reduction of the final stabilized wasteform(s) can provide significant cost savings. The LCC analysis demonstrated that one SRS project could be eliminated, and a second project could be totally ``rescoped and downsized.`` The changes resulted in an estimated Life Cycle Cost saving (over a 20 year period) of $270,000,000.

  7. Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; England, J.L.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective approach in response to SRS mission changes. A key parameter included in the LCC analysis was the cost of the disposal vaults required for the final stabilized wasteform(s) . The analysis indicated that volume reduction of the final stabilized wasteform(s) can provide significant cost savings. The LCC analysis demonstrated that one SRS project could be eliminated, and a second project could be totally rescoped and downsized.'' The changes resulted in an estimated Life Cycle Cost saving (over a 20 year period) of $270,000,000.

  8. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  9. Development, production and life cycle cost assessments for a military transatmospheric vehicle (TAV)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisman, M.; Gonzales, D.

    1997-01-01

    Transatmospheric Vehicles (TAVs) are envisioned as a new type of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) which could insert themselves or payloads into low earth orbit (LEO) or deliver payloads to distant targets within minutes. Such a vehicle may carry out military, civil, and commercial missions. This paper focuses specifically on two promising military TAV design concepts. Research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) costs are estimated for these concepts which include producing both demonstrator and prototype (i.e., X and Y) vehicles during the development phase. A total life cycle cost (LCC) budget forecast is generated for one TAV and for a fleet of six operational military TAVs. The total number of TAV launches provided over the assumed service life of the vehicle fleet are compared to the number provided by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) for the same total projected budget. The costing methodology used is described along with suggested implementation strategies that could potentially reduce the level of government investment needed for this system acquisition. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1988-11-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis reveals specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.

  12. Life-Cycle Cost/Benefit Assessment of Expedite Departure Path (EDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Chang, Paul; Datta, Koushik

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment (LCCBA) of Expedite Departure Path (EDP), an air traffic control Decision Support Tool (DST) currently under development at NASA. This assessment is an update of a previous study performed by bd Systems, Inc. (bd) during FY01, with the following revisions: The life-cycle cost assessment methodology developed by bd for the previous study was refined and calibrated using Free Flight Phase 1 (FFP1) cost information for Traffic Management Advisor (TMA, or TMA-SC in the FAA's terminology). Adjustments were also made to the site selection and deployment scheduling methodology to include airspace complexity as a factor. This technique was also applied to the benefit extrapolation methodology to better estimate potential benefits for other years, and at other sites. This study employed a new benefit estimating methodology because bd s previous single year potential benefit assessment of EDP used unrealistic assumptions that resulted in optimistic estimates. This methodology uses an air traffic simulation approach to reasonably predict the impacts from the implementation of EDP. The results of the costs and benefits analyses were then integrated into a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment.

  13. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM)--A Managerial Overview. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; Baran, H. Anthony

    This report gives a managerial overview of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM), which was designed to provide the Air Force with an in-house capability of assessing the life cycle cost impact of weapon system design alternatives. LCCIM consists of computer programs and the analyses which the user must perform to generate input data.…

  14. Life cycle cost-based risk model for energy performance contracting retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghorn, George H.

    Buildings account for 41% of the primary energy consumption in the United States, nearly half of which is accounted for by commercial buildings. Among the greatest energy users are those in the municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals (MUSH) market. Correctional facilities are in the upper half of all commercial building types for energy intensity. Public agencies have experienced reduced capital budgets to fund retrofits; this has led to the increased use of energy performance contracts (EPC), which are implemented by energy services companies (ESCOs). These companies guarantee a minimum amount of energy savings resulting from the retrofit activities, which in essence transfers performance risk from the owner to the contractor. Building retrofits in the MUSH market, especially correctional facilities, are well-suited to EPC, yet despite this potential and their high energy intensities, efficiency improvements lag behind that of other public building types. Complexities in project execution, lack of support for data requests and sub-metering, and conflicting project objectives have been cited as reasons for this lag effect. As a result, project-level risks must be understood in order to support wider adoption of retrofits in the public market, in particular the correctional facility sub-market. The goal of this research is to understand risks related to the execution of energy efficiency retrofits delivered via EPC in the MUSH market. To achieve this goal, in-depth analysis and improved understanding was sought with regard to ESCO risks that are unique to EPC in this market. The proposed work contributes to this understanding by developing a life cycle cost-based risk model to improve project decision making with regard to risk control and reduction. The specific objectives of the research are: (1) to perform an exploratory analysis of the EPC retrofit process and identify key areas of performance risk requiring in-depth analysis; (2) to construct a

  15. The multi-disciplinary design study. A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Duran, J. M.; Kauffman, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) is investigated as a comprehensive design criterion for two major interrelated spacecraft subsystems, Controls and Structures. A Multi-Disciplinary Design Tool (MDDT) is developed to evaluate the sensitivity of LCC to subsystem design parameters. Major costs addressed are: non-recurring; launch; ground support; maintenance; expendables; and software. Examples and results from the MDDT are described, including a structural optimization study between different truss designs; a solar array feathering trade for a minimal drag configuration during umbra; and the cost of active control of a flexible structure is compared against the cost of passive damping using visco-elastic material.

  16. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  17. Life cycle costing as a decision making tool for technology acquisition in radio-diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Abhijit; Debnath, Jyotindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Life cycle costing analysis is an emerging conceptual tool to validate capital investment in healthcare. Methods A preliminary study was done to analyze the long-term cost impact of acquiring a new 3 T MRI system when compared to technological upgradation of the existing 1.5 T MRI system with a view to evolve a decision matrix for correct investment planning and technology management. Operating costing method was utilized to estimate cost per unit MRI scan, costing inputs were considered for the existing 1.5 T and the proposed 3 T machine. Cost for each expected year in the life span of both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI scan options were then discounted to its Net Present Value. Net Present Value thus calculated for both the alternative options of 1.5 T and 3 T MRI machine was charted along with various intangible but critical Figures of Merit (FOM) to create a decision matrix for capital investment planning. Result Considering all fixed and variable costs contributing towards assumed operation, unit cost per MRI procedure was found to be Rs. 4244.58 for the 1.5 T upgrade and Rs. 6059.37 for the new 3 T MRI machine. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the proposed 1.5 T upgrade and new 3 T machine showed a Net Present Value of Rs. 42,148,587.80 and Rs. 27,587,842.38 respectively. Conclusion The utility of life cycle costing as a strategic decision making tool towards evaluating alternative options for capital investment planning in health care environment is reiterated. PMID:25609862

  18. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chan-Joong; Kim, Jimin; Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-09-15

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  19. Life-cycle costs of non-PCB distribution transformer alternatives. Final report, January-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Pulle, C.

    1990-05-01

    The U.S. Navy is investigating transformer alternatives to replace PCB transformers. Currently, NCEL is making a technical evaluation of various non PCB transformer replacement alternatives and determining the Life Cycle Costs (LCC) of these transformers. These include mineral oil, silicon oil, RTemp, amorphous core, vapor-cooled, ventilated dry, sealed dry, and cast coil at kVA ratings of 25, 75, 150, 300, 350, 500, 750, 1000, and 1500. Life cycle savings of amorphous core transformers over conventional silicon steel are also analyzed and show substantial savings. A 1500 kVA amorphous core transformer that is loaded at 90 percent and with a 15 percent price differential over a similar silicon steel transformer can produce life cycle savings of nearly $75,000 with a payback of 2 to 3 years. For the purpose of transformer cost comparison, life cycle costs are composed of the purchase price, load and no-load costs. Life cycle costs are computed for the entire life cycle of 30 years. Energy costs of 0.06/k Wh is used throughout this report with a compound growth rate of 5 percent over the assumed life cycle of 30 years for each transformer.

  20. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  1. MRS/IS facility co-located with a repository: preconceptual design and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.I.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    A program is described to examine the various alternatives for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and interim storage (IS) of spent nuclear fuel, solidified high-level waste (HLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste until appropriate geologic repository/repositories are available. The objectives of this study are: (1) to develop a preconceptual design for an MRS/IS facility that would become the principal surface facility for a deep geologic repository when the repository is opened, (2) to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facility, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such a facility, and (3) to estimate the life cycle costs of the facility when operated in response to a set of scenarios which define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, which generally span the years from 1990 until 2016. The life cycle costs estimated in this study include: the capital expenditures for structures, casks and/or drywells, storage areas and pads, and transfer equipment; the cost of staff labor, supplies, and services; and the incremental cost of transporting the waste materials from the site of origin to the MRS/IS facility. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life cycle costs of the MRS/IS facility. In the first scenario, HLW canisters are stored, starting in 1990, until the co-located repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at various intervals. In the second scenario, spent fuel is stored, starting in 1990, because the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but no HLW is stored because the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, HLW is stored, starting in 1990, because the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  2. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  3. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.

    1997-06-27

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge.

  4. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  5. The Need for Technology Maturity of Any Advanced Capability to Achieve Better Life Cycle Cost (LCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Programs such as space transportation systems are developed and deployed only rarely, and they have long development schedules and large development and life cycle costs (LCC). They have not historically had their LCC predicted well and have only had an effort to control the DDT&E phase of the programs. One of the factors driving the predictability, and thus control, of the LCC of a program is the maturity of the technologies incorporated in the program. If the technologies incorporated are less mature (as measured by their Technology Readiness Level - TRL), then the LCC not only increases but the degree of increase is difficult to predict. Consequently, new programs avoid incorporating technologies unless they are quite mature, generally TRL greater than or equal to 7 (system prototype demonstrated in a space environment) to allow better predictability of the DDT&E phase costs unless there is no alternative. On the other hand, technology development programs rarely develop technologies beyond TRL 6 (system/subsystem model or prototype demonstrated in a relevant environment). Currently the lack of development funds beyond TRL 6 and the major funding required for full scale development leave little or no funding available to prototype TRL 6 concepts so that hardware would be in the ready mode for safe, reliable and cost effective incorporation. The net effect is that each new program either incorporates little new technology or has longer development schedules and costs, and higher LCC, than planned. This paper presents methods to ensure that advanced technologies are incorporated into future programs while providing a greater accuracy of predicting their LCC. One method is having a dedicated organization to develop X-series vehicles or separate prototypes carried on other vehicles. The question of whether such an organization should be independent of NASA and/or have an independent funding source is discussed. Other methods are also discussed. How to make the

  6. Satisfaction in Stages of the Life Cycle, Levels of General Happiness and Frequency of Peak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert A. C.

    1976-01-01

    This study focuses on reported (a) satisfaction in stages of the life cycle; (b) levels of general happiness; and (c) frequency of peak experiences. Subjects were 48 undergraduate students (17 males, 31 females) at Laurentian University, Canada. Results from all three areas in this study accord closely with other relevant published work. (Author)

  7. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-20

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

  8. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  9. A simplified life-cycle cost comparison of various engines for small helicopter use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Fishbach, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A ten-year, life-cycle cost comparison is made of the following engines for small helicopter use: (1) simple turboshaft; (2) regenerative turboshaft; (3) compression-ignition reciprocator; (4) spark-ignited rotary; and (5) spark-ignited reciprocator. Based on a simplified analysis and somewhat approximate data, the simple turboshaft engine apparently has the lowest costs for mission times up to just under 2 hours. At 2 hours and above, the regenerative turboshaft appears promising. The reciprocating and rotary engines are less attractive, requiring from 10 percent to 80 percent more aircraft to have the same total payload capability as a given number of turbine powered craft. A nomogram was developed for estimating total costs of engines not covered in this study.

  10. The multi-disciplinary design study: A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Pichi, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The approach and results of a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Subsystem (SDPS) including gimbal pointing and power output performance are documented. The Multi-Discipline Design Tool (MDDT) computer program developed during the 1986 study has been modified to include the design, performance, and cost algorithms for the SDPS as described. As with the Space Station structural and control subsystems, the LCC of the SDPS can be computed within the MDDT program as a function of the engineering design variables. Two simple examples of MDDT's capability to evaluate cost sensitivity and design based on LCC are included. MDDT was designed to accept NASA's IMAT computer program data as input so that IMAT's detailed structural and controls design capability can be assessed with expected system LCC as computed by MDDT. No changes to IMAT were required. Detailed knowledge of IMAT is not required to perform the LCC analyses as the interface with IMAT is noninteractive.

  11. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  12. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria - performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and risk - are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost accounts for most of the cost of planetary missions, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated masses of the hardware and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in Advanced Life Support. A crew time mass-equivalent and sometimes other non-mass factors are added to equivalent mass to create ESM. Equivalent mass is an estimate of the launch cost only. For earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is usually exceeded by the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E). Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. Since LCC includes launch cost, it is always a more accurate cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission design, destination, and duration. Since DDT&E or operations may cost more than launch, LCC may give a more accurate cost ranking than equivalent mass. To be sure of identifying the lowest cost technology for a particular mission, we should use LCC rather than equivalent mass.

  13. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany. PMID:26061620

  14. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  16. The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Its Relationship to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHoff, Bryan; Levack, Danie J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) is a structured, modular breakdown of every function that must be addressed to perform a generic mission. It is also usable for any subset of the mission. Unlike a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), the FBS is a function-oriented tree, not a product-oriented tree. The FBS details not products, but operations or activities that should be performed. The FBS is not tied to any particular architectural implementation because it is a listing of the needed functions, not the elements, of the architecture. The FBS for Space Transportation Systems provides a universal hierarchy of required functions, which include ground and space operations as well as infrastructure - it provides total visibility of the entire mission. By approaching the systems engineering problem from the functional view, instead of the element or hardware view, the SPST has created an exhaustive list of potential requirements which the architecture designers can use to evaluate the completeness of their designs. This is a new approach that will provide full accountability of all functions required to perform the planned mission. It serves as a giant check list to be sure that no functions are omitted, especially in the early architectural design phase. A significant characteristic of a FBS is that if architecture options are compared using this approach, then any missing or redundant elements of each option will be ' identified. Consequently, valid Life Cycle Costs (LCC) comparisons can be made. For example, one architecture option might not need a particular function while another option does. One option may have individual elements to perform each of three functions while another option needs only one element to perform the three functions. Once an architecture has been selected, the FBS will serve as a guide in development of the work breakdown structure, provide visibility of those technologies that need to be further developed to perform required functions

  17. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Flame Deflector Protection System Life Cycle Cost Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Trejo, David; Reinschmidt, Ken; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2009-01-01

    A 20-year life cycle cost analysis was performed to compare the operational life cycle cost, processing/turnaround timelines, and operations manpower inspection/repair/refurbishment requirements for corrosion protection of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad flame deflector associated with the existing cast-in-place materials and a newer advanced refractory ceramic material. The analysis compared the estimated costs of(1) continuing to use of the current refractory material without any changes; (2) completely reconstructing the flame trench using the current refractory material; and (3) completely reconstructing the flame trench with a new high-performance refractory material. Cost estimates were based on an analysis of the amount of damage that occurs after each launch and an estimate of the average repair cost. Alternative 3 was found to save $32M compared to alternative 1 and $17M compared to alternative 2 over a 20-year life cycle.

  18. Condition monitoring and life-cycle cost design of stay cable by embedded OFBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, C. M.; Ju, Y.; Li, H.

    2011-04-01

    Stay cables are one of the most critical structural components of a cable-stayed bridge. However, stay cables readily suffer from fatigue damage, corrosion damage and their coupled effect. Thus, condition monitoring of stay cables is important to ensure the integrity and safety of a bridge. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Optical Fibre Bragg Grating (GFRP-OFBG) cable, a kind of fibre Bragg grating optical sensing technology-based smart stay cables is used in this study. The application of the smart stay cables on the Tianjin Yonghe Bridge was demonstrated and the vehicle live load effect and fatigue effect of smart stay cables were evaluated based on field monitoring data. Furthermore, the life-cycle cost analysis method of the stay cables is established. Finally, based on the nonlinear reliability index deterioration model, the optimal design of stay cable with different reference period is evaluated.

  19. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  20. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria such as performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and technical and schedule risk are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost would account for much of the cost of a future planetary mission, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select advanced life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated mass of the hardware and of the spacecraft pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass of a system is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in the Advanced Life Support project. ESM adds a mass-equivalent of crew time and possibly other cost factors to equivalent mass. Traditional equivalent mass is strictly based on flown mass and reflects only the launch cost. ESM includes other important cost factors, but it complicates the simple flown mass definition of equivalent mass by adding a non-physical mass penalty for crew time that may exceed the actual flown mass. Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. For Earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is less than the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDTBE). LCC is a more inclusive cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission destination and duration. Since DDTBE or operations may cost more than launch, LCC gives a more accurate relative cost ranking than equivalent mass. To select the lowest cost

  1. Cost Estimation of the NAL Spaceplane (Modeling of a Vehicle Fleet Life-Cycle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehlich, R. A.; Koelle, H. H.

    2002-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) are seen as one step toward inexpensive space transportation. The Japanese Government considers a Two-Stage-To-Orbit Vehicle, called NAL Spaceplane, as a potential future RLV. The system has a total launch mass of 193 Mg and the orbiter's payload capability is 8 Mg for LEO (300km) launched from Christmas Island. This study examining the economical performance of the NAL Spaceplane concept. To obtain relevant information, a multi-vehicle space carrier fleet cost model, called TRASIM, is used. For comparison and verification of the results, the Space Shuttle, which is the only existing partially reusable launch vehicle in operation, is simulated in parallel.For the scenario it is assumed that development phase is 12 years while operation phase is 50 years. As one result, the Total Cost per Flight (CpF) for the NAL Spaceplane is estimated to 40 million (2001), while the Total CpF for the Space Shuttle is about 480 million (2001). KEYWORDS: Cost Engineering, Life-Cycle Cost, NAL Spaceplane, Space Shuttle, TRASIM GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION (draft): Vehicle Introduction: Simulation: Results: Fazit:

  2. Comparing Life-Cycle Costs of ESPCs and Appropriations-Funded Energy Projects: An Update to the 2002 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Atkin, Erica

    2006-11-01

    A study was sponsored by FEMP in 2001 - 2002 to develop methods to compare life-cycle costs of federal energy conservation projects carried out through energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) and projects that are directly funded by appropriations. The study described in this report follows up on the original work, taking advantage of new pricing data on equipment and on $500 million worth of Super ESPC projects awarded since the end of FY 2001. The methods developed to compare life-cycle costs of ESPCs and directly funded energy projects are based on the following tasks: (1) Verify the parity of equipment prices in ESPC vs. directly funded projects; (2) Develop a representative energy conservation project; (3) Determine representative cycle times for both ESPCs and appropriations-funded projects; (4) Model the representative energy project implemented through an ESPC and through appropriations funding; and (5) Calculate the life-cycle costs for each project.

  3. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost--Supplement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…

  4. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    PubMed

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly. PMID:27107954

  5. Life Cycle Cost Growth Study for the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Gilbert, Paul; Newhouse, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    The D&NF Program Office LCC Management Study provides a detailed look at the drivers underlying cost overruns and schedule delays for five D&NF missions. While none of the findings are new, the study underlines the importance of continued emphasis on sound project management techniques: a clean project management structure with a clear definition of roles and responsibilities across the various partners in a project, an understanding of institutional standards and procedures and any differences among the partners, and the critical need for a comprehensive IMS that can be used easily and routinely to identify potential threats to the critical path. The study also highlights the continuing need for realistic estimates of the total LCC. Sufficient time and resources must be allocated early in a project to ensure that the appropriate trade studies and analyses are performed across all aspects of a mission: spacecraft, ground system, operations concept, and fault management, to ensure that proposed and confirmed costs truly reflect the resource requirements over the entire mission life cycle. These studies need to include a realistic review of the assumptions underlying the use of new technologies, the integration of heritage and new hardware and software into the total mission environment, and any development and test savings based on heritage technology and lessons learned. Finally, the LCC Management Study stresses the need to listen to, carefully consider, and take positive action regarding the issues raised during reviews by the expert review teams.

  6. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  7. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption. PMID:10847930

  8. Using a life-cycle-cost criterion for multi-disciplinary design studies for the Manned Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W.; Dunning, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A life-cycle-cost measure for the Manned Space Station is suggested which considers the mass, initial cost, aerodynamic drag, electrical power, moment, required ground support, and expected life of subsystems or components. It is proposed that this life-cycle-cost measure be considered as a criterion for design trade-off studies involving controls and structures. Calculating the related sensitivities in the optimization process is discussed and then applied to specific examples. In the first example, the reaction control system is analyzed with regard to the design of its supporting structure and selection of rocket type. Values of support beam length, structural material selection, and rocket propellant selection are determined which minimize life-cycle-cost. In the second example, the alignment of solar arrays are analyzed for efficiency with regard to generating power, their drag, and their aerodynamic moment. Alignment angles are determined which again minimize life cycle cost. It seems clear from these and other examples that the proposed criterion has value for multi-disciplinary design studies for the Manned Space Station.

  9. Comparing Green and Grey Infrastructure Using Life Cycle Cost and Environmental Impact: A Rain Garden Case Study in Cincinnati, OH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is quickly gaining ground as a less costly, greener alternative to traditional methods of stormwater management. One popular form of green infrastructure is the use of rain gardens to capture and infiltrate stormwater in to the ground. We used life cycle asse...

  10. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km). PMID:24012134

  11. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  12. The effect of life-cycle cost disclosure on consumer behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Matthias

    For more than 20 years, analysts have reported on the so-called "energy paradox" or the "energy efficiency gap", referring to the fact that economic agents could in principle lower their total cost at current prices by using more energy-efficient technology but, nevertheless, often decide not to do so. Theory suggests that providing information in a simplified way could potentially reduce this "efficiency gap". Such simplification may be achieved by providing the estimated monetary operating cost and life-cycle cost (LCC) of a given appliance---which has been a recurring theme within the energy policy and efficiency labeling community. Yet, little is known so far about the causal effects of LCC disclosure on consumer action because of the gap between the acquisition of efficiency information and consumer purchasing behavior in the real marketplace. This dissertation bridges the gap by experimentally integrating LCC disclosure into two major German commercial websites---a price comparison engine for cooling appliances, and an online shop for washing machines. Internet users arriving on these websites were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, and the groups were exposed to different visual stimuli. The control group received regular product price information, whereas the treatment group was, in addition, offered information about operating cost and total LCC. Click-stream data of consumers' shopping behavior was evaluated with multiple regression analysis by controlling for several product characteristics. This dissertation finds that LCC disclosure reduces the mean energy use of chosen cooling appliances by 2.5% (p<0.01), and the energy use of chosen washing machines by 0.8% (p<0.001). For the latter, it also reduces the mean water use by 0.7% (p<0.05). These effects suggest a potential role for public policy in promoting LCC disclosure. While I do not attempt to estimate the costs of such a policy, a simple quantification shows that the benefits amount to

  13. Life cycle costing of a milk producing farm – cost assessment of environmental impact mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHG). A study by the University of Arkansas showed that 70% of the carbon footprint of milk occurs before the farm gate. The goal of this study was to add costs to the GHG study to determine the impact of the farm milk production system o...

  14. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  15. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  16. Analysis of orbital system logistics in the cis-lunar space with particular consideration of life cycle costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melissopoulos, Stephanos

    1992-02-01

    An attempt to define and analyze the concept of 'logistics of space operation centers' in an infrastructure scenario is presented. A logistics system was designed, which is strongly linked to the transportation system used. A narrow relation between operations in a space operation center and the transport model considered was established. Typical space transportation system designs were adapted and integrated in the logistics/life cycle cost model. A space operation center was conceived from general equations for calculation of module masses of rockets and from the NEPTUN booster project. A simulation model with a mass model, operation model and life cycle cost model was developed for evaluation of life cycle costs of a space operation center. Calculation results give reference costs for exploitation of orbital stations and requirements on space operation center service achievements. These results allow a relation between operations at space operation centers and transportation systems in an orbital infrastructure to be established from a logistic point of view. A sensitivity analysis shows that input parameters must be carefully chosen, because a minimal variation can very strongly modify the results.

  17. Geothermal completion technology life cycle cost model (GEOCOM). Volume I. Final report. Volume II. User instruction manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Hoessel, W.C.; Mansure, A.J.; McKissen, P.

    1982-07-01

    Just as with petroleum wells, drilling and completing a geothermal well at minimum original cost may not be the most cost-effective way to exploit the resource. The impacts of the original completion activities on production and costs later in the life of the well must also be considered. In order to evaluate alternate completion and workover technologies, a simple computer model has been developed to compare total life-cycle costs for a geothermal well to total production or injection. Volume I discusses the mechanics of the model and then presents detailed results from its application to different completion and workover questions. Volume II is the user instruction manual.

  18. Investigation of chloride induced corrosion of bridge pier and life-cycle repair cost analysis using fiber reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Dinesh

    Bridges are the long term investment of the highway agencies. To maintain the required service level throughout the life of a bridge, a series of maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MRℝ) works can be performed. To investigate the corrosion deterioration and maintenance and repair practices in the bridge pier columns constructed in chloride-laden environment, a questionnaire survey was conducted within the 50 state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). Based on the survey data, two corrosion deterioration phases were identified. They were corrosion crack initiation phase and corrosion propagation phase. The data showed that the mean corrosion crack initiation phase for bridge pier column having cover of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm was 18.9 years, 20.3 years, and 22.5 years, respectively. The corrosion propagation phase starts after the corrosion crack initiation. The corrosion propagation is defined in a single term, corrosion damage rate, measured as percentage of area damaged due to corrosion cracking, spalling, and delamination. From the survey, the corrosion damage rate was found 2.23% and 2.10% in the bridge pier columns exposed to deicing salt water and exposed to tidal splash/spray, respectively. For this study, two different corrosion damage rates were proposed before and after the repair criteria for minor damage repair as practiced by DOTs. This study also presents the collected data regarding the corrosion effectiveness of using sealers and coatings, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibitors, carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and glass fiber/epoxy composites as maintenance and repair technique. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of wrapping carbon fiber/epoxy composites and glass fiber/epoxy composites in bridge pier columns constructed in a chloride-laden environment was investigated by conducting life-cycle cost analysis. As a repair work, externally bonded two layer of carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy composites were installed by wet

  19. Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ∼ 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants. PMID:24988448

  20. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM)--Description. Users Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    The Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) described in this report is an interactive mathematical model with a built-in sensitivity analysis capability. It is a major component of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Model (LCCIM), which was developed as part of the DAIS advanced development program to be used to assess the potential impacts…

  1. Using screening level environmental life cycle assessment to aid decision making: A case study of a college annual report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose – In this study we compare the life cycle environmental impacts of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences’ current printed annual report to a version distributed via the Internet. This case study demonstrates how a screening level life cy...

  2. Cost structures and life cycle impacts of algal biomass and biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Katrina Lea

    2011-12-01

    Development and extraction of energy sources, energy production and energy use have huge economic, environmental and geopolitical impacts. Increasing energy demands in tandem with reductions in fossil fuel production has led to significant investments in research into alternative forms of energy. One that is promising but yet not commercially established is the production of biofuel from algae. This research quantitatively assessed the potential of algae biofuel production by examining its cost and environmental impacts. First, two models developed by the RAND corporation were employed to assess Cost Growth defined as the ratio of actual costs to estimated costs, and Plant Performance defined as the ratio of actual production levels to design performance, of three algal biofuel production technologies. The three algal biofuel production technologies examined to open raceway ponds (ORPs), photobioreactors (PBRs), and a system that couples PBRs to ORPs (PBR-ORPs). Though these analyses lack precision due to uncertainty, the results highlight the risks associated with implementing algal biofuel systems, as all scenarios examined were predicted to have Cost Growth, ranging from 1.2 to 1.8, and Plant Performance was projected as less than 50% of design performance for all cases. Second, the Framework the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Feedstocks (FEBEF) was used to assess the cost and environmental impacts of biodiesel produced from three algal production technologies. When these results were compared with ethanol from corn and biodiesel from soybeans, biodiesel from algae produced from the different technologies were estimated to be more expensive, suffered from low energy gains, and did not result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. To identify likely routes to making algal biofuels more competitive, a third study was undertaken. In this case, FEBEF was employed to examine pinch-points (defined as the most costly, energy consuming, greenhouse gas producing processes), in

  3. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  4. Modeling Retirees' Life Satisfaction Levels: The Role of Recreational, Life Cycle and Socio-Environmental Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romsa, Gerald; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated satisfaction with retirement as a function of life cycle forces, socioenvironmental influences, and the degree of fulfillment of Maslow's hierarchy of needs through participation in recreational leisure activities. The findings from interviews with 300 retirees are discussed. (Author/MT)

  5. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, K. K.; Brown, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison is presented of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O and M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O and M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  6. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  7. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

  8. Web-LCCA: a life-cycle cost model for evaluation of COTS and custom display designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Alberto B.; Danish, Alexander J.; Marcus, David

    2002-04-01

    This paper demonstrates Web-LCCA, a life cycle cost model developed by Northrop Grumman Information Technology, formerly Litton-TASC. The model was developed under contract to the United States Display Consortium (USDC) for use in a collaborative fashion by industry and government during the military Display acquisition cycle. Version 1 was released in March 2001 to USDC members and government program offices. Version 2 of the model is under development and features modeling of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom display designs. Other features include hardware commonality across system designs, operational availability versus LCC tradeoffs, cost risk analysis of alternative design options, and enhanced model usability. The model will be available via the Internet for use by both military Government Program Offices and the display industry.

  9. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    al., 2008; Panfilov et al., 2006). These existing H{sub 2} facilities are quite small by natural gas storage standards. The second stage of the analysis involved providing ANL with estimated geostorage costs of hydrogen within salt caverns for various market penetrations for four representative cities (Houston, Detroit, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles). Using these demand levels, the scale and cost of hydrogen storage necessary to meet 10%, 25% and 100% of vehicle summer demands was calculated.

  10. An Integrated Approach to Life Cycle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chytka, T. M.; Brown, R. W.; Shih, A. T.; Reeves, J. D.; Dempsey, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is the evaluation of the impacts that design decisions have on a system and provides a framework for identifying and evaluating design benefits and burdens associated with the life cycles of space transportation systems from a "cradle-to-grave" approach. Sometimes called life cycle assessment, life cycle approach, or "cradle to grave analysis", it represents a rapidly emerging family of tools and techniques designed to be a decision support methodology and aid in the development of sustainable systems. The implementation of a Life Cycle Analysis can vary and may take many forms; from global system-level uncertainty-centered analysis to the assessment of individualized discriminatory metrics. This paper will focus on a proven LCA methodology developed by the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center to quantify and assess key LCA discriminatory metrics, in particular affordability, reliability, maintainability, and operability. This paper will address issues inherent in Life Cycle Analysis including direct impacts, such as system development cost and crew safety, as well as indirect impacts, which often take the form of coupled metrics (i.e., the cost of system unreliability). Since LCA deals with the analysis of space vehicle system conceptual designs, it is imperative to stress that the goal of LCA is not to arrive at the answer but, rather, to provide important inputs to a broader strategic planning process, allowing the managers to make risk-informed decisions, and increase the likelihood of meeting mission success criteria.

  11. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits. PMID:25825338

  12. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  13. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  14. Evaluation of antifriction bearing lubrication methods on motor life-cycle cost

    SciTech Connect

    Hodowanec, M.M.

    1999-12-01

    The number 1 cause of induction motor failures is bearing failure. Antifriction bearing failures most commonly are the consequences of inadequate lubrication. Antifriction motor bearings are found in four lubrication configurations: regreasable, sealed, oil mist, and oil lubricated. Bearings are oil lubricated when the operating conditions (i.e., bearing size, speed, thrust, etc.) require it. However, there is much debate about the best lubrication configuration, given a choice between regreasable, sealed, or oil-misted bearings. Within their own rights, all three methods have their advantages. Selection of the proper configuration is dependent upon many factors, such as motor size/type (i.e., bearing size/type), plant maintenance practice, bearing replacement availability/cost, duty cycle, environmental conditions, and downtime cost. This paper discusses the relationship between these factors and lubrication configuration, and presents an analysis of the subsequent impact on bearing life and system cost.

  15. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  16. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kelly T; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students. PMID:27355962

  17. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kelly T.; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students. PMID:27355962

  18. Recycling and Life Cycle Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

  19. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  20. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  1. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the computational techniques employed in determining the optimal propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. The computer programs used to perform calculations for all the factors that enter into the selection process of determining the optimum combinations of airplanes and engines are examined. Attention is given to the description of the computer codes including NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. A process is illustrated by which turbine engines can be evaluated as to fuel consumption, engine weight, cost and installation effects. Examples are shown as to the benefits of variable geometry and of the tradeoff between fuel burned and engine weights. Future plans for further improvements in the analytical modeling of engine systems are also described.

  2. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a scenario analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which would offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply. Geostorage options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and potentially hard rock cavrns. DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an ecocomic analysis methodology to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) a version that is fully arrayed such that all four types of geologic storage options can be assessed at the same time, (2) incorporate specific scenarios illustrating the model's capability, and (3) incorporate more accurate model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules. Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale geostorage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and from the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO{sub 2} in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  3. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  4. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  5. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  6. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  7. Using Screening Level Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Aid Decision Making: A Case Study of a College Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Wesley W.; Curran, Mary Ann; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Hawkins, Troy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the life cycle environmental impacts of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences' current printed annual report to a version distributed via the internet. Design/methodology/approach: Life cycle environmental impacts of both versions of the report are modeled using…

  8. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  9. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  10. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/8/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  11. STATE-OF-THE-ART AND EMERGING TRUCK ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schittler, M

    2003-08-24

    The challenge for truck engine product engineering is not only to fulfill increasingly stringent emission requirements, but also to improve the engine's economical viability in its role as the backbone of our global economy. While societal impact and therefore emission limit values are to be reduced in big steps, continuous improvement is not enough but technological quantum leaps are necessary. The introduction and refinement of electronic control of all major engine systems has already been a quantum leap forward. Maximizing the benefits of these technologies to customers and society requires full use of parameter optimization and other enabling technologies. The next big step forward will be widespread use of exhaust aftertreatment on all transportation related diesel engines. While exhaust gas aftertreatment has been successfully established on gasoline (Otto cycle) engines, the introduction of exhaust aftertreatment especially for heavy-duty diesel engines will be much mo re demanding. Implementing exhaust gas aftertreatment into commercial vehicle applications is a challenging task but the emission requirements to be met starting in Europe, the USA and Japan in the 2005-2007 timeframe require this step. The engine industry will be able to implement the new technology if all stakeholders support the necessary decisions. One decision has already been taken: the reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel being comparable with the elimination of lead in gasoline as a prerequisite for the three-way catalyst. Now we have the chance to optimize ecology and economy of the Diesel engine simultaneously by taking the decision to provide an additional infrastructure for a NOx reduction agent needed for the introduction of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology that is already implemented in the electric power generation industry. This requires some effort, but the resulting societal benefits, fuel economy and vehicle life cycle costs are significantly better when

  12. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy`s Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program`s life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Using Market Forces to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Product-Level Life Cycle Analysis and Eco-Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. F.; Davis, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Established protocols allow entity-level accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The information contained within GHG inventories is used by entities to manage their carbon footprint and to anticipate future exposure to compulsory GHG markets or taxes. The efficacy of such inventories, as experienced by the consumer, can be improved upon by product-level GHG inventories applying the methods of traditional life cycle analysis (LCA). A voluntary product-level assessment of this type, coupled with an eco-label, would 1) empower consumers with information about the total embodied GHG content of a product, 2) allow companies to understand and manage GHG emissions outside the narrow scope of their entities, and 3) drive reduction of GHG emissions throughout product value chains. The Climate Conservancy (TCC) is a non-profit organization founded to help companies calculate their GHG emissions at the level of individual product units, and to inform consumers about the GHG intensity of the products they choose to purchase. With the assistance of economists, policy experts and scientists, TCC has developed a useful metric for reporting product-level GHG emissions that allows for a normalized comparison of a product's GHG intensity irrespective of industry sector or competitors, where GHG data are often unavailable or incomplete. Using this metric, we envision our Climate Conscious label becoming an important arbiter of choice for consumers seeking ways to mitigate their climate impacts without the need for governmental regulation.

  14. Family Life Cycle: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Arthur J.

    1983-01-01

    Used data from a 1980 national sample survey to show differences in the timing of major family life-cycle events according to age, social and economic characteristics, and marital history. Results suggest that age generational differences, more than any other factor, influence timing of life-cycle events. (Author/JAC)

  15. Effect of various features on the life cycle cost of the timing/synchronization subsystem of the DCS digital communications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimsey, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on the life cycle cost of the timing subsystem was examined, when these optional features were included in various combinations. The features included mutual control, directed control, double-ended reference links, independence of clock error measurement and correction, phase reference combining, self-organization, smoothing for link and nodal dropouts, unequal reference weightings, and a master in a mutual control network. An overall design of a microprocessor-based timing subsystem was formulated. The microprocessor (8080) implements the digital filter portion of a digital phase locked loop, as well as other control functions such as organization of the network through communication with processors at neighboring nodes.

  16. Fulfilling environmental commitment through life cycle management

    SciTech Connect

    DelGeorge, L.O.

    1996-12-31

    To thrive in an increasingly competitive electricity market, utility managers are adopting new strategies to manage costs. Life cycle management is a holistic approach to managing the fuel cost of every asset.

  17. Optimization and life-cycle cost of health clinic PV system for a rural area in southern Iraq using HOMER software

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Kazmerski, L.L.

    2010-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for electricity of rural areas in southern Iraq and proposes a photovoltaic (PV) solar system to power a health clinic in that region. The total daily health clinic load is 31.6 kW h and detailed loads are listed. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) optimization computer model for distributed power, ''HOMER,'' is used to estimate the system size and its life-cycle cost. The analysis shows that the optimal system's initial cost, net present cost, and electricity cost is US$ 50,700, US$ 60,375, and US$ 0.238/kW h, respectively. These values for the PV system are compared with those of a generator alone used to supply the load. We found that the initial cost, net present cost of the generator system, and electricity cost are US$ 4500, US$ 352,303, and US$ 1.332/kW h, respectively. We conclude that using the PV system is justified on humanitarian, technical, and economic grounds. (author)

  18. The Life Cycle Analysis Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Williams, K.A.; Yerace, P.; Yuracko, K.L.

    1999-02-28

    The life cycle analysis toolbox is a valuable integration of decision-making tools and supporting materials developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help Department of Energy managers improve environmental quality, reduce costs, and minimize risk. The toolbox provides decision-makers access to a wide variety of proven tools for pollution prevention (P2) and waste minimization (WMin), as well as ORNL expertise to select from this toolbox exactly the right tool to solve any given P2/WMin problem. The central element of the toolbox is a multiple criteria approach to life cycle analysis developed specifically to aid P2/WMin decision-making. ORNL has developed numerous tools that support this life cycle analysis approach. Tools are available to help model P2/WMin processes, estimate human health risks, estimate costs, and represent and manipulate uncertainties. Tools are available to help document P2/WMin decision-making and implement programs. Tools are also available to help track potential future environmental regulations that could impact P2/WMin programs and current regulations that must be followed. An Internet-site will provide broad access to the tools.

  19. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  20. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. PMID:23500422

  1. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites is gaining momentum with the pressure to lightweight vehicles, however energy-intensity and cost remain some of the major barriers before this material could be used in large-scale automotive applications. A representative automotive part, i.e., a 30.8 kg steel floor pan having a 17% weight reduction potential with stringent cash performance requirements has been considered for the life cycle energy and emissions analysis based on the latest developments occurring in the precursor type (conventional textile-based PAN vs. renewable-based lignin), part manufacturing (conventional SMC vs. P4) and fiber recycling technologies. Carbon fiber production is estimated to be about 14 times more energy-intensive than conventional steel production, however life cycle primary energy use is estimated to be quite similar to the conventional part, i.e., 18,500 MJ/part, especially when considering the uncertainty in LCI data that exists from using numerous sources in the literature. Lignin P4 technology offers the most life cycle energy and CO2 emissions benefits compared to a conventional stamped steel technology. With a 20% reduction in energy use in the lignin conversion to carbon fiber and free availability of lignin as a by-product of ethanol and wood production, a 30% reduction in life cycle energy use could be obtained. A similar level of life cycle energy savings could also be obtained with a higher part weight reduction potential of 43%.

  3. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  5. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  7. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  8. A comparison of production system life cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

  9. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  10. Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring gull Larus argentatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmetyinen, R.; Rantamaki, P.; Karlin, A.

    1982-01-01

    ..sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring gulls collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring gull. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in newly hatched chicks but the levels were much lower (only 7-12 % in the herring gull) in chicks just before fledgling. The levels in young gulls remained low until the end of August at least. Therefore it is plausible that the high levels found in adult gulls are a consequence of their wintering in the southern Baltic. The levels of ..sigma..DDT and PCB residues were significantly lower in female arctic terns than in male terns. Differences between the sexes were small in the herring gull. Thus it is possible that the female of the arctic tern is able to release pollutants, especially PCB residues, more effectively into eggs than the female of the herring gull. The biochemical mechanisms involved are not clear but a possible explanation may be different lipoprotein structures in the eggs of the species.

  11. Designing for the ISD Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Guy W.; Hybert, Peter R.; Smith, Kelly R.; Blecke, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the recent criticisms of traditional ISD (Instructional Systems Design) and discusses the implications that impact the life cycle costs of T&D (Training and Development) projects and their ROI (Return On Investment) potential. Describes a modified approach to ISD which mimics the modular approach of systems engineering design. (Author/LRW)

  12. Life cycle optimization of building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Ayat; Norman, Bryan; Ries, Robert

    2008-02-01

    A life cycle optimization model intended to potentially reduce the environmental impacts of energy use in commercial buildings is presented. A combination of energy simulation, life cycle assessment, and operations research techniques are used to develop the model. In addition to conventional energy systems, such as the electric grid and a gas boiler, cogeneration systems which concurrently generate power and heat are investigated as an alternative source of energy. Cogeneration systems appeared to be an attractive alternative to conventional systems when considering life cycle environmental criteria. Internal combustion engine and microturbine (MT) cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 38% in global warming potential compared with conventional systems, while solid oxide fuel cell and MT cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 94% in tropospheric ozone precursor potential (TOPP). Results include a Pareto-optimal frontier between reducing costs and reducing the selected environmental indicators.

  13. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  14. In vitro life cycle of pentamidine-resistant amastigotes: stability of the chemoresistant phenotypes is dependent on the level of resistance induced.

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, D; Lemesre, J L

    1997-01-01

    Using a continuous drug pressure protocol, we induced pentamidine resistance in an active and dividing population of amastigote forms of Leishmania mexicana. We selected in vitro two clones with different levels of resistance to pentamidine, with clone LmPENT5 being resistant to 5 microM pentamidine, while clone LmPENT20 was resistant to 20 microM pentamidine. Resistance indexes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] after drug presure/IC50 before drug pressure) of 2 (LmPENT5) and 6 (LmPENT20) were determined after drug selection. Both resistant clones expressed significant cross-resistance to diminazene aceturate and primaquine. Pentamidine resistance was not reversed by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker known to reverse multidrug resistance (A. J. Bitonti, et al., Science 242:1301-1303, 1988; A. R. C. Safa et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262:7884-7888, 1987). No difference in the in vitro infectivity for resident mouse macrophages was observed between the wild-type clone (clone LmWT) and pentamidine-resistant clones. During in vitro infectivity experiments, when the life cycle was performed starting from the intramacrophagic amastigote stage, the drug resistance of the resulting LmPENT20 amastigotes was preserved even if the intermediate promastigote stage could not be considered resistant to 20 microM pentamidine. In the same way, when a complete developmental sequence of L. mexicana was achieved axenically by manipulation of appropriate culture conditions, the resulting axenically grown LmPENT20 amastigotes remained pentamidine resistant, whereas LmPENT5 amastigotes lost their ability to resist pentamidine, with IC50s and index of resistance values close to those for the LmWT clone. These results strongly indicate that the level of pentamidine tolerated by resistant amastigotes after the life cycle was dependent on the induced level of resistance. This fact could be significant in the in vivo transmission of drug-resistant parasites by Phlebotominae. Particular

  15. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  16. Two-scale evaluation of remediation technologies for a contaminated site by applying economic input-output life cycle assessment: risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    2011-09-15

    A two-scale evaluation concept of remediation technologies for a contaminated site was expanded by introducing life cycle costing (LCC) and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA). The expanded evaluation index, the rescue number for soil (RN(SOIL)) with LCC and EIO-LCA, comprises two scales, such as risk-cost, risk-energy consumption or risk-CO(2) emission of a remediation. The effectiveness of RN(SOIL) with LCC and EIO-LCA was examined in a typical contamination and remediation scenario in which dieldrin contaminated an agricultural field. Remediation was simulated using four technologies: disposal, high temperature thermal desorption, biopile and landfarming. Energy consumption and CO(2) emission were determined from a life cycle inventory analysis using monetary-based intensity based on an input-output table. The values of RN(SOIL) based on risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO(2) emission were calculated, and then rankings of the candidates were compiled according to RN(SOIL) values. A comparison between three rankings showed the different ranking orders. The existence of differences in ranking order indicates that the scales would not have reciprocal compatibility for two-scale evaluation and that each scale should be used independently. The RN(SOIL) with LCA will be helpful in selecting a technology, provided an appropriate scale is determined. PMID:21741766

  17. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  18. Effect of latitudinal variations in low-level baroclinicity on eddy life cycles and upper-tropospheric wave-breaking processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, G.

    2009-09-01

    Storm tracks play a crucial role in the dynamics of the general circulation of the atmosphere and particularly of the teleconnections such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Baroclinic waves may displace the large-scale jets during their breaking with anticyclonic and cyclonic wave breaking leading generally to a northward and southward displacement of the jets respectively. For example, it has been recently shown by different authors that the positive and the negative phases of the NAO are closely related to anticyclonic and cyclonic wave breaking respectively. The purpose of our study is to look at the reverse side: the impact of the jet latitude onto wave-breaking processes by performing idealized numerical simulations using a primitive-equation model on the sphere (the PUMA model). We first focus on normal mode analysis. By prescribing different types of jets, we study the effects of their latitude on normal mode structures and their breaking using nonlinear simulations. A second stage consists in forcing the model by relaxing the temperature field toward a given restoration temperature. Sensitivity runs are performed by using different restoration temperature fields to look at the effect of the latitude of the low-level baroclinicity on eddy life cycles. Implication for the eddy feedback onto the large-scale circulation is more precisely investigated. Our results reveal that eddies exert a positive feedback onto the latitudinal variations of the large-scale jets. Finally, these results are used to interpret some wave-breaking processes found in the observations of the Northern Hemisphere.

  19. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Enviromental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  20. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  1. Life-Cycle Data Management at NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates over a hundred observing systems which span the environment from the bottom of the ocean to the surface of the Sun. The resulting data are essential for immediate priorities such as weather forecasting, and the data also constitute an irreplaceable resource collected at great cost. It is therefore necessary to carefully preserve this information for ongoing scientific use, for new research and applications, and to ensure reproducibility of scientific conclusions. The NOAA data life-cycle includes activities in three major phases: planning and production, management of the resulting data, and usage activities. This paper will describe current work by the NOAA Environmental Data Management Committee (EDMC), Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), and the NOAA National Data Centers in areas including DM planning, documentation, cataloging, data access, and preservation and stewardship to improve and standardize policies and practices for life-cycle data management.

  2. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  3. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  4. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  5. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid. PMID:18409654

  6. LIFE CYCLE INITIATIVES IN USEPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single-issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an efective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes from...

  7. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. CA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so mater...

  8. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  9. Does It Have a Life Cycle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

  10. Using Life-Cycle Human Factors Engineering to Avoid $2.4 Million in Costs: Lessons Learned from NASA's Requirements Verification Process for Space Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Daniel; Ellenberger, Rich

    2008-01-01

    The Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) process has been used to verify human factors requirements for NASA International Space Station (ISS) payloads since 2003, resulting in $2.4 million in avoided costs. This cost benefit has been realized by greatly reducing the need to process time-consuming formal waivers (exceptions) for individual requirements violations. The HFIT team, which includes astronauts and their technical staff, acts as the single source for human factors requirements integration of payloads. HFIT has the authority to provide inputs during early design phases, thus eliminating many potential requirements violations in a cost-effective manner. In those instances where it is not economically or technically feasible to meet the precise metric of a given requirement, HFIT can work with the payload engineers to develop common sense solutions and formally document that the resulting payload design does not materially affect the astronaut s ability to operate and interact with the payload. The HFIT process is fully ISO 9000 compliant and works concurrently with NASA s formal systems engineering work flow. Due to its success with payloads, the HFIT process is being adapted and extended to ISS systems hardware. Key aspects of this process are also being considered for NASA's Space Shuttle replacement, the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  11. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  12. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  13. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Yu, Ziwen; Montalto, Franco A

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint. PMID:21330022

  14. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  15. Role of nondestructive evaluation in life cycle management

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.

    1997-12-18

    This paper provides an overview of some common NDE methods and several examples for the use of different NDE techniques throughout the life cycle of a product. NDE techniques are being used to help determine material properties, design new implants, extend the service life of aircraft, and help dispose of radioactive waste in a safe manner. It is the opinion of this author and others that the NDE community needs to work more closely with end users in the life cycle of a product to better incorporate NDE techniques. The NDE community needs to highlight the importance of NDE in the entire life-cycle process of a product by showing real costs savings to the manufacturing community.

  16. LIFE CYCLE INITIATIVES IN USEPA: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1501 Curran*, M.A. "Life Cycle Initiatives in USEPA." Paper published in: 1st International Conference on Life Cycle Management (LCM2001), Copenhagen, Denmark, 8/27-29/2001, S. Christiansen, M. Horup, A.A. Jensen (Ed.), 2001, p. 201-204. 06/21/2001 There is a growing...

  17. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  18. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  19. The priming of periodical cicada life cycles.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R

    2005-04-01

    Periodical cicadas in the genus Magicicada have unusually long life cycles for insects, with periodicities of either 13 or 17 years. Biologists have explained the evolution of these prime number period lengths in terms of resource limitation, enemy avoidance, hybridization and climate change. Here, I question two aspects of these explanations: that the origin of the life cycles was associated with Pleistocene ice age events, and that they evolved from shorter life cycles through the lengthening of nymphal stages in annual increments. Instead, I suggest that these life cycles evolved earlier than the Pleistocene and involved an abrupt transition from a nine-year to a 13-year life cycle, driven, in part, by interspecific competition. PMID:16701364

  20. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes. PMID:26589522

  1. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  2. Impact of Life-Cycle Stage and Gender on the Ability to Balance Work and Family Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of gender and life-cycle stage on three components of work-family conflict using sample of 3,616 respondents. For men, levels of work-family conflict were moderately lower in each successive life-cycle stage. For women, levels were similar in two early life-cycle stages but were significantly lower in later life-cycle stage.…

  3. An IMS Station life cycle from a sustainment point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brely, Natalie; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Foster, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is to consist of 321 monitoring facilities, composed of four different technologies with a variety of designs and equipment types, deployed in a range of environments around the globe. The International Monitoring System is conceived to operate in perpetuity through maintenance, replacement and recapitalization of IMS facilities' infrastructure and equipment when the end of service life is reached [CTBT/PTS/INF.1163]. Life Cycle techniques and modellization are being used by the PTS to plan and forecast life cycle sustainment requirements of IMS facilities. Through historical data analysis, Engineering inputs and Feedback from experienced Station Operators, the PTS currently works towards increasing the level of confidence on these forecasts and sustainment requirements planning. Continued validation, feedback and improvement of source data from scientific community and experienced users is sought and essential in order to ensure limited effect on data availability and optimal costs (human and financial).

  4. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1989-01-01

    A previously-developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system-level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass, and an age factor which varies during the life cycle, are examined. Results indicate that during the main phase of vegetative growth in the first half of the life cycle, the rate of transpiration per unit mass of inedible biomass is more than double the rate during the phase of grain development and maturation during latter half of the life cycle.

  5. A nutritional profile of the social wasp Polistes metricus: differences in nutrient levels between castes and changes within castes during the annual life cycle.

    PubMed

    Judd, Timothy M; Magnus, Roxane M; Fasnacht, Matthew P

    2010-01-01

    In wasps, nutrition plays a vital role for colony cohesion and caste determination. However, there is no baseline data set for the nutritional levels of wasps during the different stages of the colony cycle. Here we examined the levels of carbohydrates, lipids, protein, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn in the wasp Polistes metricus at different stages of the wasp's lifecycle. Individuals were collected at the following stages (1) spring gynes, (2) foundress colonies, (3) early worker colonies, (4) late worker colonies, (5) emerging reproductives (gynes and males), (6) early fall reproductives, and (7) late fall reproductives. All eggs, larvae, pupae and adults were analyzed for their nutritional content to determine if there were any differences between the nutrient levels in the different castes and how these nutrients changed within a caste during its lifetime. The results show there are differences in macro and micronutrient levels between the reproductive females and workers during development. Gynes showed changes in nutrient levels during their lifetime especially as they changed roles from a solitary individual to a nesting queen. Males also showed distinct nutritional changes during their lifetime. The implications for these nutritional differences are discussed. PMID:19781547

  6. Multigenerational Exposure of the Estuarine Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) to 17β-estradiol. II. Population-Level Effects Through Two Life Cycles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of multi-generation, population-level impacts is particularly important in the risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) because adverse effects may not be evident during the first generation of exposure. Population models were developed for the shee...

  7. Introduction of Process Life Cycle Inventory in Environmental Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Norte, Felix; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a methodology for developing an environmental load balance which can be the means for conducting a life cycle inventory. The methodology described can be taught at the same level of chemical engineering fundamentals at which basic mass and energy balances are introduced. (DDR)

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  9. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  10. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  11. Intercountry Adoption and the Family Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Sharon A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides family therapists with an understanding of intercountry adoption. The special life-cycle issues of multinational families and the challenges intercountry adoptees face are discussed to help therapists treat such families more empathically and effectively. (Author/MKA)

  12. The Family Life Cycle and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    Presents updated information on recent changes in selected stages of the family life cycle and in social developments that have contributed to these changes. Closes with differing outlooks regarding marital stability in the United States. (Author)

  13. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  14. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials. PMID:19368217

  15. Developmental Milestones Across the Programmatic Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Glover-Kudon, Rebecca; DeGroff, Amy; Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Preissle, Judith; Boehm, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2005 through 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites to implement a colorectal cancer screening program for uninsured, low-income populations. These 5 sites composed a demonstration project intended to explore the feasibility of establishing a national colorectal cancer screening program through various service delivery models. METHODS A longitudinal, multiple case study was conducted to understand and document program implementation processes. Using metaphor as a qualitative analytic technique, evaluators identified stages of maturation across the programmatic life cycle. RESULTS Analysis rendered a working theory of program development during screening implementation. In early stages, program staff built relationships with CDC and local partners around screening readiness, faced real-world challenges putting program policies into practice, revised initial program designs, and developed new professional skills. Midterm implementation was defined by establishing program cohesiveness and expanding programmatic reach. In later stages of implementation, staff focused on sustainability and formal program closeout, which prompted reflection about personal and programmatic accomplishments. CONCLUSIONS Demonstration sites evolved through common developmental stages during screening implementation. Findings elucidate ways to target technical assistance to more efficiently move programs along their maturation trajectory. In practical terms, the time and cost associated with guiding a program to maturity may be potentially shortened to maximize return on investment for both organizations and clients receiving service benefits. PMID:23868487

  16. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  17. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  18. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  19. Competitive Strategies of States: A Life-Cycle Perspective. EQW Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Patricia M.

    This paper demonstrates that production life-cycle models provide a conceptual framework to analyze systematically the interrelationships between industrial and technological change and human resources. Section II presents the life-cycle model, focusing on its implications for the types and level of employment and skill requirements in an area.…

  20. Educated Parents, Educated Children: Toward a Multiple Life Cycles Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the important intergenerational effects of parents' education level on the achievement of their children, education policies should shift from a focus on one life cycle to a focus on "multiple life cycles". Such a policy would explicitly recognize that adults transfer their educational achievements to the achievement of their children. It…

  1. Life cycle optimisation for highway best management practices.

    PubMed

    Lee, J G; Heaney, J P; Rapp, D N; Pack, C A

    2006-01-01

    Highway runoff can cause a number of water quantity and quality problems. Stormwater management systems for highways have been developed based on a fast drainage for large storm situations. Non-point source pollution from highway runoff is a growing water quality concern. Stormwater quality control needs to be integrated into highway drainage design and operation to reduce the stormwater impacts on the receiving water. A continuous simulation/optimisation model for analysing integrated highway best management practices (BMPs) is presented. This model can evaluate the life cycle performance of infiltration and/or storage oriented highway BMPs. It can be directly integrated with spreadsheet optimisation tools to find the least cost options for implementing BMPs throughout a specified life cycle. PMID:17120683

  2. "ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

  3. Updating the Life Cycle of the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Paul C.

    1977-01-01

    Changes from decade to decade in family life cycle patterns are analyzed for women who have married this century. Women entering marriage today are expected to have one to two fewer children, to end child-bearing three years sooner, and to have 11 more years of married life after the last child marries. (Author)

  4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is describing the process, the underlying data, and the Inherent assumptions Involved in conducting the Inventory component of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) In order to facilitate understanding by potential users. This Inventory...

  5. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life…

  6. Life Cycle of the Career Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E., Ed.; Wolfe, Michael P, Ed.; Pasch, Suzanne H., Ed.; Enz, Billie J., Ed.

    This book demonstrates how teachers and administrators can work collaboratively on maintaining continual growth, focusing on the Life Cycle of the Career Teacher Model, which crosses the continuum of practice from preservice preparation through professional development. Case studies illustrate the Reflection-Renewal-Growth Cycle Model in action.…

  7. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design project was a collaborative effort between the Center for Sustainable Systems (formerly National Pollution Prevention Center) at the University of Michigan, a cross functional team at Ford, and the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. En...

  8. Moonlighting Husbands: A Life-Cycle Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster-McClain, Donna; Moen, Phylis

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined the extent and correlates of moonlighting at various stages in the life course for 2,118 employed husbands during 1976 and 1977. They found that 21 percent of husbands held two jobs. Findings also revealed variations in the incidence of moonlighting over the life cycle. (Author/CH)

  9. Farinon microwave end of life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, R.C.

    1996-06-24

    This engineering report evaluates alternatives for the replacement of the Farinon microwave radio system. The system is beyond its expected life cycle and has decreasing maintainability. Principal applications supported by the Farinon system are two electrical utility monitor and control systems, the Integrated Transfer Trip System (ITTS), and the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

  10. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  11. MAKING LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATA AVAILABLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making Life Cycle Inventory Data Available

    Mary Ann Curran
    US EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory
    Address: 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive (MS-466)
    Cincinnati, OH 45268 USA
    Phone: 513-569-7782
    Fax: 513-569-7111
    E-Mail: curran.maryann@...

  12. A model for life cycle records management

    SciTech Connect

    Tayfun, A.C.; Gibson, S.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to update an old Records Management concept; the management of records according to the records life cycle. Accordingly, the authors are presenting a new version of the Records Management life cycle model and its associated elements. The basic concept is that every record progresses through three phases; a record is created, is used and maintained, and dispositioned. In this presentation, the authors update the very old straight line model and the more current circular model with a new model that essentially combines the two. The model portrays Records Management as having a distinct straight-line beginning, a circular use and maintenance phase, and a distinct straight-line end. The presentation maps Records Management Program elements and activities against the phases depicted in the model. The authors believe that this new records life cycle model is an enhanced physical representation of the process. This presentation is designed to help put all of the specialized Records Management topics that participants have heard about during the conference in the perspective of the records life cycle.

  13. Functional Family Therapy: A Life Cycle Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetchler, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    Functional family therapy model assesses family behavior from perspectives of interactional process and functional payoffs for the individual family members. Illustrates that functional needs change as a result of development, and that by including a family life cycle perspective in the assessment process, clinicians will get a clearer picture of…

  14. BROAD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a departure from evaluating waste management options that look mainly at single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity. An LCA is a snapshot in time of inputs and outputs. It can be used as an objective technic...

  15. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A previously developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass and an age factor that varies during the life cycle are discussed.

  16. Sensor-embedded computers for better life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadde, Srikanth; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Zeid, Ibrahim

    2004-12-01

    This research investigates the advantages offered by embedded sensors for cost-effective and environmentally benign product life cycle management for desktop computers. During their use by customers as well as at the end of their lives, Sensor Embedded Computers (SECs) by virtue of sensors embedded in them generate data and information pertaining to the conditions and remaining lives of important components such as hard-drive, motherboard, and power supply unit. A computer monitoring framework is proposed to provide more customer comfort, reduce repair costs and increase the effectiveness of current disassembly practices. The framework consists of SECs, remote monitoring center (RMC), repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers. The RMC collects dynamic data/information generated by sensors during computer usage as well as static data/information from the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The RMC forwards this data/information to the repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers on need-basis. The knowledge about the condition and remaining life of computer components can be advantageously used for planning repair/service and disassembly operations as well as for building refurbished computers with known expected lives. Simulation model of the framework is built and is evaluated in terms of the following performance measures: average downtime of a computer, average repair/service cost of a computer, average disassembly cost of a computer, and average life cycle cost of a computer. Test results show that embedding sensors in computers provides a definite advantage over conventional computers in terms of the performance measures.

  17. Documenting performance metrics in a building life-cycle information system

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-08-01

    In order to produce a new generation of green buildings, it will be necessary to clearly identify their performance requirements, and to assure that these requirements are met. A long-term goal is to provide building decision-makers with the information and tools needed to cost-effectively assure the desired performance of buildings, as specified by stakeholders, across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element required in achieving this goal is a method for explicitly documenting the building performance objectives that are of importance to stakeholders. Such a method should clearly define each objective (e.g., cost, energy use, and comfort) and its desired level of performance. This information is intended to provide quantitative benchmarks useful in evaluating alternative design solutions, commissioning the newly constructed building, and tracking and maintaining the actual performance of the occupied building over time. These quantitative benchmarks are referred to as performance metrics, and they are a principal element of information captured in the Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS). An initial implementation of BLISS is based on the International Alliance for Interoperability`s (IAI) Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), an evolving data model under development by a variety of architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry firms and organizations. Within BLISS, the IFC data model has been extended to include performance metrics and a structure for archiving changing versions of the building information over time. This paper defines performance metrics, discusses the manner in which BLISS is envisioned to support a variety of activities related to assuring the desired performance of a building across its life cycle, and describes a performance metric tracking tool, called Metracker, that is based on BLISS.

  18. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-12-31

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia.

  19. Multidisciplinary life cycle metrics and tools for green buildings.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Jennifer F; Lippiatt, Barbara C

    2009-07-01

    Building sector stakeholders need compelling metrics, tools, data, and case studies to support major investments in sustainable technologies. Proponents of green building widely claim that buildings integrating sustainable technologies are cost effective, but often these claims are based on incomplete, anecdotal evidence that is difficult to reproduce and defend. The claims suffer from 2 main weaknesses: 1) buildings on which claims are based are not necessarily "green" in a science-based, life cycle assessment (LCA) sense and 2) measures of cost effectiveness often are not based on standard methods for measuring economic worth. Yet, the building industry demands compelling metrics to justify sustainable building designs. The problem is hard to solve because, until now, neither methods nor robust data supporting defensible business cases were available. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory is beginning to address these needs by developing metrics and tools for assessing the life cycle economic and environmental performance of buildings. Economic performance is measured with the use of standard life cycle costing methods. Environmental performance is measured by LCA methods that assess the "carbon footprint" of buildings, as well as 11 other sustainability metrics, including fossil fuel depletion, smog formation, water use, habitat alteration, indoor air quality, and effects on human health. Carbon efficiency ratios and other eco-efficiency metrics are established to yield science-based measures of the relative worth, or "business cases," for green buildings. Here, the approach is illustrated through a realistic building case study focused on different heating, ventilation, air conditioning technology energy efficiency. Additionally, the evolution of the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability multidisciplinary team and future plans in this area are described. PMID:20050028

  20. Integrating service-life modeling and life-cycle assessment for recycled-aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Todd Lee

    The development and implementation of one-dimensional (a) analytical and (b) numerical service-life models for chloride-induced corrosion of reinforced concrete containing both recycled-aggregates and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are presented in this work. Both the analytical and numerical models account for initial chloride contamination levels due to previous applications. The effects of aggregate type (e.g., virgin, recycled aggregate, recycled mortar), aggregate replacement ratio, severity of chloride contamination levels, severity of in-service chloride exposure, reinforcement cover depth, SCM type (e.g., fly ash, slag, slice fume, metakaolin), and SCM replacement ratio on the expected service life of recycled-aggregate reinforced concrete were investigated. Results illustrated trends between concrete mixes and life cycle costs, which were employed to make conclusions on the trade-offs presented by cost, sustainability, and service life.

  1. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  2. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  3. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  4. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  5. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  6. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  7. Concepts and tools for the software life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-10-01

    The life cycle process for large software-intensive systems is an extremely intricate and complex process involving many people performing amid a very large base of evolving computer programs, documentation and data. To be successful, the process must be well conceived, planned and conducted; however, the nature of scientific and other high-technology projects involving large-scale software is such that conceptualization, planning and implementation to the degree of detail required is so laborintensive and unmotivating as to be counter-productive and seldom cost-effective. The tools, techniques and aids needed to engineer, manage and administrate a large software-intensive task are themselves parts of a large software base, and are incurred only at great expense. This paper focuses on the needs of the software life cycle in terms of supporting tools and methodologies. The concept of a distributed network for engineering, management and administrative functions for engineering, management and administrative functions is outlined, and the key characteristics of localized subnets in high-communications-traffic areas of software activity are discussed. A formal, deliberate, structured, systems-engineered approach toward the construction of uniform, coordinated tools is proposed as a means to reduce development and maintenance costs, foster creativity, enhance reliability, promote standardization and sustain human motivation.

  8. Software Development Life Cycle Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Daljit; Kaur, Parminder

    2011-12-01

    Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. The main cause is that software can't withstand security attacks because of vulnerabilities in it which are caused by defective specifications design and implementation. We have conducted a survey asking software developers, project managers and other people in software development about their security awareness and implementation in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The survey was open to participation for three weeks and this paper explains the survey results.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  10. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life cycle products. (a) An eligible domestic entity may file a petition to establish a product category...

  11. Residential Preferences and Moving Behavior: A Family Life Cycle Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Nutty, Cheri L.

    The relationship of family life cycle changes to housing preferences and residential mobility is examined. Two residential decision-making issues are explored in detail--how family life cycle stages influence what people view as important to their choice of residential setting and what individuals at different family life cycle stages view as the…

  12. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... scope of the product category into which to classify the short life cycle merchandise identified by...

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  14. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  15. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  16. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  17. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  18. Thermoregulation in the life cycle of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Eileen

    2006-05-31

    An unanswered question in the biology of many parasites is the mechanism by which environmental (or external) and intrinsic signals are integrated to determine the switch from one developmental stage to the next. This is particularly pertinent for nematode parasites, many of which have a free-living stage in the environment prior to infection of the mammalian host, or for parasites such as filarial nematodes, which utilise an insect vector for transmission. The environmental changes experienced by a parasite upon infection of a mammalian host are extremely complex and poorly understood. However, the ability of a parasite to sense its new environment must be intrinsically linked to its developmental programme, as progression of the life cycle is dependent upon the infection event. In this review, the relationship between temperature and development in filarial nematodes and in the free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans is summarised, with a focus on the role of heat shock factor and heat shock protein 90 in the nematode life cycle. PMID:16620827

  19. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  20. Report on GeoData 2011 Workshop - Data Life Cycle, Integration and Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R.; Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    recognition that human factors dominate, and often limit progress and effectiveness. Organizational and resource factors that would lead to a solid understanding of the business case behind, for example, making data preservable and integratable, come at a cost that is not well documented or supported when resource (funds and people) decisions are made. This presentation will report on the data life cycle findings and recommendations from the workshop. Recommendations: - Create an interagency working group to foster data life cycle management practices, support coordination and informatics science initiatives, and to develop a high level shared vision and strategy for data life cycle management - Create and fund a coordination office that works with the "working" level of agencies and academic institutions to facilitate working groups and workshops, adoption of standards and tools, and creation of sustainable archives - Support and actively participate in existing coordination groups, and create where needed, new communities of practice in data life cycle management across agencies, academic institutions, and the private sector - Establish an NSF working group to address the issue of incentives and cultural change needed to facilitate implementation of data life-cycle management http://tw.rpi.edu/web/Workshop/Community/GeoData2011, #geodata2011

  1. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  2. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Hernani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs. As a result, these launch opportunities await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options.With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  3. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  4. Life cycle assessment of overhead and underground primary power distribution.

    PubMed

    Bumby, Sarah; Druzhinina, Ekaterina; Feraldi, Rebe; Werthmann, Danae; Geyer, Roland; Sahl, Jack

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power can be distributed in overhead or underground systems, both of which generate a variety of environmental impacts at all stages of their life cycles. While there is considerable literature discussing the trade-offs between both systems in terms of aesthetics, safety, cost, and reliability, environmental assessments are relatively rare and limited to power cable production and end-of-life management. This paper assesses environmental impacts from overhead and underground medium voltage power distribution systems as they are currently built and managed by Southern California Edison (SCE). It uses process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 (2006) and SCE-specific primary data to the extent possible. Potential environmental impacts have been calculated using a wide range of midpoint indicators, and robustness of the results has been investigated through sensitivity analysis of the most uncertain and potentially significant parameters. The studied underground system has higher environmental impacts in all indicators and for all parameter values, mostly due to its higher material intensity. For both systems and all indicators the majority of impact occurs during cable production. Promising strategies for impact reduction are thus cable failure rate reduction for overhead and cable lifetime extension for underground systems. PMID:20553042

  5. Phenotypic Heterogeneity and the Evolution of Bacterial Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Jordi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria live in colonies, where they often express different cell types. The ecological significance of these cell types and their evolutionary origin are often unknown. Here, we study the evolution of cell differentiation in the context of surface colonization. We particularly focus on the evolution of a ‘sticky’ cell type that is required for surface attachment, but is costly to express. The sticky cells not only facilitate their own attachment, but also that of non-sticky cells. Using individual-based simulations, we show that surface colonization rapidly evolves and in most cases leads to phenotypic heterogeneity, in which sticky and non-sticky cells occur side by side on the surface. In the presence of regulation, cell differentiation leads to a remarkable set of bacterial life cycles, in which cells alternate between living in the liquid and living on the surface. The dominant life stage is formed by the surface-attached colony that shows many complex features: colonies reproduce via fission and by producing migratory propagules; cells inside the colony divide labour; and colonies can produce filaments to facilitate expansion. Overall, our model illustrates how the evolution of an adhesive cell type goes hand in hand with the evolution of complex bacterial life cycles. PMID:26894881

  6. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development. PMID:23238338

  7. Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits. PMID:20022351

  8. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

  9. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  10. Debris-flow risk analysis in a managed torrent based on a stochastic life-cycle performance.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Cánovas, J A; Stoffel, M; Corona, C; Schraml, K; Gobiet, A; Tani, S; Sinabell, F; Fuchs, S; Kaitna, R

    2016-07-01

    Two key factors can affect the functional ability of protection structures in mountains torrents, namely (i) infrastructure maintenance of existing infrastructures (as a majority of existing works is in the second half of their life cycle), and (ii) changes in debris-flow activity as a result of ongoing and expected future climatic changes. Here, we explore the applicability of a stochastic life-cycle performance to assess debris-flow risk in the heavily managed Wartschenbach torrent (Lienz region, Austria) and to quantify associated, expected economic losses. We do so by considering maintenance costs to restore infrastructure in the aftermath of debris-flow events as well as by assessing the probability of check dam failure (e.g., as a result of overload). Our analysis comprises two different management strategies as well as three scenarios defining future changes in debris-flow activity resulting from climatic changes. At the study site, an average debris-flow frequency of 21 events per decade was observed for the period 1950-2000; activity at the site is projected to change by +38% to -33%, according to the climate scenario used. Comparison of the different management alternatives suggests that the current mitigation strategy will allow to reduce expected damage to infrastructure and population almost fully (89%). However, to guarantee a comparable level of safety, maintenance costs is expected to increase by 57-63%, with an increase of maintenance costs by ca. 50% for each intervention. Our analysis therefore also highlights the importance of taking maintenance costs into account for risk assessments realized in managed torrent systems, as they result both from progressive and event-related deteriorations. We conclude that the stochastic life-cycle performance adopted in this study represents indeed an integrated approach to assess the long-term effects and costs of prevention structures in managed torrents. PMID:26994802

  11. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). PMID:25623003

  12. The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Jensen, Eric J.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The particles remain in the Tropics for most of their life, and during this period of time a size distribution is developed by a combination of coagulation, growth by heteromolecular condensation, and mixing with air parcels containing preexisting sulfate particles. The aerosol eventually migrates to higher latitudes and descends across isentropic surfaces to the lower stratosphere. The aerosol is removed from the stratosphere primarily at mid- and high latitudes through various processes, mainly by isentropic transport across the tropopause from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  13. Life cycle test of the NOXSO process

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.T.; Haslbeck, J.L.; Neal, L.G.

    1990-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data generated by the NOXSO Life Cycle Test Unit (LCTU). The NOXSO process is a dry flue gas treatment system that employs a reusable sorbent. The sorbent consists of sodium carbonate impregnated on a high-surface-area gamma alumina. A fluidized bed of sorbent simultaneously removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas at a temperature of 250{degrees}F. The spent sorbent is regenerated for reuse by treatment at high temperature with a reducing gas. This regeneration reduces sorbed sulfur compounds to SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and elemental sulfur. The SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are then converted to elemental sulfur in a Claus-type reactor. The sulfur produced is a marketable by-product of the process. Absorbed nitrogen oxides are decomposed and evolved on heating the sorbent to regeneration temperature.

  14. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING (FRED): USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TO EVALUATE PREFERABILITY OF PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-Making (FRED) demonstrates how the life-cycle concept can be used to quantify competing products' environmental performance so that this information may be integrated with considerations of total ownership cost and technical perfor...

  15. A Darwinian approach to the origin of life cycles with group properties.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Armin; Shelton, Deborah E; Michod, Richard E

    2015-06-01

    A selective explanation for the evolution of multicellular organisms from unicellular ones requires knowledge of both selective pressures and factors affecting the response to selection. Understanding the response to selection is particularly challenging in the case of evolutionary transitions in individuality, because these transitions involve a shift in the very units of selection. We develop a conceptual framework in which three fundamental processes (growth, division, and splitting) are the scaffold for unicellular and multicellular life cycles alike. We (i) enumerate the possible ways in which these processes can be linked to create more complex life cycles, (ii) introduce three genes based on growth, division and splitting that, acting in concert, determine the architecture of the life cycles, and finally, (iii) study the evolution of the simplest five life cycles using a heuristic model of coupled ordinary differential equations in which mutations are allowed in the three genes. We demonstrate how changes in the regulation of three fundamental aspects of colonial form (cell size, colony size, and colony cell number) could lead unicellular life cycles to evolve into primitive multicellular life cycles with group properties. One interesting prediction of the model is that selection generally favors cycles with group level properties when intermediate body size is associated with lowest mortality. That is, a universal requirement for the evolution of group cycles in the model is that the size-mortality curve be U-shaped. Furthermore, growth must decelerate with size. PMID:25814207

  16. A Methodology for Integrated, Multiregional Life Cycle Assessment Scenarios under Large-Scale Technological Change.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Thomas; Wood, Richard; Arvesen, Anders; Bergesen, Joseph D; Suh, Sangwon; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2015-09-15

    Climate change mitigation demands large-scale technological change on a global level and, if successfully implemented, will significantly affect how products and services are produced and consumed. In order to anticipate the life cycle environmental impacts of products under climate mitigation scenarios, we present the modeling framework of an integrated hybrid life cycle assessment model covering nine world regions. Life cycle assessment databases and multiregional input-output tables are adapted using forecasted changes in technology and resources up to 2050 under a 2 °C scenario. We call the result of this modeling "technology hybridized environmental-economic model with integrated scenarios" (THEMIS). As a case study, we apply THEMIS in an integrated environmental assessment of concentrating solar power. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for this plant range from 33 to 95 g CO2 eq./kWh across different world regions in 2010, falling to 30-87 g CO2 eq./kWh in 2050. Using regional life cycle data yields insightful results. More generally, these results also highlight the need for systematic life cycle frameworks that capture the actual consequences and feedback effects of large-scale policies in the long term. PMID:26308384

  17. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Forest Frontiers: The Role of Household Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Tropical deforestation remains a critical issue given its present rate and a widespread consensus regarding its implications for the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. Nowhere is the problem more pronounced than in the Amazon basin, home to the world's largest intact, tropical forest. This article addresses land cover change processes at household level in the Amazon basin, and to this end adapts a concept of domestic life cycle to the current institutional environment of tropical frontiers. In particular, it poses a risk minimization model that integrates demography with market-based factors such as transportation costs and accessibility. In essence, the article merges the theory of Chayanov with the household economy framework, in which markets exist for inputs (including labor), outputs, and capital. The risk model is specified and estimated, using survey data for 261 small producers along the Transamazon Highway in the eastern sector of the Brazilian Amazon.

  18. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    . While average results are valuable in comparing transport modes generally, they are less representative of local planning decisions, where the focus is on understanding the consequences of new infrastructure and how it might affect traffic, community impacts, and environmental aspects going forward. Chester et al (2013) also present their results using consequential LCA, which provides more detailed insights about the marginal effects of the specific rapid bus and light rail lines under study. The trade-offs between the additional resources required to install the public transit infrastructure (the 'resource debt') and the environmental advantages during the operation of these modes can be considered explicitly in terms of environmental impact payback periods, which vary with the type of environmental impact being considered. For example, bus rapid transit incurs a relatively small carbon debt associated with the GHG emissions of manufacturing new buses and installing transit infrastructure and pays this debt off almost immediately, while it takes half a century for the light rail line to pay off the 'smog debt' of its required infrastructure. This payback period approach, ubiquitous in life cycle costing, has been useful for communicating the magnitude of unintended environmental consequences from other resource and land management decisions, e.g., the release of soil carbon from land conversion to bioenergy crops (Fargione et al 2008), and will likely grow in prevalence as consequential LCA is used for decision support. The locations of projected emissions is just as important to decision-making as their magnitudes, as policy-making bodies seek to understand effects in their jurisdictions; however, life cycle impact assessment methods typically aggregate results by impact category rather than by source or sink location. Chester et al (2013) address this issue by providing both local (within Los Angeles) and total emissions results, with accompanying local-only payback

  19. Life cycle assessment of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Taufiq, Fierly Muhammad; Padmi, Tri; Rahardyan, Dan Benno

    2016-03-01

    In 2013 the population of dairy cattle in Indonesia had reached 636,000 head with a 4.61% growth rate per year. The inputs were energy, water, and feed. These inputs produced outputs, such as emissions, solid waste and liquid waste. This research compared the maintenance systems in modern farms and local farms. The data were collected from 30 local farmers and one modern farm. This research used the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. LCA is based on ISO 14040. LCA consists of several stages: the goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation. This research used the cradle to gate concept and fat corrected milk (FCM) as the function unit. The impacts of these activities could generate global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), and eutrophication potential (EP). The calculations showed that the systems in local farms had the greatest emissions result over all impacts. In the case of local farms, the GWP was 2.34 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP was 0.12 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP was 18.28 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L milk FCM. While the impact from the modern farm was GWP of 1.52 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP of 0.02 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP of 0.353 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L of milk FCM. Based on the total-weighted result, the GWP had the greatest impact from the overall life cycle phase of milk production. The total-weighted result obtained was of 0.298 EUR/L of FCM from a local farm and 0.189 EUR/L of FCM from the modern farm. This amount could be used to remediate the global warming, acidification, and eutrophication impacts of milk production. PMID:26953699

  20. The changing nature of life cycle assessment

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Marcelle C.; Taylor, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    LCA has evolved from its origins in energy analysis in the 1960s and 70s into a wide ranging tool used to determine impacts of products or systems over several environmental and resource issues. The approach has become more prevalent in research, industry and policy. Its use continues to expand as it seeks to encompass impacts as diverse as resource accounting and social well being. Carbon policy for bioenergy has driven many of these changes. Enabling assessment of complex issues over a life cycle basis is beneficial, but the process is sometimes difficult. LCA's use in framing is increasingly complex and more uncertain, and in some cases, irreconcilable. The charged environment surrounding biofuels and bioenergy exacerbates all of these. Reaching its full potential to help guide difficult policy discussions and emerging research involves successfully managing LCA's transition from attributional to consequential and from retrospective to prospective. This paper examines LCA's on-going evolution and its use within bioenergy deployment. The management of methodological growth in the context of the unique challenges associated with bioenergy and biofuels is explored. Changes seen in bioenergy LCA will bleed into other LCA arenas, especially where it is important that a sustainable solution is chosen. PMID:26664146

  1. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, M.; Woods, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life cycle in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar project. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar project will be at its halfway mark and

  3. Advanced Launch Technology Life Cycle Analysis Using the Architectural Comparison Tool (ACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle technology impact comparisons for nanolauncher technology concepts were performed using an Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) prototype. Examined are cost drivers and whether technology investments can dramatically affect the life cycle characteristics. Primary among the selected applications was the prospect of improving nanolauncher systems. As a result, findings and conclusions are documented for ways of creating more productive and affordable nanolauncher systems; e.g., an Express Lane-Flex Lane concept is forwarded, and the beneficial effect of incorporating advanced integrated avionics is explored. Also, a Functional Systems Breakdown Structure (F-SBS) was developed to derive consistent definitions of the flight and ground systems for both system performance and life cycle analysis. Further, a comprehensive catalog of ground segment functions was created.

  4. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project

  5. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    PubMed

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. PMID:22230660

  6. Break free from the product life cycle.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngme

    2005-05-01

    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling. PMID:15929406

  7. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  8. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  9. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European Union's new Integrated Product Policy directs governments and companies to consider the entire product life cycle, from cradle to grave, in their environmental decision-making process. A life-cycle based approach is intended to lead toward true environmental improvem...

  10. Family Development and the Family Life Cycle: An Empirical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham; And Others

    The concept of family life cycle has become increasingly prominent in the study of family development--the formation, maintenance, change, and dissolution of marriage and family relations. An evaluation of this concept is accomplished by examining the relationships between three possible stratification schemes: stage of the family life cycle,…

  11. The Developmental Tasks of Siblingship over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetting, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Based on a review of research, outlines developmental tasks of siblingship in the United States from a life-cycle perspective. The sibling support bond typically persists throughout the life cycle. Some siblingship tasks are constant and consistent from birth to death, while others stand out as idiosyncratic to the context of the particular life…

  12. A Game to Teach the Life Cycles of Fungi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a biological game utilized to teach fungi life cycles to secondary biology students. The game is designed to overcome difficulties of correlating schematic drawings with images seen through the microscope, correlating life cycles of fungi and host, and understanding cyclic development of fungi. (SL)

  13. LCACCESS: A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCAccess is an EPA-sponsored website intended to promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in business decision-making by faciliatating access to data sources that are useful in developing a life cycle inventory (LCI). While LCAccess does not itself contain data, it is a sea...

  14. THE EPA'S EMERGING FOCUS ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been actively engaged in LCA research since 1990 to help advance the methodology and application of life cycle thinking in decision making. Across the Agency consideration of the life cycle concept is increasing in the development of policies and programs. A major force i...

  15. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ELECTRICITY DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three day workshop was held in October 2001 to discuss life cycle inventory data for electricity production. Electricity was selected as the topic for discussion since it features very prominently in the LCA results for most product life cycles, yet there is no consistency in h...

  16. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  17. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, but quantifying that offset is complex. We conducted a life cycle assessment of a range of bioenergy cropping systems to determine the impact on net greenho...

  18. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  19. Test of US Federal Life Cycle Inventory Data Interoperability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle assessment practitioners must gather data from a variety of sources. For modeling activities in the US, practitioners may wish to use life cycle inventory data from public databases and libraries provided by US government entities. An exercise was conducted to test if ...

  20. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  1. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  2. Software security checklist for the software life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, D. P.; Wolfe, T. L.; Sherif, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    A formal approach to security in the software life cycle is essential to protect corporate resources. However, little thought has been given to this aspect of software development. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle.

  3. Models of the Organizational Life Cycle: Applications to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.; Whetten, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A review of models of group and organization life cycle development is provided and the applicability of those models for institutions of higher education are discussed. An understanding of the problems and characteristics present in different life cycle stages can help institutions manage transitions more effectively. (Author/MLW)

  4. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  5. Energy life-cycle assessment of soybean biodiesel revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the energy flows associated with biodiesel production. A similar study conducted previously (Sheehan et al., Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, Publication NREL/SR-580-24089, National Renewable Ener...

  6. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  7. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  8. The Family Life Cycle: Empirical or Conceptual Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Steven L.

    1979-01-01

    Issues related to individual and family life are studied as they vary across stages of the family life cycle. Strong relationships are found between stages in family life cycle and a number of such issues. Further analysis indicates that the major dimensions of the cycle are children and length of marriage. (Author)

  9. The Changing Status of American Women: A Life Cycle Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, Roxanne A.; Sheldon, Eleanor Bernert

    1976-01-01

    Notes that the family life cycle is becoming but one of a number of subcurrents in the lives of women. In documenting some of the facets of this general trend, changes in several key aspects of womens' lives are examined in terms of the variable effects on different age groups at different stages in the life cycle. (Author/AM)

  10. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore. PMID:25910060

  11. An evaluation of alternative household solid waste treatment practices using life cycle inventory assessment mode.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Waste disposal is an important part of the life cycle of a product and is associated with environmental burdens like any other life-cycle stages. In this study, an integrated assessment for solid waste treatment practices, especially household solid waste, was undertaken to evaluate the impact contribution of household solid waste treatment alternatives towards the sustainable development by using Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method. A case study has been investigated under various possible scenarios, such as (1) landfill without landfill gas recovery, (2) landfill with landfill gas recovery and flaring, (3) landfill with landfill gas recovery and electric generation, (4) composting, and (5) incineration. The evaluation utilized the Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method for multiple assessments based on various aspects, such as greenhouse gas emission/reduction, energy generation/consumption, economic benefit, investment and operating cost, and land use burden. The results showed that incineration was the most efficient alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction, economic benefit, energy recovery, and land use reduction, although it was identified as the most expensive for investment and operating cost, while composting scenario was also an efficient alternative with quite economic benefit, low investment and operating cost, and high reduction of land use, although it was identified as existing greenhouse gas emission and no energy generation. Furthermore, the aim of this study was also to establish localized assessment methods that waste management agencies, environmental engineers, and environmental policy decision makers can use to quantify and compare the contribution to the impacts from different waste treatment options. PMID:21773866

  12. Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.

  13. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  14. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  15. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report`s information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  16. An approach to incorporate risks into a product`s life-cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pirhonen, P.

    1995-12-31

    Life-cycle assessment is usually based on regular discharges that occur at a more or less constant rate. Nevertheless, the more factors that are taken into account in the LCA the better picture it gives on the environmental aspects of a product. In this study an approach to incorporate accidental releases into a products` life-cycle assessment was developed. In this approach accidental releases are divided into two categories. The first category consists of those unplanned releases which occur with a predicted level and frequency. Due to the high frequency and small release size at a time, these accidental releases can be compared to continuous emissions. Their global impacts are studied in this approach. Accidental releases of the second category are sudden, unplanned releases caused by exceptional situations, e.g. technical failure, action error or disturbances in process conditions. These releases have a singular character and local impacts are typical of them. As far as the accidental releases of the second category are concerned, the approach introduced in this study results in a risk value for every stage of a life-cycle, the sum of which is a risk value for the whole life-cycle. Risk value is based on occurrence frequencies of incidents and potential environmental damage caused by releases. Risk value illustrates the level of potential damage caused by accidental releases related to the system under study and is meant to be used for comparison of these levels of two different products. It can also be used to compare the risk levels of different stages of the life-cycle. An approach was illustrated using petrol as an example product. The whole life-cycle of petrol from crude oil production to the consumption of petrol was studied.

  17. The life cycle of radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    This thesis will examine some key issues in the life history of radio galaxies. The evolution of radio galaxies can be understood in terms of the history of their relativistic particle distributions and morphologies. Using radio data from the Very Large Array, I examine the relativistic particle acceleration processes in several Fanaroff-Riley I sources. 1116+28, 1243+26, and 1553+24 all show dual spectral components known as jets and sheaths. These and other radio galaxies show that the strength of the acceleration mechanism approaches the strong shock limit for first order Fermi acceleration. Active radio galaxies accelerate electrons that then undergo energy losses by way of synchrotron, adiabatic, and inverse-Compton mechanisms. 3C386 and 3C98 has structure which may indicate that the acceleration process has recently ceased or is coming to an end. An examination of these possibly dying radio sources with large, bright, and diffuse lobes reveals that the shape of the spectra indicates that their acceleration mechanisms approach the strong shock limit. With these derived low frequency spectral indices, an estimate of the true magnetic field strength in the lobes can be made should X-ray observations be available. This will alleviate the need to invoke equipartition assumptions. A radio galaxy will eventually lose almost all of its relativistic electron energy through radiative and adiabatic losses and evolve into a relic state. In this state, there may have no discernible radio core, radio jet, or optical counterpart. However, mechanisms such as cluster merger shocks or re-started radio galaxies could re-energize these relic plasmas. Relic radio sources in the clusters Abell 85 and MKW 3s show that these processes do occur and reveal spectra that are consistent with weak shocks. The sources studied here can be viewed as a snapshot in the timeline of a radio galaxy. The life cycles of radio galaxies have broad implications not just for themselves but also on the

  18. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  19. Optimization of monitoring and inspections in the life-cycle of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanish Nithin, Anu; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The past decade has witnessed a surge in the offshore wind farm developments across the world. Although this form of cleaner and greener energy is beneficial and eco-friendly, the production of wind energy entails high life-cycle costs. The costs associated with inspections, monitoring and repairs of wind turbines are primary contributors to the high costs of electricity produced in this way and are disadvantageous in today's competitive economic environment. There is limited research being done in the probabilistic optimization of life-cycle costs of offshore wind turbines structures and their components. This paper proposes a framework for assessing the life cycle cost of wind turbine structures subject to damage and deterioration. The objective of the paper is to develop a mathematical probabilistic cost assessment framework which considers deterioration, inspection, monitoring, repair and maintenance models and their uncertainties. The uncertainties are etched in the accuracy and precision of the monitoring and inspection methods and can be considered through the probability of damage detection of each method. Schedules for inspection, monitoring and repair actions are demonstrated using a decision tree. Examples of a generalised deterioration process integrated with the cost analysis using a decision tree are shown for a wind turbine foundation structure.

  20. Characterisation factors for life cycle impact assessment of sound emissions.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Heijungs, R

    2014-01-15

    Noise is a serious stressor affecting the health of millions of citizens. It has been suggested that disturbance by noise is responsible for a substantial part of the damage to human health. However, no recommended approach to address noise impacts was proposed by the handbook for life cycle assessment (LCA) of the European Commission, nor are characterisation factors (CFs) and appropriate inventory data available in commonly used databases. This contribution provides CFs to allow for the quantification of noise impacts on human health in the LCA framework. Noise propagation standards and international reports on acoustics and noise impacts were used to define the model parameters. Spatial data was used to calculate spatially-defined CFs in the form of 10-by-10-km maps. The results of this analysis were combined with data from the literature to select input data for representative archetypal situations of emission (e.g. urban day with a frequency of 63 Hz, rural night at 8000 Hz, etc.). A total of 32 spatial and 216 archetypal CFs were produced to evaluate noise impacts at a European level (i.e. EU27). The possibility of a user-defined characterisation factor was added to support the possibility of portraying the situation of full availability of information, as well as a highly-localised impact analysis. A Monte Carlo-based quantitative global sensitivity analysis method was applied to evaluate the importance of the input factors in determining the variance of the output. The factors produced are ready to be implemented in the available LCA databases and software. The spatial approach and archetypal approach may be combined and selected according to the amount of information available and the life cycle under study. The framework proposed and used for calculations is flexible enough to be expanded to account for impacts on target subjects other than humans and to continents other than Europe. PMID:24035845

  1. Software and information life cycle (SILC) for the Integrated Information Services Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Cassidy, A.; Cuyler, D.; Eaton, S.; Joyce, S.; Kephart, E.; Thurston, I.; Schofield, J.; Knirk, D.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the processes to be used for creating corporate information systems within the scope of the Integrated Information Services (IIS) Center. Issue B describes all phases of the life cycle, with strong emphasis on the interweaving of the Analysis and Design phases. This Issue B supersedes Issue A, which concentrated on the Analysis and Implementation phases within the context of the entire life cycle. Appendix A includes a full set of examples of the deliverables, excerpted from the Network Database. Subsequent issues will further develop these life cycle processes as we move toward enterprise-level management of information assets, including information meta-models and an integrated corporate information model. The phases described here, when combined with a specifications repository, will provide the basis for future reusable components and improve traceability of information system specifications to enterprise business rules.

  2. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    . While average results are valuable in comparing transport modes generally, they are less representative of local planning decisions, where the focus is on understanding the consequences of new infrastructure and how it might affect traffic, community impacts, and environmental aspects going forward. Chester et al (2013) also present their results using consequential LCA, which provides more detailed insights about the marginal effects of the specific rapid bus and light rail lines under study. The trade-offs between the additional resources required to install the public transit infrastructure (the 'resource debt') and the environmental advantages during the operation of these modes can be considered explicitly in terms of environmental impact payback periods, which vary with the type of environmental impact being considered. For example, bus rapid transit incurs a relatively small carbon debt associated with the GHG emissions of manufacturing new buses and installing transit infrastructure and pays this debt off almost immediately, while it takes half a century for the light rail line to pay off the 'smog debt' of its required infrastructure. This payback period approach, ubiquitous in life cycle costing, has been useful for communicating the magnitude of unintended environmental consequences from other resource and land management decisions, e.g., the release of soil carbon from land conversion to bioenergy crops (Fargione et al 2008), and will likely grow in prevalence as consequential LCA is used for decision support. The locations of projected emissions is just as important to decision-making as their magnitudes, as policy-making bodies seek to understand effects in their jurisdictions; however, life cycle impact assessment methods typically aggregate results by impact category rather than by source or sink location. Chester et al (2013) address this issue by providing both local (within Los Angeles) and total emissions results, with accompanying local-only payback

  3. Nano-Launcher Technologies, Approaches, and Life Cycle Assessment. Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Assist in understanding NASA technology and investment approaches, and other driving factors, necessary for enabling dedicated nano-launchers by industry at a cost and flight rate that (1) could support and be supported by an emerging nano-satellite market and (2) would benefit NASAs needs. Develop life-cycle cost, performance and other NASA analysis tools or models required to understand issues, drivers and challenges.

  4. Sustainable Life Cycles of Natural-Precursor-Derived Nanocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bazaka, Kateryna; Jacob, Mohan V; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2016-01-13

    Sustainable societal and economic development relies on novel nanotechnologies that offer maximum efficiency at minimal environmental cost. Yet, it is very challenging to apply green chemistry approaches across the entire life cycle of nanotech products, from design and nanomaterial synthesis to utilization and disposal. Recently, novel, efficient methods based on nonequilibrium reactive plasma chemistries that minimize the process steps and dramatically reduce the use of expensive and hazardous reagents have been applied to low-cost natural and waste sources to produce value-added nanomaterials with a wide range of applications. This review discusses the distinctive effects of nonequilibrium reactive chemistries and how these effects can aid and advance the integration of sustainable chemistry into each stage of nanotech product life. Examples of the use of enabling plasma-based technologies in sustainable production and degradation of nanotech products are discussed-from selection of precursors derived from natural resources and their conversion into functional building units, to methods for green synthesis of useful naturally degradable carbon-based nanomaterials, to device operation and eventual disintegration into naturally degradable yet potentially reusable byproducts. PMID:26717047

  5. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Murray, M.E.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-11-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

  6. Life cycle thinking in impact assessment—Current practice and LCA gains

    SciTech Connect

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2015-09-15

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which were analysed for analytical appropriateness and application of LCT. Through a focus on the non-technical summary, the conclusion and the use of specific search words, passages containing LCT were searched for in each IA report. These passages were then analysed with a generic framework. The results reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate impacts to this function explicitly. Many IAs do consider downstream impacts, but assessments of upstream, distant impacts are generally absent. It is concluded that multiple analytical gains can be attributed to greater application of LCA in IA practice, though some level of LCT already exists. - Highlights: • Life cycle thinking is appropriate across the types and topics of impact assessment. • Yet, life cycle assessment is rarely used for adding such perspective. • Impact assessment practice does apply some degree of life cycle thinking. • However, application of life cycle assessment could bring analytical gains.

  7. Towards a Sustainable Approach to Nanotechnology by Integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Ziegler, Kirk J.; Lindner, Angela S.; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Because rapid growth of nanotechnology is expected to lead to intentional and non-intentional releases, future engineers will need to minimize negative environmental and health impacts of nanomaterials. We developed two upper-level undergraduate courses centered on life-cycle assessment of nanomaterials. The first part of the course sequence…

  8. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  9. The Impact of Different Portability Factors during the Life Cycle of an Educational Software Adaptation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty A.; De Diana, Italo

    1990-01-01

    Provides an example that illustrates the interrelationship of the factors that influence educational software portability. Nielsen's seven-level approach to human-computer interaction is used as the basis for a model for factors that influence portability, and five phases in the life cycle of a software product being adapted are considered. (10…

  10. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  12. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  13. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  14. Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  16. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF LIFE-CYCLE COSTS OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many different types of chemical protective clothing (CPC) are used to isolate workers at hazardous waste sites from contact with the potential hazards posed by chemical wastes. he goal in selecting the appropriate clothing for a particular occupational situation is to optimize w...

  17. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Life Cycle Cost Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will review lessons learned for space transportation systems from the viewpoint of the NASA, Industry and academia Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST). The paper provides the basic idea and history of "lessons learned". Recommendations that are extremely relevant to NASA's future investments in research, program development and operations are"'provided. Lastly, a novel and useful approach to documenting lessons learned is recommended, so as to most effectively guide future NASA investments. Applying lessons learned can significantly improve access to space for cargo or people by focusing limited funds on the right areas and needs for improvement. Many NASA human space flight initiatives have faltered, been re-directed or been outright canceled since the birth of the Space Shuttle program. The reasons given at the time have been seemingly unique. It will be shown that there are common threads as lessons learned in many a past initiative.

  18. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life... set out in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. A Federal agency may choose to use any of four...

  19. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life... set out in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. A Federal agency may choose to use any of four...

  20. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life... set out in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. A Federal agency may choose to use any of four...

  1. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life... set out in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. A Federal agency may choose to use any of four...

  2. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8 Life... set out in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. A Federal agency may choose to use any of four...

  3. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  4. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  5. Estimating patient-level nursing home costs.

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, R E; Shaughnessy, P W; Yslas, I

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a methodology developed to estimate patient-level nursing home costs. Such estimates are difficult to obtain because most cost data for nursing homes are available from Medicare or Medicaid cost reports, which provide only average values per patient-day across all patients (or all of a particular payer's patients). The methodology presented in this article yields "resource consumption" (RC) measures of the variable cost of nursing staff care incurred in treating individual nursing home patients. Results from the application of the methodology are presented, using data collected in 1980 on a sample of 961 nursing home patients in 74 Colorado nursing homes. This type of approach could be used to link nursing home payments to the care needs of individual patients, thus improving the overall equity of the payment system and possibly reducing the access barriers facing especially Medicaid patients with high-cost care needs. PMID:3921494

  6. LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a large, complex project in which a number of different research activities are taking place concurrently to collect data, develop cost and LCI methodologies, construct a database and decision support tool, and conduct case studies with communities to support the life cyc...

  7. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  8. Long-term shifts in life-cycle energy efficiency and carbon intensity.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Morrison, Geoff; Teter, Jacob; Quiceno, Raul; Gillingham, Kenneth; Riera-Palou, Xavier

    2013-03-19

    The quantity of primary energy needed to support global human activity is in large part determined by how efficiently that energy is converted to a useful form. We estimate the system-level life-cycle energy efficiency (EF) and carbon intensity (CI) across primary resources for 2005-2100. Our results underscore that although technological improvements at each energy conversion process will improve technology efficiency and lead to important reductions in primary energy use, market mediated effects and structural shifts toward less efficient pathways and pathways with multiple stages of conversion will dampen these efficiency gains. System-level life-cycle efficiency may decrease as mitigation efforts intensify, since low-efficiency renewable systems with high output have much lower GHG emissions than some high-efficiency fossil fuel systems. Climate policies accelerate both improvements in EF and the adoption of renewable technologies, resulting in considerably lower primary energy demand and GHG emissions. Life-cycle EF and CI of useful energy provide a useful metric for understanding dynamics of implementing climate policies. The approaches developed here reiterate the necessity of a combination of policies that target efficiency and decarbonized energy technologies. We also examine life-cycle exergy efficiency (ExF) and find that nearly all of the qualitative results hold regardless of whether we use ExF or EF. PMID:23409918

  9. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Life-cycle assessment of solid waste management relies on accurate process models. • Material recovery facility (MRF) processes were modeled with new primary data. • Single stream, dual stream, pre-sorted, and mixed waste MRFs were considered. • MRF electricity consumption ranges from 4.7 to 7.8 kW h per Mg input. • Total cost ranges from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg input. - Abstract: Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different process flow, for separation of single-stream, dual-stream, pre-sorted recyclables, and mixed-waste. Each MRF type has a distinct combination of equipment and default input waste composition. Model results for total amortized costs from each MRF type ranged from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg (1 Mg = 1 metric ton) of waste input. Electricity use ranged from 4.7 to 7.8 kW h per Mg of waste input. In a single-stream MRF, equipment required for glass separation consumes 28% of total facility electricity consumption, while all other pieces of material recovery equipment consume less than 10% of total electricity. The dual-stream and mixed-waste MRFs have similar electricity consumption to a single-stream MRF. Glass separation contributes a much larger fraction of electricity consumption in a pre-sorted MRF, due to lower overall facility electricity consumption. Parametric analysis revealed that reducing separation efficiency for each piece of equipment by 25% altered total facility electricity consumption by less than 4% in each case. When model results were compared with actual data for an

  10. Life cycle assessment of potential biojet fuel production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agusdinata, Datu B; Zhao, Fu; Ileleji, Klein; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to reveal to what degree biobased jet fuels (biojet) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. aviation sector. A model of the supply and demand chain of biojet involving farmers, biorefineries, airlines, and policymakers is developed by considering factors that drive the decisions of actors (i.e., decision-makers and stakeholders) in the life cycle stages. Two kinds of feedstock are considered: oil-producing feedstock (i.e., camelina and algae) and lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., corn stover, switchgrass, and short rotation woody crops). By factoring in farmer/feedstock producer and biorefinery profitability requirements and risk attitudes, land availability and suitability, as well as a time delay and technological learning factor, a more realistic estimate of the level of biojet supply and emissions reduction can be developed under different oil price assumptions. Factors that drive biojet GHG emissions and unit production costs from each feedstock are identified and quantified. Overall, this study finds that at likely adoption rates biojet alone would not be sufficient to achieve the aviation emissions reduction target. In 2050, under high oil price scenario assumption, GHG emissions can be reduced to a level ranging from 55 to 92%, with a median value of 74%, compared to the 2005 baseline level. PMID:21958200

  11. Planning for Cost Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaebitz, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat pump life-cycle cost analysis is used to explain the technique. Items suggested for the life-cycle analysis approach include lighting, longer-life batteries, site maintenance, and retaining experts to inspect specific building components. (MLF)

  12. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  13. Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is

  14. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input–output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20 000 m3 (with a range from 6700 to 33 000 m3) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300–3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900–23 000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0–370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800–71 000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well

  15. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  16. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Butera, Stefania Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  17. Tuberitinidae MIKLUKHO-MACLAY, 1958: life cycle, ecology, diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, S.; Montenari, M.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed microfacies analysis of biogenic carbonates from the Cantabrian Mountains has revealed the widespread occurrence of Tuberitinidae. This group of organisms consist of a diverse set of morphologies which have been described from the early most Silurian to Middle Permian. Since they were first described, the Tuberitinidae have been attributed to several differing taxinomical groups, including; calcispheres, foraminifera and the microproblematica. Further to the confusion surrounding taxinomical affinity, several classifications at the generic and specific level have been erected based upon morphological differences that have been recognised as different growth stages. The specimen bearing rocks belong to the San Emiliano Formation (Bashkirian to Moscovian in age), Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. These units are laterally persisting limestones which separate major deltaic clastic intervals. Tuberitinidae observed from this succession are highly morphologically variable, with examples from previously recognised growth stages observed - in addition to several morphologies that appear to be transitional stages. Observations also suggest that wall structure within the family is far more homogeneous than previously thought. Hereafter, it is suggested that the various morphologies observed do not represent separate species or genera but different stages within the life cycle of the Tuberitinidae. Stages of the life cycle suggested are as follows: Stage 1 - Attached Tuberitine (Initially individual test attached by basal disc), Stage 2 - Free-Parted (Individual free test), Stage 3 - Free-Diplosphaerine (spherical test with next generation test forming within wall structure) and Stage 4 - Free-Pioneer (Individual free spherical test). Wall structures observed imply that homogeneous micritic walls are consistent throughout the Tuberitinidae and that perforation may result from aragonite to calcite neomorphism. Furthermore a new growth pattern is suggested. Succeeding

  18. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings. PMID:24053574

  19. Life Cycle Leadership Theory: Some Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Keith F.; Ducharme, David J.

    1972-01-01

    Limited support is found for two hypotheses suggesting inverse relationships between the maturity level of teachers, and the degree to which they prefer task and relationship oriented leadership behavior. (Author/JH)

  20. Life-cycle assessment of computational logic produced from 1995 through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, S. B.; Horvath, A.; Dornfeld, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the life-cycle environmental and human health impacts of semiconductor logic is essential to a better understanding of the role information technology can play in achieving energy efficiency or global warming potential reduction goals. This study provides a life-cycle assessment for digital logic chips over seven technology generations, spanning from 1995 through 2010. Environmental indicators include global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, ground-level ozone (smog) formation, potential human cancer and non-cancer health effects, ecotoxicity and water use. While impacts per device area related to fabrication infrastructure and use-phase electricity have increased steadily, those due to transportation and fabrication direct emissions have fallen as a result of changes in process technology, device and wafer sizes and yields over the generations. Electricity, particularly in the use phase, and direct emissions from fabrication are the most important contributors to life-cycle impacts. Despite the large quantities of water used in fabrication, across the life cycle, the largest fraction of water is consumed in generation of electricity for use-phase power. Reducing power consumption in the use phase is the most effective way to limit impacts, particularly for the more recent generations of logic.

  1. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability. PMID:20178382

  2. Bacteriophage adenine methyltransferase: a life cycle regulator? Modelled using Vibrio harveyi myovirus like.

    PubMed

    Bochow, S; Elliman, J; Owens, L

    2012-11-01

    The adenine methyltransferase (DAM) gene methylates GATC sequences that have been demonstrated in various bacteria to be a powerful gene regulator functioning as an epigenetic switch, particularly with virulence gene regulation. However, overproduction of DAM can lead to mutations, giving rise to variability that may be important for adaptation to environmental change. While most bacterial hosts carry a DAM gene, not all bacteriophage carry this gene. Currently, there is no literature regarding the role DAM plays in life cycle regulation of bacteriophage. Vibrio campbellii strain 642 carries the bacteriophage Vibrio harveyi myovirus like (VHML) that has been proven to increase virulence. The complete genome sequence of VHML bacteriophage revealed a putative adenine methyltransferase gene. Using VHML, a new model of phage life cycle regulation, where DAM plays a central role between the lysogenic and lytic states, will be hypothesized. In short, DAM methylates the rha antirepressor gene and once methylation is removed, homologous CI repressor protein becomes repressed and non-functional leading to the switching to the lytic cycle. Greater understanding of life cycle regulation at the genetic level can, in the future, lead to the genesis of chimeric bacteriophage with greater control over their life cycle for their safe use as probiotics within the aquaculture industry. PMID:22681538

  3. Software life cycle methodologies and environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    Products of this project will significantly improve the quality and productivity of Space Station Freedom Program software processes by: improving software reliability and safety; and broadening the range of problems that can be solved with computational solutions. Projects brings in Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) technology for: Environments such as Engineering Script Language/Parts Composition System (ESL/PCS) application generator, Intelligent User Interface for cost avoidance in setting up operational computer runs, Framework programmable platform for defining process and software development work flow control, Process for bringing CASE technology into an organization's culture, and CLIPS/CLIPS Ada language for developing expert systems; and methodologies such as Method for developing fault tolerant, distributed systems and a method for developing systems for common sense reasoning and for solving expert systems problems when only approximate truths are known.

  4. Life-cycle nitrogen trifluoride emissions from photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, Vasilis; Clark, Daniel O; Moalem, Mehran; Chandler, Phil; Ridgeway, Robert G; Hulbert, Forrest E; Cooper, David B; Maroulis, Peter J

    2010-11-15

    Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF₃, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF₃ in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF₃ and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF₃ at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF₃ in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO₂(eq)/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life. PMID:21067246

  5. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  6. Irrational Beliefs, Life Cycles of a Couple and Divorce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Hossein, Salimi; Reza, Karaminia; Seyed-Mahmoud, Mirzamani; Asiye, Ramezani; Reza, Taghavi Mohammad

    The present study assessed the relationships between irrational beliefs and the life cycles for couples that decided to divorce. One hundred and seventy eight people including 120 women and 58 males who were referred to the divorce court were requested to fill in The Irrational Beliefs Inventory. The results showed that the majority (37.1%) of the couples referred to Court were in the third part of the life cycle (raising children). Most divorced subjects had a life length between 1 to 5 years (44%). The highest mean scores of irrational beliefs (296.9) were found for the fifth part of the life cycle (retirement and death). Analysis showed couples in the fifth and third part of the life cycle had significantly higher irrational beliefs than the couples in the other parts of the life cycle. Irrational beliefs such as Anxious Over-concern, Frustrated Reaction and Helplessness for Change had the highest mean scores while, the Problem Avoiding, Emotional Irresponsibility and High Self-Expectation had the lowest mean scores.

  7. Life Cycle Model for IT Performance Measurement: A Reference Model for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Can Adam; Gadatsch, Andreas; Olufs, Dirk

    IT performance measurement is often associated by chief executive officers with IT cost cutting although IT protects business processes from increasing IT costs. IT cost cutting only endangers the company’s efficiency. This opinion discriminates those who do IT performance measurement in companies as a bean-counter. The present paper describes an integrated reference model for IT performance measurement based on a life cycle model and a performance oriented framework. The presented model was created from a practical point of view. It is designed lank compared with other known concepts and is very appropriate for small and medium enterprises (SME).

  8. Modeling Tritium Life cycle in Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, D.; Saunders, P.; Morey, D.; Pitt, N.; Wilson, J.; Claes, B.

    2006-07-01

    The mathematical development of a tritium model for nuclear power plants is presented. The model requires that the water and tritium material balance be satisfied throughout normal operations and shutdown. The model results obtained at the time of publishing include the system definitions and comparison of the model predictions of tritium generations compared to the observed plant data of the Braidwood station. A scenario that models using ion exchange resin to remove coolant boron demonstrates the tritium concentration levels are manageable. (authors)

  9. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of animal complex life cycles

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Metazoan life cycles can be complex in different ways. A number of diverse phenotypes and reproductive events can sequentially occur along the cycle, and at certain stages a variety of developmental and reproductive options can be available to the animal, the choice among which depends on a combination of organismal and environmental conditions. We hypothesize that a diversity of phenotypes arranged in developmental sequence throughout an animal's life cycle may have evolved by genetic assimilation of alternative phenotypes originally triggered by environmental cues. This is supported by similarities between the developmental mechanisms mediating phenotype change and alternative phenotype determination during ontogeny and the common ecological condition that favour both forms of phenotypic variation. The comparison of transcription profiles from different developmental stages throughout a complex life cycle with those from alternative phenotypes in closely related polyphenic animals is expected to offer critical evidence upon which to evaluate our hypothesis. PMID:20083638

  10. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies. PMID:26690755

  11. [Carbon balance analysis of corn fuel ethanol life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xi-gang

    2006-04-01

    The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (net carbon emissions) of corn-based fuel ethanol, which is known as an alternative for fossil fuel is an important criteria for evaluating its sustainability. The methodology of carbon balance analysis for fuel ethanol from corn was developed based on principles of life cycle analysis. For the production state of fuel ethanol from summer corn in China, carbon budgets in overall life cycle of the ethanol were evaluated and its main influence factors were identified. It presents that corn-based fuel ethanol has no obvious reduction of carbon emissions than gasoline, and potential improvement in carbon emission of the life cycle of corn ethanol could be achieved by reducing the nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity used in the corn farming and energy consumption in the ethanol conversion process. PMID:16767974

  12. Security Risks: Management and Mitigation in the Software Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.

    2004-01-01

    A formal approach to managing and mitigating security risks in the software life cycle is requisite to developing software that has a higher degree of assurance that it is free of security defects which pose risk to the computing environment and the organization. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle. Both a software security checklist and assessment tools should be incorporated into this life cycle process and integrated with a security risk assessment and mitigation tool. The current research at JPL addresses these areas through the development of a Sotfware Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) and integrating it with a Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) risk management tool.

  13. Commissioning tools for life-cycle building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses information systems for building life-cycle performance analysis and the use of computer-based commissioning tools within this context. There are many reasons why buildings do not perform in practice as well as intended at the design stage. One reason is the lack of commissioning. A second reason is that design intent is not well documented, and performance targets for building components and systems are not well specified. Thus, criteria for defining verification and functional tests is unclear. A third reason is that critical information is often lost throughout the building life-cycle, which causes problems such as misunderstanding of operational characteristics and sequences and reduced overall performance. The life-cycle building performance analysis tools project discussed in this paper are focused on chillers and cooling systems.

  14. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  15. Match your sales force structure to your business life cycle.

    PubMed

    Zoltners, Andris A; Sinha, Prabhakant; Lorimer, Sally E

    2006-01-01

    Although companies devote considerable time and money to managing their sales forces, few focus much thought on how the structure of the sales force needs to change over the life cycle of a product or a business. However, the organization and goals of a sales operation have to evolve as businesses start up, grow, mature, and decline if a company wants to keep winning the race for customers. Specifically, firms must consider and alter four factors over time: the differing roles that internal salespeople and external selling partners should play, the size of the sales force, its degree of specialization, and how salespeople apportion their efforts among different customers, products, and activities. These variables are critical because they determine how quickly sales forces respond to market opportunities, they influence sales reps' performance, and they affect companies' revenues, costs, and profitability. In this article, the authors use timeseries data and cases to explain how, at each stage, firms can best tackle the relevant issues and get the most out of their sales forces. During start-up, smart companies focus on how big their sales staff should be and on whether they can depend upon selling partners. In the growth phase, they concentrate on getting the sales force's degree of specialization and size right. When businesses hit maturity, companies should better allocate existing resources and hire more general-purpose salespeople. Finally, as organizations go into decline, wise sales leaders reduce sales force size and use partners to keep the business afloat for as long as possible. PMID:16846191

  16. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. PMID:25553545

  17. Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Elizabeth M.; Randel, William J.; Stanford, John L.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with baroclinically unstable initial conditions similar to those used by Thorncroft et al. in their study of two life cycle paradigms. The two life cycles LCn and LCs have different initial horizontal wind shear structures that result in distinctive nonlinear development. In terms of potential vorticity-potential temperature (PV-theta) diagnostics, the LCn case is characterized by thinning troughs that are advected anti-cyclonically and equatorward, while the LCs case has broadening troughs that wrap up cyclonically and poleward. Four idealized passive tracers are included in the model to be advected by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the CCM2, and their evolutions are investigated throughout the life cycles. Tracer budgets are analyzed in terms of the transformed Eulerian mean constituent transport formalism in pressure coordinates and also in isentropic coordinates. Results for both LCn and LCs show transport that is downgradient with respect to the background structure of the tracer field, but with a characteristic spatial structure that maximizes in the middle to high latitudes. For the idealized tropospheric tracers in this study, this represents a net upward and poleward transport that enhances concentrations at high latitudes. These results vary little with the initial distribution of the constituent field. The time tendency of the tracer is influenced most strongly by the eddy flux term. with the largest transport occurring during the nonlinear growth stage of the life cycle. The authors also study the transport of a lower-stratospheric tracer, to examine stratosphere-troposphere exchange for baroclinic waves.

  18. The data life cycle applied to our own data

    PubMed Central

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Increased demand for data-driven decision making is driving the need for librarians to be facile with the data life cycle. This case study follows the migration of reference desk statistics from handwritten to digital format. This shift presented two opportunities: first, the availability of a nonsensitive data set to improve the librarians' understanding of data-management and statistical analysis skills, and second, the use of analytics to directly inform staffing decisions and departmental strategic goals. By working through each step of the data life cycle, library faculty explored data gathering, storage, sharing, and analysis questions. PMID:25552944

  19. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This overview is extracted from a detailed, comprehensive report entitled Life Cycle Inventories of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI comprehensively quantifies all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  20. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IIJ systems function comprising of Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  1. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IT) systems function comprising of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  2. The data life cycle applied to our own data.

    PubMed

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Increased demand for data-driven decision making is driving the need for librarians to be facile with the data life cycle. This case study follows the migration of reference desk statistics from handwritten to digital format. This shift presented two opportunities: first, the availability of a nonsensitive data set to improve the librarians' understanding of data-management and statistical analysis skills, and second, the use of analytics to directly inform staffing decisions and departmental strategic goals. By working through each step of the data life cycle, library faculty explored data gathering, storage, sharing, and analysis questions. PMID:25552944

  3. Structural considerations for a software life cycle dynamic simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Mckenzie, M.; Lin, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study into the prospects for simulating the software implementation and maintenance life cycle process, with the aim of producing a computerized tool for use by management and software engineering personnel in project planning, tradeoff studies involving product, environmental, situational, and technological factors, and training. The approach taken is the modular application of a 'flow of resource' concept to the systems dynamics simulation modeling technique. The software life cycle process is represented as a number of stochastic, time-varying, interacting work tasks that each achieves one of the project milestones. Each task is characterized by the item produced, the personnel applied, and the budgetary profile.

  4. The TMIS life-cycle process document, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) Life-Cycle Process Document describes the processes that shall be followed in the definition, design, development, test, deployment, and operation of all TMIS products and data base applications. This document is a roll out of TMIS Standards Document (SSP 30546). The purpose of this document is to define the life cycle methodology that the developers of all products and data base applications and any subsequent modifications shall follow. Included in this methodology are descriptions of the tasks, deliverables, reviews, and approvals that are required before a product or data base application is accepted in the TMIS environment.

  5. Research on conceptual/innovative design for the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagan, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research is developing and integrating qualitative and quantitative methods for life cycle design. The definition of the problem includes formal computer-based methods limited to final detailing stages of design; CAD data bases do not capture design intent or design history; and life cycle issues were ignored during early stages of design. Viewgraphs outline research in conceptual design; the SYMON (SYmbolic MONotonicity analyzer) algorithm; multistart vector quantization optimization algorithm; intelligent manufacturing: IDES - Influence Diagram Architecture; and 1st PRINCE (FIRST PRINciple Computational Evaluator).

  6. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of 0.25 kWh-1 electricity and 0.03 kWh-1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ˜80 gCO2eq kWh-1 of electricity and ˜10 gCO2eq kWh-1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of 1.40 m-3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that 0.40-1.90 m-3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

  7. HCV and Oxidative Stress: Implications for HCV Life Cycle and HCV-Associated Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Regina; Ploen, Daniela; Hildt, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    HCV (hepatitis C virus) is a member of the Flaviviridae family that contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9600 bases. HCV is a major causative agent for chronic liver diseases such as steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma which are caused by multifactorial processes. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered as a major factor contributing to HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in formation of ROS in HCV replicating cells and describes the interference of HCV with ROS detoxifying systems. The relevance of ROS for HCV-associated pathogenesis is reviewed with a focus on the interference of elevated ROS levels with processes controlling liver regeneration. The overview about the impact of ROS for the viral life cycle is focused on the relevance of autophagy for the HCV life cycle and the crosstalk between HCV, elevated ROS levels, and the induction of autophagy. PMID:26955431

  8. HCV and Oxidative Stress: Implications for HCV Life Cycle and HCV-Associated Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Regina; Ploen, Daniela; Hildt, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    HCV (hepatitis C virus) is a member of the Flaviviridae family that contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9600 bases. HCV is a major causative agent for chronic liver diseases such as steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma which are caused by multifactorial processes. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered as a major factor contributing to HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in formation of ROS in HCV replicating cells and describes the interference of HCV with ROS detoxifying systems. The relevance of ROS for HCV-associated pathogenesis is reviewed with a focus on the interference of elevated ROS levels with processes controlling liver regeneration. The overview about the impact of ROS for the viral life cycle is focused on the relevance of autophagy for the HCV life cycle and the crosstalk between HCV, elevated ROS levels, and the induction of autophagy. PMID:26955431

  9. Life-cycle environmental inventory of passenger transportation modes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail Vin

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes. For each mode's life-cycle components, energy inputs and emission outputs are determined. Energy inputs include electricity and petroleum-based fuels. Emission outputs include greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NOx , VOCs, and PM). The inputs and outputs are normalized by vehicle lifetime, vehicle mile traveled, and passenger mile traveled. A consistent system boundary is applied to all modal inventories which captures the entire life-cycle, except for end-of-life. For each modal life-cycle component, both direct and indirect processes are included if possible. A hybrid life-cycle assessment approach is used to estimate the components in the inventories. We find that life-cycle energy inputs and emission outputs increase significantly compared to the vehicle operational phase. Life-cycle energy consumption is 39-56% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 38% for buses, 93-160% for rail, and 19-24% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 47-65% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 43% for buses, 39-150% for rail, and 24-31% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. The energy and greenhouse gas increases are primarily due to vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. For criteria

  10. Perceived Marital Quality and Family Life-Cycle Categories: A Further Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explored questions about the power of family life-cycle categories to predict marital quality, the trend of marital quality over the family life-cycle, and relationships between perceived marital quality and family life-cycle categories. Results indicated family life-cycle and total number of children were significant predictors of marital…

  11. Re-engineering the mission life cycle with ABC and IDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Rackley, Michael; Karlin, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The theory behind re-engineering a business process is to remove the non-value added activities thereby lowering the process cost. In order to achieve this, one must be able to identify where the non-value added elements are located which is not a trivial task. This is because the non-value added elements are often hidden in the form of overhead and/or pooled resources. In order to be able to isolate these non-value added processes from among the other processes, one must first decompose the overall top level process into lower layers of sub-processes. In addition, costing data must be assigned to each sub-process along with the value the sub-process adds towards the final product. IDEF0 is a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) process-modeling tool that allows for this functional decomposition through structured analysis. In addition, it illustrates the relationship of the process and the value added to the product or service. The value added portion is further defined in IDEF1X which is an entity relationship diagramming tool. The entity relationship model is the blueprint of the product as it moves along the 'assembly line' and therefore relates all of the parts to each other and the final product. It also relates the parts to the tools that produce the product and all of the paper work that is used in their acquisition. The use of IDEF therefore facilitates the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is an essential method in a high variety, product-customizing environment, to facilitate rapid response to externally caused change. This paper describes the work being done in the Mission Operations Division to re-engineer the development and operation life cycle of Mission Operations Centers using these tools.

  12. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents average values of levelized costs for generating technologies entering service in 2018, 2022, and 2040 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Reference case.

  13. Title IV Cash Management Life Cycle Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This participant's guide includes: "Introduction: Welcome to Cash Management Life Cycle Training"; "Module 1: Review of Cash Management Principles" (cash management overview and activity); "Module 2: Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) System Overview" (e.g., full participants and phase-in participants, COD access, and features and…

  14. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  15. Bypass control valve seal and bearing life cycle test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundback, A. V.

    1972-01-01

    The operating characteristics of a bypass control valve seal and bearing life cycle tests are reported. Data from the initial assembly, leak, torque, and deflection tests are included along with the cycle life test results and conclusions. The equipment involved was to be used in the nuclear engine for the rocket vehicles program.

  16. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an effective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes fro...

  17. DDP - a tool for life-cycle risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, S. L.; Feather, M. S.; Hicks, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    At JPL we have developed, and implemented, a process for achieving life-cycle risk management. This process has been embodied in a software tool and is called Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP). The DDP process can be succinctly stated as: determine where we want to be, what could get in the way and how we will get there.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY MODULES FOR SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the proposed project is to develop generic, use cluster, life cycle inventory (LCI) modules for activities performed during the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs). This research is intended to facilitate the establishment of standards, encourage ...

  19. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF IN-MOLD SURFACING FILM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1990, the NRMRL has been at the forefront in the development of Life Cycle Assessment as a methodology for environmental assessment. In 1994, NRMRL established an LCA Team to organize individual efforts into a comprehensive research program. The LCA Team coordinates work in...

  20. LCACCESS: PROMOTING THE USE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating environmental impacts holistically from raw material acquisition, through manufacture, to use and disposal using a life cycle perspective is gradually being viewed by environmental managers and decision-makers as an important element in the tools that are used to achie...

  1. US EPA'S RESEARCH ON LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) consists of looking at a product, process or activity from its inception through its completion. or consumer products, this includes the stages of raw material acquisition, manufacturing and fabrication, distribution, consumer use/reuse and final disposa...

  2. Progress in Multi-Disciplinary Data Life Cycle Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Prabhune, A.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Streit, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern science is most often driven by data. Improvements in state-of-the-art technologies and methods in many scientific disciplines lead not only to increasing data rates, but also to the need to improve or even completely overhaul their data life cycle management. Communities usually face two kinds of challenges: generic ones like federated authorization and authentication infrastructures and data preservation, and ones that are specific to their community and their respective data life cycle. In practice, the specific requirements often hinder the use of generic tools and methods. The German Helmholtz Association project ’’Large-Scale Data Management and Analysis” (LSDMA) addresses both challenges: its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs) closely collaborate with communities in joint research and development to optimize the communities data life cycle management, while its Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides generic data tools and services. We present most recent developments and results from the DLCLs covering communities ranging from heavy ion physics and photon science to high-throughput microscopy, and from DSIT.

  3. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  4. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to p...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  6. ANALYZING SHORT CUT METHODS FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Work in progress at the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing methods for quickly, easily, and inexpensively developing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) inventories. An LCA inventory represents the inputs and outputs from processes, including fuel and ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Indoor Emissions of Synthetic Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate impacts of chemicals on the environment and human health along the lifespan of products. However, the increasingly produced and applied nanomaterials (defined as one dimension <100 nm) show particular characteri...

  9. Improvements to Emergy evaluations by using Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized, multicriteria and standardized tool for environmental assessment of products and processes. As an independent evaluation method, emergy assessment has shown to be a promising and relatively novel tool. The technique has gained wide recognition in the past decade but still faces methodological difficulties which prevent it from being accepted by a broader stakeholder community. This review aims to elucidate the fundamental requirements to possibly improve the Emergy evaluation by using LCA. Despite its capability to compare the amount of resources embodied in production systems, Emergy suffers from its vague accounting procedures and lacks accuracy, reproducibility, and completeness. An improvement of Emergy evaluations can be achieved via (1) technical implementation of Emergy algebra in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI); (2) selection of consistent Unit Emergy Values (UEVs) as characterization factors for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA); and (3) expansion of the LCI system boundaries to include supporting systems usually considered by Emergy but excluded in LCA (e.g., ecosystem services and human labor). Whereas Emergy rules must be adapted to life-cycle structures, LCA should enlarge its inventory to give Emergy a broader computational framework. The matrix inversion principle used for LCAs is also proposed as an alternative to consistently account for a large number of resource UEVs. PMID:22489863

  10. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  11. U.S. EPA'S RESEARCH ON LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) consists of looking at a product, process or activity from its inception through its completion. or consumer products, this includes the stages of raw material acquisition, manufacturing and fabrication, distribution, consumer use/reuse and final disposa...

  12. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment as an Environmental Management Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Listed by Time Magazine as the method behind calculating “Ecological Intelligence,” one of “10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now” (March 23, 2009), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the tool that is used to understand the environmental impacts of the products we make and sell. Jo...

  14. A Review of "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digioia, Melissa Keyes

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education curricula designed for youths with special needs are sparse. "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change" (Vavricheck & Tolle, 2008) is a new curriculum by clinical social workers Sherrie Mansfield Vavricheck and R. Kay Tolle. Each chapter addresses a particular developmental stage between birth and death. Lessons within each chapter…

  15. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  16. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  17. Life-Cycle Variations in Patterns of Close Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Norman

    1975-01-01

    The salience of kin and other categories of relationships for people at various stages of the life cycle is investigated. Their sets of close relationships, conceptualized as personal networks, are found to vary with age and life stage, in composition, stability, and degree of involvement. (Author)

  18. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities wit...

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (CHAPTER 15): BOOK CHAPTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    BOOK NRMRL-CIN-1088 Curran*, M.A., and Schenck, R.C. "Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Assessment (Chapter 15)." Published in: Handbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization, A. Ghassemi (Ed.),New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001, p. 289-320. /2000 Much has been ac...

  20. Development of a Clerkship Curriculum in the Family Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A course is described that focuses on concepts and dynamics of family life cycle relating to medical practice, including the relationship of cycle stages to onset, development, and treatment of illness, transition points in the cycle, the role of stress, and the risk for illness among family members. (Author/MSE)

  1. Incorporating exposure science into life-cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the potential for environmental damage that may be caused by a product or process, ideally before the product or process begins. LCA includes all of the steps from extracting natural resources through manufacturing through product u...

  2. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  3. Methodology of CO{sub 2} emission evaluation in the life cycle of office building facades

    SciTech Connect

    Taborianski, Vanessa Montoro; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2012-02-15

    The construction industry is one of the greatest sources of pollution because of the high level of energy consumption during its life cycle. In addition to using energy while constructing a building, several systems also use power while the building is operating, especially the air-conditioning system. Energy consumption for this system is related, among other issues, to external air temperature and the required internal temperature of the building. The facades are elements which present the highest level of ambient heat transfer from the outside to the inside of tall buildings. Thus, the type of facade has an influence on energy consumption during the building life cycle and, consequently, contributes to buildings' CO{sub 2} emissions, because these emissions are directly connected to energy consumption. Therefore, the aim is to help develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. The results, based on the parameters used in this study, show that facades using structural glazing and uncolored glass emit the most CO{sub 2} throughout their life cycle, followed by brick facades covered with compound aluminum panels or ACM (Aluminum Composite Material), facades using structural glazing and reflective glass and brick facades with plaster coating. On the other hand, the typology of facade that emits less CO{sub 2} is brickwork and mortar because its thermal barrier is better than structural glazing facade and materials used to produce this facade are better than brickwork and ACM. Finally, an uncertainty analysis was conducted to verify the accuracy of the results attained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This methodology is based in LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use an uncertainty analysis to verify the accuracy of the results attained

  4. Life Cycle Assessment modelling of stormwater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aisling D; Wicke, Daniel; Hengen, Tyler J; Sieverding, Heidi L; Stone, James J

    2015-02-01

    Stormwater treatment technologies to manage runoff during rain events are primarily designed to reduce flood risks, settle suspended solids and concurrently immobilise metals and nutrients. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is scarcely documented for stormwater systems despite their ubiquitous implementation. LCA modelling quantified the environmental impacts associated with the materials, construction, transport, operation and maintenance of different stormwater treatment systems. A pre-fabricated concrete vortex unit, a sub-surface sandfilter and a raingarden, all sized to treat a functional unit of 35 m(3) of stormwater runoff per event, were evaluated. Eighteen environmental mid-point metrics and three end-point 'damage assessment' metrics were quantified for each system's lifecycle. Climate change (kg CO2 eq.) dominated net environmental impacts, with smaller contributions from human toxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq.), particulate matter formation (kg PM10 eq.) and fossil depletion (kg oil eq.). The concrete unit had the highest environmental impact of which 45% was attributed to its maintenance while impacts from the sandfilters and raingardens were dominated by their bulky materials (57%) and transport (57%), respectively. On-site infiltrative raingardens, a component of green infrastructure (GI), had the lowest environmental impacts because they incurred lower maintenance and did not have any concrete which is high in embodied CO2. Smaller sized raingardens affording the same level of stormwater treatment had the lowest overall impacts reinforcing the principle that using fewer resources reduces environmental impacts. LCA modelling can serve as a guiding tool for practitioners making environmentally sustainable solutions for stormwater treatment. PMID:25463586

  5. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  6. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Bala, Alba

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  7. Design and life-cycle considerations for unconventional-reservoir wells

    SciTech Connect

    Miskimins, J.L.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides an overview of design and life-cycle considerations for certain unconventional-reservoir wells. An overview of unconventional-reservoir definitions is provided. Well design and life-cycle considerations are addressed from three aspects: upfront reservoir development, initial well completion, and well-life and long-term considerations. Upfront-reservoir-development issues discussed include well spacing, well orientation, reservoir stress orientations, and tubular metallurgy. Initial-well-completion issues include maximum treatment pressures and rates, treatment diversion, treatment staging, flowback and cleanup, and dewatering needs. Well-life and long-term discussions include liquid loading, corrosion, refracturing and associated fracture reorientation, and the cost of abandonment. These design considerations are evaluated with case studies for five unconventional-reservoir types: shale gas (Barnett shale), tight gas (Jonah feld), tight oil (Bakken play), coalbed methane (CBM) (San Juan basin), and tight heavy oil (Lost Hills field). In evaluating the life cycle and design of unconventional-reservoir wells, 'one size' does not fit all and valuable knowledge and a shortening of the learning curve can be achieved for new developments by studying similar, more-mature fields.

  8. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-07-01

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO2, NOX, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM10 (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO2e by 6-23 g CO2e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO2 and PM10 emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  9. Full Life-Cycle Defect Management Assessment: Initial Inspection Data Collection Results and Research Questions for Further Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    It is often the case in software projects that when schedule and budget resources are limited, the Verification and Validation (V&V) activities suffer. Fewer V&V activities can be afforded and moreover, short-term challenges can result in V&V activities being scaled back or dropped altogether. As a result, too often the default solution is to save activities for improving software quality until too late in the life-cycle, relying on late-term code inspections followed by thorough testing activities to reduce defect counts to acceptable levels. As many project managers realize, however, this is a resource-intensive way of achieving the required quality for software. The Full Life-cycle Defect Management Assessment Initiative, funded by NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance under the Software Assurance Research Program, aims to address these problems by: Improving the effectiveness of early life-cycle V&V activities to make their benefits more attractive to team leads. Specifically, we focus on software inspection, a proven method that can be applied to any software work product, long before executable code has been developed; Better communicating this effectiveness to software development teams, along with suggestions for parameters to improve in the future to increase effectiveness; Analyzing the impact of early life-cycle V&V on the effectiveness and cost required for late life-cycle V&V activities, such as testing, in order to make the tradeoffs more apparent. This white paper reports on an initial milestone in this work, the development of a preliminary model of inspection effectiveness across multiple NASA Centers. This model contributes toward reaching our project goals by: Allowing an examination of inspection parameters, across different types of projects and different work products, for an analysis of factors that impact defect detection effectiveness. Allowing a comparison of this NASA-specific model to existing recommendations in the literature

  10. Estimating soil carbon change and biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions with economic, ecosystem and life-cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Z.; Dunn, J.; Kwon, H. Y.; Mueller, S.; Wander, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) resulting from biofuel feedstock production can alter soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of lands producing those crops and the crops they displace, possibly resulting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. LUC GHG emissions included in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) have at times been estimated to be so great that biofuels did not offer a greenhouse gas reduction compared to conventional fossil fuels. To improve the accuracy of emissions estimates, SOC changes must be considered at a finer spatial resolution and take into account climate, soil, land use and management factors. This study reports on the incorporation of global LUC as predicted by a computable general equilibrium model (i.e., GTAP) and spatially-explicit modeled SOC estimates (using surrogate CENTURY) for various biofuel feedstock scenarios into a widely-used LCA model (i.e., GREET). Resulting estimates suggest: SOC changes associated with domestic corn production might contribute 2-6% or offset as much as 5% of total corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions. On the other hand, domestic LUC GHG emissions for switchgrass ethanol have the potential offset up to 60% of GHG emissions in the fuel's life cycle. Further, large SOC sequestration is predicted for Miscanthus feedstock production, enabling Miscanthus-based ethanol systems to offset all life-cycle GHG emissions and create a net carbon sink. LUC GHG emissions for ethanol derived from corn stover are small compared to other sources. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm soil) were estimated to be 59-66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -7 - -0.6 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  11. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Pressley, Phillip N; Levis, James W; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A; DeCarolis, Joseph F

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different process flow, for separation of single-stream, dual-stream, pre-sorted recyclables, and mixed-waste. Each MRF type has a distinct combination of equipment and default input waste composition. Model results for total amortized costs from each MRF type ranged from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg (1Mg=1 metric ton) of waste input. Electricity use ranged from 4.7 to 7.8kWh per Mg of waste input. In a single-stream MRF, equipment required for glass separation consumes 28% of total facility electricity consumption, while all other pieces of material recovery equipment consume less than 10% of total electricity. The dual-stream and mixed-waste MRFs have similar electricity consumption to a single-stream MRF. Glass separation contributes a much larger fraction of electricity consumption in a pre-sorted MRF, due to lower overall facility electricity consumption. Parametric analysis revealed that reducing separation efficiency for each piece of equipment by 25% altered total facility electricity consumption by less than 4% in each case. When model results were compared with actual data for an existing single-stream MRF, the model estimated the facility's electricity consumption within 2%. The results from this study can be integrated into LCAs of solid waste management with system boundaries that extend from the curb through final disposal. PMID:25301544

  12. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  13. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish--metagenesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S; Riascos, José M

    2015-01-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) "metagenesis" which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed. PMID:26153534

  14. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  15. Biology and life cycle of Amblyomma incisum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Szabó, Matias Pablo J; Pereira, Lucas de F; Castro, Márcio B; Garcia, Marcos V; Sanches, Gustavo S; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-07-01

    Amblyomma incisum Neumann is a major tick species in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Tapir is the main host for adult ticks and a high aggressiveness of nymphs to humans has been reported. In this work data on the biology and life cycle of this tick species is presented for the first time. It was shown that horse is a suitable host for A. incisum adults and rabbit for larvae and nymphs. It was also shown that A. incisum is a big tick species (mean engorged female weight of 1.96 g) with a long life cycle which lasts 262.3 days when maintained at 27 degrees C and 85% RH. These laboratory conditions were, however, inappropriate and egg hatching rate (1.2%) was very low. Nevertheless egg hatching of ticks in a forest patch increased considerably (72.2%) indicating that this A. incisum population is highly dependent on a forest-like environment. PMID:19130270

  16. Transcriptome analyses of the Giardia lamblia life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Shanda R.; Preheim, Sarah P.; Davids, Barbara J.; Cipriano, Michael J.; Palm, Daniel; Reiner, David S.; Svärd, Staffan G.; Gillin, Frances D.; McArthur, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    We quantified mRNA abundance from 10 stages in the Giardia lamblia life cycle in vitro using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). 163 abundant transcripts were expressed constitutively. 71 transcripts were upregulated specifically during excystation and 42 during encystation. Nonetheless, the transcriptomes of cysts and trophozoites showed major differences. SAGE detected co-expressed clusters of 284 transcripts differentially expressed in cysts and excyzoites and 287 transcripts in vegetative trophozoites and encysting cells. All clusters included known genes and pathways as well as proteins unique to Giardia or diplomonads. SAGE analysis of the Giardia life cycle identified a number of kinases, phosphatases, and DNA replication proteins involved in excystation and encystation, which could be important for examining the roles of cell signaling in giardial differentiation. Overall, these data pave the way for directed gene discovery and a better understanding of the biology of Giardia lamblia. PMID:20570699

  17. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish – metagenesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed. PMID:26153534

  18. Life cycle benefits, challenges, and the potential of recycled aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Martchek, K.J.

    1997-12-31

    Recently, a number of prominent articles have appeared in the national press questioning the environmental benefits and economic rationale of post consumer materials recycling. This paper reviews the evolution of aluminum recycling and then examines its role in the life cycle of aluminum products based on the most recent industry studies conducted in Europe and North America. The environmental and economic viability of today`s recovery and reuse of aluminum products is explored based on these life cycle assessments and current market conditions. This paper then summarizes technology and issues associated with aluminum recycling including the current state of automotive aluminum dismantling, shredding, recycle and reuse. Afterwards, the paper highlights opportunities for recovering the full environmental and economic potential of aluminum recycling based on emerging technologies, ``producer responsibility`` legislation, voluntary initiatives, and product design considerations.

  19. A model for a knowledge-based system's life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has initiated a Committee on Standards for Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are the initial efforts of one of the working groups of that committee. The purpose here is to present a candidate model for the development life cycle of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS). The intent is for the model to be used by the Aerospace Community and eventually be evolved into a standard. The model is rooted in the evolutionary model, borrows from the spiral model, and is embedded in the standard Waterfall model for software development. Its intent is to satisfy the development of both stand-alone and embedded KBSs. The phases of the life cycle are detailed as are and the review points that constitute the key milestones throughout the development process. The applicability and strengths of the model are discussed along with areas needing further development and refinement by the aerospace community.

  20. Life Cycle of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landulfo, G A; Luz, H R; Sampaio, J S; Faccini, J L H; Barros-Battesti, D M

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939 is reported for the first time, using rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for larvae and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) for nymphs and adults, as experimental hosts. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% relative humidity (RH), and 24-h darkness. The life cycle of A. romitii in the laboratory could be completed in an average period of 216.4 d. The overall sex ratio (M:F) was 1:1.4. The results showed that rabbits are quite suitable as experimental hosts for the larval stages of A. romitii, while capybaras are suitable experimental hosts for nymphs and adults. PMID:26487244

  1. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish - metagenesis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-07-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  2. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements. PMID:22355662

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Amonix 7700 HCPV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

    2010-04-07

    We estimated the energy payback time (EPBT) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the life cycle of the Amonix high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system with III-V solar cells. For a location in the southwest United States, the Amonix 7700 has an EPBT of only 0.86 yrs and GHG emissions of 24g CO{sub 2}-eq./kWh we expect further decreases in both by 2011.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories. PMID:24999810

  5. Life cycle assessment: Existing building retrofit versus replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Nura

    The embodied energy in building materials constitutes a large part of the total energy required for any building (Thormark 2001, 429). In working to make buildings more energy efficient this needs to be considered. Integrating considerations about life cycle assessment for buildings and materials is one promising way to reduce the amount of energy consumption being used within the building sector and the environmental impacts associated with that energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model can be utilized to help evaluate the embodied energy in building materials in comparison to the buildings operational energy. This thesis takes into consideration the potential life cycle reductions in energy and CO2 emissions that can be made through an energy retrofit of an existing building verses demolition and replacement with a new energy efficient building. A 95,000 square foot institutional building built in the 1960`s was used as a case study for a building LCA, along with a calibrated energy model of the existing building created as part of a previous Masters of Building Science thesis. The chosen case study building was compared to 10 possible improvement options of either energy retrofit or replacement of the existing building with a higher energy performing building in order to see the life cycle relationship between embodied energy, operational energy, and C02 emissions. As a result of completing the LCA, it is shown under which scenarios building retrofit saves more energy over the lifespan of the building than replacement with new construction. It was calculated that energy retrofit of the chosen existing institutional building would reduce the amount of energy and C02 emissions associated with that building over its life span.

  6. Life cycle assessment of metals: a scientific synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories. PMID:24999810

  7. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  8. Resolving the life cycle alters expected impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Buckley, Lauren B; Keitt, Timothy H; Smith, Colton D; Boateng, Kwasi O; Kumar, Davina S; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Recent models predict contrasting impacts of climate change on tropical and temperate species, but these models ignore how environmental stress and organismal tolerance change during the life cycle. For example, geographical ranges and extinction risks have been inferred from thermal constraints on activity during the adult stage. Yet, most animals pass through a sessile embryonic stage before reaching adulthood, making them more susceptible to warming climates than current models would suggest. By projecting microclimates at high spatio-temporal resolution and measuring thermal tolerances of embryos, we developed a life cycle model of population dynamics for North American lizards. Our analyses show that previous models dramatically underestimate the demographic impacts of climate change. A predicted loss of fitness in 2% of the USA by 2100 became 35% when considering embryonic performance in response to hourly fluctuations in soil temperature. Most lethal events would have been overlooked if we had ignored thermal stress during embryonic development or had averaged temperatures over time. Therefore, accurate forecasts require detailed knowledge of environmental conditions and thermal tolerances throughout the life cycle. PMID:26290072

  9. Systems Life Cycle and Its Relation with the Triple Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Loebl, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the life cycle of complex systems in light of the dynamic interconnections among the university, industry and government sectors. Each sector is motivated in its resource allocation by principles discussed elsewhere in this book and yet remains complementary es-tablishing enduring and fundamental relationships. Industry and Government depend upon an educated workforce; universities depend upon industry to spark the R&D which is needed and to sponsor some basic research and much applied research. Government depends upon industry to address operational needs and provide finished products while universities offer government (along with industry) problem solving and problem solving environments. The life cycle of complex systems in this chapter will be examined in this context, providing historical examples. Current examples will then be examined within this multi-dimensional context with respect to the phases of program and project life cycle management from requirements definition through retirement and closeout of systems. During the explanation of these examples, the advances in research techniques to collect, analyze, and process the data will be examined.

  10. Life cycle of Nosomma monstrosum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, D A; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-05-01

    Nosomma monstrosum (Nuttall & Warburton) is a hard tick infesting mainly buffalo and cattle in Sri Lanka. Biological data on the life cycle pattern of N. monstrosum were collected using experimental infestation on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. The three-host life cycle was completed within 64-102 days. Eggs hatched after 20-29 days of incubation and the larvae hatched out started feeding which lasted for 2-4 days. After a moulting period of 8-11 days nymphs emerge and they actively fed for 2-4 days. Subsequently the nymphs took 15-18 days for moulting before emerging as adults. Freshly moulted females fed for 7-8 days and remained latent for 4-5 days before starting the oviposition. Females laid 3864-12,520 eggs for 11-17 days. The male: female sex ratio was 8:3 in the adults which were moulted under laboratory conditions. Strong positive correlations were found in female weight with number of eggs laid and REI. Females raised from the first generation of eggs had higher oviposition periods, higher REI, laid ten times more eggs, and lower pre-oviposition periods compared to those collected from the wild. When a suitable host is given, N. monstrosum could successfully complete its three-host life cycle under laboratory conditions. PMID:26846472

  11. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  12. Failure of engineering artifacts: a life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Del Frate, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Failure is a central notion both in ethics of engineering and in engineering practice. Engineers devote considerable resources to assure their products will not fail and considerable progress has been made in the development of tools and methods for understanding and avoiding failure. Engineering ethics, on the other hand, is concerned with the moral and social aspects related to the causes and consequences of technological failures. But what is meant by failure, and what does it mean that a failure has occurred? The subject of this paper is how engineers use and define this notion. Although a traditional definition of failure can be identified that is shared by a large part of the engineering community, the literature shows that engineers are willing to consider as failures also events and circumstance that are at odds with this traditional definition. These cases violate one or more of three assumptions made by the traditional approach to failure. An alternative approach, inspired by the notion of product life cycle, is proposed which dispenses with these assumptions. Besides being able to address the traditional cases of failure, it can deal successfully with the problematic cases. The adoption of a life cycle perspective allows the introduction of a clearer notion of failure and allows a classification of failure phenomena that takes into account the roles of stakeholders involved in the various stages of a product life cycle. PMID:22389210

  13. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections. PMID:19942254

  14. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2005-07-01

    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting. PMID:16053063

  15. BuildingPI: A future tool for building life cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, James; Morrissey, Elmer; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac,Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Traditionally building simulation models are used at the design phase of a building project. These models are used to optimize various design alternatives, reduce energy consumption and cost. Building performance assessment for the operational phase of a buildings life cycle is sporadic, typically working from historical metered data and focusing on bulk energy assessment. Building Management Systems (BMS) do not explicitly incorporate feedback to the design phase or account for any changes, which have been made to building layout or fabric during construction. This paper discusses a proposal to develop an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) compliant data visualization tool Building Performance Indicator (BuildingPI) for performance metric and performance effectiveness ratio evaluation.

  16. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Life Cycle Evaluation of Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, D.; Ferreira, E.; Nyce, M.; Charkey, A.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusion of the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) life cycle evaluation of nickel-zinc batteries are: that composite nickel electrode provide excellent performance at a reduced weight and lower cost; calcium / zinc electrode minimizes shape change; unioptimized cell designs yield 60 Wh/kg; nickel-zinc delivers 600 cycles at 80% DOD; long cycle life obtainable at low DOD; high rate capability power density; long-term failure mechanism is stack dry; and anomalous overcharge (1120%) greatly affected cell performance but did not induce failure and was recoverable.

  17. [A Medical Devices Management Information System Supporting Full Life-Cycle Process Management].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2015-07-01

    Medical equipments are essential supplies to carry out medical work. How to ensure the safety and reliability of the medical equipments in diagnosis, and reduce procurement and maintenance costs is a topic of concern to everyone. In this paper, product lifecycle management (PLM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are cited to establish a lifecycle management information system. Through integrative and analysis of the various stages of the relevant data in life-cycle, it can ensure safety and reliability of medical equipments in the operation and provide the convincing data for meticulous management. PMID:26665958

  18. Life cycle analysis of solvent reduction in pharmaceutical synthesis using continuous adsorption for palladium removal.

    PubMed

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Ruiz-Felix, Marie Nydia

    2013-01-01

    The life cycle emissions associated with the reduction of wastes from an adsorption process to remove palladium complexes in drug manufacture have been evaluated. The study assessed a green improvement to a process step in an active pharmaceutical ingredient synthesis where palladium catalyst is removed from a reaction mixture. The greener process uses a continuous adsorption system, composed of a more efficient adsorbent, consuming less organic solvent and rinse water, which results in less waste disposal. The newer process is also more energy and cost efficient from an operational perspective. There is a 94% reduction in the carbon footprint of the new process when compared to the current operation. PMID:23947697

  19. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  20. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on