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Sample records for levels reflect seasonally

  1. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  2. Mars: Seasonally variable radar reflectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, L. E.; Downs, G. S.; Saunders, R. S.; Schubert, G.

    1985-01-01

    The 1971/1973 Mars data set acquired by the Goldstone Solar System Radar was analyzed. It was established that the seasonal variations in radar reflectivity thought to occur in only one locality on the planet (the Solis Lacus radar anomaly) occur, in fact, over the entire subequatorial belt observed by the Goldstone radar. Since liquid water appears to be the most likely cause of the reflectivity excursions, a permanent, year-round presence of subsurface water (frozen or thawed) in the Martian tropics can be inferred.

  3. Diurnal and seasonal dynamics of canopy-level solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance indices in a cornfield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collaborative field campaign was undertaken to examine the temporal dynamics of canopy-level solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) in conjunction with photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) obtained from fluxes measured at an instrumented tower. We condu...

  4. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum and soybean. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance characteristics of agronomic crops are of major importance in the energy exchanges of a surface. In addition, unique reflectance patterns may be an aid in crop identification by means of remote sensing. This study suggests that the ratio of the reflectances of the 545-nm to to the 655-nm wavebands provides information about the viewed surface, regardless of the crop. The reflectance ratio is less than unity early and late in the growing season. For all crops studied, the ratio closely followed crop growth and development and appeared to be more desirable than the near-infrared reflectance as an index of growth.

  5. "Seasonal changes in the neuroendocrine system": some reflections.

    PubMed

    Follett, Brian K

    2015-04-01

    This perspective considers first the general issue of seasonality and how it is shaped ecologically. It asks what is the relative importance of "strategic" (photoperiod-dependent) versus "tactical" (supplemental) cues in seasonality and what neural circuits are involved? It then considers recent developments as reflected in the Special Issue. What don't we understand about the photoperiodic clock and also the long-term timing mechanisms underlying refractoriness? Are these latter related to the endogenous annual rhythms? Can we finally identify the opsins involved in photodetection? What is the present position with regard to melatonin as "the" annual calendar? An exciting development has been the recognition of the involvement of thyroid hormones in seasonality but how does the Dio/TSH/thyroid hormone pathway integrate with downstream components of the photoperiodic response system? Finally, there are the seasonal changes within the central nervous system itself--perhaps the most exciting aspect of all. PMID:25462591

  6. BOREAS RSS-19 1994 Seasonal Understory Reflectance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, John R.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickerson, Jaime (Editor); White, H. Peter; Peddle, Derek; Freemantle, Jim; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-19 team collected airborne remotely sensed images and ground reflectance data for characterizing the radiometric properties of the boreal forest landscape. One objective of BOREAS is to further the understanding of the spectral bidirectional reflectance of typical boreal ecosystem stands in the visible/near-infrared regime. An essential input for any canopy BRDF model is an accurate estimate of the average understory reflectance, both for sunlit and shaded conditions. These variables can be expected to vary seasonally because of species-dependent differences in the phenological cycle of foliar display. In response to these requirements, the average understory reflectance for the flux tower sites of both the NSA (Thompson, Manitoba) and the SSA (Candle Lake, Saskatchewan) was observed throughout the year during five field campaigns. This was done by measuring the nadir reflectance (400 to 850 nm) of sunlit and shaded understory (vegetation and snow cover) along a surveyed LAI transect line (Chen, RSS-07) at each site near solar noon and documenting an average site reflectance. Comparisons between sites reveal differences in the green and infrared regions of the spectra, because of the differing species in the understory for each site. Temporal (seasonal) variation for each site was also observed (06-Feb-1994 to 16-Sep-1994), indicating the changing flora mixtures and changing spectral signatures as the understory matures during the growing season. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  8. Seismic reflectivity effects from seasonal seafloor temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren T.; Martin, Kylara M.; Jung, Wooyeol; Sample, John

    2014-10-01

    The effects of seasonal temperature variation on sound speed contrasts at the seafloor are usually considered negligible in the analysis of seismic data but may be significant at large incidence angles (offsets) important for inversion of sediment elastic properties, or long-range acoustic transmission. In coastal areas, the maximum annual seafloor temperature variation can be several degrees Celsius or more, corresponding to a sound speed variation of 30 m/s or more. Thermal pulses propagate via conduction several meters into the seafloor resulting in a damped quasi-sinusoidal temperature profile with predictable wave number characteristics. The oscillating seasonal and spatial character of this signal creates a time- and frequency-dependent effect on the elastic seafloor reflectivity. Results of numerical simulations show that the expected temperature profile for most sediment types and porosities will have the strongest affect on frequencies between about 60 and 600 Hz, at incidence angles greater than about 50°.

  9. Oregon transect: Comparison of leaf-level reflectance with canopy-level and modelled reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Baret, Frederic; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project involves the collection of a variety of remotely-sensed and in situ measurements for characterization of forest biophysical and biochemical parameters. The project includes nine study plots located along an environmental gradient in west-central Oregon, extending from the Pacific coast inland approximately 300km. These plots represent a broad range in ecosystem structure and function. Within the OTTER project, the sensitivity of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) signal to absorption by foliar biochemicals is being examined. AVIRIS data were acquired over all plots in conjunction with the four OTTER Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaigns spanning the growing season. Foilage samples were gathered during each campaign for biochemical determination (at Ames Research Center), to estimate stand-level constituency at each plot. Directional-hemispheric leaf reflectance throughout the 400-2400nm region was measured in the laboratory as an aid to interpreting concurrent AVIRIS data. Obtaining leaf spectra in this manner reduces or eliminates the confounding influences of atmosphere, canopy architecture, and reflectance by woody components, understory, and exposed soils which are present in airborne observations. These laboratory spectra were compared to simulated spectra derived by inverting the PROSPECT leaf-level canopy reflectance derived from AVIRIS data by use of the LOWTRAN-7 atmospheric radiative-transfer model.

  10. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  11. Reflective Practice Interventions: Raising Levels of Reflective Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Audrey; Schoen, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Reflective practice is a major focus of teacher preparation programs (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1992; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Zeichner, 1986; Zeichner & Liston, 1987), yet Zeichner (1986) asserts that developing reflective practice in preservice teachers has focused primarily on short-term, less systematic interventions and that interventions must be…

  12. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum, and soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of canopy-reflectance patterns as a basis for the determination of surface conditions. Two fields each of wheat, sorghum, and soybeans were selected in a bottom land area. One field contained a dark-colored, silty clay loam and the other a light-colored, silt loam. The study suggests that the reflectance ratio of the 545- to 655-nm-wavelengths may be used as an indicator of crop growth.

  13. Reflectance and internal structure of leaves from several crops during a growing season.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, T. R.; Hoffer, R. M.; Schreiber, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of spectral reflectance characteristics during a growing season of leaves from six crops are reported. These crops include soybeans, wheat, oats, sorghum, corn, and sudangrass. The characteristics measured are related to changes in leaf structure and water content.

  14. A seasonal verification of the Suits spectral reflectance model for wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W.; Chance, J. E.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Variables that characterize wheat canopies for the Suits Model and spectral bidirectional reflectance measurements in the 450 to 1350 nm interval were determined approximately weekly throughout the growing season for two cultivars of wheat that achieved maximum leaf area index of 5.3 and 10.8. The Suits Model plant variables were tabulated and experimental reflectance measurements were compared with the model predictions in the wavelength interval from 500 to 1150 nm at 50 nm increments for 17 measurement dates. The seasonal average coefficient of determination, r squared, was 0.88 between the Suits spectral bidirectional reflectance model and field-measured reflectance data. Poorest agreement was found very early and very late in the growing season, possibly due to low green plant biomass and incomplete ground cover.

  15. Seasonal mercury levels in phytoplankton and their relationship with algal biomass in two dystrophic shield lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, A.E.; Chow-Fraser, P.; Mierle, G.

    1999-03-01

    This study focused on the seasonal dynamics of total Hg in the phytoplankton (living and dead) of two dystrophic shield lakes (Mouse and Ranger). Phytoplankton samples were taken from metalimnetic and hypolimnetic depths in the euphotic zone and were collected and analyzed using ultraclean techniques. In both lakes, phytoplankton Hg (PHYTO-Hg) levels (pg/L) in the metalimnion did not significantly change among dates over the season, although Ranger Lake exhibited significant differences between Hg values measured at the beginning and end of the season. In contrast, PHYTO-Hg significantly increased in the hypolimnia of both lakes by the end of the season. Combined influences of external Hg inputs, remineralization, phytoplankton sedimentation, and increased methylmercury production in the hypolimnia over the season may have contributed to these trends. A highly significant positive relationship existed between PHYTO-Hg levels and whole-water Hg levels, and the mean bioconcentration factor for Hg between the water column and phytoplankton was significantly higher in the hypolimnion compared to the metalimnion for both lakes. In most cases, parameters associated with algal biomass had significant positive correlations with PHYTO-Hg levels. Weight-specific PHYTO-Hg (pg/mg dry weight) varied significantly over the season, and there were interlake differences with respect to season trends. On the basis of these results, the authors recommend that the future sampling regimes include collection of phytoplankton at different limnetic depths through the season to account for spatial and temporal variations. Weight specific Hg levels in phytoplankton could not be explained well by the parameters tested, and the only significant regressions were with parameters reflecting algal biomass. This study provides in situ evidence of Hg accumulation in lake phytoplankton as a function of algal biomass on a seasonal basis and stresses the need to confirm these trends in other lake

  16. Simulated frost effects on cool-season grass carbohydrate levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anecdotal observations suggest increased incidences of metabolic problems in horses on pasture after a frost. The speculation is that frost increases the level of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) in cool-season grasses, which have been implicated in horse metabolic problems (e.g., laminitis). We co...

  17. Seasonal variation in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of bats reflect environmental baselines.

    PubMed

    Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Quetglas, Juan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Kelm, Detlev H; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of animal tissues is commonly used to trace wildlife diets and analyze food chains. Changes in an animal's isotopic values over time are generally assumed to indicate diet shifts or, less frequently, physiological changes. Although plant isotopic values are known to correlate with climatic seasonality, only a few studies restricted to aquatic environments have investigated whether temporal isotopic variation in consumers may also reflect environmental baselines through trophic propagation. We modeled the monthly variation in carbon and nitrogen isotope values in whole blood of four insectivorous bat species occupying different foraging niches in southern Spain. We found a common pattern of isotopic variation independent of feeding habits, with an overall change as large as or larger than one trophic step. Physiological changes related to reproduction or to fat deposition prior to hibernation had no effect on isotopic variation, but juvenile bats had higher δ13C and δ15N values than adults. Aridity was the factor that best explained isotopic variation: bat blood became enriched in both 13C and 15N after hotter and/or drier periods. Our study is the first to show that consumers in terrestrial ecosystems reflect seasonal environmental dynamics in their isotope values. We highlight the danger of misinterpreting stable isotope data when not accounting for seasonal isotopic baselines in food web studies. Understanding how environmental seasonality is integrated in animals' isotope values will be crucial for developing reliable methods to use stable isotopes as dietary tracers. PMID:25700080

  18. Reflective Writing of Mexican EFL Writers: Levels of Reflection, Difficulties and Perceived Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Ruth; Mora, Alberto; Tamez, Axel

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the level of reflection in the essays written by 15 Mexican English language teachers taking a Master's Degree course in English as a foreign language (EFL). The essays were evaluated using the categorization scheme for assessing the level of reflection developed by Kember, et al. (2008). Semi-structured interviews were…

  19. Seasonal coastal sea level prediction using a dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Church, John A.; Miles, Elaine R.; Ridgway, Ken; Spillman, Claire M.

    2015-08-01

    Sea level varies on a range of time scales from tidal to decadal and centennial change. To date, little attention has been focussed on the prediction of interannual sea level anomalies. Here we demonstrate that forecasts of coastal sea level anomalies from the dynamical Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) have significant skill throughout the equatorial Pacific and along the eastern boundaries of the Pacific and Indian Oceans at lead times out to 8 months. POAMA forecasts for the western Pacific generally have greater skill than persistence, particularly at longer lead times. POAMA also has comparable or greater skill than previously published statistical forecasts from both a Markov model and canonical correlation analysis. Our results indicate the capability of physically based models to address the challenge of providing skillful forecasts of seasonal sea level fluctuations for coastal communities over a broad area and at a range of lead times.

  20. Seasonal Variation in Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Values of Bats Reflect Environmental Baselines

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Quetglas, Juan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Kelm, Detlev H.; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of animal tissues is commonly used to trace wildlife diets and analyze food chains. Changes in an animal’s isotopic values over time are generally assumed to indicate diet shifts or, less frequently, physiological changes. Although plant isotopic values are known to correlate with climatic seasonality, only a few studies restricted to aquatic environments have investigated whether temporal isotopic varia-tion in consumers may also reflect environmental baselines through trophic propagation. We modeled the monthly variation in carbon and nitrogen isotope values in whole blood of four insectivorous bat species occupying different foraging niches in southern Spain. We found a common pattern of isotopic variation independent of feeding habits, with an overall change as large as or larger than one trophic step. Physiological changes related to reproduction or to fat deposition prior to hibernation had no effect on isotopic variation, but juvenile bats had higher δ13C and δ15N values than adults. Aridity was the factor that best explained isotopic variation: bat blood became enriched in both 13C and 15N after hotter and/or drier periods. Our study is the first to show that consumers in terrestrial ecosystems reflect seasonal environmental dynamics in their isotope values. We highlight the danger of misinterpreting stable isotope data when not accounting for seasonal isotopic baselines in food web studies. Understanding how environmental seasonality is inte-grated in animals’ isotope values will be crucial for developing reliable methods to use stable isotopes as dietary tracers. PMID:25700080

  1. Spectral albedo/reflectance of littered forest snow during the melt season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melloh, Rae A.; Hardy, Janet P.; Davis, Robert E.; Robinson, Peggy B.

    2001-12-01

    Despite the importance of litter on forest floor albedo and brightness, previous studies have not documented forest floor albedo or litter cover in any detail. Our objective was to describe the seasonal influence of litter on spectral albedos and nadir reflectances of a forest snowpack in a mixed-hardwood stand in the Sleepers River Research Watershed (SRRW) in Danville, Vermont (37°39 N, 119°2 W). Experimental measurements in a nearby open area at the Snow Research Station of the SRRW nearly duplicated the spectral trend observed in the forest. Spectral albedo and nadir reflectance measurements in the visible and near infrared (350-2500 nm) transitioned from a gently curved shape through the visible range (for finer-grained, lightly littered snow) to one having a peak in the red/near-infrared (near 760 nm) as the snowmelt season progressed (for coarser-grained, more heavily littered snow). The snowpack became optically thin as surface litter reached high percentages. A point-in-time digital photographic survey of the late-lying snowpacks of three forest stands and the open showed that median litter cover percentages in the coniferous, deciduous, mixed-forest, and an open area were 17·5, 6·1, 1·2, and 0·04 respectively. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks and pairwise comparisons using Dunn's test indicated that the litter covers of the three forest stands were significantly different with >95% confidence. The snowpack was relatively shallow (<1 m), as is typical for this area of Vermont. From a remote-sensing standpoint, and since shallow snow and increased grain size also lower the visible albedo, we can expect that snowpack litter will cause decreased albedo earlier in the snowmelt season, at deeper snow depths, and will tend to shift the maximum albedo peak to the red/NIR range as the melt season progresses. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Seasonal variability in global sea level observed with Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Fu, L.-L.; Patzert, W.

    1989-01-01

    Time changes in global mesoscale sea level variances were observed with satellite altimetry between November 1986 and March 1988, showing significant, geographically coherent seasonal patterns. The NE Pacific and NE Atlantic variances show the most reliable patterns, higher than their yearly averages in both the fall and winter. The response to wind forcing appears as the major contributor to the NE Pacific and Atlantic signals; errors in the estimated inverse barometer response due to errors in atmospheric pressure, residual orbit errors, and errors in sea state bias are evaluated and found to be negligible contributors to this particular signal. The equatorial regions also show significant seasonal patterns, but the uncertainties in the wet tropospheric correction prevent definitive conclusions. The western boundary current changes are very large but not statistically significant. Estimates of the regression coefficient between sea level and significant wave height, an estimate of the sea state bias correction, range between 2.3 and 2.9 percent and vary with the type of orbit correction applied.

  3. Seasonal patterns of photosynthetic gas-exchange and leaf reflectance characteristics in male and female riparian cottonwoods of southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letts, M. G.; Phelan, C. A.; Johnson, D. R.; Pearce, D. W.; Rood, S. B.

    2007-12-01

    Riparian, or streamside, cottonwood trees ( Populus spp.) are dioecious phreatophytes of hydrological and ecological importance in arid and semi-arid ecosystems throughout the northern hemisphere. In southern Alberta, groundwater and soil moisture levels typically decline during the May to September growth season. To understand how narrowleaf cottonwoods ( Populus angustifolia James) respond to this seasonal decrease in moisture availability, we repeatedly measured photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in four male and four female trees of the Oldman River valley, throughout the 2006 growth season. Maximum light-saturated net photosynthesis rates (Amax), near 16 μmol m-2 s-1, occurred on day of year (DOY) 205, one month after peak soil moisture, but coincident with the maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll index (CI) and scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI). CI data suggest that the early-season rise in Amax and Fv/Fm was partly due to growth in the chlorophyll pool. Thereafter, Amax fell to near 10 μmol m-2 s-1, largely due to its positive logarithmic relationship with stomatal conductance (gs; r2=0.89), which decreased from 559 to 246 mmol m-2 s-1 from DOY 205 to 237. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), CI, sPRI and quantum yield of electron transfer at Photosystem II (ΦPSII) also declined in response to lower volumetric soil moisture content (θv) and increasing groundwater depth (Zgw). Little change in transpiration rate (E) was observed in response to changing environmental conditions, except on DOY 237, when a combination of unseasonably low vapour pressure deficit (D) and low θv above the deepening capillary fringe caused E to decrease. No significant difference was observed between the mean WUE (Amax/E) of males (2.1 ± 0.2 mmol mol-1) and females (2.5 ± 0.2 mmol mol-1; repeated measures ANOVA, df=6, F=2.39, p=0

  4. Seasonal and Non-seasonal Sea Level Variations by Exchange of Water with Land Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Au, A. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The global ocean exchanges a large amount of water, seasonally or non-seasonally, with land hydrology. Apart from the long-term melting of ice sheets and glaciers, the water is exchanged directly as land runoff R, and indirectly via atmosphere in the form of precipitation minus evapo-transpiration P-E. On land, the hydrological budget balance is soil moisture S = P-E-R. The runoff R has been difficult to monitor; but now by combining the following two data sets one can obtain a global estimate, subject to the spatial and temporal resolutions afforded by the data: (1) The space gravity mission GRACE yields monthly S estimate on a spatial scale larger than approx. 1000 km over the last 2.5 years; (2) The atmospheric circulation model output, such as from NCEP, provides proxy estimates for P-E at monthly and approx. 200 km resolutions. We will discuss these estimates and the effects on the global ocean water budget and hence sea level.

  5. Investigation of the seasonal spatial variability of the Caspian Sea level by satellite altimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarov, Elnur; Mammadov, Ramiz; Cretaux, Jean-Francois; Arsen, Adalbert; Safarov, Said; Amrahov, Elvin

    2016-07-01

    Sea level fluctuations are among the most outstanding and debated issues of the Caspian Sea. Precipitation, underground water and river input are consistent parts of the inflow of the Caspian Sea water balance. The river input is also considered to be the main driver of the seasonal level changes of the Caspian Sea. Sufficiently large amount of this input is provided by the Volga. Although there is a good network of sea level stations covering the coastline of the sea, these facilities are not capable to reflect the sea level variations over the all surface. Meanwhile, the Caspian Sea is well observed by satellites Jason 1, Jason 2 and ENVISAT. Altimetric data taken from these satellites covers the surface of the sea much better than the data from the in-situ network stations. In this paper we investigate the spatial variability of the sea level that could provide more insight into the influence of river input (especially the Volga river), precipitation and other hydro-meteorological parameters on the Caspian Sea level.The altimetric data was averaged per every 10 square kilometers through all the tracks by means of the pre-prepared program made especially for this work. Also new maps of seasonal spatial variability of amplitude and phase of the annual signal of the Caspian Sea level for each investigated satellite were created by employing ARCGIS software. Moreover, these peaks of sea level amplitude and phase of annual signal results were comparatively analyzed with the corresponding river discharge of the Volga.

  6. Strong Seasonal Variation of Martian Pick-up Ions and Reflected Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Hara, Takuya; Lundin, Rickard; Dubinin, Edik; Fedorov, Andrei; Frahm, Rudy; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmstrom, Mats; Barabash, Stas

    2015-04-01

    Mars Express (MEX) has operated for more than 10 years in the environment of Mars, providing solar wind ion observations by the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment's ion mass analyzer (IMA). In the region just outside the bow shock of Mars, IMA frequently observes ring-like distributed ions that include both pick-up ions of exospheric origin and reflected solar wind by the bow shock (Yamauchi et al., 2012). Although there are some restrictions imposed when using the IMA measurements, the length and quality of the IMA data is sufficient to statistically diagnose the seasonal and solar cycle variation. According to this long-term observation, the observation probability of the ring-like distributed ions outside the bow shock with certain intensity strongly depends on the season, i.e., the flux of these ions varies by nearly one order of magnitude every two years. A careful examination reveals that the variation of pick-up ions is locked to the distance from the Sun rather than the tilt angle of the rotation axis. This indicates that the planetary scale variation of solar UV has a drastic effect on the formation of the pick-up ions. Solar cycle effects are not distinguishable partly because they are masked by the seasonal effects and partly because MEX and IMA are optimum for such observations due to the instrumental limitations (FOV and energy range) and the lack of the magnetometer experiment on the Mars Express spacecraft

  7. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  8. Seasonal skin colour changes in a sample teenage population measured by reflection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.

    2007-11-01

    As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin colour during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized reflectance spectra. Measurements made upon the inner forearm and the back of the hand produce results which indicate a decrease in total reflectance (increase in absorption) corresponding to different levels of tanning for limited and extended exposure to ambient sunlight, respectively. The rate of change of skin colour qualitatively matches that of the solar illuminance.

  9. EO-1 Hyperion reflectance time series at calibration and validation sites: stability and sensitivity to seasonal dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, P.K.E.; Middleton, E.M.; Thome, K.J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Huemmrich, K.F.; Novick, K.A.; Brunsell, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends and their stability consistently is within 2.5-5 percent throughout most of the spectral range spanning the 12+ year data record. Using three vegetated sites instrumented with eddy covariance towers, the Hyperion reflectance time series were evaluated for their ability to determine important variables of ecosystem function. A number of narrowband and derivative vegetation indices (VI) closely described the seasonal profiles in vegetation function and ecosystem carbon exchange (e.g., net and gross ecosystem productivity) in three very different ecosystems, including a hardwood forest and tallgrass prairie in North America, and a Miombo woodland in Africa. Our results demonstrate the potential for scaling the carbon flux tower measurements to local and regional landscape levels. The VIs with stronger relationships to the CO2 parameters were derived using continuous reflectance spectra and included wavelengths associated with chlorophyll content and/or chlorophyll fluorescence. Since these indices cannot be calculated from broadband multispectral instrument data, the opportunity to exploit these spectrometer-based VIs in the future will depend on the launch of satellites such as EnMAP and HyspIRI. This study highlights the practical utility of space-borne spectrometers for characterization of the spectral stability and uniformity of the calibration sites in support of sensor cross-comparisons, and demonstrates the potential of narrowband VIs to track and spatially extend ecosystem functional status as well as carbon processes measured at flux towers.

  10. EO-1 Hyperion Reflectance Time Series at Calibration and Validation Sites: Stability and Sensitivity to Seasonal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Thome, Kurt J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Lagomasino, David; Novick, Kimberly A.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends and their stability consistently is within 2.5-5 percent throughout most of the spectral range spanning the 12-plus year data record. Using three vegetated sites instrumented with eddy covariance towers, the Hyperion reflectance time series were evaluated for their ability to determine important variables of ecosystem function. A number of narrowband and derivative vegetation indices (VI) closely described the seasonal profiles in vegetation function and ecosystem carbon exchange (e.g., net and gross ecosystem productivity) in three very different ecosystems, including a hardwood forest and tallgrass prairie in North America, and a Miombo woodland in Africa. Our results demonstrate the potential for scaling the carbon flux tower measurements to local and regional landscape levels. The VIs with stronger relationships to the CO2 parameters were derived using continuous reflectance spectra and included wavelengths associated with chlorophyll content and/or chlorophyll fluorescence. Since these indices cannot be calculated from broadband multispectral instrument data, the opportunity to exploit these spectrometer-based VIs in the future will depend on the launch of satellites such as EnMAP and HyspIRI. This study highlights the practical utility of space-borne spectrometers for characterization of the spectral stability and uniformity of the calibration sites in support of sensor cross-comparisons, and demonstrates the potential of narrowband VIs to track and spatially extend ecosystem functional status as well as carbon processes measured at flux towers.

  11. Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species. PMID:25229944

  12. Assessing spatial and seasonal variations in grasslands with spectral reflectances from a helicopter platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthall, Charles L.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-11-01

    Helicopter-based radiometric measurements of grassland sites were acquired during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) to quantify the spatial and spectral variations in surface reflectance contributing to variations in albedo and for comparison with surface fluxes. The helicopter instrumentation consisted of an eight-channel modular multiband radiometer (MMR), video, and photographic cameras. Seasonal and spatial variability of the entire FIFE study area were characterized using 20 MMR data sets from five FIFE sites during the four best ("Golden") data collection days of 1987. The means and coefficients of variation for each spectral band were calculated and analyzed as a function of spatial and seasonal domains. Linear models describing simple ratio (SR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as functions of several surface variables were tested. All eight MMR bands contributed information beneficial for characterizing spatial and temporal variations, and the most useful bands were the red (MMR3, 0.63-0.68 μm) and the third middle infrared (MMR7, 2.08-2.37 μm). The blue band (MMRl, 0.45-0.52 μm) proved to be valuable, whereas the often utilized near infrared band (MMR4, 0.75-0.88 μm) was among the least important bands for discriminating landscape variations. The SR was more sensitive than the NDVI to variations in the Konza grassland at all scales: intrasite and intersite, between management practices of burning and grazing, and over time. Furthermore, the relationship of the NDVI with leaf area index was curvilinear, whereas the relationship of the SR was linear at low-leaf area index and was improved by the addition of a second variable, the percent of green dry weight biomass. Improvements in data collection methodologies are recommended for future large scale experiments such as the Boreal Ecosystem and Atmosphere Study (BOREAS).

  13. Hyperspectral reflectance of leaves and flowers of an outbreak species discriminates season and successional stage of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Schlerf, Martin; van der Putten, Wim H.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral reflectance can be used to assess large-scale performances of plants in the field based on plant nutrient balance as well as composition of defence compounds. However, plant chemical composition is known to vary with season - due to its phenology - and it may even depend on the succession stage of its habitat. Here we investigate (i) how spectral reflectance could be used to discriminate successional and phenological stages of Jacobaea vulgaris in both leaf and flower organs and (ii) if chemical content estimation by reflectance is flower or leaf dependent. We used J. vulgaris, which is a natural outbreak plant species on abandoned arable fields in north-western Europe and studied this species in a chronosequence representing successional development during time since abandonment. The chemical content and reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths of flowers and leaves were measured throughout the season in fields of different successional ages. The data were analyzed with multivariate statistics for temporal discrimination and estimation of chemical contents in both leaf and flower organs. Two main effects were revealed by spectral reflectance measurements: (i) both flower and leaf spectra show successional and seasonal changes, but the pattern is complex and organ specific (ii) flower head pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are involved in plant defence against herbivores, can be detected through hyperspectral reflectance.We conclude that spectral reflectance of both leaves and flowers can provide information on plant performance during season and successional stages. As a result, remote sensing studies of plant performance in complex field situations will benefit from considering hyperspectral reflectance of different plant organs. This approach may enable more detailed studies on the link between spectral information and plant defence dynamics both aboveground and belowground.

  14. Monitoring coastal sea level using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger; Johansson, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous monitoring of coastal sea level changes is important for human society since it is predicted that up to 332 million people in coastal and low-lying areas will be directly affected by flooding from sea level rise by the end of the 21st century. The traditional way to observe sea level is using tide gauges that give measurements relative to the Earth’s crust. However, in order to improve the understanding of the sea level change processes it is necessary to separate the measurements into land surface height changes and sea surface height changes. These measurements should then be relative to a global reference frame. This can be done with satellite techniques, and thus a GNSS-based tide gauge is proposed. The GNSS-based tide gauge makes use of both GNSS signals that are directly received and GNSS signals that are reflected from the sea surface. An experimental installation at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) shows that the reflected GNSS signals have only about 3 dB less signal-to-noise-ratio than the directly received GNSS signals. Furthermore, a comparison of local sea level observations from the GNSS-based tide gauge with two stilling well gauges, located approximately 18 and 33 km away from OSO, gives a pairwise root-mean-square agreement on the order of 4 cm. This indicates that the GNSS-based tide gauge gives valuable results for sea level monitoring.

  15. Daily, monthly and seasonal variation in PSA levels and the association with weather parameters.

    PubMed

    Connolly, D; van Leeuwen, P J; Bailie, J; Black, A; Murray, L J; Keane, P F; Gavin, A

    2011-03-01

    PSA levels have shown daily and seasonal variation, although data are conflicting regarding the season with higher PSA levels and the clinical relevance of this. We assessed the correlation of total PSA levels with meteorological data on a daily, weekly, monthly and seasonal basis. Data from 53,224 men aged 45-74 years, with an initial PSA <10.0 ng ml(-1) were correlated with temperature (°C), duration of bright sunshine (hours) and rainfall (mm). There was seasonal variation in PSA levels, with median PSA being higher in spring compared with other seasons (1.18 vs 1.10 ng ml(-1), P = 0.004). Seasonal variation was not apparent when PSA levels were age-adjusted (P = 0.112). Total PSA was not correlated with daily, weekly or monthly hours of sunshine, rainfall or mean temperature. In contrast, age-adjusted PSA varied with weekday, with higher PSA levels on Thursday and Friday compared with other days (1.16 vs 1.10 ng ml(-1), respectively). On multivariate analysis, only age predicted for PSA levels >3.0 ng ml(-1). In conclusion, PSA levels did show seasonal variation, although there was no direct correlation between PSA and any meteorological parameter. The degree of seasonal variation is small and the decision to proceed to prostate biopsy should be independent of season or weather parameters. PMID:20975738

  16. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  17. On the seasonal variability of raindrop size distribution and associated variations in reflectivity - Rainrate relations at Tirupati, a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulochana, Y.; Rao, T. N.; Sunilkumar, K.; Chandrika, P.; Raman, M. Roja; Rao, S. V. B.

    2016-09-01

    Three years of continuous OTT Parsivel disdrometer measurements made at Tirupati (13.6°N, 79.4°E), a tropical station near the foothills of Nallamala mountains, have been used to examine the climatological seasonal differences in bulk rainfall parameters, gamma parameters, raindrop size distributions (DSDs) and reflectivity - rainfall (Z-R) relationships. These relations are derived for both stratiform and convective rain during southwest and northeast monsoon (SWM and NEM) seasons, the two primary rainfall seasons for this region. The probability distribution functions for bulk rainfall and gamma parameters during the SWM and NEM suggest the dominance of evaporation and drop sorting during the SWM. The seasonal variations are also clearly apparent in DSD with fewer big drops and more small drops during the NEM than in SWM. These differences are seen more prominently at smaller R. As a result, the retrieved Z-R relations are found to be distinctly different during the monsoon seasons. The seasonal variations in Z-R relations are not only observed for the total data but also for the rain type-segregated data. The prefactor of the Z-R relation is found to be larger for SWM and also for stratiform rain, consistent with earlier reports from southeast India, indicating that these features are robust and representative of southeast India. The observed differences in Z-R relations are discussed in the light of microphysical differences between the seasons and rain types.

  18. Plasma metabolites reflect seasonally changing metabolic processes in a long-distance migrant shorebird (Calidris canutus).

    PubMed

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas; Piersma, Theunis

    2002-01-01

    Migrant birds have tightly scheduled annual cycles consisting of several distinct life cycle (sub-)stages such as reproduction, migration, moult and overwintering, each of which have specific metabolic requirements (e.g., fattening during migration, protein build-up during moult). This study examines changes in fat and protein metabolism during the annual cycle of body mass and moult over 1.5 years in a captive flock of an arctic-breeding shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica. 2-5 h after food withdrawal, plasma uric acid levels were still decreasing and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels were low, indicating prolonged catabolism of dietary protein, probably linked with a conversion into lipids. Such a late-resorptive state is achieved much earlier in passerines, but only after several days in penguins and, thus, seems to depend on meal size or mass-specific metabolic rate. Substages of body mass gain and high body mass were characterized by increased plasma triglyceride levels reflecting increased turnover of lipids, and low levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxy- butyrate, indicating that the bird is not short of glucose. The high uric acid levels during these substages indicated an increased breakdown of nutritional protein. During moult, plasma triglyceride levels were low, suggesting that lipids were less available than at other times of the year. It is concluded that plasma metabolite levels indicate the metabolic processes related to migratory fuelling and moult and the influence of exogeneous factors. PMID:16351872

  19. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations

    PubMed Central

    Rader, RK; Stoecker, WV; Malters, JM; Marr, MT; Dyer, JA

    2012-01-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April–October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April–October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse spiders. PMID:22465494

  20. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations.

    PubMed

    Rader, R K; Stoecker, W V; Malters, J M; Marr, M T; Dyer, J A

    2012-07-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April-October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April-October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse spiders. PMID:22465494

  1. Airborne Interferometry using GNSS Reflections for Surface Level Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Beyerle, Georg; Schön, Steffen; Stosius, Ralf; Gerber, Thomas; Beckheinrich, Jamila; Markgraf, Markus; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The interferometric use of GNSS reflections for ocean altimetry can fill the gap in coverage of ocean observations. Today radar altimeters are used for large scale ocean observations to monitor e.g. global sea level change or circulation processes like El Niño. Spacial and temporal resolution of a single radar altimeter, however, is insufficient to observe mesoscale ocean phenomena like large oceanic eddies that are important indicators of climate change. The high coverage expected for a spaceborne altimeter based on GNSS reflections stimulated investigations on according interferometric methods. Several airborne experiments have been conducted using code observations. Carrier observations have a better precision but are severely affected by noise and have mostly been used in ground-based experiments. A new interferometric approach is presented using carrier observations for airborne application. Implementing a spectral retrieval noise reduction is achieved. A flight experiment was conducted with a Zeppelin airship on 2010/10/12 over Lake Constance at the border between Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The lake surface with an area of 536km2 is suitable for altimetric study as its decimeter range Geoid undulations are well-known. Three GNSS receiver were installed on the airship. A Javad Delta receiver recording direct signals for navigation. The DLR G-REX receiver recording reflected signals for scatterometry and the GORS (GNSS Occultation Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver recording direct and reflected signals for interferometry. The airship's trajectory is determined from navigation data with a precision better than 10cm using regional augmentation. This presentation focuses on the interferometric analysis of GORS observations. Ray tracing calculations are used to model the difference of direct and reflected signals' path. Spectral retrieval is applied to determine Doppler residuals of modelled path difference and interferometric observations. Lake level

  2. Deriving seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties of semi-arid savannas using in situ based hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagesson, T.; Fensholt, R.; Huber, S.; Horion, S.; Guiro, I.; Ehammer, A.; Ardö, J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates how seasonal hyperspectral reflectance data (between 350 and 1800 nm) can be used to infer ecosystem properties for a semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa using a unique in situ based dataset. Relationships between seasonal dynamics in hyperspectral reflectance, and ecosystem properties (biomass, gross primary productivity (GPP), light use efficiency (LUE), and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FAPAR)) were analysed. Reflectance data (ρ) were used to study the relationship between normalised difference spectral indices (NDSI) and the measured ecosystem properties. Finally, also the effects of variable sun sensor viewing geometry on different NDSI wavelength combinations were analysed. The wavelengths with the strongest correlation to seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties were shortwave infrared (biomass), the peak absorption band for chlorophyll a and b (at 682 nm) (GPP), the oxygen A-band at 761 nm used for estimating chlorophyll fluorescence (GPP, and LUE), and blue wavelengths (FAPAR). The NDSI with the strongest correlation to: (i) biomass combined red edge reflectance (ρ705) with green reflectance (ρ587), (ii) GPP combined wavelengths at the peak of green reflection (ρ518, ρ556), (iii) the LUE combined red (ρ688) with blue reflectance (ρ436), and (iv) FAPAR combined blue (ρ399) and near infrared (ρ1295) wavelengths. NDSI combining near infrared and shortwave infrared were strongly affected by solar zenith angles and sensor viewing geometry, as were many combinations of visible wavelengths. This study provides analyses based upon novel multi-angular hyperspectral data for validation of Earth Observation based properties of semi-arid ecosystems, as well as insights for designing spectral characteristics of future sensors for ecosystem monitoring.

  3. Angular and Seasonal Variation of Spectral Surface Reflectance Ratios: Implications for the Remote Sensing of Aerosol over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Wald, A. E.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1999-01-01

    We obtain valuable information on the angular and seasonal variability of surface reflectance using a hand-held spectrometer from a light aircraft. The data is used to test a procedure that allows us to estimate visible surface reflectance from the longer wavelength 2.1 micrometer channel (mid-IR). Estimating or avoiding surface reflectance in the visible is a vital first step in most algorithms that retrieve aerosol optical thickness over land targets. The data indicate that specular reflection found when viewing targets from the forward direction can severely corrupt the relationships between the visible and 2.1 micrometer reflectance that were derived from nadir data. There is a month by month variation in the ratios between the visible and the mid-IR, weakly correlated to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). If specular reflection is not avoided, the errors resulting from estimating surface reflectance from the mid-IR exceed the acceptable limit of DELTA-rho approximately 0.01 in roughly 40% of the cases, using the current algorithm. This is reduced to 25% of the cases if specular reflection is avoided. An alternative method that uses path radiance rather than explicitly estimating visible surface reflectance results in similar errors. The two methods have different strengths and weaknesses that require further study.

  4. Seasonality in circadian locomotor activity and serum testosterone level in the subtropical tree sparrow (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anand S; Singh, Namram S

    2016-05-01

    Seasonality in daily locomotor activity pattern was investigated in the subtropical tree sparrow by exposing a group of birds to natural day lengths (NDL) for 30days and another group to 12L/12D for 14days followed by transfer to constant dim light (LLdim) for another 15days in four different seasons of the year. Serum testosterone levels were also measured during different seasons. Sparrows, under NDL, exhibited distinct circadian rhythmicity in their locomotor activity with almost similar general pattern in different seasons that restricted mainly to the light hours. However, they showed season-dependent differences in the characteristics of circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Birds, when exposed to 12L/12D, showed entrainment of their locomotor activity rhythm with the activity confined mainly during the light phase. Though, tau (τ) under free run conditions did not show any significant difference, the activity period varied significantly in different seasons. The highest level of testosterone was recorded in the spring season that corresponded with the maximum locomotor activity in spring months. The seasonality in daily locomotor activity correlates with the seasonal changes in testosterone levels suggesting the influence of gonadal steroids on endogenous circadian system which is indicative of adaptation of tree sparrow to local photoperiodic conditions. PMID:26945648

  5. Seasonal Characteristics of Non-Meteorological Radar Reflectivity Returns in Central Florida and Their Impact on TRMM Ground Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Michael; Marks, David A.; Kulie, Mark S.; Ferrier, Brad S.

    1999-01-01

    Radar data quality control is a major component to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) effort. The quality control algorithm utilizes several adjustable height and reflectivity threshold parameters to remove non-precipitation echoes from ground-based radar data. Spurious radar reflectivity returns not removed during the quality control process may create biases in ground validation rainfall products used to evaluate rainfall measurements retrieved from aboard the TRMM satellite. To better evaluate the performance of the quality control algorithm, WSR-88D radar data from one primary GV site, Melbourne, Florida, are used to determine the seasonal characteristics of non-meteorological radar echoes in cast central Florida during the first year of the TRMM mission. It is demonstrated that unique spurious echo regimes develop throughout the year, leading to different levels of successful non-meteorological echo removal by the quality control algorithm. In addition to the type of non- precipitation echoes present, the success of the algorithm is also greatly dependent upon the amount of precipitation present. Less aggressive attempts to remove non-meteorological echoes must be employed when rain is observed so as not to remove these echoes as well. Therefore, precipitation statistics from ground validation monthly rainfall products will be utilized to further document the quality control algorithm performance. Moreover, these precipitation statistics will be used to demonstrate the relationship between dominant spurious echo regimes and rainfall amount. Finally, monthly statistics of contaminated ground validation radar data will be calculated and the effect on rainfall accumulation products will be discussed.

  6. Seasonal variation in trace and minor elements in Brazilian honey by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Resende Ribeiro, Roberta; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; da Silva Carneiro, Carla; Simoes, Julia Siqueira; da Silva Ferreira, Micheli; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; Almeida, Eduardo; Junior, Carlos Adam Conte

    2015-03-01

    Honey is used as an alternative medicine and is a constituent of a healthy diet worldwide. Its composition is associated with botanical origin and, to some extent, geographical origin because soil and climate characteristics determine the melliferous flora. Also, the elements content in honey samples could give an indication of environmental pollution or geographical origin. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate seasonal patterns of essential elements of Brazilian honey. Honey was collected during spring, summer, autumn, and winter for 2 years to quantify K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Sr using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). Our results indicate no seasonal differences in concentration of Cr, Ni, Se, and Ti, although there were significant seasonal patterns in the composition of essential elements in honey, with higher concentrations of minor and trace elements, especially K and Ca of samples collected in spring and summer. PMID:25663399

  7. The effects of geology and the impact of seasonal correction factors on indoor radon levels: a case study approach.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin K; Phillips, Paul S; Denman, Antony R

    2005-01-01

    Geology has been highlighted by a number of authors as a key factor in high indoor radon levels. In the light of this, this study examines the application of seasonal correction factors to indoor radon concentrations in the UK. This practice is based on an extensive database gathered by the National Radiological Protection Board over the years (small-scale surveys began in 1976 and continued with a larger scale survey in 1988) and reflects well known seasonal variations observed in indoor radon levels. However, due to the complexity of underlying geology (the UK arguably has the world's most complex solid and surficial geology over the shortest distances) and considerable variations in permeability of underlying materials it is clear that there are a significant number of occurrences where the application of a seasonal correction factor may give rise to over-estimated or under-estimated radon levels. Therefore, the practice of applying a seasonal correction should be one that is undertaken with caution, or not at all. This work is based on case studies taken from the Northamptonshire region and comparisons made to other permeable geologies in the UK. PMID:15982793

  8. Retrieval of seasonal dynamics of forest understory reflectance from semiarid to boreal forests using MODIS BRDF data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; Chen, Jing M.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rautiainen, Miina; Schaepman, Michael E.; Karnieli, Arnon; Sprinstin, Michael; Ryu, Youngryel; Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi

    2016-03-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of forest background (understory) reflectance are crucial for retrieving biophysical parameters of forest canopies (overstory) and subsequently for ecosystem modeling. In this communication, we retrieved seasonal courses of understory normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from multiangular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer bidirectional reflectance distribution function (MODIS BRDF)/albedo data. We compared satellite-based seasonal courses of understory NDVI to understory NDVI values measured in different types of forests distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient (65.12°N-31.35°N). Our results indicated that the retrieval method performs well particularly over open forests of different types. We also demonstrated the limitations of the method for closed canopies, where the understory signal retrieval is much attenuated.

  9. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (P<0.05). These results strongly indicate the existence of reproductive seasonality in Amazonian manatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli. PMID:24690451

  10. On the seasonal variations of reflectivity and turbulence characteristics of low-latitude mesospheric echoes over Gadanki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, D.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-06-01

    Gadanki radar observations of the low-latitude mesospheric echoes studied earlier have shown that while both occurrence rate and signal-to-noise ratio of the mesospheric echoes peak in the equinoxes turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate and eddy diffusivity, estimated using spectral width of these echoes, peak in the summer. This seasonal difference is apparently inconsistent with the understanding that the mesospheric echoes are generated by turbulence. In this paper, we analyze Gadanki radar observations of mesospheric echoes made during 2011 and 2012 and study seasonal variations in reflectivity and TKE dissipation rate in an attempt to address the aforementioned puzzle. We show that both reflectivity and TKE dissipation rate in the mesosphere show semiannual variations peaking in the equinoxes, which are vastly different from those reported earlier. We also show that seasonal variations in reflectivity and TKE dissipation rate have a close correspondence with gravity wave activity. These results are found to be consistent with the gravity wave breaking hypothesis generating turbulence and radar echoes in the low-latitude mesosphere.

  11. Local Sea Level Derived from Reflected GNSS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Scherneck, H.; Bos, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The traditional way to observe sea level is to use tide gauges, resulting in measurements relative to the Earth's crust. However, in order to measure the sea-level change due to changes in ocean water volume and/or other oceanographic phenomena, all types of crustal motion at the measurement site need to be known. We present a remote sensing technique for measuring local sea level using standard geodetic-type Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. The installation consists of a zenith-looking Right Hand Circular Polarized (RHCP) antenna, receiving the direct signals, and a nadir-looking Left Hand Circular Polarized antenna, receiving the signals reflected of the sea surface. Each antenna is connected to a receiver and the antenna pair is deployed back-to-back at a coastal site. Estimating the vertical baseline between the two antennas, using standard geodetic analysis, the local sea level and its temporal variations can be determined. The advantage of this technique is that it allows to measure both sea surface height changes with relative positioning and land surface height changes, e.g., by precise point positioning of the RHCP antenna. Furthermore, the combined measurements of local sea level are automatically corrected for land motion, meaning that this installation could provide continuously reliable sea-level estimates in tectonic active regions. This GNSS-based tide gauge has been operating continuously at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) on the west coast of Sweden since September 2010. We present results from several months of operations and compare them to sea-level measurements from two stilling well gauges about 18 km south and 33 km north of OSO. We find a high degree of agreement between the time series with correlation coefficients of larger than 0.95. The root-mean-square differences between the GNSS-derived sea level and the stilling well gauge measurements are 5.9 cm and 5.5 cm, which is lower than between the two stilling well (6

  12. Effect of Season of the Year on Lead Levels in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Diane K.; Bomba, Anne K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined blood lead levels in 1,190 children residing in Mississippi. Found that boys had a higher level than girls, and black children had a higher level than white children. The percentage of children with lead toxicity was 8.5 percent. The winter season had a significantly lower lead level than autumn. (Author/KB)

  13. Teachers' Professional Development from the Perspective of Teaching Reflection Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mingren

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a case study based on Habermas's theory of knowledge and human interest. We analyzed the written reflections of four teachers employed at a school and found that the teachers who had experienced advanced professional development tended to engage in practical and critical reflection, whereas those who had experienced average…

  14. Spectral reflectance patterns and seasonal dynamics of common understory types in three mature hemi-boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Pisek, Jan; Raabe, Kairi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the growing demand on more accurate prediction of biophysical properties (e.g., leaf area index) or carbon balance models based on remotely sensed data, the understory effect needs to be separated from the overstory. Reflectance models can provide possibility to model and retrieve understory reflectance over large scales, but ground truth data is needed to validate such models and algorithms. In this study, we documented the seasonal variation (April-September) and spectral changes occurring in understory layers of a typical European hemi-boreal forest. The understory composition was recorded and its spectra measured with an ASD FieldSpec Hand-Held UV/VNIR Spectroradiometer eight times at four site types during the growing period (from May to September) in 2013. The collected dataset presented within this study would be of much use to improve and validate algorithms or models for extracting spectral properties of understory from remote sensing data. It can be also further used as a valuable input in radiative transfer simulations that are used to quantify the roles of forest tree layer and understory components in forming a seasonal reflectance course of a hemi-boreal forest, and the upcoming phases of the RAdiation Model Intercomparison (RAMI) experiment.

  15. Retrieval of seasonal dynamics of forest understory reflectance from semi-arid to boreal forests using MODIS BRDF data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; Chen, Jing; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rautiainen, Miina; Schaepman, Michael; Karnieli, Arnon; Sprintsin, Michael; Ryu, Youngryel; Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi

    2016-04-01

    Ground vegetation (understory) provides an essential contribution to the whole-stand reflectance signal in many boreal, sub-boreal, and temperate forests. Accurate knowledge about forest understory reflectance is urgently needed in various forest reflectance modelling efforts. However, systematic collections of understory reflectance data covering different sites and ecosystems are almost missing. Measurement of understory reflectance is a real challenge because of an extremely high variability of irradiance at the forest floor, weak signal in some parts of the spectrum, spectral separability issues of over- and understory and its variable nature. Understory can consist of several sub-layers (regenerated tree, shrub, grasses or dwarf shrub, mosses, lichens, litter, bare soil), it has spatially-temporally variable species composition and ground coverage. Additional challenges are introduced by patchiness of ground vegetation, ground surface roughness, and understory-overstory relations. Due to this variability, remote sensing might be the only means to provide consistent data at spatially relevant scales. In this presentation, we report on retrieving seasonal courses of understory Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from multi-angular MODIS BRDF/Albedo data. We compared satellite-based seasonal courses of understory NDVI against an extended collection of different types of forest sites with available in-situ understory reflectance measurements. These sites are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient on the Northern hemisphere: a sparse and dense black spruce forests in Alaska and Canada, a northern European boreal forest in Finland, hemiboreal needleleaf and deciduous stands in Estonia, a mixed temperate forest in Switzerland, a cool temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Korea, and a semi-arid pine plantation in Israel. Our results indicated the retrieval method performs well particularly over open forests of different types. We also demonstrated

  16. Transmission of influenza reflects seasonality of wild birds across the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nichola J; Ma, Eric J; Meixell, Brandt W; Lindberg, Mark S; Boyce, Walter M; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-08-01

    Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008-2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality. PMID:27324078

  17. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  18. Seasonal Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Hormones in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a Complex Mating System

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Diego J.; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S.; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the “Challenge Hypothesis”. In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  19. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  20. Could seasonal variation in testosterone levels in men be related to sleep?

    PubMed

    Svartberg, J; Barrett-Connor, E

    2004-09-01

    We have previously reported seasonal variations in both total and free testosterone in men living in north Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether seasonal variation in testosterone also occurs in men living in geographical areas with less extreme seasonal variation in sunlight and temperature. In 915 men aged 24-91 years from Rancho Bernardo, a suburb of San Diego in southern California, we found that neither total nor bioavailable testosterone varied by season, with or without adjustments for age and anthropometric measurements. Of all examined covariates, only physical activity showed a seasonal variation, with a peak in August (p < 0.001), and adjusting for physical activity did not change the lack of seasonal variation in testosterone. In addition, there was no association between testosterone and mean air temperature, or testosterone and possible hours of sunshine. We conclude that men living in southern California show no seasonal variation in testosterone levels. One possible explanation, besides the difference in climate, for the diverging findings between our previous study and the present study is different sleep patterns. PMID:15669539

  1. Seasonal Skin Colour Changes in a Sample Teenage Population Measured by Reflection Spectrophotometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin colour during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized…

  2. Assessing spatial and seasonal variations in grasslands with spectral reflectances from a helicopter platform

    SciTech Connect

    Walthall, C.L. ); Middleton, E.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. The authors present radiometric measurements taken from a helicopter based platform. This base was chosen to serve as a platform at a height between the surface based instruments and the aircraft borne instruments. It is close enough to the ground to provide detailed spatial and spectral measurements comparable to the ground based systems, and can sample many sites in a two hour flight plan. The helicopter carried an eight channel modular multiband radiometer (MMR), video, and still camera. Data was analyzed for five separate sites on four seasonally different dates to get a measure of seasonal and spatial variation. Data from all eight channels was looked at, and compared with linear models which describe simple ratio (SR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in terms of different surface variables.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin-1 (Orexin-A) Level Fluctuates with Season and Correlates with Day Length.

    PubMed

    Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June-July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8-26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404

  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin-1 (Orexin-A) Level Fluctuates with Season and Correlates with Day Length

    PubMed Central

    Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June—July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8–26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404

  5. Seasonal and parity effects on ghrelin levels throughout the estrous cycle in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Elbaz, Michal; Kaim, Moshe; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

    2016-09-01

    In dairy cows, heat stress depresses appetite, leading to decreased food intake, a negative energy balance, and modifies ghrelin levels. Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide with two major forms: acylated, with an O-n-octanoylated serine in position 3, and nonacylated. To date, the effect of heat stress and estrous cycle on ghrelin secretion in dairy cows has not been studied. We characterized ghrelin secretion during the estrous cycle in each, the winter and the summer seasons. We further examined the effects of parity on ghrelin secretion. Blood was collected from 10 primiparous or multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows throughout the estrous cycle, in both, the hot and cold seasons. The levels of acylated and total ghrelin were measured in the blood samples. We found that both acylated and total ghrelin levels during heat stress were lower than their respective levels in the winter in both, primiparous and multiparous cows. No differences in acylated and total ghrelin levels were found between primiparous and multiparous cows in both seasons. We further found that in multiparous but not primiparous cows acylated ghrelin secretion oscillated during the estrous cycle in both seasons. Its levels peaked on the last days of the first follicular wave and on the days before and during ovulation. Interestingly, we found that elevated acylated ghrelin levels correlated with conception success and increased total ghrelin levels were associated with successful conception from first insemination. Our data is the first to demonstrate seasonal variation in ghrelin secretion. This study provides evidence for the yet unfamiliar link between heat stress, ghrelin and fertility. Increased circulating acylated ghrelin may contribute to improved fertility in dairy cows. It further raises the possibility of a link between ghrelin levels and successful inseminations. Further research is required to determine the effects of ghrelin on dairy cow performance. PMID:27288640

  6. Seasonal forecasting of groundwater levels in principal aquifers of the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, J. D.; Jackson, C. R.; Brookshaw, A.; Scaife, A. A.; Cook, J.; Ward, R. S.

    2015-11-01

    To date, the majority of hydrological forecasting studies have focussed on using medium-range (3-15 days) weather forecasts to drive hydrological models and make predictions of future river flows. With recent developments in seasonal (1-3 months) weather forecast skill, such as those from the latest version of the UK Met Office global seasonal forecast system (GloSea5), there is now an opportunity to use similar methodologies to forecast groundwater levels in more slowly responding aquifers on seasonal timescales. This study uses seasonal rainfall forecasts and a lumped groundwater model to simulate groundwater levels at 21 locations in the United Kingdom up to three months into the future. The results indicate that the forecasts have skill; outperforming a persistence forecast and demonstrating reliability, resolution and discrimination. However, there is currently little to gain from using seasonal rainfall forecasts over using site climatology for this type of application. Furthermore, the forecasts are not able to capture extreme groundwater levels, primarily because of inadequacies in the driving rainfall forecasts. The findings also show that the origin of forecast skill, be it from the meteorological input, groundwater model or initial condition, is site specific and related to the groundwater response characteristics to rainfall and antecedent hydro-meteorological conditions.

  7. Reflection Spectrum of Two Level Atoms by an Evanescent Laser Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Weihan; Li, Qingning

    1996-01-01

    An exact solution and numerical calculation of the reflection of two level atoms by atomic mirror are presented. The curve of reflection coefficient against Rabi frequency calculated shows some new features, and the physical machanism underlying is analyzed.

  8. Deriving seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties of semi-arid savanna grasslands from in situ-based hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagesson, T.; Fensholt, R.; Huber, S.; Horion, S.; Guiro, I.; Ehammer, A.; Ardo, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how hyperspectral reflectance (between 350 and 1800 nm) can be used to infer ecosystem properties for a semi-arid savanna grassland in West Africa using a unique in situ-based multi-angular data set of hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements. Relationships between seasonal dynamics in hyperspectral HCRF and ecosystem properties (biomass, gross primary productivity (GPP), light use efficiency (LUE), and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FAPAR)) were analysed. HCRF data (ρ) were used to study the relationship between normalised difference spectral indices (NDSIs) and the measured ecosystem properties. Finally, the effects of variable sun sensor viewing geometry on different NDSI wavelength combinations were analysed. The wavelengths with the strongest correlation to seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties were shortwave infrared (biomass), the peak absorption band for chlorophyll a and b (at 682 nm) (GPP), the oxygen A band at 761 nm used for estimating chlorophyll fluorescence (GPP and LUE), and blue wavelengths (ρ412) (FAPAR). The NDSI with the strongest correlation to (i) biomass combined red-edge HCRF (ρ705) with green HCRF (ρ587), (ii) GPP combined wavelengths at the peak of green reflection (ρ518, ρ556), (iii) LUE combined red (ρ688) with blue HCRF (ρ436), and (iv) FAPAR combined blue (ρ399) and near-infrared (ρ1295) wavelengths. NDSIs combining near infrared and shortwave infrared were strongly affected by solar zenith angles and sensor viewing geometry, as were many combinations of visible wavelengths. This study provides analyses based upon novel multi-angular hyperspectral data for validation of Earth-observation-based properties of semi-arid ecosystems, as well as insights for designing spectral characteristics of future sensors for ecosystem monitoring.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of the seasonal sea level cycle in the northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Calafat, Francisco M.; Zheng, Jinhai; JordÃ, Gabriel; Cipollini, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    The seasonal sea level variations observed from tide gauges over 1900-2013 and gridded satellite altimeter product AVISO over 1993-2013 in the northwest Pacific have been explored. The seasonal cycle is able to explain 60-90% of monthly sea level variance in the marginal seas, while it explains less than 20% of variance in the eddy-rich regions. The maximum annual and semiannual sea level cycles (30 and 6 cm) are observed in the north of the East China Sea and the west of the South China Sea, respectively. AVISO was found to underestimate the annual amplitude by 25% compared to tide gauge estimates along the coasts of China and Russia. The forcing for the seasonal sea level cycle was identified. The atmospheric pressure and the steric height produce 8-12 cm of the annual cycle in the middle continental shelf and in the Kuroshio Current regions separately. The removal of the two attributors from total sea level permits to identify the sea level residuals that still show significant seasonality in the marginal seas. Both nearby wind stress and surface currents can explain well the long-term variability of the seasonal sea level cycle in the marginal seas and the tropics because of their influence on the sea level residuals. Interestingly, the surface currents are a better descriptor in the areas where the ocean currents are known to be strong. Here, they explain 50-90% of interannual variability due to the strong links between the steric height and the large-scale ocean currents.

  10. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  11. Assessing spatial and seasonal variations in grasslands with spectral reflectances from a helicopter platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Charles L.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The helicopter system data acquisition technique has shown to be a viable means of gathering surface data with spectral detail adequate for intersite, intrasite, and temporal characterizations and for assessing temporal and spatial variability throughout the FIFE 1987 IFCs. The successful employment of nadir measurements for grassland assessments is notable given the reflectance anisotropy (Middleton, 1992). Though only five sites were repetitively observed, the conclusions reached from this particular sample of sites agree well with assessments from other data sources (Sellars et al., 1990 and Kittel et al., 1990).

  12. Influence of aerosols and surface reflectance on satellite NO2 retrieval: seasonal and spatial characteristics and implications for NOx emission constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-T.; Liu, M.-Y.; Xin, J.-Y.; Boersma, K. F.; Spurr, R.; Martin, R.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite retrievals of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) normally do not explicitly account for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy that vary with space and time. Here, we conduct an improved retrieval of NO2 VCDs over China, called the POMINO algorithm, based on measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and we test the importance of a number of aerosol and surface reflectance treatments in this algorithm. POMINO uses a parallelized LIDORT-driven AMFv6 package to derive tropospheric air mass factors via pixel-specific radiative transfer calculations with no look-up tables, taking slant column densities from DOMINO v2. Prerequisite cloud optical properties are derived from a dedicated cloud retrieval process that is fully consistent with the main NO2 retrieval. Aerosol optical properties are taken from GEOS-Chem simulations constrained by MODIS AOD values. MODIS bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data are used for surface reflectance over land. For the present analysis, POMINO level-2 data for 2012 are aggregated into monthly means on a 0.25° long. × 0.25° lat. grid. POMINO-retrieved annual mean NO2 VCDs vary from 15-25 × 1015 cm-2 over the polluted North China Plain (NCP) to below 1015 cm-2 over much of west China. The subsequently-constrained Chinese annual anthropogenic emissions are 9.05 TgN yr-1, an increase from 2006 (Lin, 2012) by about 19%. Replacing the MODIS BRDF data with the OMLER v1 monthly climatological albedo data affects NO2 VCDs by up to 40% for certain locations and seasons. The effect on constrained NOx emissions is small. Excluding aerosol information from the retrieval process (this is the traditional "implicit" treatment) enhances annual mean NO2 VCDs by 15-40% over much of east China. Seasonally, NO2 VCDs are reduced by 10-20% over parts of the NCP in spring and over north China in winter, despite the general enhancements in summer and fall

  13. Influence of aerosols and surface reflectance on satellite NO2 retrieval: seasonal and spatial characteristics and implications for NOx emission constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-T.; Liu, M.-Y.; Xin, J.-Y.; Boersma, K. F.; Spurr, R.; Martin, R.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite retrievals of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) normally do not explicitly account for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy that vary with space and time. Here, we conduct an improved retrieval of NO2 VCDs over China, called the POMINO algorithm, based on measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and we test the importance of a number of aerosol and surface reflectance treatments in this algorithm. POMINO uses a parallelized LIDORT-driven AMFv6 package to derive tropospheric air mass factors via pixel-specific radiative transfer calculations with no look-up tables, taking slant column densities from DOMINO v2. Prerequisite cloud optical properties are derived from a dedicated cloud retrieval process that is fully consistent with the main NO2 retrieval. Aerosol optical properties are taken from GEOS-Chem simulations constrained by MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. MODIS bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data are used for surface reflectance over land. For the present analysis, POMINO level-2 data for 2012 are aggregated into monthly means on a 0.25° long. × 0.25° lat. grid. POMINO-retrieved annual mean NO2 VCDs vary from 15-25 × 1015 cm-2 over the polluted North China Plain (NCP) to below 1015 cm-2 over much of western China. Using POMINO to infer Chinese emissions of nitrogen oxides leads to annual anthropogenic emissions of 9.05 TgN yr-1, an increase from 2006 (Lin, 2012) by about 19 %. Replacing the MODIS BRDF data with the OMLER v1 monthly climatological albedo data affects NO2 VCDs by up to 40 % for certain locations and seasons. The effect on constrained NOx emissions is small. Excluding aerosol information from the retrieval process (this is the traditional "implicit" treatment) enhances annual mean NO2 VCDs by 15-40 % over much of eastern China. Seasonally, NO2 VCDs are reduced by 10-20 % over parts of the NCP in spring and over northern China

  14. The seasonal cycle and variability of sea level in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiruddin, A. M.; Haigh, I. D.; Tsimplis, M. N.; Calafat, F. M.; Dangendorf, S.

    2015-08-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of the seasonal sea level cycle in the South China Sea (SCS) and its forcing mechanisms are investigated using tide gauge records and satellite altimetry observations along with steric and meteorological data. The coastal mean annual amplitude of the seasonal cycle varies between zero and 24 cm, reaching a maximum between July and January. The maximum mean semiannual amplitude is 7 cm, peaking between March and June. Along the coast, the seasonal cycle accounts for up to 92% of the mean monthly sea level variability. Atmospheric pressure explains a significant portion of the seasonal cycle with dominant annual signals in the northern SCS, the Gulf of Thailand and the north-western Philippines Sea. The wind forcing is dominant on the shelf areas of the SCS and the Gulf of Thailand where a simple barotropic model forced by the local wind shows annual amplitudes of up to 27 cm. In the deep basin of the SCS, the Philippines Sea and the shallow Malacca Strait, the steric component is the major contributor with the maximum annual amplitudes reaching 15 cm. Significant variability in the seasonal cycle is found on a year-to-year basis. The annual and semiannual amplitudes vary by up to 63% and 45% of the maximum values, 15 cm and 11 cm, respectively. On average, stepwise regression analysis of contribution of different forcing factors accounts for 66% of the temporal variability of the annual cycle. The zonal wind was found to exert considerable influence in the Malacca Strait.

  15. The reproductive phenology of an Amazonian ant species reflects the seasonal availability of its nest sites.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2006-09-01

    In saturated tropical ant assemblages, reproductive success depends on queens locating and competing for scarce nest sites. Little is known about how this process shapes the life histories of tropical ants. Here I investigate the relationship between nest site availability and an important life history trait, reproductive phenology, in the common Amazonian ant species Allomerus octoarticulatus. A. octoarticulatus is a plant-ant that nests in the hollow, swollen stem domatia on Cordia nodosa. I provide evidence that nest sites are limiting for A. octoarticulatus. Most queens produced by A. octoarticulatus colonies died before locating suitable host plants, and most queens that located hosts died before founding colonies, probably from intraspecific competition among queens for control of host plants. I further show that the reproductive phenology of A. octoarticulatus closely matches the seasonal availability of its nest sites, domatia-bearing C. nodosa saplings. Both the production and flight of A. octoarticulatus reproductives, and the number of C. nodosa saplings available for colonization by ants, peaked from March to May. There was correlative evidence that A. octoarticulatus colonies use temperature as a cue to synchronize their reproduction to the availability of C. nodosa saplings: both the production of reproductives by ant colonies and the number of C. nodosa saplings available for colonization were correlated with temperature, and not with rainfall. All of these results suggest that nest site limitation constrains the reproductive phenology of A. octoarticulatus. PMID:16758217

  16. Contributions to the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, Irene; Tejedor, Begoña; Gómez-Enri, Jesús; Aboitiz, Alazne; Villares, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) has been analysed using monthly maps of sea level anomalies from gridded multi-mission altimeter data, along with monthly means of sea level heights from three tide gauge stations. Moreover, the contribution to the sea level seasonal cycle of atmospheric pressure and wind and the steric effect were evaluated using maps of sea level residuals from the VANI2-ERA hindcast, and a combination of satellite Sea Surface Temperature maps with a very high resolution Temperature and Salinity climatology for the region. The atmospheric contribution accounted for 55-58% of the sea level variance offshore, with this percentage diminishing toward the coast, where the effect of wind stress might be underestimated, especially over regions of complex bathymetry. The steric contribution was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. Results obtained highlighted the oceanographic complexity of the GoC at regional scales. In this sense, the open ocean steric contribution explained the largest percentage of atmospheric-corrected sea level variance at the offshore part of the basin (50-67%) and over the eastern shelf (42-48%), suggesting that the sea level seasonal cycle within the eastern shelf is connected to the large scale circulation system. West of Cape Santa Maria, both over the continental shelf and offshore, the best results were obtained with the local steric contribution, suggesting a decoupling of deep and shallow water sea level variations at the seasonal scale in that region.

  17. Precipitation and Air Temperature Impact on Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitola, Ilva; Vircavs, Valdis; Abramenko, Kaspars; Lauva, Didzis; Veinbergs, Arturs

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify seasonal effects of precipitation and temperature on groundwater level changes in monitoring stations of the Latvia University of Agriculture - Mellupīte, Bērze and Auce. Groundwater regime and level fluctuations depend on climatic conditions such as precipitation intensity, evapotranspiration, surface runoff and drainage, as well as other hydrological factors. The relationship between precipitation, air temperature and groundwater level fluctuations could also lead and give different perspective of possible changes in groundwater quality. Using mathematical statistics and graphic-analytic methods it is concluded that autumn and winter precipitation has the dominant impact on groundwater level fluctuations, whereas spring and summer season fluctuations are more dependent on the air temperature.

  18. The Middle Level Teachers' Handbook. Becoming a Reflective Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Gilbert; Wiseman, Dennis; Bowden, Sandra

    This textbook is designed to help beginning middle level teachers develop teaching philosophies, behaviors, and skills relevant to effective instruction. The eight chapters include the following: (1) Origins and Essential Elements of Middle Level Schools (junior high schools and middle schools); (2) Essential Characteristics of Middle Level…

  19. Influence of breeding season on fecal glucocorticoid levels in captive Greater Rhea (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Lèche, A; Hansen, C; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones and stress-related changes can be seasonally influenced. We investigate whether fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels can differ between male and female captive Greater Rheas during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Over a 3-year-period, fresh fecal samples from 10 individuals (five of each sex) were collected during the breeding months (October, November, and December) and non-breeding months (April and June). A total of 960 samples were assayed using a commercial radioimmunoassay. Results showed that FGM levels (mean ± SE) were affected by the breeding season in a sex-dependent way. Male Greater Rheas showed significantly higher FGM levels in the breeding months than in the non-breeding months (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.92 ± 0.1 ng/g feces, respectively). By contrast, females did not show FGM seasonal changes throughout the same sampling periods (7.55 ± 0.14 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces). Moreover, during the breeding season months, males showed higher average FGM levels than females (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.55 ± 0.14 ng/g feces, respectively), and no differences were found between sexes during the non-breeding season (7.92 ± 0.1 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces, respectively). Our findings suggest that male Greater Rheas have a higher adrenocortical activity during the breeding season, which is probably indirectly related to the increased testosterone levels and agonist interactions that are also observed during that phase. Studies aimed to determine the appropriate sex ratio for captive rearing should be developed to minimize male agonist encounters and therefore improve welfare of the captive group. PMID:25182661

  20. Seasonal variations of the sea level in the central part of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, S. A. R.; Ahmad, F.; El-Hassan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal sea-level changes at two coastal stations, Jeddah and Port Sudan, display higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer, showing a coherence over a distance of 300 km. The amplitude of these changes is slightly higher at Jeddah compared with that of Port Sudan. Analysis of wind stress indicates that the cross-shore component plays a dominant role in the sea-level changes at Port Sudan in contrast to Jeddah where a major part of the changes can be accounted for by the long-shore component.

  1. Shorebirds' seasonal adjustments in thermogenic capacity are reflected by changes in body mass: how preprogrammed and instantaneous acclimation work together.

    PubMed

    Vézina, François; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-09-01

    Phenotypic flexibility in shorebirds has been studied mainly in the context of adjustments to migration and to quality of food; little is known on how birds adjust their phenotype to harsh winter conditions. We showed earlier that red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) can acclimate to cold by elevating body mass. This goes together with larger pectoral muscles, i.e., greater shivering machinery, and thus, better thermogenic capacity. Here, we present results of a yearlong experiment with indoor captive knots to determine whether this strategy is part of their natural seasonal phenotypic cycle. We maintained birds under three thermal regimes: constant cold (5 °C), constant thermoneutrality (25 °C) and natural seasonal variation between these extremes (9-22 °C). Each month we measured variables related to the birds' endurance to cold and physiological maintenance [body mass, thickness of pectoral muscles, summit metabolic rate (M(sum)), food intake, gizzard size, basal metabolic rate (BMR)]. Birds from all treatments expressed synchronized and comparable variation in body mass in spite of thermal treatments, with a 17-18% increase between the warmest and coldest months of the year; which appeared regulated by an endogenous driver. In addition, birds living in the cold exhibited a 10% higher average body mass than did those maintained at thermoneutrality. Thickness of the pectoral muscle tracked changes in body mass in all treatments and likely contributed to greater capacity for shivering in heavier birds. Consequently, M(sum) was 13% higher in cold-acclimated birds compared to those experiencing no thermoregulation costs. However, our data also suggest that part of maximal heat production comes from nonshivering processes. Birds facing cold conditions ate up to 25% more food than did birds under thermoneutral conditions, yet did not develop larger gizzards. Seasonal variation in BMR followed changes in body mass, probably reflecting changes in mass of

  2. Taxonomic and trophic-level differences in the climate sensitivity of seasonal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, T. T.; Thackeray, S.; Henrys, P. A.; Hemming, D.; Bell, J. R.; Botham, M. S.; Burthe, S.; Helaouet, P.; Johns, D.; Jones, I. D.; Leech, D. I.; Mackay, E. B.; Massimino, D.; Atkinson, S.; Bacon, P. J.; Brereton, T. M.; Carvalho, L.; Clutton-Brock, T. H.; Duck, C.; Edwards, M.; Elliott, J. M.; Hall, S.; Harrington, R.; Pearce-Higgins, J. W.; Kruuk, L. E.; Pemberton, J. M.; Sparks, T. H.; Thompson, P. M.; White, I.; Winfield, I. J.; Wanless, S.

    2015-12-01

    Among-species differences in phenological responses to climate change are of sufficient magnitude to desynchronise key ecological interactions, threatening ecosystem function and services. To assess these threats, it is vital to quantify the relative impact of climate change on species at different trophic levels. Here we apply a novel Climate Sensitivity Profile approach to 10,003 terrestrial and aquatic phenological data sets, spatially matched to temperature and precipitation data, quantifying among-species variation in climate sensitivity. The direction, magnitude and timing of climate sensitivity varied markedly among organisms sharing taxonomic affinities or trophic position. Despite this, we detected a systematic difference in the direction and magnitude, but not seasonal timing, of phenological climate sensitivity among trophic levels. Secondary consumers showed consistently lower climate sensitivity than other groups and are projected to lag behind phenological changes at lower trophic levels, potentially making them at higher risk of disconnection with seasonal resources.

  3. Seasonal changes in physical performance and heart rate variability in high level futsal players.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R S; Leicht, A S; Bishop, D; Barbero-Álvarez, J C; Nakamura, F Y

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical performance and resting heart rate variability (HRV) in professional futsal players during the pre-season and in-season training periods. 11 athletes took part in the study (age=24.3±2.9 years; height=176.3±5.2 cm; weight=76.1±6.3 kg), and performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test [6×40 m (20+20 m with a 180° change of direction) sprints separated by 20 s of passive recovery] and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) at 3 different moments (M1=beginning of pre-season; M2=end of pre-season; M3=mid in-season). The HRV indices were assessed at the same moments. After the short pre-season (3-week), mean RSA time (RSAmean) (M1=7.43±0.2 s; M2=7.24±0.2 s; P=0.003), decrement in RSA performance (RSAdecrement) (M1=6.7±0.3%; M2=5.0±0.9%; P=0.001), and Yo-Yo IR1 distance (M1=1.244±298 m; M2=1.491±396 m; P=0.002) were significantly improved (P<0.05). During the in-season (i. e., M3), performance in Yo-Yo IR1 and RSAmean were maintained. In contrast, RSAbest (M2=6.89±0.2 to M3=6.69±0.3; P=0.001) was improved and RSAdecrement (M2=5.0±0.9% to M3=6.6±0.9%; P=0.001) was impaired. At M2, there was an increase in HRV vagal-related indices compared with M1 that was maintained at M3. In conclusion, after a short pre-season, futsal players improved their RSA and Yo-Yo IR1 performance with concomitant improvements in HRV. These indices were maintained during the in-season period while RSAbest was improved and RSAdecrement impaired. Frequent monitoring of these performances and HRV indices may assist with identification of individual training adaptations and/or early signs of maladaption. PMID:23143705

  4. Seasonal prediction of global sea level anomalies using an ocean-atmosphere dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Elaine R.; Spillman, Claire M.; Church, John A.; McIntosh, Peter C.

    2014-10-01

    Advanced warning of extreme sea level events is an invaluable tool for coastal communities, allowing the implementation of management policies and strategies to minimise loss of life and infrastructure damage. This study is an initial attempt to apply a dynamical coupled ocean-atmosphere model to the prediction of seasonal sea level anomalies (SLA) globally for up to 7 months in advance. We assess the ability of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's operational seasonal dynamical forecast system, the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), to predict seasonal SLA, using gridded satellite altimeter observation-based analyses over the period 1993-2010 and model reanalysis over 1981-2010. Hindcasts from POAMA are based on a 33-member ensemble of seasonal forecasts that are initialised once per month for the period 1981-2010. Our results show POAMA demonstrates high skill in the equatorial Pacific basin and consistently exhibits more skill globally than a forecast based on persistence. Model predictability estimates indicate there is scope for improvement in the higher latitudes and in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Most characteristics of the asymmetric SLA fields generated by El-Nino/La Nina events are well represented by POAMA, although the forecast amplitude weakens with increasing lead-time.

  5. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid-based molecular thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-06-01

    preserved in the sediment record of Lake Schreventeich reflect summer surface water temperatures. As N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria are widespread in present-day freshwater and brackish environments, we conclude that the distribution of HGs in sediments may allow for the reconstruction of surface water temperatures of modern and potentially ancient lacustrine settings.

  6. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  7. Seasonal presence of cetaceans and ambient noise levels in polar waters of the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Karolin; Matsumoto, Haruyoshi; Dziak, Robert P

    2012-09-01

    In 2009 two calibrated acoustic recorders were deployed in polar waters of the North Atlantic to study the seasonal occurrence of blue, fin, and sperm whales and to assess current ambient noise levels. Sounds from these cetaceans were recorded at both locations in most months of the year. During the summer months, seismic airguns associated with oil and gas exploration were audible for weeks at a time and dominated low frequency noise levels. Noise levels might further increase in the future as the receding sea ice enables extended human use of the area. PMID:22979829

  8. Growing season ecosystem and leaf-level gas exchange of an exotic and native semiarid bunchgrass.

    PubMed

    Hamerlynck, Erik P; Scott, Russell L; Moran, M Susan; Keefer, Timothy O; Huxman, Travis E

    2010-07-01

    The South African grass, Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), may alter ecosystem processes across extensive semiarid grasslands and savannahs of western North America. We compared volumetric soil moisture (theta), total and green tissue leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem (i.e. whole-plant and soil), and leaf-level gas exchange of Lehmann lovegrass and the native bush muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri) over the 2008 monsoon season in a semiarid savanna in southern Arizona, USA, to see if these were consistent with high productivity associated with lovegrass invasive success. theta across 0-5 and 0-25 cm was higher while evapotranspiration (ET) was similar between lovegrass and bush muhly plots, except shortly after rainfall, when ET was 32-81% higher in lovegrass plots. Lehmann lovegrass had lower, quickly developing LAI with greater leaf proportions than bush muhly. When early season theta was high, net ecosystem CO(2) exchange (NEE) was similar, but as storm frequency and theta declined, NEE was more negative in lovegrass (-0.69 to -3.00 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than bush muhly (+1.75 to -1.55 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Ecosystem respiration (R (eco)) responded quickly to monsoon onset and late-season rains, and was lower in lovegrass (2.44-3.74 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than bush muhly (3.60-5.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) across the season. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) was greater in Lehmann lovegrass, concurrent with higher leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. We conclude that canopy structure facilitates higher theta under Lehmann lovegrass, reducing phenological constraints and stomatal limitations to whole-plant carbon uptake through the short summer monsoon growing season. PMID:20063168

  9. Seasonal changes in serum progesterone levels in Thoroughbred racehorses in training

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Yuji; AKAI, Makoto; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to verify the seasonal luteal activity of racehorses in training in Japan from March to August. We allocated 102 horses into a luteal activity group and non-luteal activity group. The luteal activity group included horses with serum progesterone levels that were consistently >1 ng/ml and changed by ± 1 ng/ml. In contrast, the progesterone levels of the non-luteal activity group were consistently <1 ng/ml. In late spring (from May 1 to June 30) and summer (from July 1 to August 31), the percentage of horses in the luteal activity group was significantly higher than in early spring (from March 1 to April 30, P<0.01). These findings demonstrate clear seasonal variations in ovarian activity. The present study also suggest that training for a race may not affect ovarian activity in female racehorses. PMID:26858579

  10. Landform controls on low level moisture convergence and the diurnal cycle of warm season orographic rainfall in the Southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Anna M.; Barros, Ana P.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate two warm season events representative of reverse orographic enhancement of warm season precipitation in the Southern Appalachians under weak (9-12 July, 2012) and strong (12-16 May, 2014) synoptic forcing conditions. Reverse orographic enhancement refers to significant enhancement of rainfall intensity (up to one order of magnitude) at low elevations in the inner mountain valleys, but not in the ridges. This is manifest in significant increases of radar reflectivity observations and associated integral quantities (rain rate) at low levels (within 500 m of the surface), as well as changes in the observed microphysical properties of rainfall (raindrop size distribution). Analysis of high-resolution (1.25 km × 1.25 km) WRF simulations shows that the model captures the march of observed rainfall, though not the timing in the case of strong synoptic forcing. For each event, the results show that the space-time variability of rainfall in the inner region is strongly coupled to the development and persistence of organized within-valley low-level moisture convergence that is a necessary precursor to valley fog and low level cloud formation. Microphysical interactions among precipitation from propagating storm systems, and local low-level clouds and fog promote coalescence efficiency through the seeder-feeder mechanism leading to significant enhancement of rainfall intensity near the ground as shown by Wilson and Barros (2014). The simulations support the hypothesis that ridge-valley precipitation gradients, and in particular the reverse orographic enhancement effects in inner mountain valleys, are linked to horizontal heterogeneity in the vertical structure of low level clouds and precipitation promoted through landform controls on moisture convergence.

  11. Home radon levels and seasonal correction factors for the Isle of Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grainger, P.; Shalla, S. H.; Preece, A. W.; Goodfellow, S. A.

    2000-08-01

    Ionizing radiation dose levels due to home radon can rise to levels that would be illegal for workers in the nuclear industry. It is well known that radon levels within homes and from home to home, and also from month to month, vary considerably. To define an Isle of Man radon seasonal correction factor, readings were taken in eight homes over a 12 month period. An average island indoor exposure of 48 Bq m-3 (range 4-518 Bq m-3) was determined from 285 homes selected from a cohort of 1300 families participating in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) in the Isle of Man. This compares with a UK home average of 20 Bq m-3 and a European Union average (excluding UK) of 68 Bq m-3. Ten homes of those measured were found to have radon levels above the National Radiological Protection Board 200 Bq m-3 action level. There are 29 377 homes on the Isle of Man, suggesting that there could be some 900 or more homes above the action level. No statistical difference was found between the NRPB and Isle of Man seasonal correction factors.

  12. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  13. Effects of High Level Prompts and Peer Assessment on Online Learners' Reflection Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Wei, Chun-Wang; Wu, Kuen-Ting; Uden, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    Reflection plays a very important role in learning processes and is very helpful for promoting learning performance. Many higher education institutions today are actively promoting learners' reflection ability in order to help them cope with the fast changing world they will be entering when they graduate. Online learning provides potential for…

  14. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems. PMID:24571421

  15. A parameterization of eddy transfer coefficients for two-level seasonal statistical dynamical zonally averaged models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a parameterization of a quasi-geostrophic eddy transport that takes into account the time variation of eddy transfer coefficients according to Green's (1970) theory. It was found that, in the original eddy transfer relationship of Green, connecting the integral of the northward eddy entropy flux through midlatitudes with the second power of the difference in 500-mb entropy across the region of baroclinic activity, a value of 4 for the exponent is obtained when the temperature gradients at 500 mb are used. When the gradients at 1000 mb are used, an exponent of 1.5 is obtained. The differences in the powers in the eddy transfer relation were explored in a two-level zonally averaged model. It was found that an appropriate choice of power may be of special importance if the model is devised to simulate the seasonal climate cycle or to test astronomical changes inducing different seasonalities.

  16. Seasonal statistics of highest sea levels along the northwestern Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, A.; Masina, M.

    2012-04-01

    Joint spatial analyses of marine flood drivers may provide important insights into the assessment of the related impacts on the low-lying coastal areas of the northwestern Adriatic coast. Identification of seasonality in the highest sea levels represents a first step in performing the analysis. Seasonal variability is investigated in the long term tidal gauge series of Punta della Salute (Venezia), Molo Sartorio (Trieste) and Porto Corsini (Ravenna) and in the short and fragmentary one of Rimini for which the available historical information, extracted from Hydrological Annals and provided by ISPRA and the Institute of Marine Science - CNR of Trieste , includes data collected with different criteria (monthly high water levels, daily high and low tides, hourly values and ten-minutes records). Following Carter and Challenor (1981) the variability of extreme high sea levels is initially studied modelling monthly maxima separately with the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, combining them to extrapolate the distribution of annual maxima and comparing the resulting curve with that derived from the canonical approach based on annual maxima series. Monthly and annual maxima have been first declustered selecting the maximum value in a 78 hrs window and, aiming to remove the effect of sea level rise and local subsidence, detrended subtracting the regularized mean sea level. After the removal of these effects, monthly and annual maxima do not exhibit a specific multi-decadal trend. The results, expressed in terms of monthly average values, show instead a uniform behaviour for the analyzed stations, characterized by a large variability of extreme sea levels throughout a year with a systematic concentration of potential dangerous events in late autumn and winter seasons. In spite of the limited extension of the Adriatic basin, the most significant historical storms responsible of disastrous impacts on coastal areas were recorded in different years from the two

  17. Mating season aggression and fecal testosterone levels in male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, S A; Pereira, M E

    2000-05-01

    The challenge hypothesis (J. C. Wingfield, R. E. Hegner, B. G. Ball, and A. M. Duffy, 1990, Am. Nat. 136, 829-846) proposes that in birds, reptiles, and fish, "the frequency or intensity of reproductive aggression as an effect of T[estosterone] is strongest in situations of social instability, such as during the formation of dominance relationships, the establishment of territorial boundaries, or challenges by a conspecific male for a territory or access to mates" (p. 833). To determine the extension of this hypothesis to mammalian species, we tested predictions of the hypothesis in a nonpaternal, seasonal breeding, prosimian primate (ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta). Semi-free-ranging males were studied during periods of social stability (premating period) and instability (mating period). The annual mating season consists of several days during which males fight for access to promiscuous group females as each individually becomes sexually receptive for 1 day. Male rates of aggression were compared to fecal testosterone levels within premating and mating periods. In the premating period male rate of aggression was not significantly correlated with testosterone level. By contrast, during the mating season testosterone and aggression levels were positively and significantly correlated. However, on days just preceding estrus, male rate of aggression was not significantly correlated with testosterone, but on days of estrus, when aggressive challenges peaked sharply, testosterone and aggression were highly positively correlated. These results suggest that the challenge hypothesis applies to mammals as well as to birds, reptiles, and fish. In addition, elevations in testosterone were tightly circumscribed around days of estrus, suggesting a compromise between costs and benefits of elevated testosterone levels. PMID:10868488

  18. Challenging the present definition of "normal" vitamin D levels obtained by a single blood test. Can we develop a formula to predict vitamin D levels in the 4 seasons from a single season's measure?

    PubMed

    Tandeter, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Publications on the health effects of vitamin D (25(OH) D) had almost triplicate in the last 10years, not only for its known "calcemic effects" (calcium, phosphor, PTH), but for the more recent findings on its "non-calcemic effects" (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and relation with certain types of cancer). Part of these publications deal with the definition of what is a "normal" circulating level of 25(OH) D that may distinguish between health and disease. The literature also deals with seasonal variations of vitamin D, showing levels that rise in summer and fall in winter and with DBP phenotypes and geographical location that affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements. Despite the knowledge of the existence of these phenomena many studies on vitamin D fail to acknowledge the time of the year the blood sample was extracted. Thus, when we compare results from different studies without defining the season that the samples were drawn, we compare incomparable figures. Furthermore, it is quite absurd to define "normal levels" as a static measure (over or under a certain value) using a single blood test when the value measured is known to change with seasons. Knowing that people have different vitamin D levels in different seasons of the year, we should ask ourselves which of these measurements should be used to define a "real" or "normal" level? Is it the lower one? Is there a "mean measure" that should be used for this matter? If yes, how do we obtain it? Do we have to make 4 seasonal measurements in each patient? Alternatively, might there be a possibility of developing a formula to help us obtain the mean from a single season's measure or one season's prediction from another season's measurement? And knowing that DBP phenotypes and geographical location affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements; shouldn't we include this in the equation? In this article I will discuss the hypothetical existence of an Individual Mean Annual vitamin D level that I will

  19. Seasonal changes in atmospheric noise levels and the annual variation in pigeon homing performance.

    PubMed

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T; McIsaac, Hugh P; Drob, Douglas P

    2016-06-01

    Repeated releases of experienced homing pigeons from single sites were conducted between 1972 and 1974 near Cornell University in upstate New York and between 1982 and 1983 near the University of Pittsburgh in western Pennsylvania, USA. No annual variation in homing performance was observed at these sites in eastern North America, in contrast to results from a number of similar experiments in Europe. Assuming pigeons home using low-frequency infrasonic signals (~0.1-0.3 Hz), as has been previously proposed, the annual and geographic variability in homing performance within the northern hemisphere might be explained, to a first order, by seasonal changes in low-frequency atmospheric background noise levels related to storm activity in the North Atlantic Ocean, and by acoustic waveguides formed between the surface and seasonally reversing stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion among departure bearings of test birds on some North American release days was possibly caused by infrasonic noise from severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. PMID:27146057

  20. Thyroid Cancer Cases in U.S. Level Off, Perhaps Reflecting Diagnostic Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158319.html Thyroid Cancer Cases in U.S. Level Off, Perhaps Reflecting ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Fewer thyroid cancers are diagnosed in the United States now ...

  1. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = −0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. PMID:24454382

  2. Seasonal Sea-Level Variations in San Francisco Bay in Response to Atmospheric Forcing, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Jingyuan; Cheng, R.T.; Smith, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The seasonal response of sea level in San Francisco Bay (SFB) to atmospheric forcing during 1980 is investigated. The relations between sea-level data from the Northern Reach, Central Bay and South Bay, and forcing by local wind stresses, sea level pressure (SLP), runoff and the large scale sea level pressure field are examined in detail. The analyses show that the sea-level elevations and slopes respond to the along-shore wind stress T(V) at most times of the year, and to the cross-shore wind stress T(N) during two transition periods in spring and autumn. River runoff raises the sea-level elevation during winter. It is shown that winter precipitation in the SFB area is mainly attributed to the atmospheric circulation associated with the Alcutian Low, which transports the warm, moist air into the Bay area. A multiple linear regression model is employed to estimate the independent contributions of barometric pressure and wind stress to adjusted sea level. These calculations have a simple dynamical interpretation which confirms the importance of along-shore wind to both sea level and north-south slope within the Bay.

  3. [Indoor Deposition Flux, Seasonal Variations and Human Exposure Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Xiamen, China].

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-liang; Liu, Yu; Chen, Hai-ming; Chen, Xing-tong; Fan, Tao

    2016-03-15

    Indoor dust was an important and even a major route of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, the vacuum dust concentrations were less correlated with indoor residents' serum concentrations of PBDEs, thus inadequat for either estimation of human exposure dose or research of deposition flux and its seasonal variations. Passive sampling of indoo dustfall could offset these shortages. A total of 49 indoor sampling sites including homes, offices, computer rooms and furniture factor were selected in Xiamen, China to collect the four season dustfall samples with glass plates (walled by clean aluminum foil). Deposition flux, concentrations, congener profiles, seasonal variations, and human exposure to PBDEs in the dustfall were studied The geometric means of the yearly round deposition flux of ∑ PBDEs (sum of 16 BDE congeners including BDE-209) in homes offices, computer rooms and furniture factory were 6.1, 3.0, 1.1 and 179.8 ng · (m² · d)⁻¹, respectively. The geometric mea deposition flux of ∑ PBDEs in homes was 2 times of that in offices, but the concentration of ∑ PBDEs in the dustfall from home (445.5 ng · g⁻¹) was only slightly higher than that of offices (384.0 ng · g⁻¹). The ∑ PBDEs deposition flux in homes, offices and computer rooms in Xiamen were at lower level compared with other cities around the world. The PBDEs deposition flux in furnitur factory was much higher than that in the ordinary indoor environment. Autumn was the season with highest deposition flux of ∑ PBDEs. Geometric means of BDE- 209's proportion of the ∑ PBDEs in dustfall in all seasons in the four types of indoo environment were above 80% . The deposition flux of PBDEs was correlated to the dustfall deposition flux in homes, offices and computer rooms, but not that in furniture factory. ∑₁₅ PBDEs in homes and offices were significantly correlated with the age of computers, but not quantities of electrical and electronic products

  4. Seasonal and PAH impact on DNA strand-break levels in gills of transplanted zebra mussels.

    PubMed

    Michel, Cécile; Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Palais, Frédéric; Geffard, Alain; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of aquatic ecosystems. A caging study on the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha was planned to run over four seasons in the Seine River basin in order to assess whether DNA damage measured in transplanted mussels to polluted area vary according to seasonal changes. Three sites were chosen along the Seine River, one upstream from Paris and two downstream, corresponding to a chemical gradient of water contamination. The DNA strand break (comet assay) and chromosomal damage (micronucleus test) were measured in caged mussels at each site and in winter, spring and summer, along with PAH water contamination, PAH bioaccumulation, the mussel condition index (CI), the gonado-somatic index (GSI) and the filtration rate (FR). The level of DNA strand break measured in winter was low and increased in spring, concomitantly with FR and GSI. Over the same period, micronucleus (MN) frequency and PAH bioaccumulation decreased significantly in caged mussels, with both parameters positively correlated to each other. DNA strand-break levels and MN frequencies showed inter-site variations corresponding to the chemical contamination gradient. These two genotoxicity endpoints usefully complement each other in field studies. These results show that the MN test and comet assay, when applied to gill cells of caged zebra mussels, are sensitive tools for freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. PMID:23490194

  5. Prediction of the Caspian Sea level using ECMWF seasonal forecasts and reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Wetterhall, F.; Khan, V.; Hagemann, S.; Lahijani, H.

    2014-07-01

    The hydrological budget of the Caspian Sea (CS) is investigated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERAi) and seasonal forecast (FCST) data with the aim of predicting the Caspian Sea Level (CSL) some months ahead. Precipitation and evaporation are used. After precipitation events over the Volga River, the discharge (Volga River discharge (VRD)) follows with delays, which are parameterized. The components of the water budget from ERAi and FCSTs are integrated to obtain time series of the CSL. Observations of the CSL and the VRD are used for comparison and tuning. The quality of ERAi data is sufficiently good to calculate the time variability of the CSL with a satisfactory accuracy. Already the storage of water within the Volga Basin allows forecasts of the CSL a few months ahead, and using the FCSTs of precipitation improves the CSL forecasts. The evaporation in the seasonal forecasts is deficient due to unrealistic sea surface temperatures over the CS. Impacts of different water budget terms on the CSL variability are shown by a variety of validation tools. The importance of precipitation anomalies over the catchment of the Volga River is confirmed, but also impacts from the two southern rivers (Sefidrud and Kura River) and the evaporation over the CS become obvious for some periods. When pushing the FCSTs beyond the limits of the seasonal FCSTs to 1 year, considerable forecast skill can still be found. Validating only FCSTs by the present approach, which show the same trend as one based on a statistical method, significantly enhances the skill scores.

  6. A Middle Mosaic: A Celebration of Reading, Writing, and Reflective Practice at the Middle Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ramsey, Katherine D., Ed.

    Offering 16 essays by presenters at the first Middle School Mosaic (held in Detroit, Michigan, in 1997), this book connects the themes of literacy, reflective practice, and the special characteristics of middle level teaching. In the first section, Literature and Literacy at the Middle Level, the authors examine questions of literacy by looking at…

  7. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  8. Data-driven behavioural characterization of dry-season groundwater-level variation in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Rahul; Sohoni, Milind

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the crucial issue of dry-season groundwater-availability in the state of Maharashtra, India. We look at the two key hydro-climatological measurements which are used to implement groundwater policy in the state, viz., water levels in 5000 + observation wells across the state and aggregate rainfall data. We see that there is substantial variation in groundwater levels within and across the years in most wells. We argue that for a large number of these observation well locations, aggregate rainfall data is inadequate to model or to predict groundwater levels. For this, we use a novel random rainfall coefficient model for the purpose of modelling the effect of rainfall in a composite setting where extraction and changing land-use data is unknown. The observed high variance of this coefficient points to significant variations in groundwater levels, which may only be explained by unmeasured anthropogenic factors. Next, we see that the uncertainty in actual groundwater levels along with scarcity are two distinct features of groundwater availability and will elicit different behaviours from the typical user. Finally, we recommend that quantitative groundwater assessment protocols of the state should move to incorporating data from which extraction and land-use may be modelled. We believe this is one of the first studies where large spatio-temporal scale data gathered by state agencies have been analysed for scientific adequacy.

  9. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What do teachers talk about when asked general questions about their pedagogy and NOS pedagogy and (2) what qualitative differences, if any, exist within variables across teachers of varying NOS implementation levels? Evidence derived from these teachers' reflections indicated that self-efficacy and perceptions of general importance for NOS instruction were poor indicators of NOS implementation. However, several factors were associated with the extent that these teachers implemented NOS instruction, including the utility value they hold for NOS teaching, considerations of how people learn, understanding of NOS pedagogy, and their ability to accurately and deeply self-reflect about teaching. Notably, those teachers who effectively implemented the NOS at higher levels value NOS instruction for reasons that transcend immediate instructional objectives. That is, they value teaching NOS for achieving compelling ends realized long after formal schooling (e.g., lifelong socioscientific decision-making for civic reasons), and they deeply reflect about how to teach NOS by drawing from research about how people learn. Low NOS implementers' simplistic notions and reflections about teaching and learning appeared to be impeding factors to accurate and consistent NOS implementation. This study has implications for science teacher education efforts that promote NOS instruction.

  10. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960

  11. Spatial structure of the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, I.; Tejedor, B.; Gómez-Enri, J.; Aboitiz, A.; Villares, P.

    2012-09-01

    Sea level anomaly maps from altimeter (AVISO) were retrieved for the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) for the period 1997-2008, along with maps of Dynamic Atmospheric Correction (DAC), atmospheric pressure at sea level and satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Data were averaged in time to obtain maps of monthly mean time series in order to analyze the seasonal variability of sea level and its main forcing agents along the GoC. Moreover, a very high resolution climatology for the region was combined with the SST maps to explore the steric contribution with enough spatial resolution near the coast. The AVISO sea level anomaly monthly maps were initially de-corrected using the DAC product and then corrected using the inverted barometer method. Atmospheric pressure explained more than 55% of the sea level variance offshore and between 35-45% within the continental shelf. The amplitude of the pressureadjusted sea level semiannual signal was considerably reduced, confirming its meteorological origin. The steric contribution on the pressure-adjusted sea level was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. The open ocean contribution explained the highest percentage of variance all over the basin with the exception of the western shelf, where the best results were obtained with the local contribution. After correcting for the best steric contribution, the amplitude of the remaining offshore annual signal was negligible (0.5-1.0 ± 1 cm). As for the continental shelves, 2- 3 cm (± 0.5-1 cm) of the annual signal remained unexplained, probably due to local effects related with the shelves dynamics.

  12. Regional sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz from radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Enri, Jesus; Laiz, Irene; Tejedor, Begoña; Aboitiz, Alazne; Villares, Pilar

    2013-04-01

    AVISO sea level anomaly weekely maps from radar altimetry were retrieved for the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) (1997-2008), along with maps of Dynamic Atmospheric Correction (DAC), atmospheric pressure at sea level and satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Data were averaged in time to obtain maps of monthly mean time series in order to analyze the seasonal variability of sea level and its main forcing agents along the GoC. Moreover, a very high resolution climatology for the region was combined with the SST maps to explore the steric contribution with enough spatial resolution near the coast. The AVISO sea level anomaly monthly maps were initially de-corrected using the DAC product and then corrected using the inverted barometer method. Atmospheric pressure explained more than 55% of the sea level variance offshore and between 35-45% within the continental shelf. The amplitude of the pressure-adjusted sea level semiannual signal was considerably reduced, confirming its meteorological origin. The steric contribution on the pressure-adjusted sea level was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. The open ocean contribution explained the highest percentage of variance all over the basin with the exception of the western shelf, where the best results were obtained with the local contribution. After correcting for the best steric contribution, the amplitude of the remaining offshore annual signal was negligible (0.5-1.0 ± 1 cm). As for the continental shelves, 2-3 cm (± 0.5-1 cm) of the annual signal remained unexplained, probably due to local effects related with the shelves dynamics.

  13. Seasonal changes in body mass, serum leptin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression in male Eothenomys olitor.

    PubMed

    Wan-long, Zhu; Zheng-kun, Wang

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined seasonal changes in body mass and energy metabolism in the Chaotung vole (Eothenomys olitor) and the physiological mechanisms underpinning these changes. Seasonal changes in the following parameters were measured in male E. olitor, body mass, food intake, thermogenesis, enzyme activity, masses of tissues and organs, hormone concentrations and expression of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus energy balance genes including neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Body mass was constant over the year, but the masses of tissues and organs differed significantly between seasons. There were significant changes in body fat mass and serum leptin levels over the four seasons. E. olitor showed significant seasonal changes in food intake and thermogenesis, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content, enzyme activity, and serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels. Moreover, mRNA expression in the hypothalamus showed significant seasonal changes. All of our results suggested that E. olitor had constant body mass over the year, which was inconsistent with the prediction of the 'set-point' hypothesis. However, body fat mass and serum leptin levels were significantly different among the four seasons, providing support for the 'set-point' hypothesis. The changes in leptin, NPY, AgRP, POMC, and CART mRNA levels may play a role in the regulation of energy intake in E. olitor. Furthermore, the role of leptin and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene in the regulation of energy metabolism and body mass may be different in animals that are acclimated to different seasons. PMID:25700741

  14. Pollen count and exhaled nitric oxide levels in a seasonal allergic rhinitis patient.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Toshihiro; Mochizuki, Eisuke; Asada, Kazuhiro; Suda, Takafumi

    2014-09-01

    The subject was a 52-year-old man with Japanese cedar pollinosis, which developed between February and May. He had no history of asthma and was an ex-smoker. He underwent fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements twice a week from 2010 to 2012. The pollen counts in 2010 were the lowest during the last decade, and the FeNO level was less than 30 ppb for the whole year. In contrast, the mean pollen count in 2011 was very high and the patient's FeNO level rose to more than 100 ppb. The mean pollen count in 2012 was comparable with that of 2010; however, high counts were detected in April and May, and the FeNO level rose to 70 ppb during the latter stages of the pollen season. These results indicate that pollen counts should be taken into consideration during the interpretation of FeNO data in asthma or allergic rhinitis. PMID:25473586

  15. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  16. Using Action Research in Middle Level Teacher Education to Evaluate and Deepen Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, Rita; Aydeniz, Mehmet; Rowell, C. Glennon

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of action research in promoting critical reflective thinking among twenty preservice teachers engaged in a year-long middle level program. Data from collaborative discussions, final written documents, presentations, and follow-up surveys revealed that conducting action research (a) engaged them in inquiry into their own…

  17. The Instrument for Determining the Levels of Reflective Thinking among Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin Can, Bilge; Yildrim, Cennet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a reliable and valid instrument in order to determine the elementary school students' levels about reflective thinking. A total of 320 students of 6th, 7th and 8th grades from 6 different primary schools participated in the study. It was identified that the instrument was composed of totally 17 items…

  18. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  19. An Authentic Assessment at the Graduate Level: A Reflective Capstone Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichting, Kathleen; Fox, Kathy R.

    2015-01-01

    It is often challenging for teacher educators to design an authentic Capstone Experience at the graduate level that aligns with what research tells us about the value of authentic assessment and the power of reflection in student's learning and professional growth. This article introduces an innovative form of assessment for graduate students that…

  20. TETRACHLORODIBENZODIOXIN ISOMER DIFFERENTIATION BY MICRO DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY AT THE LOW NANOGRAM LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded for the 22 tetrachlorodibenzodioxin isomers (TCDDs). By use of micro-DRIFT techniques and signal averaging, identifiable spectra for each of the isomers were achieved at low nanogram levels. Spectral features in the 1200/cm to 16...

  1. Seasonal effects on egg production and level of paternity in a natural population of a simultaneous hermaphrodite snail

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ruben; Baur, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In a seasonal environment, the suitable time window for females to reproduce is restricted by both environmental conditions and the availability of males. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, which are female and male at the same time, selection on a trait that is solely beneficial for one sexual function cannot occur independently. Therefore, it is assumed that the optimal time window for reproduction is a compromise between the two sexual functions in simultaneous hermaphrodites, mediated by environmental conditions. We examined seasonal patterns of reproduction and the resulting paternity in a natural population of the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum. Adult and premature individuals (snails in a short protandric phase) were collected on four occasions over the entire active season. The snails were allowed to deposit eggs after which we assessed the level of paternity in their hatched offspring. Individuals mated throughout the reproductive season, whereas egg production – the major task of the female function – was restricted to the first half of the season. Snails collected in autumn were allowed to hibernate under laboratory conditions. As a result, we found that premature individuals began to mate late in the reproductive season, but did not start to produce eggs before emerging from hibernation. Our results demonstrate a temporal shift of reproductive activities; the egg production and oviposition occur mainly in the first half of the season, while sperm production and mating occur over the entire season. In subadult and adult snails, sperm obtained from several partners in the second part of the reproductive season are stored during hibernation for the fertilization of eggs in the successive years. These results extend our understanding of the influence of both natural and sexual selection on reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites. PMID:26306176

  2. Seasonal Changes in Broadband Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) disrupt soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, and residential settings. Ground-based implementation of hyperspectral techniques in the detection and seasonal monitoring of imported fire ant col...

  3. Arginine vasopressin plasma levels change seasonally in African striped mice but do not differ between alternative reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Ivana; Schradin, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an important hormone for osmoregulation, while as a neuropeptide in the brain it plays an important role in the regulation of social behaviors. Dry habitats are often the home of obligately sociable species such as meerkats and Damaraland mole-rats, leading to the hypothesis that high plasma AVP levels needed for osmoregulation might be associated with the regulation of social behavior. We tested this in a facultative sociable species, the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio). During the moist breeding season, both solitary- and group-living reproductive tactics occur in this species, which is obligatory sociable in the dry season. We collected 196 plasma samples from striped mice following different reproductive tactics both during the moist and the dry season. Solitary mice did not have lower AVP levels than sociable mice, rejecting the hypothesis that peripheral AVP is involved in the regulation of alternative reproductive tactics. However, we found significantly higher AVP levels during the dry season, with AVP levels correlated with the abundance of food plants, the main source of water for striped mice. Plasma AVP levels were not correlated with testosterone or corticosterone levels. Our study underlines the important role that AVP plays in osmoregulation, particularly for a free ranging mammal living under harsh arid conditions. PMID:24842715

  4. The impact of seasonality on the benthos as reflected in the assemblages of deep-sea foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubere, Paul

    1998-02-01

    A surface sediment study of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the eastern Pacific (Loubere, 1994) yielded a regression equation for estimating surface ocean productivity from assemblage composition with an r2=0.98. This equation was tested with samples from locations outside the calibration data set area and yielded estimates with an error of about 11% of the estimate. The estimation equation has an r2=0.86 for the non-calibration data set samples. This equation was then applied to surface sediment samples from the Indian Ocean, which represent benthic conditions identical to those of the Pacific calibration data set, except that surface ocean productivity in the Indian Ocean is highly seasonal. There is relatively little seasonal variation in productivity over the areas sampled for the Pacific calibration data. Although it is difficult to quantify average annual surface ocean productivity in the Indian Ocean, it appears that the benthic foraminiferal transfer function yields estimates of only qualitative value. At highest productivities it is likely that the equation underestimates productivity. Using Discriminant Function Analysis to compare sample groups from the Pacific and Indian Oceans representing identical environmental conditions, except for seasonality, shows that the Indian Ocean samples are increasingly anomalous, or "no-analog", from the Pacific Ocean perspective as productivity increases. At higher productivities, Indian Ocean samples are deficient in Uvigerina species, Chilostomella sp., Pullenia sp. and E. tumidulus while having an excess of E. exigua, C. hooperi, Gyroidina grp. species, B. mexicana and Nonion species, from the Pacific viewpoint. The differences in benthic foraminiferal assemblages between the two oceans can be ascribed to changes in benthic community structure that occur as organic carbon flux to the seabed becomes increasingly episodic or seasonal. Overall, Indian Ocean foraminiferal assemblages follow compositional trends

  5. Seasonal variation of water level, water and soil temperature, chemistry, and stable isotopes in hyporheic zone of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, W. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of study was to evaluate interaction between groundwater and stream water in hyporheic zone using water level, water temperature, soil temperature, chemistry, and stable isotopes. We installed seven piezometers (IYHW1 to 7) in the streambed that across stream in every 10 m and in depth of 0.85 to 1.54 m, a device that measure stage level nearby IYHW1, and devices that measure soil temperature in every 10 cm down to 50 cm nearby each piezometer was installed. We monitored water level and water temperature every hour from automatic transducers at the piezometers and the stage level, and soil temperatures were monitored every two hours. We took samples from the hyporheic water, stream water, and nearby groundwater to analysis chemical and isotopic compositions. The water level difference between stream water and hyporheic waters indicated that groundwater was downwelling in wet season and upwelling in dry season. The groundwater temperature remained steady in different seasons, but the stream water represented a frequent fluctuation with large amplitude. The hyporheic waters and soil temperature represented intermediate variation characteristics. The chemical compositions were not able to indicate in interaction of groundwater and stream water because no distinctive difference in seasonal variation in waters. The quantity of isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen determined from using mixing ratio indicated that downwelling in wet season and upwelling in dry season. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2011-0007232).

  6. Comparison of Seasonal Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from GRACE with Groundwater-level Measurements from the High Plains Aquifer (USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strassberg, Gil; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rodell, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of variations in seasonal GWS derived from GRACE TWS and simulated SM with GW-level measurements in a semiarid region. Results showed that variations in GWS and SM are the main sources controlling TWS changes over the High Plains, with negligible storage changes from surface water, snow, and biomass. Seasonal variations in GRACE TWS compare favorably with combined GWS from GW-level measurements (total 2,700 wells, average 1,050 GW-level measurements per season) and simulated SM from the Noah land surface model (R = 0.82, RMSD = 33 mm). Estimated uncertainty in seasonal GRACE-derived TWS is 8 mm, and estimated uncertainty in TWS changes is 11 mm. Estimated uncertainty in SM changes is 11 mm and combined uncertainty for TWS-SM changes is 15 mm. Seasonal TWS changes are detectable in 7 out of 9 monitored periods and maximum changes within a year (e.g. between winter and summer) are detectable in all 5 monitored periods. Grace-derived GWS calculated from TWS-SM generally agrees with estimates based on GW-level measurements (R = 0.58, RMSD = 33 mm). Seasonal TWS-SM changes are detectable in 5 out of the 9 monitored periods and maximum changes are detectable in all 5 monitored periods. Good correspondence between GRACE data and GW-level measurements from the intensively monitored High Plains aquifer validates the potential for using GRACE TWS and simulated SM to monitor GWS changes and aquifer depletion in semiarid regions subjected to intensive irrigation pumpage. This method can be used to monitor regions where large-scale aquifer depletion is ongoing, and in situ measurements are limited, such as the North China Plain or western India. This potential should be enhanced by future advances in GRACE processing, which will improve the spatial and temporal resolution of TWS changes, and will further increase applicability of GRACE data for monitoring GWS.

  7. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  8. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  9. Effect of mid season drought on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major constraint in peanut production. Drought not only reduces pod yield but also may affect phenolic compounds in peanut. This experiment was conducted for two years under field conditions. Soil moisture levels (field capacity and mid season drought stress) were assigned as main pl...

  10. Study the effect of gray component replacement level on reflectance spectra and color reproduction accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is investigation of gray component replacement (GCR) levels on reflectance spectrum for different overprints of the inks and color reproduction accuracy. The most commonly implemented method in practice for generation of achromatic composition is gray component replacement (GCR). The experiments in this study, have been performed in real production conditions with special test form generated by specialized software. The measuring of reflection spectrum of printed colors, gives a complete conception for the effect of different gray component replacement levels on color reproduction accuracy. For better data analyses and modeling of processes, we have calculated (converted) the CIEL*a*b* color coordinates from the reflection spectra data. The assessment of color accuracy by using different GCR amount has been made by calculation of color difference ΔE* ab. In addition for the specific printing conditions we have created ICC profiles with different GCR amounts. A comparison of the color gamuts has been performed. For a first time a methodology is implemented for examination and estimation of effect of GCR levels on color reproduction accuracy by studying a big number of colors in entire visible spectrum. Implementation in practice of the results achieved in this experiment, will lead to improved gray balance and better color accuracy. Another important effect of this research is reduction of financial costs of printing production by decreasing of ink consumption, indirect reduction of emissions during the manufacture of inks and facilitates the process of deinking during the recycling paper.

  11. Seasonal Sexual Segregation by Monomorphic Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus griseus Reflects Different Reproductive Roles during the Pre-Laying Period

    PubMed Central

    Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A.; Phillips, Richard A.; Fifield, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tracking technology has revolutionized knowledge of seabird movements; yet, few studies have examined sex differences in distribution and behavior of small to medium-sized, sexually-monomorphic seabirds. Application of bird-borne geolocation-immersion loggers revealed seasonal segregation in the sexually-monomorphic Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, mainly in the pre-laying period, when there were clear differences in reproductive roles. Shearwaters first returned to the Falkland Islands on 27 Sept±8 d; males, on average, 8 d earlier than females. Prior to egg-laying, distribution at sea, colony attendance and behaviour depended on sex. Males foraged locally over the southern Patagonian Shelf and Burdwood Bank, spending mainly single days at sea and intervening nights in the burrow. Females, who flew for more of the day during this time, foraged in more distant areas of the northern Patagonian Shelf and Argentine Basin that were deeper, warmer and relatively more productive. Attendance of females at the colony was also more variable than that of males and, overall, males were present for significantly more of the pre-laying period (38 vs. 19% of time). Sex differences were reduced following egg-laying, with males and females using similar foraging areas and making trips of similar mean duration in incubation (7.6±2.7 d) and chick-rearing (1.4±1.3 d). Congruence continued into the non-breeding period, with both sexes showing similar patterns of activity and areas of occupancy in the NW Atlantic. Thus, seasonal changes in reproductive roles influenced patterns of sexual segregation; this occurred only early in the season, when male Sooty Shearwaters foraged locally, returning regularly to the colony to defend (or maintain) the burrow or the mate, while females concentrated on building resources for egg development in distant and relatively more productive waters. PMID:24416429

  12. Seasonal sexual segregation by monomorphic Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus griseus reflects different reproductive roles during the pre-laying period.

    PubMed

    Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Phillips, Richard A; Fifield, David A

    2014-01-01

    Tracking technology has revolutionized knowledge of seabird movements; yet, few studies have examined sex differences in distribution and behavior of small to medium-sized, sexually-monomorphic seabirds. Application of bird-borne geolocation-immersion loggers revealed seasonal segregation in the sexually-monomorphic Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, mainly in the pre-laying period, when there were clear differences in reproductive roles. Shearwaters first returned to the Falkland Islands on 27 Sept±8 d; males, on average, 8 d earlier than females. Prior to egg-laying, distribution at sea, colony attendance and behaviour depended on sex. Males foraged locally over the southern Patagonian Shelf and Burdwood Bank, spending mainly single days at sea and intervening nights in the burrow. Females, who flew for more of the day during this time, foraged in more distant areas of the northern Patagonian Shelf and Argentine Basin that were deeper, warmer and relatively more productive. Attendance of females at the colony was also more variable than that of males and, overall, males were present for significantly more of the pre-laying period (38 vs. 19% of time). Sex differences were reduced following egg-laying, with males and females using similar foraging areas and making trips of similar mean duration in incubation (7.6±2.7 d) and chick-rearing (1.4±1.3 d). Congruence continued into the non-breeding period, with both sexes showing similar patterns of activity and areas of occupancy in the NW Atlantic. Thus, seasonal changes in reproductive roles influenced patterns of sexual segregation; this occurred only early in the season, when male Sooty Shearwaters foraged locally, returning regularly to the colony to defend (or maintain) the burrow or the mate, while females concentrated on building resources for egg development in distant and relatively more productive waters. PMID:24416429

  13. Seasonal Dynamics of Hyperspectral Reflectance Patterns Influencing Detection of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management affecting an estimated 8.1 million hectares in sod production, recreational, and residential settings in the southeastern U.S. Reflectance characteristics of imported fire ant mound features (i.e., ant m...

  14. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper. PMID:27507500

  15. Modeling Shallow Core-Level Transitions in the Reflectance Spectra of Gallium-Containing Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoute, Nicholas; Aspnes, David

    2012-02-01

    The electronic structure of covalent materials is typically approached by band theory. However, shallow core level transitions may be better modeled by an atomic-scale approach. We investigate shallow d-core level reflectance spectra in terms of a local atomic-multiplet theory, a novel application of a theory typically used for higher-energy transitions on more ionic type material systems. We examine specifically structure in reflectance spectra of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, GaSe, and GaAs1-xPx due to transitions that originate from Ga3d core levels and occur in the 20 to 25 eV range. We model these spectra as a Ga^+3 closed-shell ion whose transitions are influenced by perturbations on 3d hole-4p electron final states. These are specifically spin-orbit effects on the hole and electron, and a crystal-field effect on the hole, attributed to surrounding bond charges and positive ligand anions. Empirical radial-strength parameters were obtained by least-squares fitting. General trends with respect to anion electronegativity are consistent with expectations. In addition to the spin-orbit interaction, crystal-field effects play a significant role in breaking the degeneracy of the d levels, and consequently are necessary to understand shallow 3d core level spectra.

  16. Seasonal to decadal forcing of high water level percentiles in the German Bight throughout the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Mudersbach, Christoph; Jensen, Jürgen; Anette, Ganske; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    For the purpose of coastal planning and management, especially under changing climatic conditions, enhanced knowledge about the evolution of extreme sea levels in the past, present, and future is required. This paper presents statistical analyses of high seasonal water level percentiles of 13 tide gauges in the German Bight, spanning over a period of up to 109 years throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Seasonal and annual high percentile time series of water levels were investigated in comparison to the mean sea level (MSL) for changes on seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal timescales. While throughout the first half of the twentieth century extreme water levels generally followed changes in MSL, during the second half of the century, linear extreme sea level trends exceeded those in MSL in the order of 9-64 cm per century. The largest, although insignificant, contribution to the magnitude of these trends occurs in the winter season (January to March), while smaller but, due to the generally lower atmospheric variability, significant changes are observed during spring (April to June). The observed multi-decadal trends are generally in good agreement with multi-decadal trends in the corresponding percentiles of local zonal surface winds. Only small parts of the trends remain unexplained. It is suggested that these remaining trends result from modifications in the local tidal regime. For the aspects of coastal planning, the findings clarify that in the German Bight, in addition to changes in MSL, potential changes in storminess and in the tidal regime significantly contribute to the development of extreme water levels. Since these factors have influenced the characteristic of extremes throughout the recent past, they also have to be taken into account when estimating design water levels for, e.g., dikes (in a warming climate) under changing greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Seasonal differences in the physiology of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) from estuaries with varying levels of anthropogenic contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jones, Malcolm B.

    2011-07-01

    This study reports the seasonal variability in aspects of the physiology of the shore crab Carcinus maenas from three estuaries in South-west England, each with varying anthropogenic inputs: Avon Estuary ('relatively low' impact), Yealm Estuary ('intermediate' impact) and Plym Estuary ('relatively high' impact). Crabs collected over 12 months from the Avon had a significantly 'lower' physiological condition in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn; in particular, haemocyte phagocytic capability (a general indicator of immune function) was significantly higher in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn, and total haemolymph antioxidant status (an indicator of oxidative stress) was significantly lower in winter compared to the remainder of the year. Potentially, shore crabs may be more susceptible to the effects of contaminant exposure, such as increased immunotoxicity (thus, reduction of immune function) and/or oxyradicals (or reactive oxygen species) exposure) especially in seasons of increased susceptibility i.e. summer/autumn (lower phagocytic capability) and winter (lowest antioxidant function). As the Avon was taken to represent the 'reference' site, this pattern is considered to reflect the 'normal' seasonal variability in shore crab physiology. Shore crab physiological condition from the 'relatively high' impact estuary (Plym) revealed increased cellular viability and antioxidant status in autumn and winter compared with that of the 'standard' pattern (Avon) However, crabs from the intermediate impact estuary (Yealm) only demonstrated significant physiological differences in summer as shown by a lower cellular viability. All crabs had been exposed to PAHs (confirmed by the presence of PAH metabolites in their urine) which may account for the observed differences in shore crab physiology. In conclusion, to aid understanding of the potential contaminant impacts on biota it is imperative that the 'normal' seasonal variability of physiological

  18. Intra- and interspecific social challenges modulate the levels of an androgen precursor in a seasonally territorial tropical damselfish.

    PubMed

    Damjanovic, Katarina; Glauser, Gaétan; Bshary, Redouan; Ros, Albert F H

    2015-05-01

    Studies on different vertebrate groups have provided evidence that androgen levels in males increase after competitive social interactions during the breeding season, as postulated by the Challenge Hypothesis. However, social modulation of androgen levels may vary with latitude and may differ between species holding seasonal versus year-round territories. Here, we tested the Challenge Hypothesis on a seasonal tropical damselfish, Abudefduf sexfasciatus, where males temporarily defend territory and eggs against both intra- and interspecific individuals. Carrying out simulated territorial intrusions (STIs) in the laboratory, we document for the first time a consistent increase in the plasma level of the androgen precursor 11-ketoandrostenedione (11KA) in fish confronted to either intra- or interspecific challenges. Collecting samples in the field also revealed higher 11KA levels in fish facing frequent territorial interactions than in non-territorial individuals. Levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) were high in territorial males in the field, but were not incremented after simulated territorial intrusions in the laboratory. Plasma levels of cortisol and testosterone were not affected by challenges but were different in wild and captive specimens. Although the endocrine responses to STIs did not differ between intra- and interspecific challenges, agonistic displays expressed by resident fish were more intense towards intraspecific intruders. Taken together, our study emphasizes the need to incorporate androgen precursor concentrations to advance our understanding on the physiology of territorial interactions. PMID:25917864

  19. Rapid changes in the seasonal sea level cycle along the US Gulf coast in the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, T.; Calafat, F. M.; Luther, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The seasonal cycle is an energetic component in the sea level spectrum and dominates the intra-annual sea level variability outside the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal bands in most regions. Changes in the annual or semi-annual amplitudes or phase lags have an immediate impact on marine coastal systems. Increases in the amplitudes or phase shifts towards the storm surge season may for instance exacerbate the risk of coastal flooding and/or beach erosion, and the ecological health of estuarine systems is also coupled to the seasonal sea level cycle. Here, we investigate the temporal variability of the seasonal harmonics along the US Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastline using records from 13 tide gauges providing at least 30 years of data in total and at least 15 years for the period after 1990. The longest records go back to the early 20th century. Running Fourier analysis (with a window length of 5-years) is used to extract the seasonal harmonics from the observations. The resulting time series show a considerable decadal variability and no longer-term changes are found in the phase lags and the semi-annual amplitude. The amplitude of the dominating annual cycle in contrast shows a tendency towards higher values since the turn of the century at tide gauges in the eastern part of the GOM. This increase of up to more than 25% is found to be significant at the 90% confidence level for most tide gauges along the coastline of West Florida and at the 75% confidence level for virtually all stations in the eastern GOM (from Key West to Dauphin Island). Monthly mean sea level sub-series show that the changes are partly due to smaller values in the cold season but mostly a result of higher values in the warm season, i.e. sea levels tend to be higher during the hurricane season. We use information on the steric sea level component, sea surface and air temperature, wind forcing, precipitation, and sea level pressure to explain the mechanisms driving the decadal variability in the

  20. Foggy days and dry nights determine crown-level water balance in a seasonal tropical Montane cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Holwerda, Friso; Goldsmith, Gregory R; Weintraub, Alexis E; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-01-01

    The ecophysiology of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) trees is influenced by crown-level microclimate factors including regular mist/fog water inputs, and large variations in evaporative demand, which in turn can significantly impact water balance. We investigated the effect of such microclimatic factors on canopy ecophysiology and branch-level water balance in the dry season of a seasonal TMCF in Veracruz, Mexico, by quantifying both water inputs (via foliar uptake, FU) and outputs (day- and night-time transpiration, NT). Measurements of sap flow, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and pressure-volume relations were obtained in Quercus lanceifolia, a canopy-dominant tree species. Our results indicate that FU occurred 34% of the time and led to the recovery of 9% (24 ± 9.1 L) of all the dry-season water transpired from individual branches. Capacity for FU was independently verified for seven additional common tree species. NT accounted for approximately 17% (46 L) of dry-season water loss. There was a strong correlation between FU and the duration of leaf wetness events (fog and/or rain), as well as between NT and the night-time vapour pressure deficit. Our results show the clear importance of fog and NT for the canopy water relations of Q. lanceifolia. PMID:23777598

  1. Time series decomposition for assessing long-term changes in the seasonality of Baltic sea-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Donner, Reik

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal cycle accounts for about 40% of the total sea-level variability in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies suggested the existence of long-term changes in the seasonal cycle, in particular a possible increase of the annual amplitude. In order to assess long-term changes in the seasonality of Baltic sea-level, and derive robust estimates of the annual amplitudes and cycle phases, century-long tide gauge records in the Baltic Sea are decomposed by applying a multitude of complementary methods including continuous wavelet filtering, multi-resolution decomposition based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), autoregressive-based decomposition, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The results show that all methods generally trace a similar long-term variability of the annual cycle amplitudes. Additional variables such as atmospheric pressure, surface air temperature, and precipitation are analysed using the same approach in order to investigate potential mechanisms for the identified changes in the seasonal cycle.

  2. Cortisol levels in hair reflect behavioural reactivity of dogs to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, M; McFarlane, J R; Kauter, K G; Quaranta, A; Rogers, L J

    2013-02-01

    Cortisol levels in hair samples were examined in fourteen domestic dogs and related to the dogs' responses to different acoustic stimuli. Stimuli were playbacks of species-typical vocalizations recorded during three different situations ("disturbance", "isolation" and "play" barks) and the sounds of a thunderstorm. Hair samples were collected at 9:00 h and 17:00 h two weeks after the behavioural tests. Results showed that behavioural reactivity to playback of the various stimuli correlates with cortisol levels in hair samples collected at 9:00 h, and the same was the case for the separate measures of behaviour (i.e. hiding, running away, seeking attention from the tester, panting and lowering of the body posture). Hence, levels of cortisol in hair appear to reflect the dog's chronic state of emotional reactivity, or temperament. PMID:22449333

  3. ENSO and seasonal sea-level variability - A diagnostic discussion for the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Md. R.; Chu, P.-S.; Schroeder, T.

    2007-03-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate cycle is the basis for this paper, aimed at providing a diagnostic outlook on seasonal sea-level variability (i.e. anomalies with respect to the Climatology) for the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). Results revealed that the sea-level variations in the northwestern tropical Pacific islands (e.g. Guam and Marshall Islands) have been found to be sensitive to ENSO-cycle, with low sea-level during El Niño and high sea-level during La Niña events. The annual cycle (first harmonic) of sea-level variability in these north Pacific islands has also been found to be very strong. The composites of SST and circulation diagnostic show that strong El Niño years feature stronger surface westerly winds in the equatorial western/central Pacific, which causes north Pacific islands to experience lower sea-level from July to December, while the sea-level in south Pacific islands (e.g. American Samoa) remains unchanged. As the season advances, the band of westerly winds propagates towards the south central tropical Pacific and moves eastward, which causes American Samoa to experience a lower sea-level from January to June, but with six months time lag as compared to Guam and the Marshalls. U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands are among the most vulnerable communities to climate variability and change. This study has identified the year-to-year ENSO climate cycle to have significant impact on the sea-level variability of these islands. Therefore, regular monitoring of the ENSO climate cycle features that affect seasonal sea-level variability would provide substantial opportunities to develop advance planning and decision options regarding hazard management in these islands.

  4. Effects of snow-reflected light levels on human visual comfort.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Demircioglu Yildiz, Nalan; Yilmaz, Sevgi

    2008-09-01

    The intensity of the sunlight reflected by the snow-covered surfaces is so high that it may disturb humans many times. This study aims to determine the reflected sunlight intensities from snow covered areas at points near (at a distance of 2 m) and under an individual tree and among trees (in the forest area) by accepting the open area as control; the reducing effects of the plant materials on reflected sunlight in percentage by comparing with the values of the open (control) area; and critical reflected sunlight threshold values for human visual comfort. The study was carried out over 22 clear and calm, i.e. sky was cloudless and wind was calm, days between the 1st and 31st days of January 2004, at 8:30 in the morning, at 12:30 at noon and at 14:30 in the afternoon in Erzurum. In order to determine the discomforting light intensity levels, 25 females and 26 male (totally 51) student subjects whose mean age was 20 and who had no visual disorders were selected. Considering the open area as control, mean reflected sunlight reducing effects were found to be 19.0, 66.0 and 82.7% for the 2 m near a tree, under a tree, and forest area, respectively. According to the responses of 51 subjects in the study, visually "very comfortable" range is between 5,000 and 8,000 lx; "comfortable" range is between 11,000 and 75,000 lx (mostly at 12,000 lx); "uncomfortable" condition is above the light intensity value of 43,000 lx and "very uncomfortable" condition is above the intensity of 80,000 lx. Great majority of the subjects (91%) found the value of 103,000 lx to be "very uncomfortable." As it is not an applicable way to use the great and dense tree masses in the cities, at least individual trees should be used along the main pedestrian axels in the cities having the same features with Erzurum to prevent the natural light pollution and discomforting effects of the snow-reflected sunlight. PMID:17990068

  5. Rising Level of Public Exposure to Mobile Phones: Accumulation through Additivity and Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondou, Tsuyoshi

    2002-02-01

    A dramatic development occurring in our daily life is the increasing use of mobile equipment including mobile phones and wireless access to the Internet. They enable us to access several types of information more easily than in the past. Simultaneously, the density of mobile users is rapidly increasing. When hundreds of mobile phones emit radiation, their total power is found to be comparable to that of a microwave oven or a satellite broadcasting station. Thus, the question arises: what is the public exposure level in an area with many sources of electromagnetic wave emission? We show that this level can reach the reference level for general public exposure (ICNIRP Guideline) in daily life. This is caused by the fundamental properties of electromagnetic field, namely, reflection and additivity. The level of exposure is found to be much higher than that estimated by the conventional framework of analysis that assumes that the level rapidly decreases with the inverse square distance between the source and the affected person. A simple formula for the exposure level is derived by applying energetics to the electromagnetic field. The formula reveals a potential risk of intensive exposure.

  6. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  7. Seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, lyzozyme activity and cortisol level in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E; Jakubow, K; Kott, A; Szumska, D

    1985-01-01

    In 34 pure-breed Arabian horses divided into four groups (Gr. I, ten pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, ten foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982) seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, cortisol level and lyzozyme activity were studied. Seasonal periodicity was found in all groups for the number of lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils and eosinophils and cortisol level. Leukocyte periodicity was found in three groups, but not in the barren mares. In lyzozyme activity there was periodicity in three groups but not in the youngest foals. In the stab neutrophils, basophils and monocytes no cycle was observed. The behaviour of the indices studied showed the influence of age of the horses (mature vs young) and the physiological state of the mares (pregnancy or barrenness). PMID:2863038

  8. [Tri-Level Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Hot Melting Reflective Road Marking Paint].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-qin

    2015-12-01

    In order to detect the road marking paint from the trace evidence in traffic accident scene, and to differentiate their brands, we use Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification, which employs the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy(SD-IR), two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2D-IR) to identify three different domestic brands of hot melting reflective road marking paints and their raw materials in formula we Selected. The experimental results show that three labels coatings in ATR and FTIR spectrograms are very similar in shape, only have different absorption peak wave numbers, they have wide and strong absorption peaks near 1435 cm⁻¹, and strong absorption peak near 879, 2955, 2919, 2870 cm⁻¹. After enlarging the partial areas of spectrograms and comparing them with each kind of raw material of formula spectrograms, we can distinguish them. In the region 700-970 and 1370-1 660 cm⁻¹ the spectrograms mainly reflect the different relative content of heavy calcium carbonate of three brands of the paints, and that of polyethylene wax (PE wax), ethylene vinyl acetate resin (EVA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in the region 2800-2960 cm⁻¹. The SD-IR not only verify the result of the FTIR analysis, but also further expand the microcosmic differences and reflect the different relative content of quartz sand in the 512-799 cm-1 region. Within the scope of the 1351 to 1525 cm⁻¹, 2D-IR have more significant differences in positions and numbers of automatically peaks. Therefore, the Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification is a fast and effective method to distinguish the hot melting road marking paints with a gradually improvement in apparent resolution. PMID:26964206

  9. Seasonal fluctuations in sea level on the South Carolina shelf and their relationship to the Gulf Stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.

    1992-01-01

    Near-bottom pressure measurements obtained over a 9-month period in 1978 on the outer continental shelf off South Carolina document that sea level rose 35 to 50 cm between July and October. Records of coastal sea level showed a similar rise. When the pressure and coastal sea level records were corrected for the effects of wind stress and temperature, the largest portion of the rise in the two variables remained. The amplitude of the change in residual sea level was largest at the shelf break, 28 cm, and decayed to 22 cm at the coast. The relatively small magnitude of the decay suggests that alongshelf pressure gradients imposed at the shelf break have minimum alongshelf wavelengths of 2000 km. The changes in residual sea level were seasonal and associated with seasonal changes in the transport of the Gulf Stream. The 3 years of residual sea level records examined here indicate that the amplitude of a typical decrease in transport of the Gulf Stream off South Carolina between July and October has a strong interannual variability. The change in transport can be 50% lower to over 100% higher than the historical average. The residual sea level records also suggest that a change in transport of the Gulf Stream is not strongly related to the onshore/offshore position of the Gulf Stream.

  10. Effluent Tenascin-C Levels Reflect Peritoneal Deterioration in Peritoneal Dialysis: MAJOR IN PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Ichiro; Kusano, Eiji; Imai, Toshimi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Akimoto, Tetsu; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal deterioration causing structural changes and functional decline is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study was to explore effluent biomarkers reflecting peritoneal deterioration. In an animal study, rats were intraperitoneally administered with PD fluids adding 20 mM methylglyoxal (MGO) or 20 mM formaldehyde (FA) every day for 21 days. In the MGO-treated rats, tenascin-C (TN-C) levels in the peritoneal effluents were remarkably high and a cluster of TN-C-positive mesothelial cells with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT-) like change excessively proliferated at the peritoneal surface, but not in the FA-treated rats. Effluent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels increased in both the MGO- and FA-treated rats. In a clinical study at 18 centers between 2006 and 2013, effluent TN-C and MMP-2 levels were quantified in 182 PD patients with end-stage renal disease. Peritoneal function was estimated using the peritoneal equilibration test (PET). From the PET results, the D/P Cr ratio was correlated with effluent levels of TN-C (ρ = 0.57, p < 0.001) and MMP-2 (ρ = 0.73, p < 0.001). We suggest that TN-C in the effluents may be a diagnostic marker for peritoneal deterioration with EMT-like change in mesothelial cells in PD. PMID:26770971

  11. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Karin; Gustafson, Lars; Hultberg, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease) of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy. PMID:23569455

  12. Seasonal variation and processing of vascular plant organic matter in tropical montane catchments as reflected by riverine DOC compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, P.; Dyda, R. Y.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rivers are responsible for two thirds of global fluxes of terrigenous organic matter to the oceans, yet because of their remote locations relative to most industrialized countries, they are poorly studied compared to temperate and even Arctic rivers. This study measured lignin biomarkers on weekly samples from two Puerto Rican rivers, the Mameyes and the Rio Icacos, over the course of ~9 months in order to investigate watershed controls on organic matter export via rivers. In both rivers, carbon-normalized yields of lignin increased with discharge, indicating higher organic matter contributions from vascular plants and lower contributions from microbial sources. Lignin biomarkers can be used to distinguish between conifer and deciduous trees as well as woody and nonwoody tissues, and the source signatures of the two rivers were essentially the same, indicating similar vegetation and sources of organic materials to both rivers. Thus, differences in diagenetic lignin parameters can be attributed to differences in processing within the two watersheds. For example, the Rio Icacos is a much flashier system with much higher sediment loads during storm events, which can lead to significant exchange of organic matter between the dissolved and particulate phase. Acid to aldehyde ratios for vanillyl and syringyl lignin phenols, (Ad:Al)v and (Ad:Al)s, are commonly used indicators of degradation. Plots of (Ad:Al)s vs. (Ad:Al)v for the two rivers reveal a significantly steeper slope for the Mameyes, which could reflect differences in the mineralogy between the systems, as the Mameyes watershed is underlain by volcaniclastic materials while the Rio Icacos is underlain by granodiorite. It is a commonly held assumption that base materials and soils should exert a strong influence on riverine organic matter compositions, but paired watershed studies are comparatively rare even in temperate climates. Hence, measureable differences between the two systems studied here

  13. Diurnal, seasonal and weekdays-weekends variations of ground level ozone concentrations in an urban area in greater Cairo.

    PubMed

    Khoder, M I

    2009-02-01

    Ground level ozone (O3) concentration was monitored during the period of December 2004 to November 2005 in an urban area in Greater Cairo (Haram, Giza). During the winter and summer seasons, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide(NO) concentrations and meteorological parameters were also measured. The mean values of O3 were 43.89, 65.30, 91.30 and 58.10 ppb in daytime and 29.69, 47.80, 64.00 and 42.70 ppb in whole day (daily) during the winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons, respectively. The diurnal cycles of O3 concentrations during the four seasons revealed a uni-modal peak in the mid-day time, with highest O3 levels in summer due to the local photochemical production. The diurnal variations in NO and NO2 concentrations during the winter and summer showed two daily peaks linked to traffic density. The highest levels of NOx were found in winter. Nearly, 75%, 100%, 34.78% and 52.63% of the mean daytime concentrations of O3 during spring,summer, autumn and the whole year, respectively, exceeded the Egyptian and European Union air quality standards (60 ppb) for daytime (8-h) O3 concentration. About, 41.14% and 10.39% of the daytime hours concentrations and 14.93% and 3.77% of the daily hour concentrations in summer and the whole year, respectively, exceeded the Egyptian standard (100 ppb) for maximum hourly O3 concentration, and photochemical smog is formed in the study area (Haram) during a periods represented by the same percentages. This was based on the fact that photochemical smog usually occurs when O3 concentration exceeds 100 ppb. The concentrations of O3 precursors (NO and NO2) in weekends were lower than those found in weekdays, whereas the O3 levels during the weekends were high compared with weekdays. This finding phenomenon is known as the "weekend effect". Significant positive correlation coefficients were found between O3 and temperature in both seasons and between O3 and relative humidity in summer season, indicating that high temperature and

  14. TSH levels are associated with vitamin D status and seasonality in an adult population of euthyroid adults.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, I; Baroni, M G; Leonetti, F; De Bernardinis, M; Bertoccini, L; Fontana, M; Mazzei, E; Fraioli, A; Cavallo, M G

    2015-08-01

    A circannual periodicity in thyrotropin (TSH) secretion has been reported but the causes of these phenomenon are still undefined. Vitamin D exerts a direct influence on pituitary axes including the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Aims of the present study were to investigate the presence of a seasonal variability of TSH secretion and to study the association between vitamin D status and TSH levels in a population of euthyroid adults. For this purpose, we recruited 294 euthyroid adults (M/F 133/161, 48.5 ± 12.4 years). Study participants underwent clinical examination and routine biochemistry assessment. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed for serum 25(OH) vitamin D <25 nmol/l. Significantly higher TSH levels were found in subjects who underwent blood sampling during the Autumn-Winter compared with individuals evaluated in Spring-Summer (2.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/ml, p = 0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with higher TSH levels (p = 0.01) after adjusting for sex, age, and sample's season. Although vitamin D deficiency was also associated with metabolic syndrome and its components, the association between TSH levels and vitamin D status persisted also considering these confounders. These data reveal the occurrence of seasonal variability of serum TSH concentration in euthyroid subjects and provide evidence for the first time that an association exists between vitamin D status and serum TSH levels. PMID:24925636

  15. Do High Blood Hepcidin Concentrations Contribute to Low Ferritin Levels in Young Tennis Players at the End of Tournament Season?

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Ewa; Kasprowicz, Katarzyna; Kasperska, Anna; Zembroń-Lacny, Agnieszka; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify whether impaired iron metabolism in young athletes is a consequence of an excessive workload during the tournament season. Low levels of ferritin (under 25 µg·L-1) have been frequently observed in young tennis players. We considered this finding to be related to the high-intensity workload or to insufficient rest, which both trigger a strong immune response. Groups of male, well-trained young tennis players (16 ± 0.9 years old, average of 10-year training experience) and a control peer group participated in this study. The research consisted of two examination sessions (March and September 2010). Blood samples were collected to determine haematological and immunological parameters. Additionally, body composition and physical capacity were assessed. In both periods of the study, the trained groups were characterised by low levels of ferritin, but also elevated levels of pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Moreover, an inverse correlation between IL-1β and blood ferritin was observed. Additionally, an increased concentration of the iron homeostasis regulator hepcidin was found in blood samples (mean 71 ng·ml-1; range from 48 to 100 ng·ml-1). We concluded that the pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, most likely induced by an extensive workload during the tournament season, was responsible for the low level of ferritin in young, professional athletes. Key Points The first research demonstrating low grade inflammation-induced iron deficiency to be associated with elevated blood hepcidin levels in young tennis athletes. Evaluation of immunological response after the complete tournament season in young male tennis players. Conclusion to introduce the assessment of hepcidin to monitor trainings as well as symptoms of overreaching more effectively. Research providing practical information for coaches that changes in diet and modifications in workloads applied in physical training could be more effective than iron

  16. The spatial and temporal variability of the seasonal mean sea level cycle in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhaimin Amiruddin, Abd; Haigh, Ivan; Tsimplis, Mikis; Calafat, Francisco; Dangendorf, Soenke

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal cycle is the most energetic component of mean sea level variability and changes in either its amplitude or phase can seriously impact the risk of coastal flooding. Here, tide gauge records and satellite altimetry observations, along with steric and meteorological data are used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the seasonal cycle in the South China Sea (SCS) and its forcing mechanisms. The coastal annual amplitude varies significantly from region to region with values ranging from 2 cm to 24 cm, and generally peaks between July and January. The coastal semi-annual amplitude has maximum values of 7 cm, and it peaks between March and June. Along the coast, the seasonal cycle accounts on average for 60% with maximum values of up to 92% of the mean monthly sea level variability. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations explain a significant portion of the seasonal cycle with dominant annual signals in the northern SCS, the Gulf of Thailand and the north-western Philippines Sea. The wind forcing is dominant on the shelf areas of the SCS and the Gulf of Thailand where a simple barotropic model forced by local wind shows amplitudes of up to 27 cm. In the deep basin of the SCS, the Philippines Sea and the shallow Malacca Strait, the steric component is the major contributor with maximum annual amplitudes of up to 15 cm. Significant variability in the annual and semi-annual cycle is found on a year-to-year basis. The annual and semi-annual amplitudes vary by up to 63% and 45% of the maximum values, 15 cm and 11 cm, respectively. On average, stepwise regression analysis of contribution of different forcing factors accounts for 69% of the temporal variability of the annual cycle. The zonal wind and the cross-shore wind were found to exert considerable influence in the Malacca Strait and the northern SCS respectively.

  17. BOREAS Level-2 MAS Surface Reflectance and Temperature Images in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Strub, Richard; Lobitz, Brad

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Aircraft Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed aircraft data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes biophysical parameter maps such as surface reflectance and temperature. Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 navigation data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  18. Determination of in vivo skin moisture level by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, Inga; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has a potential for noninvasive determination of skin moisture level due to high water absorption. In this study, diffuse reflectance spectra of in vivo skin were acquired in the spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by using near-infrared spectrometer, optical fiber and halogen bulb light source. Absorption changes after applying skin moisturizers were analyzed over time at different body sites. Results show difference in absorption when comparing dry and normal skin. Comparison of absorption changes over time after applying moisturizer at different body sites is analyzed and discussed. Some patterns of how skin reacts to different skin moisturizers are shown, although no clear pattern can be seen due to signal noise.

  19. Serum Uric Acid Level and Diverse Impacts on Regional Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Suyan; Guo, Hongyang; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Xiao, Wenkai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Both increased arterial stiffness and hyperuricaemia are associated with elevated cardiovascular risks. Little is known about the relations of serum uric acid (UA) level to regional arterial stiffness and wave reflection. The aim of the study was to investigate the gender-specific association of serum UA and indices of arterial function in a community-based investigation in China. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 2374 adults (mean age 58.24 years) who underwent routine laboratory tests, regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse wave analysis measurements were analyzed in a gender-specific manner. None of the participants had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, systemic inflammatory disease, gout, or were under treatment which would affect serum UA level. Results: Men had higher serum UA level than women. Subjects with hyperuricaemia had significantly higher carotid-ankle PWV in both genders (P< 0.05), and the carotid-femoral PWV (PWVc-f) was higher in women (P< 0.001) while the augmentation index was marginally lower in men (P = 0.049). Multiple regression analysis showed that serum UA was an independent determinant only for PWVc-f in women (β = 0.104, P = 0.027) when adjusted for atherogenic confounders. No other independent relationship was found between UA level and other surrogates of arterial stiffness. Conclusions: Serum UA levels are associated with alterations in systemic arterial stiffness that differ in men and women. Women might be more susceptible to large vascular damage associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:23113222

  20. Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

  1. A Critical Evaluation of the Usefulness of a Coding Scheme to Categorise Levels of Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Amani; Kelton, Jill; McDonagh, Nadia; Mladenovic, Rosina; Morrison, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    The use of reflective learning journals to encourage higher order learning outcomes is a growing area in higher education research and practice. However, without a unified and clear definition of reflection, identifying and assessing reflection is problematic for educators. In an attempt to address this issue, in 1999 Kember and colleagues devised…

  2. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  3. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  4. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. G.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.

    2004-04-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity during the last three hundred years reveals that volcanic eruptions exhibit seasonality to a statistically significant degree. This remarkable pattern is observed primarily along the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and locally at some individual volcanoes. Globally, seasonal fluctuations amount to 18% of the historical average monthly eruption rate. In some regions, seasonal fluctuations amount to as much as 50% of the average eruption rate. Seasonality principally reflects the temporal distribution of the smaller, dated eruptions (volcanic explosivity index of 0-2) that dominate the eruption catalog. We suggest that the pattern of seasonality correlates with the annual Earth surface deformation that accompanies the movement of surface water mass during the annual hydrological cycle and illustrate this with respect to global models of surface deformation and regional measurements of annual sea level change. For example, seasonal peaks in the eruption rate of volcanoes in Central America, the Alaskan Peninsula, and Kamchatka coincide with periods of falling regional sea level. In Melanesia, in contrast, peak numbers of volcanic eruptions occur during months of maximal regional sea level and falling regional atmospheric pressure. We suggest that the well-documented slow deformation of Earth's surface that accompanies the annual movements of water mass from oceans to continents acts to impose a fluctuating boundary condition on volcanoes, such that volcanic eruptions tend to be concentrated during periods of local or regional surface change rather than simply being distributed randomly throughout the year. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment and volcanoclimate feedback mechanisms.

  5. Effect of Season and High Ambient Temperature on Activity Levels and Patterns of Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Michelle L.; McLellan, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4–27.3°C) and hot (27.9–40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory. PMID:25692979

  6. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C) and hot (27.9-40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory. PMID:25692979

  7. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  8. Three months of local sea level derived from reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LöFgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Scherneck, H.-G.; Bos, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    By receiving Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals that are reflected off the sea surface, together with directly received GNSS signals (using standard geodetic-type receivers), it is possible to monitor the sea level using regular single difference geodetic processing. We show results from our analysis of three months of data from the GNSS-based tide gauge at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) on the west coast of Sweden. The GNSS-derived time series of local sea level is compared with independent data from two stilling well gauges at Ringhals and Gothenburg about 18 km south and 33 km north of OSO, respectively. A high degree of agreement is found in the time domain, with correlation coefficients of up to 0.96. The root-mean-square differences between the GNSS-derived sea level and the stilling well gauge observations are 5.9 cm and 5.5 cm, which is lower than for the stilling well gauges together (6.1 cm). A frequency domain comparison reveals high coherence of the data sets up to 6 cycles per day, which corresponds well to the propagation of gravity waves in the shallow waters at the Kattegat coast. Amplitudes and phases of some major tides were determined by a tidal harmonic analysis and compared to model predictions. From the GNSS-based tide gauge results we find significant ocean tidal signals at fortnightly, diurnal, semi-diurnal, and quarter-diurnal periods. As an example, the amplitudes of the semi-diurnal M2 and the diurnal O1 tide are determined with 1σ uncertainties of 11 mm and 12 mm, respectively. The comparison to model calculations shows that global ocean tide models have limited accuracy in the Kattegat area.

  9. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Schweintzger, N A; Gruber-Wackernagel, A; Shirsath, N; Quehenberger, F; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Wolf, P

    2016-03-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127- Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml(-1). Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml(-1)). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s). PMID:26911519

  10. Effects of redecoration of a hospital isolation room with natural materials on stress levels of denizens in cold season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Hiromi; Maruyama, Megumi; Tanabe, Yoko; Hara, Toshiko; Nishino, Yoshihiko; Tsujino, Yoshio; Morita, Eishin; Kobayashi, Shotai; Shido, Osamu

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the effects of redecoration of a hospital isolation room with natural materials on thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and hormonal parameters of healthy subjects staying in the room. Two isolation rooms with almost bilaterally-symmetrical arrangements were used. One room (RD) was redecorated with wood paneling and Japanese paper, while the other (CN) was unchanged (with concrete walls). Seven healthy male subjects stayed in each room for over 24 h in the cold season. Their rectal temperature (Tre) and heart rate, and the room temperature (Ta) and relative humidity were continuously measured. Arterial blood pressures, arterial vascular compliance, thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured every 4 h except during sleeping. Blood was sampled after the stay in the rooms. In RD, Ta was significantly higher by about 0.4°C and relative humidity was lower by about 5% than in CN. Diurnal Tre levels of subjects in RD significantly differed from those in CN, i.e., Tres were significantly higher in RD than in CN especially in the evening. In RD, the subjects felt more thermally-comfortable than in CN. Redecoration had minimal effects on cardiovascular parameters. Plasma levels of catecholamines and antidiuretic hormone did not differ, while plasma cortisol level was significantly lower after staying in RD than in CN by nearly 20%. The results indicate that, in the cold season, redecoration with natural materials improves the thermal environment of the room and contributes to maintaining core temperature of denizens at preferable levels. It also seems that redecoration of room could attenuate stress levels of isolated subjects.

  11. Monitoring of wet season rice crop at state and national level in India using multidate synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manab; Patnaik, Chakrapani; Panigrahy, Sushma; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2006-12-01

    Rice crop grown during the monsoon (wet) season is the most important food grain in India. The crop is grown under varied cultural and management practices. The present paper highlights the results of rice monitoring being carried out for the past five years (2001-02 to 2005-06) using multi-date RADARSAT ScanSAR Narrow-B data. 30 ScanSAR scenes covering thirteen states account for 95 percent of national crop area. 90 scenes are analysed to assess the national wet season rice crop. A stratified sampling plan is used to analyse 5*5 km segments accounting for 15 per cent of the crop area in each of the study states. A decision-rule classifier has been developed based on a Radiative Transfer (RT) model developed and calibrated using large number of rice sites in India and controlled field experiments. This procedure accounts for change in backscatter as a result of transplanting of rice and crop growth in multi-date data to classify rice areas. Results indicate more than 93 per cent accuracy of area estimation at state level and 97 per cent at national level. It is feasible to assess deviations in crop planting operation (late or early) for a given area.

  12. Optimization of Electric Power Leveling Systems by using Taper-Off-Reflectance Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yohei; Fujii, Toshinori; Imai, Jun; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    Recently, it is desired to develop energy control technologies for environmental issues such as global warming and exhaustion of fossil fuel. Power fluctuations in large power consumers may cause the instability of electric power systems and increase the cost of the electric power facility and electricity charges. Developing the electric power-leveling systems (EPLS) to compensate the power fluctuations is necessary for future electric power systems. Now, EPLS with an SMES have been proposed as one of the countermeasures for the electric power quality improvement. The SMES is superior to other energy storage devices in response and storage efficiency. The authors proposed the EPLS based on fussy control with the SMES. For this practical implementation, optimizing control gain and SMES capacity is an important issue. This paper proposes a new optimization method of the EPLS. The proposed algorithm is novel particle swarm optimization based on taper-off reflectance (TRPSO). The proposed TRPSO optimizes the design variables of the EPLS efficiently and effectively.

  13. Rapid Effects of an Aggressive Interaction on Dehydroepiandrosterone, Testosterone and Oestradiol Levels in the Male Song Sparrow Brain: a Seasonal Comparison.

    PubMed

    Heimovics, S A; Prior, N H; Ma, C; Soma, K K

    2016-02-01

    Across vertebrates, aggression is robustly expressed during the breeding season when circulating testosterone is elevated, and testosterone activates aggression either directly or after aromatisation into 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) in the brain. In some species, such as the song sparrow, aggressive behaviour is also expressed at high levels during the nonbreeding season, when circulating testosterone is non-detectable. At this time, the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is metabolised within the brain into testosterone and/or E2 to promote aggression. In the present study, we used captive male song sparrows to test the hypothesis that an acute agonistic interaction during the nonbreeding season, but not during the breeding season, would alter steroid levels in the brain. Nonbreeding and breeding subjects were exposed to either a laboratory simulated territorial intrusion (L-STI) or an empty cage for only 5 min. Immediately afterwards, the brain was rapidly collected and flash frozen. The Palkovits punch technique was used to microdissect specific brain regions implicated in aggressive behaviour. Solid phase extraction followed by radioimmunoassay was used to quantify DHEA, testosterone and E2 in punches. Overall, levels of DHEA, testosterone and E2 were higher in brain tissue than in plasma. Local testosterone and E2 levels in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus and nucleus taeniae of the amygdala were significantly higher in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season and were not affected by the L-STI. Unexpectedly, subjects that were dominant in the L-STI had lower levels of DHEA in the anterior hypothalamus and medial striatum in both seasons and lower levels of DHEA in the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala in the breeding season only. Taken together, these data suggest that local levels of DHEA in the brain are very rapidly modulated by social interactions in a context and region-specific pattern. PMID:26648568

  14. Success with Sport Education at a Secondary Level: Implementation and Examples from a Basketball Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Based upon ten years of teaching and modifying the Sport Education Model at the high school level, this article summarizes how the author has had success in using the model to increase enthusiasm, student learning and quality participation in physical education. What started out as one teacher in the district testing the model with one class a…

  15. Determining Critical Phosphorus Levels for Cool Season Seedlings Established on Calcareous Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is critical for rapid seedling establishment. P-deficient seedlings lack vigor and form low density turf areas which are more susceptible to soil erosion and nutrient loss. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the critical soil P-levels necessary to establish ...

  16. Seasonal and cumulative loblolly pine development under two stand density and fertility levels through four growing seasons. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation was subjected to two cultural treatments to examine seasonal cumulative pine development in the 9th through 12th growing seasons: (1) pine stocking was either reduced by thinning to 303 trees per acre at a 12- by 12-ft spacing or the plots were left uncut with an original density of 1,210 trees per acre at a 6- by 6-ft spacing, and (2) either no fertilizer was applied or diammonium phosphate was broadcast at 134 lb of phosphorus and 120 lb of nitrogen per acre. Competing vegetation was controlled on all plots. Thinning resulted in less spring height growth in the 9th and 10th growing seasons that not cutting, but thinning increased diameter growth each year. Beginning in the 10th growing season, fertilization increased height, diameter, and basal area per acre growth, with the effect of fertilization on diameter growth being most pronounced on the thinned plots. Therefore, fertilization of thinned plots was more beneficial than thinning alone, and thinning alone resulted in less height and basal area per acre growth than the other treatment combinations for the 4-year period.

  17. Variation of levels and distribution of N-nitrosamines in different seasons in drinking waters of East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Yu, Dian; Xian, Qiming; Li, Aimin; Sun, Cheng

    2015-08-01

    We surveyed the occurrence of nine N-nitrosamine species in ten bottled drinking waters from supermarket and other water samples including raw waters, finished waters, and distribution system waters from nine municipal drinking water treatment plants in eight cities of Jiangsu Province, East China. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in one of ten bottled drinking water samples at concentration of 4.8 ng/L and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) was detected in four of the ten bottles with an average concentration and a standard deviation of 16 ± 15 ng/L. The levels of nitrosamines in the distribution system water samples collected during summer season ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 5.4 ng/L for NDMA, BDL to 9.5 ng/L for N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), BDL to 2.7 ng/L for N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and BDL to 8.5 ng/L for N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr). Samples of distribution system waters collected in winter season had levels of nitrosamines ranged from BDL to 45 ng/L for NDMA, BDL to 5.2 ng/L for NPyr, and BDL to 309 ng/L for N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip). A positive correlation of the concentration of NDMA as well as the total nine N-nitrosamines between finished waters and distribution system waters was observed. Both dissolved organic carbon and nitrite were found to correlate linearly with N-nitrosamine levels in raw waters. PMID:25860554

  18. Effect of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on melatonin levels in calves is seasonally dependent.

    PubMed

    Kolbabová, Tereza; Pascal Malkemper, E; Bartoš, Luděk; Vanderstraeten, Jacques; Turčáni, Marek; Burda, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    The question of health effects of extremely low frequency (50/60 Hz) magnetic fields (ELFMF) has been widely discussed, but the mechanisms of interaction of these fields with biological systems for intensities relevant to human and animal exposure are still under question. The melatonin (MLT) hypothesis suggests that exposure to ELFMF might decrease MLT production thereby promoting cancerogenesis. So far, most studies of MLT secretion under exposure to ELFMF reported negative or inconsistent results. Here, we measured salivary MLT in 1-2 months old cattle calves exposed to 50 Hz-MF in the hundreds of nT-range. We found an inhibitory effect of the ELFMF upon MLT secretion in winter (in accordance with the MLT hypothesis). In contrast, in summer, MLT concentration was increased by ELFMF exposure (contrary to the MLT hypothesis). The inhibitory effect in winter was much stronger than the positive effect in summer. We hypothesize that this season-dependent effect upon MLT synthesis might by mediated by an effect of ELFMF upon the serotonin metabolism and conclude that future tests of ELFMF effects should also measure serotonin levels and consider association with the seasonal effects (photoperiod or temperature) during the exposure. PMID:26381579

  19. Effect of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on melatonin levels in calves is seasonally dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kolbabová, Tereza; Pascal Malkemper, E.; Bartoš, Luděk; Vanderstraeten, Jacques; Turčáni, Marek; Burda, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    The question of health effects of extremely low frequency (50/60 Hz) magnetic fields (ELFMF) has been widely discussed, but the mechanisms of interaction of these fields with biological systems for intensities relevant to human and animal exposure are still under question. The melatonin (MLT) hypothesis suggests that exposure to ELFMF might decrease MLT production thereby promoting cancerogenesis. So far, most studies of MLT secretion under exposure to ELFMF reported negative or inconsistent results. Here, we measured salivary MLT in 1–2 months old cattle calves exposed to 50 Hz-MF in the hundreds of nT-range. We found an inhibitory effect of the ELFMF upon MLT secretion in winter (in accordance with the MLT hypothesis). In contrast, in summer, MLT concentration was increased by ELFMF exposure (contrary to the MLT hypothesis). The inhibitory effect in winter was much stronger than the positive effect in summer. We hypothesize that this season-dependent effect upon MLT synthesis might by mediated by an effect of ELFMF upon the serotonin metabolism and conclude that future tests of ELFMF effects should also measure serotonin levels and consider association with the seasonal effects (photoperiod or temperature) during the exposure. PMID:26381579

  20. Consequences of seasonal variation in reservoir water level for predatory fishes: linking visual foraging and prey densities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klobucar, Stephen L.; Budy, Phaedra

    2016-01-01

    In reservoirs, seasonal drawdown can alter the physical environment and may influence predatory fish performance. We investigated the performance of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a western reservoir by coupling field measurements with visual foraging and bioenergetic models at four distinct states (early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and fall). The models suggested that lake trout prey, juvenile kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), are limited seasonally by suitable temperature and dissolved oxygen. Accordingly, prey densities were greatest in late summer when reservoir volume was lowest and fish were concentrated by stratification. Prey encounter rates (up to 68 fish·day−1) and predator consumption are also predicted to be greatest during late summer. However, our models suggested that turbidity negatively correlates with prey detection and consumption across reservoir states. Under the most turbid conditions, lake trout did not meet physiological demands; however, during less turbid periods, predator consumption reached maximum bioenergetic efficiency. Overall, our findings demonstrate that rapid reservoir fluctuations and associated abiotic conditions can influence predator–prey interactions, and our models describe the potential impacts of water level fluctuation on valuable sport fishes.

  1. Effects of BC, Icelandic volcanic sand and glaciogenic silt on the spectral reflectance and melt of seasonal Arctic snow (SoS-2013 experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinander, O.; Virkkula, A.; Svensson, J.; Kivekäs, N.; Aarva, A.; Dagsson Waldhauserová, P.; Arnalds; Hannula, H.; Anttila, K.; Peltoniemi, J.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Lahtinen, P.; Järvinen, O.; Kaartinen, H.; Lihavainen, H.; Kontu, A.; Neitola, K.; Raaterova, A.; Bichell, R.; De Leeuw, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Soot on the Snow (SoS-2013) experiment was carried out in Sodankylä (67°22'N, 26°39'E, 179 m a.s.l.), north of the Arctic Circle, to study the effects of deposition of Black Carbon (BC), Icelandic volcanic sand and glaciogenic silt on the surface albedo and melt of seasonal snow. The BC was soot originating from chimneys above residential wood-burning fireplaces in Helsinki, except on one experimental spot the soot was from a chimney of an oil burner, and on one from the a peat-burning power plant. The volcanic sand was near black mixture of the volcanic ash of glaciofluvial nature, originating from under the Myrdalsjokull glacier, which may be mixed with the ash of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010 and the Grimsvotn eruption in 2011. The glaciogenic silt was lighter in colour, from light-brown to slightly yellowish, consisting mainly of silt and some coarse clay sized particles, capable of being transported and deposited on the local glaciers as well as several hundreds of kilometres towards the Europe. The SoS-2013 experiment was undertaken at the Sodankylä airport with a large, flat, open space and untouched snow. Thirteen spots of different concentrations of soot, volcanic sand, and silt were generated by blowing the impurities on natural snow. We also had an untouched reference measurement spot. The impurities were deposited only once to each spot, and thereafter the spots were monitored until the snow was melted. The sites were left to develop naturally, introducing as little disturbance as possible. Continuous broadband albedo was measured using pyranometers installed on seven spots. Snow samples were collected for their elemental carbon (EC) and organic (OC) concentration analysis with the Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC), following the NIOSH 5040 protocol. The spectral reflectance of the melting snow was measured using two ASD spectrometers, one measuring in the UV-B spectral range (325-1075 nm), and the other from UV-A up to IR

  2. Seasonal- and temperature-dependent variation in CNS ascorbate and glutathione levels in anoxia-tolerant turtles.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pinzón, M A; Rice, M E

    1995-12-24

    We determined the ascorbic acid (ascorbate) and glutathione (GSH) contents of eight regions of the CNS from anoxia-tolerant turtles collected in summer and in winter. Ascorbate was of special interest because it is found in exceptionally high levels in the turtle CNS. The temperature-dependence of CNS ascorbate content was established by comparing levels in animals collected from two geographic zones with different average winter temperatures and in animals re-acclimated to different temperatures in the laboratory. The analytical method was liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Turtle ascorbate levels were 30-40% lower in animals acclimatized to winter (2 degrees C) than to summer (23 degrees C) in all regions of the CNS. Similarly, GSH levels were 20-30% lower in winter than in summer. Winter ascorbate levels were higher in turtles from Louisiana (19 degrees C) than in turtles acclimatized to winter in Wisconsin (2 degrees C). Summer and winter levels of ascorbate could be reversed by re-acclimating animals to cold (1 degree C) or warm (23 degrees C) temperatures for at least one week. CNS water content did not differ between cold- and warm-acclimated turtles. Taken together, the data indicated that ascorbate and GSH undergo significant seasonal variation and that the catalyst for change is environmental temperature. Steady-state ascorbate content showed a linear dependence on temperature, with a slope of 1.5% per degree C that was independent of CNS region. Lower levels of cerebral antioxidants in turtles exposed to colder temperatures were consistent with the decreased rate of cerebral metabolism that accompanies winter hibernation. Cerebral ascorbate and GSH levels in the turtle remained similar to or higher than those in mammals, even during winter, however. These findings support the notion that unique mechanisms of antioxidant regulation in the turtle contribute to their tolerance of the hypoxia-reoxygenation that characterizes diving

  3. Wet and dry season ecosystem level fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes from a southeast Asian secondary forest and rubber tree plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Brad; Bai, Jian-Hui; Johnson, Curtis; Cai, Zhong-Tao; Li, Qing-Jun; Wang, Yong-Feng; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Klinger, Lee; Geron, Chris; Rasmussen, Rei

    2005-01-01

    Canopy scale fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were investigated in both wet and dry seasons above a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)/secondary tropical forest in the Yunnan province of southwestern China. Drought conditions were unusually high during the dry season experiment. The eddy covariance measurement technique was used to measure isoprene fluxes, while monoterpene fluxes were modeled based on leaf level emission measurements. Maximum observed isoprene fluxes occurred during the wet season and daytime average fluxes were about 1 mg C m-2 h-1. Dry season fluxes were much lower with a daytime average of 0.15 mg C m-2 h-1. Wet season isoprene fluxes compare quite well with isoprene fluxes observed from other tropical forests. Monoterpene fluxes came, almost entirely, from Hevea brasiliensis, which is a light-dependent monoterpene emitter. Modeled wet season total monoterpene fluxes were about 2 mg C m-2 h-1 (average for the daytime), and in the dry season were undetectable. Extreme drought conditions, and the drought deciduous nature of Hevea brasiliensis may be the cause of the low dry season fluxes.

  4. Reflectance of litter accumulation levels at five wavelengths within the 0.5- to 2.5 micron waveband

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Gausman, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance was measured for 1-m2 range grass plots with two canopy treatments (standing and clipped) and four levels of litter accumulation and for grain sorghum with two canopy treatments. Reflectance was significantly higher at the 0.65- to 1.65-, and 2.20-micrometer. Wavelengths for both grass and grain sorghum canopies when the canopies were clipped and the resulting litter was removed. The natural accumulation of litter under the grass canopy did not significantly affect reflectance. The 1.65- and 2.20-micrometer wavelength reflectances of the live grass and the intact litter were 21.8% and 16.2%, respectively, and those of grain sorghum were 21.8% and 16.5%, respectively.

  5. The modulation of the seasonal cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Jin; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Liu, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the influence of the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) to cross-shelf sea surface slope by fitting an annual harmonic to temperature and salinity profiles from 1993 to 2012 and compares to the 20 year averaged altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA). The consistency within the bottom temperature, thermal steric height, total steric height, and altimetry observation validates that the cold pool induces a depressed sea level in the middle shelf overlapping with the dominant surface seasonal cycles. Temporally, the cold pool pattern is most apparent in July and August as a result of magnitude competition between the thermal and haline steric height. In addition, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is employed to reconstruct the altimetry SLA and reveals the middle-shelf depression pattern from single year's SLA data. The locations of the SLA depression from 1993 to 2012 agree with the cold pool locations identified from in situ measurements, suggesting a promising application of altimetry SLA in the cold pool study. Conclusively, this study reveals the modulation of the cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool, and contributes to the understanding of the sea level response to water masses on the continental shelf.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  7. Causes and implications of dry season control of tropical wet forest tree growth at very high water levels: direct vs. indirect limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierick, D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; O'Brien, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the importance of tropical rain forests in the global carbon cycle, uncertainty remains on how these ecosystems will be affected by climate change. Previous studies in a Costa Rican lowland tropical rain forest (La Selva Biological Station, Sarapiqui, Costa Rica) revealed a significant, positive relationship between tree diameter increment and January to April dry season precipitation that extended up to high rainfall totals (Clark et al. 2010). Proposed mechanisms include a direct limitation of water availability or closely linked indirect controls such as altered micrometeorological conditions (direct vs. diffuse light, atmospheric humidity) and changes in plant phenology or C-allocation. Using an experimental approach we aim to test the hypothesis that water availability in the dry season directly controls tree diameter growth despite the high precipitation levels normally encountered (long term average for Jan-Apr is 890 mm). At three sites within the La Selva Biological Station a paired experimental and control plot were established. Each plot was 900 m2 in size and had at least 20 trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) over 10 cm. In the experimental plots we used irrigation to simulate a minimum daily precipitation equivalent to 10 mm.d-1 during the dry seasons of 2011 and 2012. This simulated precipitation amount matches the highest dry season total recorded for the years 1998 to 2009. The main response variables measured in experimental and control plots were monthly dendrometer-band diameter growth of trees above 10 cm dbh, sap flux density of a subset of trees and bi-weekly leaf litter production. Belowground variables included soil moisture, fine root production and soil respiration. Soil moisture data confirmed that experimental plots experienced consistently high water availability in the top 30 cm of the soil profile during the dry season, while control plots experienced repeated drying and rewetting of the soil. This difference in water

  8. Satellite-based climatology of low-level continental clouds in southern West Africa during the summer monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Roderick; Fink, Andreas H.; Redl, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Synoptic observations and various satellite products have been utilized for computing climatologies of low-level stratus over southern West Africa for the wet monsoon seasons July-September of 2006-2011. Previous studies found inconsistencies between satellite cloud products; climate models often fail to reproduce the extensive stratus decks. Therefore, a better observational reference and an understanding of its limitations are urgently needed to better validate models. Most detailed information of the spatiotemporal characteristics of low-level clouds was obtained from two Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite-based data sets. However, CALIPSO and CloudSat cross sections of cloud occurrence frequency suggest that both MSG products underestimate the low-level cloudiness over Nigeria due to shielding by abundant upper level and midlevel clouds and reveal that the stratus is lower over the continent than over the ocean. The Terra Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer product appears to overestimate the morning extent of low-level clouds. The climatology presented here shows that the zone of abundant low-level stratiform clouds is at its diurnal minimum south of 6-7°N around sunset (~1800 UTC). Thereafter, it starts to spread inland and reaches its maximum northward extent of 10-11°N between 0900 and 1000 UTC. The maximum affected area is approximately 800,000 km2. After about 1000 UTC, the northern boundary gets fragmented due to the breakup of stratus decks into fair-weather cumuli. The stratus is most frequent around Cape Palmas, over Ivory Coast, and at the windward sides of the Mampong Range (Ghana) and Oshogbo Hills (Nigeria).

  9. Effect of the Level of Inquiry of Lab Experiments on General Chemistry Students' Written Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Haozhi; Talanquer, Vincente

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of this exploratory study was to characterize the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the nature of college students' written reflections about laboratory work. Data were collected in the form of individual lab reports written using a science writing heuristic template by a subset of the students…

  10. Season changes of cadmium and copper levels in stem-boring larvae of Agapanthia villosoviridescens (coleoptera) on salt marshes of the Westerschelde estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminga, M.A.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Poley-Vos, C.H.; van Soelen, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of heavy metals in insects, including their developmental stages, have been widely used to monitor the penetration of these pollutants in various ecosystems. There are few reports dealing with seasonal changes in heavy metal content of insects. The seasonal pattern found in one herbivorous insect closely followed seasonal trends in metal contamination levels in the local vegetation. No data are available on season changes in insect larvae. To obtain more detailed information on seasonal changes of heavy metal levels in insects and their relation with the seasonally changing conditions in the habitat, the authors studied the time course of cadmium and copper concentrations in larvae of the longhorn beetle Agapanthia villosoviridescens. These live as stem-borers in the salt marsh halophyte Aster tripolium. The authors collected larvae from three salt marshes along the Westerschelde estuary. This estuary is severely polluted by heavy metals originating mainly from upstream sources; a large fraction of these metals is retained within the estuary. The fringing salt marsh soils, which are a sink for trace metals, show a gradient in pollution, with levels of heavy metals generally increasing in upstream direction. Salt marsh halophytes growing on these marshes show uptake of metals from the soil. Further transfers of heavy metals through the natural food chains on these salt marshes have not been investigated sofar.

  11. Going Public: Middle-Level Teachers Build a Learning Community through Reflective Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passman, Roger

    This paper argues that teacher knowledge is a necessary component in the development of new knowledge about teaching and learning. Teacher knowledge in collaboration with university partnerships that are engaged in the practice of intentional change coupled with reflective conversations that serve as an enhancement to ongoing, long-term…

  12. Pre-Service Teachers' Middle-Level Lessons on World Religions: Planning, Teaching, and Reflecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Derek L.; Cook, Tanya; Mathys, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how 22 elementary pre-service teachers (PSTs) planned and taught lessons on world religions to 7th-grade students. Pre- and post-lesson interview transcripts, lesson observations, as well as PST lesson plans and reflection journals served as data sources. Prior to teaching, the PSTs lacked adequate…

  13. Determining seasonal greenhouse gas emissions from ground-level area sources in a dairy operation in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Borhan, M S; Capareda, Sergio; Mukhtar, Saqib; Faulkner, William B; McGee, Russell; Parnell, Calvin B

    2011-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural production operations are recognized as an important air quality issue. A new technique following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method TO-14A was used to measure GHG emissions from ground-level area sources (GLAS) in a free-stall dairy operation in central Texas. The objective of this study was to quantify and report GHG emission rates (ERs) from the dairy during the summer and winter using this protocol. A weeklong sampling was performed during each season. A total of 75 and 66 chromatograms of air samples were acquired from six delineated GLAS (loafing pen, walkway, barn, silage pile, settling basin, and lagoon) of the same dairy during summer and winter, respectively. Three primary GHGs--methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O)--were identified from the dairy operation during the sampling periods. The estimated overall ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O during the summer for this dairy were 274, 6005, and 7.96 g head(-1)day(-1), respectively. During the winter, the estimated overall CH4, CO2, and N2O ERs were 52, 7471, and 3.59 g head(-1)day(-1), respectively. The overall CH4 and N2O ERs during the summer were approximately 5.3 and 2.2 times higher than those in the winter for the free-stall dairy. These seasonal variations were likely due to fluctuations in ambient temperature, dairy manure loading rates, and manure microbial activity of GLAS. The annualized ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O for this dairy were estimated to be 181, 6612, and 6.13 g head(-1)day(-1), respectively. Total GHG emissions calculated for this dairy with 500 cows were 2250 t of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per year. PMID:21850834

  14. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm−1 that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  15. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    PubMed

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  16. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  17. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error.

    PubMed

    Safavynia, Seyed A; Ting, Lena H

    2013-09-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  18. Evidence of Boundary Reflection of Kelvin and First-Mode Rossby Waves from Topex/Poseidon Sea Level Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1996-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data lead to new opportunities to investigate some theoretical mechanisms suggested to be involved in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Pacific ocean. In particular, we are interested in studying the western boundary reflection, a process crucial for the delayed action oscillator theory, by using the TOPEX/POSEIDON data from November 1992 to May 1995. We first projected the sea level data onto Kelvin and first-mode Ross waves. Then we estimated the contribution of wind forcing to these waves by using a single baroclinic mode simple wave model forced by the ERS-1 wind data. Wave propagation was clearly observed with amplitudes well explained by the wind forcing in the ocean interior. Evidence of wave reflection was detected at both the western and eastern boundaries of the tropical Pacific ocean. At the eastern boundary, Kelvin waves were seen to reflect as first-mode Rossby waves during the entire period. The reflection efficiency (in terms of wave amplitude) of the South American coasts was estimated to be 80% of that of an infinite meridional wall. At the western boundary, reflection was observed in April-August 1993, in January-June 1994, and, later, in December 1994 to February 1995. Although the general roles of these reflection events in the variability observed in the equatorial Pacific ocean are not clear, the data suggest that the reflections in January-June 1994 have played a role in the onset of the warm conditions observed in late 1994 to early 1995. Indeed, during the January-June 1994 period, as strong downwelling first-mode Rossby waves reflected into downwelling Kelvin waves, easterly wind and cold sea surface temperature anomalies located near the date line weakened and eventually reversed in June-July 1994. The presence of the warm anomalies near the date line then favored convection and westerly wind anomalies that triggered strong downwelling Kelvin waves propagating throughout the basin

  19. Stocking rate and monensin supplemental level effects on growth performance of beef cattle consuming warm-season grasses.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, J M B; Sanchez, J M D; Cooke, R F; Aguiar, A D; Moriel, P; da Silva, W L; Cunha, O F R; Ferreira, P D S; Pereira, A C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of monensin supplementation on animals receiving warm-season grass with limited supplementation. In Exp. 1, treatments were a factorial combination of 2 stocking rates (1.2 and 1.7 animal unit [AU] [500 kg BW]/ha) and supplementation with monensin (200 mg/d) or control (no monensin) distributed in a complete randomized design with 3 replicates. Thirty Angus × Brahman crossbred heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with initial BW of 343 ± 8 kg were randomly allocated into 12 bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures and supplemented with 0.4 kg DM of concentrate (14% CP and 78% TDN) daily for 86 d. Herbage mass (HM) and nutritive value evaluations were conducted every 14 d, and heifers were weighed every 28 d. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.97) of monensin on HM, herbage allowance (HA), and ADG; however, animals receiving monensin had greater (P = 0.03) plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations. The stocking rate treatments had similar HM in June (P = 0.20) and July (P = 0.18), but the higher stocking rate decreased (P < 0.01) HM and HA during August and September. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.01) for the pastures with the lower stocking rate in August but not different in July and September (P ≥ 0.15). Gain per hectare tended to be greater on pastures with the higher stocking rate (P ≤ 0.06). In Exp. 2, treatments were 3 levels of monensin (125, 250, and 375 mg/animal per day) and control (no monensin) tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 10-d adaptation period followed by 5 d of rumen fluid collection and total DMI evaluation. Blood samples were collected on d 4 and 5 of the collection period. Ground stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) hay (11.0% CP and 52% in vitro digestible organic matter) was offered daily. The steers received the same supplementation regimen as in Exp. 1. Total DMI was not different among treatments (P = 0.64). There was a linear increase (P ≤ 0.01) in propionate and a tendency

  20. Has This Begun to Change the Way They Think? Moving Undergraduate Learners' Level of Reflection from Where It Is to Where It Needs to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, John B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the ongoing development of a framework for reflection for undergraduate learners new to the reflective process. Motivated by the gap between students' abilities and experience of reflection and the expectations of them at undergraduate level, the author experimented with a variety of approaches over a number of years. After…

  1. Serum progranulin levels are elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, reflecting viral load.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Zhan, Tingxi; Li, Qing; Zhang, Guozhen; Tan, Bing; Yang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Yan; Que, Wenjuan; Xing, Yan; Liu, Hui; Hu, Xue; Yu, Zebo

    2016-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is implicated in infection, immunity and host defense, but its role in the pathogenesis of HBV infection remains unknown. Here we investigated whether there is dysregulated production and the clinical significance of circulating PGRN in patients with chronic HBV infection. Serum concentrations of PGRN were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum PGRN levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic HBV infection than healthy subjects. PGRN levels were significantly associated with HBV-DNA levels, but did not correlate with the concentrations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. This study demonstrates increased circulating PGRN production and association between PGRN levels and viral loads in patients with chronic HBV infection, suggesting a functional role of PGRN in the pathogenesis of HBV infection. PMID:27281451

  2. Vocalizations convey sex, seasonal phenotype, and aggression in a seasonal mammal.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Keesom, Sarah M; Amadi, Chima; Hurley, Laura M; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal variation in social behavior is often accompanied by seasonal variation in communication. In mammals, how seasonal environmental cues influence aggressive vocalizations remains underexplored. Photoperiod is the primary cue coordinating seasonal responses in most temperate zone animals, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), a species that undergoes reproductive inhibition and increased aggression in winter. During same-sex aggressive encounters, hamsters emit both broadband calls (BBCs) and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) that indicate aggression and the vocalizer's sex, respectively; however, it is not known whether these rodents adjust specific elements of their vocal repertoire to reflect their photoperiod-induced seasonal phenotypes. To address this, we recorded vocalizations emitted during dyadic interactions between male or female pairs of hamsters housed in long or short photoperiods and measured serum testosterone levels. USV emission rate remained stable across photoperiods, but proportional use of USV subtypes varied in novel ways: 'jump' USVs were sensitive to seasonal phenotype, but not the vocalizer's sex, whereas 'plain' USVs were sensitive only to the sex of the vocalizer. BBC emission rate varied with seasonal phenotype; short-day non-reproductive hamsters produced more BBCs and demonstrated increased aggression compared with reproductive hamsters. Testosterone, however, was not related to vocalization rates. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that changes in the vocal repertoire of Siberian hamsters reflect sex, aggression, and seasonal phenotype, suggesting that both BBCs and USVs are important signals used during same-sex social encounters. PMID:26386405

  3. SEASONAL AND ANNUAL MODELING OF REDUCED NITROGEN COMPOUNDS OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: EMISSIONS, AMBIENT LEVELS, AND DEPOSITION AMOUNTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed description of the distributions and seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen compounds is of considerable interest given their role in formation of acidic substances, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter and nutrient loading effects resulting from their deposition t...

  4. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms ( P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale ( P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer ( P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different ( P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  5. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer (P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different (P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  6. Lipometer subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) reflects serum leptin levels varying in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Sudi, Karl; Vrecko, Karoline; Horejsi, Renate; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    1998-05-01

    Recent advances in obesity research have shown that the product of the ob-gene named leptin is related to total body fast mass in humans. There is, however, a debate if leptin levels are pulsatile and linked to body fat distribution. In this study we therefore investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) measured by means of the newly developed device Lipometer and leptin levels during a 24 hours beginning at 0715am ending the same time in the next day. Blood samples for measurement of leptin were taken every 3 hours in a male subject. Measurements of SAT-Top were performed at 15 body sites from neck to calf at the left and right body site at the same time interval. We observed an almost symmetrically reaction of the left and right body site with a maximum of the mean value of all body sites in the evening at 0715pm. There was a negative correlation between serum leptin levels and SAT-Top using the set of certain body sites (R2 equals 0.80, p equals 0.01). If these combination of body sites is inversed and set against serum leptin levels, both curves show almost identical shape and time dependence. We conclude that SAT-Top by means of Lipometer is changed in a short time and related to leptin levels in the investigated male subject.

  7. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed. PMID:27354112

  8. Prototype reflectivity analyses of hydrogen storage levels in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nick E; Lambrakos, S G; Moore, P G; Ashraf Imam, M; Dulcey, C S

    2004-06-01

    A prototype case study is presented that examines the level of hydrogen content in H-SWNTs using the Surface Plasmon Resonance technique. The damping effect and the angular shift in the resonance minimum of an SWNT-gold interface due to the presence of hydrogen is analyzed using a parametric model, which is based on the concept of an effective permittivity. The new approach provides for a non-invasive analysis of the level of hydrogen content in H-SWNTs and is potentially extendable to other carbon-based hydrogen storage materials. PMID:15268050

  9. Serum inhibin B levels reflect Sertoli cell function in normal men and men with testicular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Anawalt, B D; Bebb, R A; Matsumoto, A M; Groome, N P; Illingworth, P J; McNeilly, A S; Bremner, W J

    1996-09-01

    We used a recently developed ELISA format to test the hypothesis that inhibin B is the physiologically active form of inhibin in men. We measured and compared inhibin A, inhibin B, and pro-alpha-C-related immunoreactive peptides (pro-alpha-C-RI) in normal men before and after perturbations of their gonadotropin levels and baseline values in normal men and men with various disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis including men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, infertile men with elevated FSH, men with Klinefelter's syndrome, and orchidectomized men. Mean serum inhibin concentrations were significantly higher in normal men than untreated men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, infertile men with elevated FSH, untreated men with Klinefelter's syndrome, and orchidectomized men (187 +/- 28 vs 45 +/- 11, 37 +/- 6, 11 +/- 3, and < or = 10 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.05). Inhibin B levels were below the limit of detection in all of the orchidectomized men. Pro-alpha-C-RI levels were detectable in all men studied including the orchidectomized men, and no significant differences in the pro-alpha-C-RI levels were noted between the normal men and men with various testicular diseases were noted except that orchidectomized men had significantly lower pro-alpha-C-RI levels than all other groups (P < 0.05). Inhibin A was undetectable in all men tested in this study. Six normal men who were administered exogenous levonorgestrel and testosterone had significantly lower serum gonadotropin, inhibin B, and pro-alpha-C-RI levels during the treatment period than the control and recovery periods (P < 0.05). Ten normal men who were administered human recombinant FSH had significantly higher peak serum FSH (21.85 +/- 3.23 IU/L vs. 3.01 +/- 0.51 IU/L), inhibin B (311 +/- 88 pg/mL vs. 151 +/- 23 pg/mL) and pro-alpha-C-RI (646 +/- 69 vs. 402 +/- 38 pg/mL) levels during the treatment period than the baseline values (P < 0.05). We conclude that inhibin B

  10. Determination of element levels in human serum: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Łyżwa, P.; Łyżwa, K.; Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Stabrawa, I.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.; Antczak, G.; Borkowska, B.; Góźdź, S.

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency or excess of elements could disrupt proper functioning of the human body and could lead to several disorders. Determination of their concentrations in different biological human fluids and tissues should become a routine practice in medical treatment. Therefore the knowledge about appropriate element concentrations in human organism is required. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Pb) in human serum and to define the reference values of element concentration. Samples of serum were obtained from 105 normal presumably healthy volunteers (66 women aged between 15 and 78 years old; 39 men aged between 15 and 77 years old). Analysis has been done for the whole studied population and for subgroups by sex and age. It is probably first so a wide study of elemental composition of serum performed in the case of Świętokrzyskie region. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) method was used to perform the elemental analysis. Spectrometer S2 Picofox (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH) was used to identify and measure elemental composition of serum samples. Finally, 1st and 3rd quartiles were accepted as minimum and maximum values of concentration reference range.

  11. Contemporary Surface Seasonal Oscillation and Vertical Deformation in Tibetan Plateau and Nepal Derived from the GPS, Leveling and GRACE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Pan, Y.; Hwang, C.; Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    We use 168 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations distributed in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Nepal from lengths of 2.5 to 14 years to estimate the present-day velocity field in this area, including the horizontal and vertical deformations under the frame ITRF2008. We estimate and remove common mode errors in regional GPS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA), obtaining a time series with high signal to noise ratio. Following the maximum estimation analysis, a power law plus white noise stochastic model are adopted to estimate the velocity field. The highlight of Tibetan region is the crust vertical deformation. GPS vertical time series present seasonal oscillations caused by temporal mass loads, hence GRACE data from CSR are used to study the mass loads change. After removing the mass load deformations from GPS vertical rates, the results are improved. Leveling data about 48 years in this region are also used to estimate the rates of vertical movements. Our study suggests that the boundary of south Nepal is still sinking due to the fact that the India plate is crashing into the Eurasian plate. The uplift rates from south to north of TP reduce gradually. Himalayas region and north Nepal uplift around 6 mm/yr in average. The uplift rate along East TP in Qinhai is around 2.7 mm/yr in average. In contrast, the southeast of Tibetan Plateau, south Yunnan and Tarim in Xinjiang sink with different magnitudes. Our observation results suggest complicated mechanism of the mass migration in TP. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733302 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  12. Application of Genetic Algorithm in the Modeling of Leaf Chlorophyll Level Based on Vis/Nir Reflection Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haiqing; Yang, Haiqing; He, Yong

    In order to detect leaf chlorophyll level nondestructively and instantly, VIS/NIR reflection spectroscopy technique was examined. In the test, 70 leaf samples were collected for model calibration and another 50 for model verification. Each leaf sample was optically measured by USB4000, a modular spectrometer. By the observation of spectral curves, the spectral range between 650nm and 750nm was found significant for mathematic modeling of leaf chlorophyll level. SPAD-502 meter was used for chemometrical measurement of leaf chlorophyll value. In the test, it was found necessary to put leaf thickness into consideration. The procedure of shaping the prediction model is as follows: First, leaf chlorophyll level prediction equation was created with uncertain parameters. Second, a genetic algorithm was programmed by Visual Basic 6.0 for parameter optimization. As the result of the calculation, the optimal spectral range was narrowed within 683.24nm and 733.91nm. Compared with the R2=0.2309 for calibration set and R2=0.5675 for on the spectral modeling is significant: the R2 of calibration set and verification set has been improved as high as 0.8658 and 0.9161 respectively. The test showed that it is practical to use VIS/NIR reflection spectrometer for the quantitative determination of leaf chlorophyll level.

  13. How Reflective are Teachers? A Study of Kindergarten Teachers' and Special Teachers' Levels of Reflection in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihlaja, Paivi Marjo; Holst, Teija Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' reflections of their early childhood special education work in Finnish day care. Work contents and work roles have faced many challenges in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE), and therefore general reflection and research need to be developed. Teachers ("n"?=?218) evaluated,…

  14. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  15. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Efstathiou, Christos; Pozo, Katerine; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano

    2015-10-01

    Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk. PMID:26005863

  16. Nitrogen stable isotope ratio in the manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, reflects eutrophication levels in tidal flats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Kodama, Masashi; Fukuda, Masaaki

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the effects of anthropogenic eutrophication on coastal fisheries may help in the enhancement of fishery production by effective utilization of sewage effluents, as well as in the consequent reduction of eutrophication. In this study, it was revealed that the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (delta(15)N) in the soft tissues of the manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, can be used as an indicator of anthropogenic eutrophication levels in tidal flat environments by investigation of delta(15)N in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particulate organic matter (POM), sedimentary organic matter (SOM) and soft tissues of the clam in five tidal flats in Japan with different levels of DIN concentration. In addition, it was found that the acid insoluble fraction of the shell organic matrix, conchiolin, can be used as a proxy for the soft tissues in delta(15)N analyses. This will contribute in easier storage handling and the expansion of chances for sample acquisition. PMID:19647270

  17. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed. PMID:26802598

  18. T cell Bim levels reflect responses to anti–PD-1 cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dronca, Roxana S.; Liu, Xin; Harrington, Susan M.; Chen, Lingling; Cao, Siyu; Kottschade, Lisa A.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Block, Matthew S.; Nevala, Wendy K.; Thompson, Michael A.; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Park, Sean S.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Dong, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint therapy with PD-1 blockade has emerged as an effective therapy for many advanced cancers; however, only a small fraction of patients achieve durable responses. To date, there is no validated blood-based means of predicting the response to PD-1 blockade. We report that Bim is a downstream signaling molecule of the PD-1 pathway, and its detection in T cells is significantly associated with expression of PD-1 and effector T cell markers. High levels of Bim in circulating tumor-reactive (PD-1+CD11ahiCD8+) T cells were prognostic of poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma who did not receive anti–PD-1 therapy and were also predictive of clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with anti–PD-1 therapy. Moreover, this circulating tumor-reactive T cell population significantly decreased after successful anti–PD-1 therapy. Our study supports a crucial role of Bim in both T cell activation and apoptosis as regulated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interactions in effector CD8+ T cells. Measurement of Bim levels in circulating T cells of patients with cancer may provide a less invasive strategy to predict and monitor responses to anti–PD-1 therapy, although future prospective analyses are needed to validate its utility. PMID:27182556

  19. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  20. Low-Frequency Cortical Entrainment to Speech Reflects Phoneme-Level Processing.

    PubMed

    Di Liberto, Giovanni M; O'Sullivan, James A; Lalor, Edmund C

    2015-10-01

    The human ability to understand speech is underpinned by a hierarchical auditory system whose successive stages process increasingly complex attributes of the acoustic input. It has been suggested that to produce categorical speech perception, this system must elicit consistent neural responses to speech tokens (e.g., phonemes) despite variations in their acoustics. Here, using electroencephalography (EEG), we provide evidence for this categorical phoneme-level speech processing by showing that the relationship between continuous speech and neural activity is best described when that speech is represented using both low-level spectrotemporal information and categorical labeling of phonetic features. Furthermore, the mapping between phonemes and EEG becomes more discriminative for phonetic features at longer latencies, in line with what one might expect from a hierarchical system. Importantly, these effects are not seen for time-reversed speech. These findings may form the basis for future research on natural language processing in specific cohorts of interest and for broader insights into how brains transform acoustic input into meaning. PMID:26412129

  1. BOREAS Level-2 NS001 TMS Imagery: Reflectance and Temperature in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Collection of the NS001 images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 NS001 data are atmospherically corrected versions of some of the best original NS001 imagery and cover the dates of 19-Apr-1994, 07-Jun-1994, 21-Jul-1994, 08-Aug-1994, and 16-Sep-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 INS data in an NS001 scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  2. Do N-isotopes in atmospheric nitrate deposition reflect air pollution levels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyn, Fabian; Matthias, Volker; Aulinger, Armin; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2015-04-01

    Dry and wet deposition of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds mostly originate from anthropogenic NH3 and NOX sources. Regarding land-borne pollutants, coastal environments usually have a lower pollution level than terrestrial/urban areas, which have a greater anthropogenic imprint. To investigate this spatial characteristic, we measured NO3- and NH4+ deposition and N isotopes of NO3-(δ15N-NO3-) in 94 and 88 wet and dry deposition samples, respectively, at a coastal (List on Sylt) and a terrestrial/urban site (Geesthacht) in Germany from May 2012 to May 2013. A higher total N deposition rate was observed in Geesthacht (10.4 vs. 8.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1) due to higher NH4+ deposition, which can be explained by more agricultural influence. Surprisingly, overall NO3- fluxes were higher at the coastal site than at the terrestrial/urban site. We assume that sea-salt aerosols and the increased influence of NOX emissions from ships in most recent times compensate the higher terrestrial/urban pollution level and thus lead to higher NO3- fluxes in dry and comparable fluxes in wet deposition at the coastal site, despite a much lower impact of land-based sources. In line with this, overall mean N isotopes values of NO3- show higher values in List than in Geesthacht in dry (+3.1 vs. +1.9‰) as well as in wet deposition (-0.1 vs. -1.0‰). This surprising result can mainly be attributed to an emerging source of NOX, ship emissions, which have a distinctly higher impact at the coastal site. The usage of heavy oil and possibly new technologies in marine engines, which emit more enriched 15N in comparison to older engines, caused the spatial isotopic differences.

  3. Low female stress hormone levels are predicted by same- or opposite-sex sociality depending on season in wild Assamese macaques.

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2014-10-01

    The social environment can have a powerful impact on an individual's stress response and thus affect health and biological fitness. Positive social interactions are particularly important for females of species living in complex societies, e.g. humans and non-human primates. Existing studies have mainly focussed on the effect of same-sex social interaction on the stress response, rather than both same- and opposite-sex social interaction simultaneously. However, consideration of both may be crucial since females may have different 'social needs' across different life-history stages. Applying the conceptual framework of allostasis, we tested the hypothesis that female allostatic load (measured through faecal glucocorticoid levels [fGCs]), of wild seasonally breeding Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), would increase if their social needs were not maintained in accordance with season. We found significant seasonal differences in same- and opposite-sex sociality which, depending on season, predicted female fGCs. In the mating season, females which spent more time close to males and more frequently groomed with them exhibited lower fGCs. In the non-mating season, when female-male interaction was infrequent, positive female-female sociality predicted lower fGCs. Our results support the hypothesis that same- and opposite-sex sociopositive interactions, specific to certain life-history stages, can mediate fGCs. We interpret this as a consequence of the positive direct and/or indirect effects of social contact in accordance with interactions pertaining to a given life-history stage, which are likely to impact positively upon fitness. PMID:24980035

  4. Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n = 178 individual fish), the mean (± standard error) for total mercury was 0.39 ± 0.02 μg/g (= 0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 μg/g (= 1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30 ± 0.01 μg/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 μg/g). Angler-caught fish (n = 122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6 ± 1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48 ± 0.021 μg/g and selenium averaged 0.29 ± 0.01 μg/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 μg/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau = 0.37; p < 0.0001) and weight (0.38; p < 0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r2 (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1 cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger

  5. Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-01-01

    We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n=178 individual fish), the mean (±standard error) for total mercury was 0.39±0.02 μg/g (=0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 μg/g (=1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30±0.01 μg/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 μg/g). Angler-caught fish (n=122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6±1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48±0.021 μg/g and selenium averaged 0.29±0.01 μg/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 μg/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau=0.37; p<0.0001) and weight (0.38; p<0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r(2) (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger fish, but overall

  6. The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC') influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

  7. The Expression of Pre- and Postcopulatory Sexually Selected Traits Reflects Levels of Dietary Stress in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed ‘n3LC’) influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet ‘quantity’ treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males’ colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

  8. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38’N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr. PMID:26421838

  9. Postoperative Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels Reflect the Graft’s Function and Predict Survival after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mocchegiani, Federico; Coletta, Martina; Brugia, Marina; Montalti, Roberto; Fava, Giammarco; Taccaliti, Augusto; Risaliti, Andrea; Vivarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background The reduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plasma levels is associated with the degree of liver dysfunction and mortality in cirrhotic patients. However, little research is available on the recovery of the IGF-1 level and its prognostic role after liver transplantation (LT). Methods From April 2010 to May 2011, 31 patients were prospectively enrolled (25/6 M/F; mean age±SEM: 55.2±1.4 years), and IGF-1 serum levels were assessed preoperatively and at 15, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days after transplantation. The influence of the donor and recipient characteristics (age, use of extended criteria donor grafts, D-MELD and incidence of early allograft dysfunction) on hormonal concentration was analyzed. The prognostic role of IGF-1 level on patient survival and its correlation with routine liver function tests were also investigated. Results All patients showed low preoperative IGF-1 levels (mean±SEM: 29.5±2.1), and on postoperative day 15, a significant increase in the IGF-1 plasma level was observed (102.7±11.7 ng/ml; p<0.0001). During the first year after LT, the IGF-1 concentration remained significantly lower in recipients transplanted with older donors (>65 years) or extended criteria donor grafts. An inverse correlation between IGF-1 and bilirubin serum levels at day 15 (r = -0.3924, p = 0.0320) and 30 (r = -0.3894, p = 0.0368) was found. After multivariate analysis, early (within 15 days) IGF-1 normalization [Exp(b) = 3.913; p = 0.0484] was the only prognostic factor associated with an increased 3-year survival rate. Conclusion IGF-1 postoperative levels are correlated with the graft’s quality and reflect liver function. Early IGF-1 recovery is associated with a higher 3-year survival rate after LT. PMID:26186540

  10. Seasonal shift in the sensitivity of a natural benthic microalgal community to a herbicide mixture: impact on the protective level of thresholds derived from species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Larras, Floriane; Montuelle, Bernard; Rimet, Frédéric; Chèvre, Nathalie; Bouchez, Agnès

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal changes in the structure and composition of a benthic microalgal community may lead to different responses to herbicide contamination during different seasons. Consequently, the thresholds derived from risk assessment tools such as species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) must allow for these changes. We built a single-substance SSD for each of four herbicides (atrazine, terbutryn, diuron and isoproturon), which was specific to the sensitivity of the benthic diatoms found in Lake Geneva, in order to derive protective thresholds for a mixture of these four herbicides using the concentration addition model. We then investigated (1) the structural parameters of a Lake Geneva benthic microalgal community during two contrasting seasons (summer 2012 and winter 2013), (2) the response of these communities to a herbicide mixture, and (3) the protective levels of the thresholds derived. The winter community was characterized by having greater biomass, diatom species richness, and diversity metrics, and lower non-diatom species richness than the summer community. The differences in the diatom communities composition in these seasons appeared to be primarily driven by the environmental nitrate concentrations and the temperature. Moreover, the species in the winter community were more resistant to herbicides than those found in the summer community. Consequently, the protective threshold for this herbicide mixture obtained in this study was in fact protective for the winter community, but not for the summer community based on their structural parameters. Thus, the protective level against herbicides of the threshold for the benthic microalgal community should take into account changes in the environmental physico-chemical conditions that strongly influence the structure and composition of the community. The fact that the succession of species over time (i.e., over the seasons) is difficult to predict introduces uncertainties into the estimation of protective

  11. Predicting foliar biochemistry of tea (Camellia sinensis) using reflectance spectra measured at powder, leaf and canopy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Meng; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Schlerf, Martin; Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Yanfang; Zeng, Rong; Fei, Teng

    2013-04-01

    Some biochemical compounds are closely related with the quality of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)). In this study, the concentration of these compounds including total tea polyphenols, free amino acids and soluble sugars were estimated using reflectance spectroscopy at three different levels: powder, leaf and canopy, with partial least squares regression. The focus of this study is to systematically compare the accuracy of tea quality estimations based on spectroscopy at three different levels. At the powder level, the average r2 between predictions and observations was 0.89 for polyphenols, 0.81 for amino acids and 0.78 for sugars, with relative root mean square errors (RMSE/mean) of 5.47%, 5.50% and 2.75%, respectively; at the leaf level, the average r2 decreased to 0.46-0.81 and the relative RMSE increased to 4.46-7.09%. Compared to the results yielded at the leaf level, the results from canopy spectra were slightly more accurate, yielding average r2 values of 0.83, 0.77 and 0.56 and relative RMSE of 6.79%, 5.73% and 4.03% for polyphenols, amino acids and sugars, respectively. We further identified wavelength channels that influenced the prediction model. For powder and leaves, some bands identified can be linked to the absorption features of chemicals of interest (1648 nm for phenolic, 1510 nm for amino acids, 2080 nm and 2270 nm for sugars), while more indirectly related wavelengths were found to be important at the canopy level for predictions of chemical compounds. Overall, the prediction accuracies achieved at canopy level in this study are encouraging for future study on tea quality estimated at the landscape scale using airborne and space-borne sensors.

  12. Seasonal variations in reproductive activity of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: Vitellogenin expression and levels of vitellogenin in the hemolymph during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Thongda, Willawan; Chung, J Sook; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Zmora, Nilli; Katenta, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In general, season affects the physiology and behavior of most animals. Warmer temperatures accelerate growth and reproduction of ectotherms, whereas these processes are slowed or halted in colder temperatures. Female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay, exhibit a seasonal migratory behavior that is closely tied with spawning and the release of larvae. To better understand reproductive activities of the migratory adult females, we examined two reproductive parameters of these crabs sampled monthly (April-December, 2006): the levels of vitellogenin (VtG) in the hemolymph and VtG expression in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The full-length cDNA of VtG (CasVtG-ova) has been isolated from the ovary. The putative CasVtG sequence found in the ovary is >99% identical to that of the hepatopancreas and is related most closely to the sequences reported in other crab species. In female C. sapidus, the hepatopancreas produces over 99% of the total VtG toward the ovarian development. Ovarian stages 2 and 3 in the sampled females are characterized by significant high levels of VtG in hemolymph and VtG expression in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. However, during the southbound migration in fall, females at ovarian stages 2 and 3 have decreased VtG levels, compared to those in spring and summer. The decreased vitellogenesis activity during the fall migration suggests seasonal adaptation to ensure successful spawning and the larval release. PMID:25218941

  13. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons.

    PubMed

    Deffner, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Pitz, Mike; Cyrys, Josef; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Gu, Jianwei; Geruschkat, Uta; Peters, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Personal exposure to air pollution is associated with time- and location-specific factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution, meteorology and time activities. Our investigation aims at the description and identification of factors determining personal exposure to particle number concentration (PNC) in everyday situations. Ten volunteers recorded their personal exposure to PNC and kept an activity diary in three different seasons besides stationary measurements of ambient air pollution and meteorology. Background exposure to PNC was modelled using the most predictive variables. In a second step, the effects of the activities were calculated adjusted for the background exposure. The average personal PNC level was highest in winter and was three times higher than the mean stationary PNC level while staying indoors and two times higher while staying outdoors. Personal indoor PNC levels were significantly increased during the use of candles, cooking and the occurrence of smell of food. High stationary outdoor PNC levels and low dew point temperatures were associated with increased personal outdoor PNC levels. Times spent in public transport were associated with lower personal PNC levels than other times spent in transportation. Personal PNC levels in everyday situations exhibited a large variability because of seasonal, microenvironment-specific and activity-specific influences. PMID:25407347

  14. Assessment of total and organic vanadium levels and their bioaccumulation in edible sea cucumbers: tissues distribution, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the levels, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations of vanadium in sea cucumbers and to validate further several potential factors controlling the distribution of metals in sea cucumbers. Vanadium levels were evaluated in samples of edible sea cucumbers and were demonstrated exhibit differences in different seasons, species and sampling sites. High vanadium concentrations were measured in the sea cucumbers, and all of the vanadium detected was in an organic form. Mean vanadium concentrations were considerably higher in the blood (sea cucumber) than in the other studied tissues. The highest concentration of vanadium (2.56 μg g(-1)), as well as a higher degree of organic vanadium (85.5 %), was observed in the Holothuria scabra samples compared with all other samples. Vanadium levels in Apostichopus japonicus from Bohai Bay and Yellow Sea have marked seasonal variations. Average values of 1.09 μg g(-1) of total vanadium and 0.79 μg g(-1) of organic vanadium were obtained in various species of sea cucumbers. Significant positive correlations between vanadium in the seawater and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 81.67 %, p = 0.00), as well as between vanadium in the sediment and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 77.98 %, p = 0.00), were observed. Vanadium concentrations depend on the seasons (salinity, temperature), species, sampling sites and seawater environment (seawater, sediment). Given the adverse toxicological effects of inorganic vanadium and positive roles in controlling the development of diabetes in humans, a regular monitoring programme of vanadium content in edible sea cucumbers can be recommended. PMID:25732906

  15. Geometric phase of an accelerated two-level atom in the presence of a perfectly reflecting plane boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hua; Zhang, Jialin; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-08-01

    We study the geometric phase of a uniformly accelerated two-level atom coupled with vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic fields in the presence of a perfectly reflecting plane. We find that the geometric phase difference between the accelerated and inertial atoms which can be observed by atom interferometry crucially depends on the polarizability of the atom and the distance to the boundary and it can be dramatically manipulated with anisotropically polarizable atoms. In particular, extremely close to the boundary, the phase difference can be increased by two times as compared to the case without any boundary. So, the detectability of the effects associated with acceleration using an atom interferometer can be significantly increased by the presence of a boundary using atoms with anisotropic polarizability.

  16. A Q-Methodology approach to investigating the relationship between level of reflection and typologies among prospective teachers in the physics learning assistant program at Florida International University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Geraldine L.

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand physics Learning Assistants' (LAs) views on reflective teaching, expertise in teaching, and LA program teaching experience and to determine if views predicted level of reflection evident in writing. Interviews were conducted in Phase One, Q methodology was used in Phase Two, and level of reflection in participants' writing was assessed using a rubric based on Hatton and Smith's (1995) "Criteria for the Recognition of Evidence for Different Types of Reflective Writing" in Phase Three. Interview analysis revealed varying perspectives on content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and experience in relation to expertise in teaching. Participants revealed that they engaged in reflection on their teaching, believed reflection helps teachers improve, and found peer reflection beneficial. Participants believed teaching experience in the LA program provided preparation for teaching, but that more preparation was needed to teach. Three typologies emerged in Phase Two. Type One LAs found participation in the LA program rewarding and believed expertise in teaching does not require expertise in content or pedagogy, but it develops over time from reflection. Type Two LAs valued reflection, but not writing reflections, felt the LA program teaching experience helped them decide on non-teaching careers and helped them confront gaps in their physics knowledge. Type Three LAs valued reflection, believed expertise in content and pedagogy are necessary for expert teaching, and felt LA program teaching experience increased their likelihood of becoming teachers, but did not prepare them for teaching. Writing assignments submitted in Phase Three were categorized as 19% descriptive writing, 60% descriptive reflections, and 21% dialogic reflections. No assignments were categorized as critical reflection. Using ordinal logistic regression, typologies that emerged in Phase Two were not found to be predictors for the level of reflection

  17. Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility

  18. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2001-11-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock plays an important role in the production of medicine since low serum Se levels influence disease resistance in ruminants. It has been proved that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum level has been widely used to evaluate the Se short-term status in animals since there is a good association between serum Se level and the dietary intake of the element over a wide range. The purpose of this work was to determine the Se serum concentration in a population of 78 sucking 2-month-old calves, in order to corroborate a clinical diagnosis of severe deficiency status. The samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) at the ITAL STRUCTURES Research Laboratory. The results obtained from the serum samples presented Se concentrations varying from 10 to 66 ng/ml. The comparison between the obtained values and the expected serum selenium values (60-80 ng/ml), confirmed a mild to severe deficiency status in the investigated population.

  19. Seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the shallow aquifer near Hagerman and the Pecos River, Chaves County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Pecos River near Hagerman in Chaves County, New Mexico, historically has been a gaining stream. In 1938, the slope of the water table in the shallow alluvial aquifer near Hagerman was toward the Pecos River. By 1950, a large water-table depression had formed in the alluvial aquifer southwest of Hagerman. Continued enlargement of this depression could reverse the direction of groundwater flow to the Pecos River. Water levels were measured during 1981-85 in wells along a section extending from the Pecos River to a point within the depression. Although the water-table depression has not caused a perennial change in direction of groundwater flow, it has caused a seasonal reversal in the slope of the water table between the river and the depression during the growing season when pumpage from the shallow aquifer is the greatest. (USGS)

  20. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  1. Large variations in diurnal and seasonal patterns of sap flux among Aleppo pine trees in semi-arid forest reflect tree-scale hydraulic adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grünzweig, José M.; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Adjustments and adaptations of trees to drought vary across different biomes, species and habitats, with important implications for tree mortality and forest dieback associated with global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between the patterns of variations in water flux dynamics and drought resistance in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) trees in a semi-arid stand (Yatir forest, Israel). We measured sap flow (SF) and variations in stem diameter, complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of water vapour and CO2 gas exchange, branch water potential and hydraulic conductivity, as well as eddy flux measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from a permanent flux tower at the site. SF rates were well synchronized with ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees during the rainy season (Dec-Apr). However, during the dry season (May-Nov), the daily trend in the rates of SF greatly varied among trees, allowing classification into three tree classes: 1) trees with SF maximum rate constantly occurring in mid-day (12:00-13:00); 2)trees showing a shift to an early morning SF peak (04:00-06:00); and 3) trees shifting their daily SF peak to the evening (16:00-18:00). This classification did not change during the four years study period, between 2010 and 2014. Checking for correlation of tree parameters as DBH, tree height, crown size, and competition indices with rates of SF, indicated that timing of maximum SF in summer was mainly related to tree size (DBH), when large trees tended to have a later SF maximum. Dendrometer measurements indicated that large trees (high DBH) had maximum daily diameter in the morning during summer and winter, while small trees typically had maximum daily diameter during midday and afternoon in winter and summer, respectively. Leaf-scale transpiration (T) measurements showed typical morning peak in all trees, and another peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Different diurnal

  2. Self-Reflecting in Developmental Context: Variations in Level and Patterning during the First 2 University Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy J.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Watson, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Self-reflection, typically operationalized in scales of egocentrism and introspectiveness, is portrayed as problematic in much of the literature on adolescents. Self-reflection has been linked to dysfunctional self-consciousness, symptomatology, and risk behaviors. Yet, self-reflection also is seen as essential for adolescent development,…

  3. Seasonal variations in energy levels and metabolic processes of two dominant Acropora species ( A. spicifera and A. digitifera) at Ningaloo Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, S.; Patten, N. L.; Allcock, R. J. N.; Saunders, S. M.; Strickland, D.; Waite, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    Seasonal variations in coral health indices reflecting autotrophic activity (chlorophyll a and zooxanthellae density), metabolic rates (RNA/DNA ratio and protein) and energy storage (ratio of storage: structural lipids or lipid ratios) were examined for two dominant Acropora species [ Acropora digitifera ( AD) and Acropora spicifera ( AS)] at Ningaloo Reef (north-western Australia). Such detailed investigation of metabolic processes is important background, with regard to understanding the vulnerability of corals to environmental change. Health indices in AD and AS were measured before and after spawning in austral autumn and winter 2010, and austral summer 2011 at six stations. Health indices showed seasonal and species-specific differences but negligible spatial differences across a reef section. For AD, autotrophic indices were negatively correlated with lipid ratios and metabolic indices. Metabolic indices were significantly higher in AS than AD. No correlation was observed between RNA/DNA ratios and lipid ratios with any autotrophic indices for AS. Lipid ratios were stable throughout the year for AS while they changed significantly for AD. For both species, indices of metabolic activity were highest during autumn, while autotrophic indices were highest in winter and summer. Results suggest that the impact of the broadcast spawning event on coral health indices at Ningaloo Reef occurred only as a backdrop to massive seasonal changes in coral physiology. The La Niña summer pattern resulted in high autotrophic indices and low metabolic indices and energy stores. Our results imply different metabolic processes in A. digitifera and A. spicifera as well as a strong impact of extreme events on coral physiology.

  4. Key management practices to prevent high infestation levels of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies at the beginning of the honey yield season.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, Agostina; Molineri, Ana; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Masciangelo, Germán; Pietronave, Hernán; Pacini, Adriana; Salto, Cesar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the main threats to worldwide apiculture causing a variety of physiological effects at individual and colony level. Also, Varroa mites are often associated with several honey bee viruses presence. Relatively low levels of Varroa during the spring, at the beginning of the honey yield season, can have a significant economic impact on honey production and colony health. Winter treatments against Varroa and certain management practices may delay mite population growth during following spring and summer improving colonies performance during the honey yield season. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in late spring in apiaries from temperate climate. A longitudinal study was carried out in 48 apiaries, randomly selected to evaluate V. destructor infestation level throughout the year. The percentage of infestation with V. destructor was assessed four times during one year and the beekeepers answered a survey concerning all management practices applied in the colonies. We used a generalized linear mixed model to determine association between risk of achieving 2% infestation on adult bees at the beginning of the honey yield season and all potential explanatory variables. The complete dataset was scanned to identify colonies clusters with a higher probability of achieving damage thresholds throughout the year. Colonies that achieved ≥2% of infestation with V. destructor during spring were owned by less experienced beekeepers. Moreover, as Varroa populations increase exponentially during spring and summer, if the spring sampling time is later this growth remains unobserved. Monitoring and winter treatment can be critical for controlling mite population during the honey production cycle. Spatial distribution of colonies with a higher risk of achieving high Varroa levels seems to be better explained by management practices than a geographical condition. PMID:27544258

  5. Seasonal trend of particulate PAHs at Gosan, a background site in Korea between 2001 and 2002 and major factors affecting their levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yong Pyo; Kang, Chang-Hee; Ghim, Young Sung

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of particulate Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at Gosan, a background site in Korea for 1 year between November 2001 and November 2002. The total concentrations of 14 PAH compounds at Gosan were between 0.52 and 14.76 ng m - 3 and about 3-15 times higher than those at other rural or remote sites in the world. Seasonal trend was observed for particulate PAHs concentrations at Gosan with higher levels during heating season due to increased fossil fuel usage and the movement of air parcels from Asian continent. Principal component factor analysis (PCF) for PAHs showed three factors; combination of coal combustion and vehicular emission, natural gas combustion, and unidentified one. However, PCF for the combined data of PAHs, inorganic ions, and elements revealed that the unidentified factor consists of crustal species, sea salts, and four PAH compounds. Thus, this factor is thought to be transport of crustal species with organics from combustion sources. The major variables which determine the sources of PAHs are the heating season and the movement of air parcels from Asian continent.

  6. Comparison of Season-ahead Prediction Techniques on Regionalized Grid-level Precipitation: Application to Western Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Moges, S. A.; Block, P.

    2015-12-01

    Season-ahead precipitation predictions offer utility in decision-making relative to water resource utilization and management, including agricultural planning and reservoir operation, particularly for regions with highly variable spatial-temporal precipitation patterns. Preprocessing precipitation by objective regionalization has the potential to improve prediction by defining appropriate scales of homogenous clusters. Statistical prediction techniques and downscaling approaches are evaluated over western Ethiopia, including principal component and hierarchical Bayesian approaches, at the cluster and grid scales. Predictors are drawn from large scale climate indices and variables and local drivers (e.g. soil moisture, elevation, spring rains, etc.). Preliminary results indicate substantial improvements in prediction skill when applying regionalization and, for locations/grids with more complex geographic characteristics, through the addition of local variables. Grid-scale screening of prediction techniques and suitable predictors is undertaken to identify optimal model combinations.

  7. Effect of end of season water deficit on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought.

    PubMed

    Aninbon, C; Jogloy, S; Vorasoot, N; Patanothai, A; Nuchadomrong, S; Senawong, T

    2016-04-01

    Terminal drought reduces pod yield and affected the phenolic content of leaves, stems and seed of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of end of season water deficit on phenolic content in drought tolerant and sensitive genotypes of peanuts. Five peanut genotypes were planted under two water regimes, field capacity and 1/3 available water. Phenolic content was analyzed in seeds, leaves, and stems. The results revealed that terminal drought decreased phenolic content in seeds of both tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Phenolic content in leaves and stems increased under terminal drought stress in both years. This study provides basic information on changes in phenolic content in several parts of peanut plants when subjected to drought stress. Future studies to define the effect of terminal drought stress on specific phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in peanut are warranted. PMID:26593473

  8. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids. PMID:22246466

  9. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region. PMID:26666501

  10. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-12-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region.

  11. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region. PMID:26666501

  12. Large MEMS-based programmable reflective slit mask for multi-object spectroscopy fabricated using multiple wafer-level bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2012-03-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) allows measuring infrared spectra of faint astronomical objects that provides information on the evolution of the Universe. MOS requires a slit mask for object selection at the focal plane of the telescope. We are developing MEMS-based programmable reflective slit masks composed of 2048 individually addressable micromirrors. Each micromirror measures 100 × 200 μm2 and is electrostatically tilted by a precise angle of at least 20°. The main requirements for these arrays are precise and uniform tilt angle over the whole device, uniformity of the mirror electromechanical behavior, a flat mirror deformation and individual addressing capability of each mirror. This capability of our array is achieved using a line-column algorithm based on an optimized tilt angle/voltage hysteresis of the electrostatic actuator. Micromirror arrays composed of 2048 micromirrors (32 × 64) and modeled for individual addressing were fabricated using fusion and eutectic wafer-level bonding. These micromirrors without coating demonstrated a peak-to-valley deformation less than 8 nm and a tilt angle of 24° for an actuation voltage of 130 V. A first experiment of the linecolumn algorithm was demonstrated by actuating individually 2 × 2 micromirrors. In order, to avoid spoiling of the optical source by the thermal emission of the instrument, the micromirror array has to work in a cryogenic environment. Therefore, these devices were characterized in a cryogenic environment at -111°C and several lines of micromirrors were tilted successfully under these conditions.

  13. Contribution of seasonal presence of cetaceans, earthquakes, drifting icebergs and anthropogenic activity to the ambient noise level in the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang-Hin-Sun, Eve; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the ambient sound level in the oceans is essential for a better understanding of the interactions between the ecosystem and anthropogenic activities. Ambient noise studies conducted in the North Pacific and Atlantic oceans, have shown that since the 60's oceanic noise level increases with the ship traffic, even if potential impacts of shipping noise on the ecosystem is not yet fully understood. However long-term acoustic records for the Indian Ocean are still limited. Here we present long-term statistics on the ambient sound in the Southern Indian Ocean basin based on 2 years of data collected at 5 widely distributed autonomous hydrophones. The data consist of single hydrophone spectra (10-100 Hz in 1-Hz bins) averaged using Welch's method over 200 s. Spectral probability distributions of the ambient sound level are analyzed in order to identify the main sound sources and their geographical and time variability. The mean sound level within the array is 10 to 20 dB lower than in other oceans, revealing a weaker influence of shipping on the Southern Indian Ocean noise budget. Seismic events are evenly distributed in time and space and mostly contribute to the general low-frequency background noise. Periodic signals are mainly associated with the seasonal presence of 3 types of blue whales and fin whales whose signatures are easily identified at target frequencies. Winter lows and summer highs of the ambient noise levels are also well correlated with ice volume variations. Icebergs are found to be a major sound source, strongly contributing to seasonal variations even at northernmost sites of the array. Although anthropogenic factors do not seem to dominate the noise spectrum, shipping sounds are present north and east of the array. Observed higher sound levels are consistent with the proximity of major traffic lanes.

  14. High levels of glucose-6-phosphatase gene and protein expression reflect an adaptive response in proliferating liver and diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Haber, B A; Chin, S; Chuang, E; Buikhuisen, W; Naji, A; Taub, R

    1995-01-01

    The regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy is one of the few physiologic models of cellular proliferation in the adult animal. During hepatic regeneration, the animal is able to maintain metabolic homeostasis despite the acute loss of two thirds of hepatic tissue. In examining the molecular mechanisms regulating hepatic regeneration, we isolated novel immediate-early genes that are rapidly induced as the remnant liver undergoes the transition from its normal quiescent state into the G1 phase of the cell cycle. One of the most rapidly and highly induced genes which we initially termed RL-1, encodes rat glucose-6-phosphatase (rG6Pase). G6Pase mRNA peaks at 30 min and 36-48 h after hepatectomy correlating with the first and second rounds of cell division. This finding is compatible with studies that showed that G6Pase enzyme activity increases during liver regeneration. However, the increase in G6Pase mRNA is much more dramatic, indicating that it is a more sensitive indicator of this regulation. G6Pase gene expression peaks in the perinatal time period in the liver and remains elevated during the first month of life. The expression of the G6Pase gene is also dramatically elevated in BB diabetic rats, again higher than the enzyme elevation, and its relative induction after partial hepatectomy is blunted in these animals. Insulin treatment of partially hepatectomized diabetic animals downregulates the expression of G6Pase mRNA. Using specific antibodies against G6Pase, we detect a 36-kD G6Pase protein, and its level is elevated in regenerating and diabetic livers. The pattern of G6Pase mRNA expression appears to reflect similar changes in insulin and glucagon levels which accompany diabetes and hepatic proliferation. The elevation of G6Pase expression in these conditions is indicative of its importance as a regulator of glucose homeostasis in normal and abnormal physiologic states. Images PMID:7860767

  15. Levels of acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 5 in urothelial cells and corresponding neoplasias reflect cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gaisa, Nadine T; Reinartz, Andrea; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina; Heidenreich, Axel; Jakse, Gerhard; Kaemmerer, Elke; Klinkhammer, Barbara Mara; Knuechel, Ruth; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic components like fatty acids and acyl-Coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various tumours. The activation of fatty acids to acyl-CoAs is catalysed by long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), and impairment of ACSL expression levels has been associated with tumourigenesis and progression. Since ACSLs have never been investigated in bladder tissues, the study aims to characterize ACSL expression and acyl-CoA synthesis in normal and neoplastic bladder tissues, as well as cell lines. ACSL isoforms 1, 3, 4 and 5 and synthesis of acyl-CoAs were analysed using qRT-PCR, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and lipid mass spectrometry. In normal urothelium, expression of ACSL1, 3, 4 and 5, with highest levels of ACSL isoform 5 was found. However, ACSL5 expression was reduced in corresponding neoplastic tissues and urothelial cell lines depending on the grade of cellular differentiation. Anti-ACSL5 immunostainings showed expression in normal urothelium and a gradual loss of ACSL5 protein via pre-invasive lesions to invasive carcinomas. High expression of ACSL5 correlated with increased α-galactosidase activity and positive Uroplakin III staining in tumours. In contrast, synthesis of acyl-CoAs was enhanced in neoplastic bladder tissues compared to normal urothelium, and reflected an increase with respect to cellular differentiation. These results confirm an expression of ACSLs, especially isoform 5, in human urothelium, prove enzymatic/lipidomic changes in bladder cancer tissues, and suggest an involvement of ACSL5 in cellular maturation and/or senescence with possible effects onto induction of tumour formation or progression. Further work may identify responsible pathway alterations, and attempting to re-balance the metabolic equilibrium of the urothelium may offer a further opportunity for tumour treatment and prevention. PMID:23348389

  16. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces reflect more effortful processing at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Grit

    2016-07-01

    The N250 and N250r (r for repetition, signaling a difference measure of priming) has been proposed to reflect the activation of perceptual memory representations for individual faces. Increased N250r and N250 amplitudes have been associated with higher levels of familiarity and expertise, respectively. In contrast to these observations, the N250 amplitude has been found to be larger for other-race than own-race faces in recognition memory tasks. This study investigated if these findings were due to increased identity-specific processing demands for other-race relative to own-race faces and whether or not similar results would be obtained for the N250 in a repetition priming paradigm. Only Caucasian participants were available for testing and completed two tasks with Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese faces. In a repetition priming task, participants decided whether or not sequentially presented faces were of the same identity (individuation task) or same race (categorization task). Increased N250 amplitudes were found for African-American and Chinese faces relative to Caucasian faces, replicating previous results in recognition memory tasks. Contrary to the expectation that increased N250 amplitudes for other-race face would be confined to the individuation task, both tasks showed similar results. This could be due to the fact that face identity information needed to be maintained across the sequential presentation of prime and target in both tasks. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces are taken to represent increased neural demands on the identity-specific processing of other-race faces, which are typically processed less holistically and less on the level of the individual. PMID:27184183

  17. Injury incidence, mechanism and diagnosis in top-level teamgym: a prospective study conducted over one season.

    PubMed

    Harringe, M L; Renström, P; Werner, S

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate injury incidence, mechanism and diagnosis in Swedish teamgym. Sixteen male and 26 female gymnasts with international experience were prospectively followed during one season of training and competition. Injuries leading to a modified participation or total absence from gymnastics during 1 week or more were registered. Twenty-seven of the 42 gymnasts sustained 42 injuries. The injury incidence was 2.2/1000 gymnastics hours. No gender differences were found. Sixty-two percent of the injuries were located to the lower extremity, 28.5% to the back and 9.5% to the upper extremity. The most common injury was ankle sprain and the most frequent mechanisms were joint compression and joint rotation. The majority of the injuries occurred in the landing phase of the gymnastics skills and 50% of the injuries were reported at the end of the training session. Eighteen injuries occurred while the gymnasts were in a negative state of mood such as stressed or afraid. Injury prevention programs should be developed with respect to these findings. Special emphasis must be placed on the landing phase of the gymnastics skills as this phase seems to be critical. PMID:17394471

  18. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation. PMID:24437932

  19. Longitudinal changes in blood lead level in children and their relationship to season, age, and exposure to paint or plaster.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J

    1979-01-01

    Children screened for lead poisoning in the Brownsville district of New York City in either summer or winter were followed with blood lead tests for approximately six months to one year from screening to measure longitudinal changes in blood lead level and to identify some determinants of the changes. Only minimal evidence was found of the hypothesized summer rise in blood lead level, while the predominant trend seemed to be for blood lead levels to display statistical regression to the mean. In children found to have low to intermediate blood lead levels (less than 55 microgram/100ml) at screening, variables which were found to predict a rise in blood lead level of 10 microgram/100ml or greater from winter to summer were under age three and/or exposure to paint or plaster. PMID:426160

  20. [Effect of Seasonal Temperature Increasing on Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil of the Water Level Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorge Tributary During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Bin; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Ma, Hui-yan; Yu, Zhi-guo

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the effect of seasonal temperature increasing on nitrogen mineralization in soil of the water level fluctuating soil zone of three gorge reservoir areas in the Yangtze river tributary during the dry period, surface soils were collected from the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi river crossing two hydrological sections, i.e., upstream and downstream and three water level altitudes, 155 m (low), 165 m (middle) and 175 m (high). We incubated the soil at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C to determine the transformation rates of nitrogen in soil of Pengxi river basin during the dry period. The result showed that TN and NO3- -N contents in the soil of upstream section and higher (175 m) altitude of water level were higher than those in downstream and low (165 m) altitude of water level, whereas the pattern for NH4+ -N was different, with higher NH4+ -N contents in downstream and low water level. The inorganic nitrogen was dominated by NO3- -N, which accounted for up to 57.4%-84.7% of inorganic nitrogen. Generally, soil ammoniation, nitration and net N mineralization increased with the rising water level altitude and stream sections (P < 0.05). In summary, nitration and net N mineralization significantly increased with increasing temperature, (P < 0.05), while ammoniation showed no difference (P > 0.05). PMID:27363162

  1. Ragweed-allergic subjects have decreased serum levels of chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 out of the pollen season

    PubMed Central

    Kostova, Zhivka; Batsalova, Tsvetelina; Moten, Dzhemal; Teneva, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    CC-chemokines are important mediators of the allergic responses and regulate the cell trafficking. The aim of this study was to examine the serum levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL5/RANTES, and to determine whether there are differences between ragweed-allergic subjects and healthy individuals out of the pollen season. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 24 subjects allergic to ragweed pollen and 12 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of chemokines/cytokines were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed significantly decreased concentrations of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL5/RANTES in the sera of ragweed-allergic patients compared to the healthy individuals (32.2 vs. 106.4 pg/ml, 89.5 vs. 135.7 pg/ml, 63.4 vs. 119.2 pg/ml and 11.2 vs. 18.1 ng/ml, respectively, p < 0.01). In contrast to the CC-chemokines, the serum levels of IL-8/CXCL8 showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the allergic group compared to the non-allergic subjects. Interleukin 4 levels were similar in both groups. In the sera of allergic patients, we have also detected significantly elevated levels of ragweed-specific IgE and IgG. However, decreased serum concentrations of the four CC-chemokines and elevated levels of IL-8/CXCL8 can be used as biomarkers for more accurate evaluation of the allergic status of patients with pollen allergy out of the season, to study the mechanisms for activation/inhibition of the subclinical allergic responses and for development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26862308

  2. Seasonal variation in cutaneous melanoma incidence, link with recent UV levels: a population-based study in Belgium (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Rommens, Kristine; Jegou, David; De Backer, Hugo; Weyler, Joost

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis of a short-term late-promoting effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the development of cutaneous melanoma as an explanation for the summer peak in melanoma incidence. Therefore, we studied seasonal variation in melanoma incidence in relation to recent UV levels by direct UV measurements. Data from the Belgian Cancer Registry on invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed during 2006-2011 were used for analysis. Daily data on UV measurements in Belgium were obtained from the Royal Meteorological Institute. Simple and multiple negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the influence of recent UV levels on melanoma incidence. The sum of the mean UV doses in the 2 months before diagnosis was used as a proxy for recent UV exposure in the population. To include variable sunburn risks during the year, the categorical variable 'semester' was created. The incidence of melanoma in Belgium shows a distinct seasonal variation, with peaks in June or July. We found that part of this variation could be explained by the variation in dermatologic activity and, therefore, used this as an offset in our models. We found a linear relationship between melanoma incidence and UV dose in the 2 months preceding the diagnosis. UV levels had more impact in the first semester. The effect of UV levels was not modified by sex nor age. The interaction between anatomical site and UV levels was significant (P=0.002) and showed a higher effect on the upper and lower limbs compared with the head and neck and trunk. PMID:26930049

  3. Ragweed-allergic subjects have decreased serum levels of chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 out of the pollen season.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Zhivka; Batsalova, Tsvetelina; Moten, Dzhemal; Teneva, Ivanka; Dzhambazov, Balik

    2015-01-01

    CC-chemokines are important mediators of the allergic responses and regulate the cell trafficking. The aim of this study was to examine the serum levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL5/RANTES, and to determine whether there are differences between ragweed-allergic subjects and healthy individuals out of the pollen season. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 24 subjects allergic to ragweed pollen and 12 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of chemokines/cytokines were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed significantly decreased concentrations of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL5/RANTES in the sera of ragweed-allergic patients compared to the healthy individuals (32.2 vs. 106.4 pg/ml, 89.5 vs. 135.7 pg/ml, 63.4 vs. 119.2 pg/ml and 11.2 vs. 18.1 ng/ml, respectively, p < 0.01). In contrast to the CC-chemokines, the serum levels of IL-8/CXCL8 showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the allergic group compared to the non-allergic subjects. Interleukin 4 levels were similar in both groups. In the sera of allergic patients, we have also detected significantly elevated levels of ragweed-specific IgE and IgG. However, decreased serum concentrations of the four CC-chemokines and elevated levels of IL-8/CXCL8 can be used as biomarkers for more accurate evaluation of the allergic status of patients with pollen allergy out of the season, to study the mechanisms for activation/inhibition of the subclinical allergic responses and for development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26862308

  4. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  5. Estimating seasonal and annual lake level changes of groundwater-fed lakes in northeastern Germany using RapidEye archive data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Iris; Oeser, Julian; Itzerott, Sibylle; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater-fed lakes in northeastern Germany revealed massive fluctuations in their lake levels during the last decades. However, precise in situ lake level measurements were only recorded for a small numbers of lakes. In this study we evaluate the potential of multi-spectral images (RapidEye) to extract the evolution of former water-land-boundaries and estimate the variation in lake levels. The main test area is lake Fürstenseer See near Neustrelitz in northeastern Germany. Lake Fürstenseer See is characterized by a significant increase of its lake level since 2010. This increase is observed by 37 RapidEye images recorded between 2009 and 2015. After the preprocessing of the RapidEye time series, we extracted the water-land-boundaries automatically using the NIR band and the normalized difference water index (NDWI). The corresponding lake levels were estimated by merging the water-land-boundary with a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) showing the terrain and the underwater topography of the lake. As the shore of lake Fürstenseer See is heterogeneous in topography and vegetation, we selected different subsets for the level reconstruction and evaluation. The evaluation of the method based on in situ gauged lake levels, DEM analyses and DGPS measurements in 2014. RapidEye images enable the monitoring of seasonal and annual variations of lake level changes of lake Fürstenseer See, but the accuracy of the estimated levels strongly depends on the precision of the extracted water-land-boundary. In the RapidEye images the water-land-boundary is often covered by overhanging trees and dense reed. Thus, a shoreline subset with little or no vegetation as well as shallow topography are required for precise reconstruction of lake levels.

  6. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-03-15

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3-0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14-0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  7. Seasonal variation of Sarpa salpa fish toxicity, as related to phytoplankton consumption, accumulation of heavy metals, lipids peroxidation level in fish tissues and toxicity upon mice.

    PubMed

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Hamza, Asma; van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfatteh

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate for Sarpa salpa the seasonal trend in the food sources, heavy metals bioaccumulation and the oxidative stress in the organs. In addition, the toxicity was assessed by mouse bioassay of extract of the fish's organs collected in autumn, the peak of occurrence of hallucinatory syndrome. The toxicity was further studied for compounds present in epiphyte collected from the sea at the end of spring and in summer that are digested by the S. salpa in these seasons. We observed a higher lipid peroxydation in different tissues of S. salpa compared to the control fish Diplodus annularis. Furthermore, heavy metals accumulation in organs of these fish showed a significant variation between the two species (P < 0.05). The lethal dose (LD50%) determined for crude ciguatoxin (neurotoxins) extracts of viscera, liver, brain and muscle of S. salpa were as follows: 1.217, 2.195, 14.395, 18.645 g/kg mouse, respectively. We noticed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the total amount of toxic dinoflagellates and the level of TBARS in the liver, the brain and the muscle, this for all seasons and all sizes. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect observed for epiphytes extract confirms the transfer of toxins originating from toxic dinoflagellates, which live as epiphytes on P. oceanica leaves, to the fish by grazing. Our work indicates that, toxic phytoplanktons and heavy metals accumulation are responsible for the increase of oxidative stress in the organs of S. salpa. Hence, the edible part of S. salpa, especially the viscera and liver, can cause a threat to human health, and consumption should, for this reason, be dissuaded. PMID:22535366

  8. Responses to Global Warming Over the Eastern and Central Tibetan Plateau as Reflected in Day-time and Night-time Temperatures, Extreme Temperature Events, and Growing Season Length During 1961-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Z.; Liu, X.; Shao, X.

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the trends and variation patterns in daily maximum (day-time) and minimum (night-time) temperatures (hereafter referred to as Tm and Tn), extreme events, and growing season lengths over the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP), in comparison with the results from other regions. Data during the period 1961-2003 from 66 weather stations over the eastern and central TP with elevations above 2000 m are used in this study, after going through rigorous quality assessment/quality control procedures. Statistically significant warming trends are identified in various measures of the temperature regime, especially in night- time temperatures, extreme warm/cold events, and diurnal temperature range (DTR). We find that the trends in Tn and Tm display distinct spatial patterns in the study region. The warming trends in winter night-time temperatures are among the highest when compared with studies conducted in other regions. Our results also confirm the asymmetric pattern of greater warming trends in minimum or night-time temperatures as compared to the day-time temperatures, which reduces the DTR in the region. Based on the time-varying percentiles of Tn and Tm, prominent warming trends are found in Tn during cold season months across the relative temperature scale of both warm and cold events. The warming in night-time temperatures causes the number of frost days to decrease significantly and the number of warm days to increase. The mean length of growing season has increased by approximately 17 days during the 43-year study period for the region. Most of the record-setting months for cold events are found in the earlier part of the study period, while that of the warm events have occurred mostly in the later half, especially since the 1990s. The changes in the temperature regime in this region may have brought regional-specific impacts on the ecosystems. It is found that grain production in Qinghai Province, located in the northeastern part of the

  9. Annual transition and seasonal variation of indoor air pollution levels of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in large-scale buildings in Nagoya, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2009-11-01

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) is a possible causative chemical for sick building symptoms; however, thus far, we do not have a clear understanding of the indoor air pollution levels caused by it. In this study, first, airborne 2E1H concentrations were measured during summer and winter from 2004 to 2007 in 67 rooms of 56 large-scale buildings in Nagoya, Japan, in order to show the seasonal variation of indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H. Then, a follow-up survey was conducted in five rooms of five buildings for more than 2 years in order to establish the annual transition of their 2E1H indoor air pollution levels. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominant volatile organic compounds in the indoor air of large-scale buildings. Its geometric mean concentration was significantly higher during summer (55.4 microg/m3) than during winter (13.7 microg/m3) (p < 0.01), although there was a significant difference in the concentrations among the buildings. High 2E1H concentrations may have been caused by high emission rates of 2E1H from floors, because of the hydrolysis of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in polyvinyl chloride flooring materials or of adhesives containing 2-ethylhexyl moieties. Follow-up observations showed little decrease in the indoor air 2E1H concentrations from one year to the next, although they did show seasonal fluctuations, with an evident increase in concentrations during summer and an evident decrease during winter. PMID:19890564

  10. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    SciTech Connect

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  11. Assessment and comparison of extreme sea levels and waves during the 2013/14 storm season in two UK coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadey, M. P.; Brown, J. M.; Haigh, I. D.; Dolphin, T.; Wisse, P.

    2015-10-01

    The extreme sea levels and waves experienced around the UK's coast during the 2013/14 winter caused extensive coastal flooding and damage. Coastal managers seek to place such extremes in relation to the anticipated standards of flood protection, and the long-term recovery of the natural system. In this context, return periods are often used as a form of guidance. This paper provides these levels for the winter storms, and discusses their application to the given data sets for two UK case study sites: Sefton, northwest England, and Suffolk, east England. Tide gauge records and wave buoy data were used to compare the 2013/14 storms with return periods from a national data set, and also joint probabilities of sea level and wave heights were generated, incorporating the recent events. The 2013/14 high waters and waves were extreme due to the number of events, as well as the extremity of the 5 December 2013 "Xaver" storm, which had a high return period at both case study sites. The national-scale impact of this event was due to its coincidence with spring high tide at multiple locations. Given that this event is such an outlier in the joint probability analyses of these observed data sets, and that the season saw several events in close succession, coastal defences appear to have provided a good level of protection. This type of assessment could in the future be recorded alongside defence performance and upgrade. Ideally other variables (e.g. river levels at estuarine locations) would also be included, and with appropriate offsetting for local trends (e.g. mean sea-level rise) so that the storm-driven component of coastal flood events can be determined. This could allow long-term comparison of storm severity, and an assessment of how sea-level rise influences return levels over time, which is important for consideration of coastal resilience in strategic management plans.

  12. Evaluation of seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels in wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, sampled by a Japanese fishing method.

    PubMed

    Munakata, A; Miura, G; Matsuda, H

    2014-10-01

    A new fish sampling method was developed using a Japanese bait fishing rod (8-9 m carbon rod and a nylon line with a small fine wire single hook), which is considered to catch wild salmonid juveniles with low sampling stress. Using this method, seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine (T4 ) and cortisol levels were examined in wild parr, pre-smolts and smolts of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in contiguous locations in a coastal river (Kesen River; 44 km) in northern Honshu Island, Japan, overlapping the period of smoltification and seaward migration from August to March. Plasma T4 and cortisol were low in 0+ and 1+ year parr caught in August and September. In March, some yearling (1+ year) fish, which were judged as pre-smolts, and smolts appeared mainly in mid and lower reaches, while parr (0+ and 1+ year parr) continued to appear in the upper and mid reaches. In March, 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts showed high plasma T4 levels while the levels of 1+ year parr were low. During March 2008-2010, plasma T4 levels of 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts had high levels from early to mid-March, whereas plasma cortisol levels of 1+ year smolts were low in early March and increased towards mid-March. Based on these data, plasma cortisol increases probably occur following the increases of plasma T4 levels to lead the 1+ year O. masou to the completion of smoltification and initiation of seaward migration. PMID:25263191

  13. Seasonal variation in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of young and elderly active and inactive adults in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Sergio Setsuo; Saraiva, Gabriela Luporini; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Henrique de Mesquita, Carlos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in individuals in the city of São Paulo belonging to different age groups and exhibiting specific behavioral characteristics and to correlate the 25(OH)D concentration with the level of UV radiation (UVR). Patients and Methods: A total of 591 individuals were included, distributed as follows: 177 were living in institutions (NURSING, 76.2 ± 9.0 y old), 243 were part of the community elderly (COMMUNITY, 79.6 ± 5.3 y old), 99 were enrolled in a physical activity program targeting the elderly (ACTIVE, 67.6 ± 5.4 y old) and 72 were young (YOUNG, 23.9 ± 2.8 y old). Blood samples from all individuals were collected throughout the year. UVR measurements were taken by an official meteorology institution. Results: The UVR values varied throughout the year, following a sinusoidal-like pattern. Because of the Earth’s orbit, we hypothesized that there would be cyclic patterns for the 25(OH)D and UVR values that repeat every 12 mo. The general formula is represented by the equation P1+P2⋅sin(−2⋅π12⋅(t−P3)) The mean 25(OH)D concentration and the amplitude of the variation were significantly higher for the YOUNG and ACTIVE groups than for the COMMUNITY and NURSING groups. The nadir for UVR was in June, whereas the nadir for the 25(OH)D concentration was in the spring, corresponding to a delay of one season. Conclusions: There was seasonal variation in the 25(OH)D concentration for all the groups studied; however, the amplitude of the variation was higher for the groups of young and physically active people, possibly due to the higher level of sunlight exposure for these groups. The lowest 25(OH)D concentration was detected in the spring. PMID:24494057

  14. Seasonal Variability of Saturn's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Simon, Amy; Delcroix, Marc; Orton, Glenn S.; Trinh, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal variability of Saturn's clouds and weather layer, currently displaying a variety of phenomena (convective storms, planetary waves, giant storms and lightning-induced events, etc.) is not yet fully understood. Variations of Saturn's radiance at 5.2 microns, a spectral region dominated by thermal emission in an atmospheric window containing weak gaseous absorption, contain a strong axisymmetric component as well as large discrete features at low and mid-latitudes that are several degrees colder than the planetary average and uncorrelated with features at shorter wavelengths that are dominated by reflected sunlight (Yanamandra-Fisher et al., 2001. Icarus, Vol. 150). The characterization of several fundamental atmospheric properties and processes, however, remains incomplete, namely: How do seasons affect (a) the global distribution of gaseous constituents and aerosols; and (b) temperatures and the stability against convection and large scale-atmospheric transport? Do 5-micron clouds have counterparts at other altitude levels? What changes occur during the emergence of Great White Storms? Data acquired at the NASA/IRTF and NAOJ/Subaru from 1995 - 2011; since 2004, high-resolution multi-spectral and high-spatial imaging data acquired by the NASA/ESA Cassini mission, represents half a Saturnian year or two seasons. With the addition of detailed multi-spectral data sets acquired by amateur observers, we study these dramatic phenomena to better understand the timeline of the evolution of these events. Seasonal (or temporal) trends in the observables such as albedo of the clouds, thermal fields of the atmosphere as function of altitude, development of clouds, hazes and global abundances of various hydrocarbons in the atmosphere can now be modeled. We will present results of our ongoing investigation for the search and characterization of periodicities over half a Saturnian year, based on a non-biased a priori approach and time series techniques (such as

  15. Early Childhood Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: The Influence of Intellectual Levels, Cultural Values, and Explicit Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Donnelly, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    This study tracked the influence of explicit reflective instructional methods on cultural values, ethical and intellectual development, and the relationship of these with preservice teachers' views of nature of science (NOS). The researchers used the Views of Nature of Science Form B (VNOS B) to describe NOS views, the Learning Context…

  16. Effects of Reflective Inquiry Instructional Technique on Students' Academic Achievement and Ability Level in Electronic Work Trade in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Owodunni, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of reflective inquiry instructional technique on achievement of students in Technical Colleges. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group, quasi-experimental research design which involved groups of students in their intact class assigned to experimental group and control…

  17. Mars: destructive and constructive processes in its crust reflecting tendencies of leveling angular momenta of tropics and extra-tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Mars: destructive and constructive processes in its crust reflecting tendencies of leveling angular momenta of tropics and extra-tropics. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences A globular shape of rotating celestial bodies means that their tropical and extra-tropical belts have significantly different angular momenta. But such unevenness in a single body is disturbing because it increases level of tectonic stresses and energetic state what is against natural trends for minimizing these characteristics. To level partly this inequality bodies tend to diminish radius and mass in tropics and increase them in extra-tropics. Traces of these destructive and constructive actions are fixed in planetary geospheres of different classes of celestial bodies: Sun, planets, satellites, and asteroids. The remote geologic mapping of Mars reveals these traces rather obviously. "Mysterious" contact zone of the martian lowlands and highlands with obvious traces of destruction expressed in widespread development of chaotic and fretted terrains is a good evidence that could be considered in comparison with the equatorial and tropical belts of some other planetary bodies [1]. At Earth the wide planetary long tropical zone is marked by its destruction. It is demonstrated by development of numerous islands of the Archipelago between the South-East Asia and Australia. In Africa and South America huge depressions of the Congo and Amazon Rivers develops where the Archean crust is subsided to depths of more than 2 km. In the Pacific along the equator numerous islands of Micronesia occur. Subsidence of the basaltic oceanic crust is followed by an intensive folding and faulting of basalt and sedimentary layers as a larger mass must be held by a smaller space (a planetary radius is diminished). Seismicity of the tropical zone is significantly higher than outside of it that means more intensive destruction in the crust and the upper mantle of tropics. Mantle derived diamonds are

  18. Anomalous reflections from the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givishvili, G. V.; Leshchenko, L. N.

    2013-09-01

    The existence of anomalous ionospheric reflections was shown on the basis of vertical soundings at the Moskow station. They are observed at heights of 100-200 km. These anomalous reflections are not related to the main Ne( h) ionospheric profile. Morphological characteristics of such reflections are presented: the daily, seasonal, and cyclic dependences of their appearance.

  19. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  20. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3–0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14–0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  1. Students' with visual impairments conceptions of causes of seasonal change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Tiffany A.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand and describe the misconceptions that may exist among students with visual impairments and instructional techniques that may help them learn scientific concepts of seasonal change. Teachers' perceptions of student learning were also examined. Data were obtained from students 1 week prior to and 2 weeks after instruction. Students in a comparison group received traditional instruction concerning seasonal change that included textbooks, 3-D models, and lectures. Students in an inquiry-based group received instruction that included student generated models, graphs of temperature data, and 3-D models. Students who participated in the traditional instruction all exhibited alternative conceptions before instruction. Reasons for seasons included the Earth's rotation on its axis, a change in distance between the Earth and the Sun, and the Earth's tilt moving back and forth as it orbited the Sun. After instruction, students in this group all continued to exhibit alternative understandings of seasons. Only one student in this group held a scientific fragment (e.g., Earth orbiting the Sun) within his alternative explanation. The comparison group teacher believed that his students had a scientific understanding of the cause of seasons after completion of the curriculum which did not reflect students' actual documented learning. Students who were members of the inquiry-based group also had alternative conceptions before instruction. Reasons for seasons included the Earth's tilt moving back and forth as it orbited the Sun, a change in the amount of moisture levels in the atmosphere, and the rotation of the Earth on its axis. One student was able to explain that the Earth orbited the Sun, but could not explain how this motion caused seasons. After instruction, students in this group all had scientific understandings of seasons or scientific fragments, and none held alternative understandings. The inquiry-based group teacher

  2. Water-level changes in the high plains aquifer underlying parts of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas; predevelopment through nonirrigation season 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kastner, W.M.; Schild, D.E.; Spahr, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The changes in water levels in the High Plains aquifer from the nonirrigation season 1986-87 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 and from the nonirrigation season 1979-80 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 are presented in maps for the entire High Plains aquifer area. Water level changes are caused by interacting changes in precipitation, land use, and annual pumpage. Water levels declined from conditions prior to development until 1980 through parts of the High Plains of Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. From 1980 through 1987 water level changes were mixed, with declines of more than 10 ft in the highly developed areas of Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas and relatively stable to rising water tables throughout the remaining aquifer area. The net change was a rise of 0.8 ft. The 1981-87 period was generally wetter than normal and pumping for irrigated agriculture was therefore reduced. Water level changes were mixed during 1987. Declines continued in some highly developed areas, but water levels generally rose throughout most of the aquifer. The average area-weighted change was a rise of 0.28 ft. This rise was due to the generally greater than normal precipitation, decreased acreage under irrigation, and decreased pumpage for those areas irrigated. At the end of the growing season, the drought in the Midwest in 1988 affected only limited areas of the High Plains. The effects of the drought on water levels can not be assessed until the water-level measurements for the nonirrigation season of 1988-89 are compiled. (USGS)

  3. NMR-metabolomics profiling of mammary gland secretory tissue and milk serum in two goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to seasonal weight loss.

    PubMed

    Palma, Mariana; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Castro, Noemí; Arguëllo, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Matzapetakis, Manolis; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2016-06-21

    Goats are of special importance in the Mediterranean and tropical regions for producing a variety of dairy products. The scarcity of pastures during the dry season leads to seasonal weight loss (SWL), which affects milk production. In this work, we studied the effect of feed-restriction on two dairy goat breeds, with different tolerance levels to SWL: the Majorera breed (tolerant) and the Palmera breed (susceptible). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to compare the metabolome of an aqueous fraction of the mammary gland and milk serum from both breeds. Goats in mid-lactation were divided by breed, and each in two feed-regime groups: the control group and the restricted-fed group (to achieve 15-20% reduction of body weight at the end of the experiment). Milk and mammary gland samples were collected at the end of the experimental period (23rd day). (1)H NMR spectra were collected from the aqueous extract of the mammary gland biopsies and the milk serum. Profiling analysis has led to the identification of 46 metabolites in the aqueous extract of the mammary gland. Lactose, glutamate, glycine and lactate were found to be the most abundant. Analysis of milk serum allowed the identification of 50 metabolites, the most abundant being lactose, citrate and creatine. Significant differences were observed, in mammary gland biopsies and milk serum, between control and restricted-fed groups in both breeds, albeit with no differences between the breeds. Variations seem to be related to metabolism adaptation to the low-energy diet and are indicative of breed-specific microflora. Milk serum showed more metabolites varying between control and restricted groups, than the mammary gland. The Majorera breed also showed more variations than the Palmera breed in milk samples, which could be an indication of a prompt adaptation to SWL by the Majorera breed. PMID:27001028

  4. Diurnal Dynamics of Canopy-Level Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Spectral Reflectance Indices in a Cornfield throughout the 2008 Growing Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With climate changes rapidly occurring, the terrestrial ecosystem and remote sensing science communities have a common goal: to employ hyperspectral information to assess vegetation productivity and down-regulation due to environmental stresses on a global scale. This is the rationale for the Fluo...

  5. Assessment and comparison of extreme sea levels and waves during the 2013/2014 storm season in two UK coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadey, M. P.; Brown, J. M.; Haigh, I. D.; Dolphin, T.; Wisse, P.

    2015-04-01

    The extreme sea levels and waves experienced around the UK's coast during the 2013/2014 winter caused extensive coastal flooding and damage. In such circumstances, coastal managers seek to place such extremes in relation to the anticipated standards of flood protection, and the long-term recovery of the natural system. In this context, return periods are often used as a form of guidance. We therefore provide these levels for the winter storms, as well as discussing their application to the given data sets and case studies (two UK case study sites: Sefton, northwest England; and Suffolk, east England). We use tide gauge records and wave buoy data to compare the 2013/2014 storms with return periods from a national dataset, and also generate joint probabilities of sea level and waves, incorporating the recent events. The UK was hit at a national scale by the 2013/2014 storms, although the return periods differ with location. We also note that the 2013/2014 high water and waves were extreme due to the number of events, as well as the extremity of the 5 December 2013 "Xaver" storm, which had a very high return period at both case study sites. Our return period analysis shows that the national scale impact of this event is due to its coincidence with spring high tide at multiple locations as the tide and storm propagated across the continental shelf. Given that this event is such an outlier in the joint probability analyses of these observed data sets, and that the season saw several events in close succession, coastal defences appear to have provided a good level of protection. This type of assessment should be recorded alongside details of defence performance and upgrade, with other variables (e.g. river levels at estuarine locations) included and appropriate offsetting for linear trends (e.g. mean sea level rise) so that the storm-driven component of coastal flood events can be determined. Local offsetting of the mean trends in sea level allows long-term comparison of

  6. Electronic structure near the Fermi level in the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs studied by ultrafast time-resolved light-induced reflectivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tomoaki; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Terada, Hiroshi; Muneta, Iriya; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu

    2016-06-01

    Clarification of the electronic structure near the Fermi level is important in understanding the origin of ferromagnetism in the prototypical ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs. Here, we perform ultrafast transient reflectivity spectra measurement, which is a powerful tool for selective detection of absorption edges in GaMnAs. The results show that the Fermi level of GaMnAs exists in the band gap. By using the Kramers-Kronig relation, we find the Mn-induced electronic states around the Fermi level, confirming that the ferromagnetism is stabilized by spin-polarized impurity-band holes.

  7. Assessment of Microcirculatory Hemoglobin Levels in Normal and Diabetic Subjects using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Visible Region — a Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujatha, N.; Anand, B. S. Suresh; Nivetha, K. Bala; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, R.

    2015-07-01

    Light-based diagnostic techniques provide a minimally invasive way for selective biomarker estimation when tissues transform from a normal to a malignant state. Spectroscopic techniques based on diffuse reflectance characterize the changes in tissue hemoglobin/oxygenation levels during the tissue transformation process. Recent clinical investigations have shown that changes in tissue oxygenation and microcirculation are observed in diabetic subjects in the initial and progressive stages. In this pilot study, we discuss the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the visible (Vis) range to differentiate the skin microcirculatory hemoglobin levels between normal and advanced diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. Average concentration of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the probed tissue volume is estimated for a total of four different sites in the foot sole. The results indicate a statistically significant decrease in average total hemoglobin and increase in hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels for diabetic foot compared with a normal foot. The present study demonstrates the ability of reflectance spectroscopy in the Vis range to determine and differentiate the changes in tissue hemoglobin and hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels in normal and diabetic subjects.

  8. WET AND DRY SEASON ECOSYSTEM LEVEL FLUXES OF ISOPRENE AND MONOTERPENES FROM A SOUTHEAST ASIAN SECONDARY FOREST AND RUBBER TREE PLANTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Canopy scale fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were investigated in both wet and dry seasons above a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)/secondary tropical forest in the Yunnan province of southwestern China. Drought conditions were unusually high during the dry season experiment....

  9. Leaf demography and physiology of the Tapajós National Forest: could phenology cause a forest-level increase in gross primary productivity during the dry season?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, L.; Wu, J.; Prohaska, N.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Cosme, R., Jr.; Huxman, T. E.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests such as the forests of the Amazon basin are a significant component of the earth's carbon budget, yet how these forests respond to seasonal changes in weather, along with the extent to which tree biology synchronizes with seasonal cycles, are poorly understood. For evergreen forests in equatorial Amazon that experience dry seasons, most global vegetation models project a dry-season decrease in gross primary productivity (GPP). However, eddy covariance observations and remote sensing assessments suggest a late-dry season increase in GPP. Most global vegetation models assume that there is no seasonal variation in leaf phenology (cycles of leaf flush and senescence), or in leaf physiology. We conducted a case study in the Tapajos National Forest KM67 site, near Santarém, Brazil, to investigate whether leaf aging and seasonal shifts in leaf demography could cause an increase in GPP during the dry season. In a series of fieldwork campaigns beginning in August 2012, we monitored leaf demographic composition (leaf age categories) from 1-m branches collected from 20 trees representing abundant species, and we assessed how photosynthesis varies with leaf age for a subset of these trees. Our results show that photosynthetic capacity (e.g. Vcmax) is higher for leaves that matured during the most recent dry season than for older leaves from previous periods of growth. For many trees, leaf demography shifted during the dry season such that recently matured leaves replaced old leaves. For instance, leaf demography of an Erisma uncinatum, the most abundant canopy tree species at our site, had significantly more recently matured leaves, and significantly fewer old leaves, during surveys late in the dry season (after mid-October) than early in the dry season (prior to mid-September). These results suggest that shifts in leaf demography together with the effects of leaf age on leaf physiology can increase GPP during the dry season at the KM67 site. Thus, leaf

  10. Seasonal variations in calcidiol and parathyroid hormone levels in healthy children and adolescents in Navarre, Spain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the seasonal variations in calcidiol and parathyroid hormone serum levels along a natural year in a paediatric population living in a region of the north of Spain considering a normal nutrition status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain. Participants A total of 413 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4 years): 227 school children (96 males and 131 females) and 186 adolescents (94 males and 92 females), with normal nutritional status. Main outcome measures Clinical examination (sex, age, weight, height and body mass index) and blood testing (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone) during the year 2014. Results Calcidiol levels were lower during spring (25.96 ± 6.64 ng/mL) and reached its maximum level in summer (35.33 ± 7.51 ng/mL); parathyroid hormone levels were lower in summer (27.13 ± 7.89 pg/mL) and reached maximum level in autumn (34.73 ± 15.38 pg/mL). Hypovitaminosis D prevalence was 14.3% in summer and 75.3% in spring. Parathyroid hormone levels were compatible with secondary hyperparathyroidism in eight individuals (1.9%). There is a correlation (p < 0.01) between calcidiol and parathyroid hormone (r = −0.336). Logistic regression showed significant increased risk of hypovitaminosis in females (OR:1.63) and adolescents (OR:1.77), and when blood samples taken in autumn (OR:12.22), winter (OR:8.54) and spring (OR:19.72). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the paediatric population with a healthy nutrition situation in Navarre, mainly during the months of autumn and winter, and, especially, in spring time. Given the difficulties in maintaining a sufficient amount of body vitamin D content along the year, it should be considered to give vitamin supplements and/or increase the intake of its natural dietary sources or vitamin D fortified foods. PMID:27066262

  11. Viewing Seasonality in 8 Megacities at 4 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewska, M. A.; Kovalskyy, V.; Small, C.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    The middle infrared (MIR) spectral region, between 3 and 5 microns, offers a different perspective on cities. The MIR is the mixing zone of both emitted terrestrial radiation and reflected solar radiation. The relatively long wavelengths enable views of surfaces often obscured by anthropogenic haze. Green vegetation appears very dark in the MIR due to high absorption by leaf water. In contrast, building, roofing, and paving materials reflect much MIR and exposed soils and dried vegetation reflect even more. Thus, physics dictates a strong expression of seasonality in the MIR. But is there sufficient signal in the MIR to merit it as a complementary approach for characterizing urbanized areas and monitoring their dynamics? We have explored this question in a research effort that links two NASA Interdisciplinary Science projects on the effect of cities on the environment. We focused on 8 global megacities: Beijing, Cairo, Istanbul, Mexico, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, and São Paulo. We used Level 1B calibrated radiance data from band 23 (~4 microns) of the Aqua MODIS during ascending passes in 2010. These 1 km data were processed to reduce cloud cover using monthly maximum value compositing into four sensor view zenith angle (VZA) classes: 0seasonal patterns of MIR radiance varied, as expected, by latitude, with very strong seasonality effects at higher latitudes (Beijing, Cairo, Istanbul, Moscow), and lesser to minimal seasonal signals evident in the tropics (Mexico City, Nairobi, São Paulo). The monsoon imposed strong MIR seasonality in New Delhi. The strength of the seasonality was modulated by the VZA with smaller VZAs (<30°) showing higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than larger VZAs (>30°). SNR was higher in the summer

  12. A Three Year Study on 14 VOCs at One Site in Rome: Levels, Seasonal Variations, Indoor/Outdoor Ratio and Temporal Trends

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Sergio; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds—were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown. PMID:21139860

  13. Measurement of serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein to monitor patients with seasonal respiratory allergy induced by Parietaria pollen (treated and untreated with specific immunotherapy).

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Russo, M; Saggese, M; D'Amato, M

    1996-04-01

    This trial studied the behavior of a marker of eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), in the peripheral blood of two groups of subjects with seasonal allergic respiratory symptoms (rhinitis and mild bronchial asthma) induced by pollen allergens of Parietaria judaica (P.j.) (one group treated and another untreated with specific immunotherapy [SIT]), to determine what contribution these serial measurements might provide, in comparison with various other tools now available for pollinosis monitoring. In a previously randomized order, we selected 25 patients with monosensitization to P.j. pollen allergens; among them, 12 had started SIT with a P.j. extract in autumn 1993. As a control group, 13 patients were untreated. All patients were studied with various tests at four different times: time I-November 1993; time II-February 1994; time III-end of May 1994; and time IV-September 1994. Blood samples for determination of serum ECP were collected at each time. Methacholine challenge tests were performed at times I and III. A pollen count was also carried out. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in mean ECP levels at times I and III in SIT treated and untreated patients. The interaction between groups and time was not significant. No statistically significant difference was found between PD20 FEV1 values at times I and III in either group. After 1 year of treatment, we did not find any effect of SIT on bronchial hyperresponsiveness or on ECP serum values. PMID:8792921

  14. Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide levels of sea and cultured farm fish in the Samsun region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Guvenc, Dilek; Yavuz, Oguzhan; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Atmaca, Enes

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations of selected Organochlorine (OC) pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, 2,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) (28, 70, 74, 81, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183, 187) were measured in two species of cultured freshwater fish (rainbow trout, Oncornhychus mykiss and catfish, Silurus glanis) and two kinds of sea fish (mullet, Mugil cephalus and salmon, Salmo salar) between March 2008 and June 2009 in order to evaluate the status, seasonal changes and potential sources of pollution in the Samsun region of Turkey. Concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 17.6 to 335 ng/g in rainbow trout, 1,063 to 3,234 ng/g in mullet, 21 to 1,887 ng/g in salmon and 108 to 1,172 ng/g lipid in catfish and total OC pesticide concentrations ranged from 303 to 473, 319 to 6,158, 101 to 249 and 34 to 6,069 ng/g lipid in rainbow trout, mullet, salmon and catfish, respectively. It is concluded that the levels of persistent organic pollutants should be monitored regularly and rigorously by the appropriate government agency, with mandatory public reporting. PMID:22358117

  15. Calving season is a stronger determinant of worm burdens in pasture-based beef production than the level of residual larval contamination at turnout

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, J.; Hessle, A.; Dahlström, F.

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of (1) calving period (early or late) and (2) overwintering contamination by residual infective larvae (high or low) on subsequent exposure of suckler calves to gastrointestinal nematodes was investigated. We found that the effect of calving date was greater than the level of residual contamination. This was because the adult cows produced large quantities of manure containing small amounts of nematode eggs from turnout, which significantly contaminated the pasture, and thereby, reduced the effect of prior high-low contamination. Early born calves were found to be more heavily exposed to parasites, most likely due to ingesting more herbage than those born later. Late-born calves also had relatively high antibody levels at turnout, which first decreased and then increased again. We suggest that the high antibody levels at turnout reflect passive transfer of maternal antibodies through the milk. There was also a significant difference in animal performance, with the more heavily exposed early born calves having significantly lower daily weight gain than the late-born calves. However, this might not be entirely due to increased parasitism. PMID:23482238

  16. Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  17. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-02-23

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  18. Are Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels Reflective of Amygdala Activation during the Processing of Negative Emotions? A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Motoki, Kosuke; Sugiura, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects) and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with trait plasma OT (anxiolytic effects) and AVP (anxiogenic effects) levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female) using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men. PMID:27092094

  19. Are Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels Reflective of Amygdala Activation during the Processing of Negative Emotions? A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Kosuke; Sugiura, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects) and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with trait plasma OT (anxiolytic effects) and AVP (anxiogenic effects) levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female) using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men. PMID:27092094

  20. Spatial and Seasonal CH4 Flux in the Littoral Zone of Miyun Reservoir near Beijing: The Effects of Water Level and Its Fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Geng, Xuemeng; Grace, John; Lu, Cai; Zhu, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands, and especially their littoral zones, are considered to be CH4 emissions hotspots. The recent creation of reservoirs has caused a rapid increase in the area of the world’s littoral zones. To investigate the effects of water depth and water level fluctuation on CH4 fluxes, and how these are coupled with vegetation and nutrients, we used static closed chamber and gas chromatography techniques to measure CH4 fluxes in the littoral zone of a large reservoir near Beijing, China, from November 2011 to October 2012. We found that CH4 flux decreased significantly along a transect from open water to dry land, from 3.1 mg m−2 h−1 at the deep water site to approximately 1.3 mg m−2 h−1 at the shallow water site, and less than 0.01 mg m−2 h−1 in the non-flooded area. Water level influenced CH4 flux by affecting soil properties including soil redox potential, soil carbon and nitrogen, and bulk density. The largest emission of all was from the seasonally flooded site after a flooding event (up to 21.1 mg m−2 h−1), which may have been caused by vegetation decomposition. Submerged sites had greater emissions, while the driest site had lower emissions. Immediately after the monthly measurements had been made, we removed the aboveground vegetation to enable an assessment of the gas transportation per unit of biomass. Removal of biomass decreased emissions by up to 53%. These results indicated the dominant effect of water depth on CH4 flux through effects of soil conditions, plant species composition and distribution. This study suggests that temporally flooded wetlands, including littoral zones, contribute significantly to the global CH4 burden. However, the current challenge is to capture their spatial extent and temporal variation in the fluxes. PMID:24710279

  1. Spatial and seasonal CH4 flux in the littoral zone of Miyun Reservoir near Beijing: the effects of water level and its fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Geng, Xuemeng; Grace, John; Lu, Cai; Zhu, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands, and especially their littoral zones, are considered to be CH4 emissions hotspots. The recent creation of reservoirs has caused a rapid increase in the area of the world's littoral zones. To investigate the effects of water depth and water level fluctuation on CH4 fluxes, and how these are coupled with vegetation and nutrients, we used static closed chamber and gas chromatography techniques to measure CH4 fluxes in the littoral zone of a large reservoir near Beijing, China, from November 2011 to October 2012. We found that CH4 flux decreased significantly along a transect from open water to dry land, from 3.1 mg m(-2) h(-1) at the deep water site to approximately 1.3 mg m(-2) h(-1) at the shallow water site, and less than 0.01 mg m(-2) h(-1) in the non-flooded area. Water level influenced CH4 flux by affecting soil properties including soil redox potential, soil carbon and nitrogen, and bulk density. The largest emission of all was from the seasonally flooded site after a flooding event (up to 21.1 mg m(-2) h(-1)), which may have been caused by vegetation decomposition. Submerged sites had greater emissions, while the driest site had lower emissions. Immediately after the monthly measurements had been made, we removed the aboveground vegetation to enable an assessment of the gas transportation per unit of biomass. Removal of biomass decreased emissions by up to 53%. These results indicated the dominant effect of water depth on CH4 flux through effects of soil conditions, plant species composition and distribution. This study suggests that temporally flooded wetlands, including littoral zones, contribute significantly to the global CH4 burden. However, the current challenge is to capture their spatial extent and temporal variation in the fluxes. PMID:24710279

  2. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis.

  3. Do glucocorticoids in droppings reflect baseline level in birds captured in the wild? A case study in snow geese.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Picard, Gérald; Bêty, Joël

    2011-07-01

    Baseline glucocorticoid (CORT) levels in plasma are increasingly used as physiological indices of the relative condition or health of individuals and populations. The major limitation is that CORT production is stimulated by the stress associated with capture and handling. Measuring fecal CORT is one way to solve this problem because elevation of fecal CORT usually does not occur before 1-12h after a stressful event in captive animals. However, the effect of capture and handling on fecal CORT levels has seldom been investigated in the wild. In a first experiment, we validated that fecal CORT levels starts to increase in droppings (a mixture of fecal and urinary material) about 1-2h following injection of CORT-release hormone (ACTH) in captive greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). In a second experiment, we investigated whether dropping and plasma CORT were related and if the capture affected fecal CORT levels in wild birds. Baseline CORT was obtained by bleeding individuals within 4 min after capture. No relationship was found between baseline and CORT in droppings shortly after capture (<4 min). In addition, CORT levels in droppings increased linearly with time after capture and was already elevated by a factor two 40 min after capture. The different turnover time of CORT between urine and feces could explain such results. We conclude that droppings cannot provide an index of basal CORT levels in snow geese captured in the wild. Such a result contrast with previous studies conducted on habituated, captive animals. We thus recommend that use of droppings as a non-invasive technique to measure baseline CORT be restricted to non-manipulated individuals in the wild. PMID:21510949

  4. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

  5. The sensitivity of wood production to seasonal and interannual variations in climate in a lowland Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Lucy; Malhi, Y; Silva-Espejo, J E; Farfán-Amézquita, F; Halladay, K; Doughty, C E; Meir, P; Phillips, O L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding climatic controls on tropical forest productivity is key to developing more reliable models for predicting how tropical biomes may respond to climate change. Currently there is no consensus on which factors control seasonal changes in tropical forest tree growth. This study reports the first comprehensive plot-level description of the seasonality of growth in a Peruvian tropical forest. We test whether seasonal and interannual variations in climate are correlated with changes in biomass increment, and whether such relationships differ among trees with different functional traits. We found that biomass increments, measured every 3 months on the two plots, were reduced by between 40 and 55% in the peak dry season (July-September) relative to peak wet season (January-March). The seasonal patterns of biomass accumulation are significantly (p < 0.01) associated with seasonal patterns of rainfall and soil water content; however, this may reflect a synchrony of seasonal cycles rather than direct physiological controls on tree growth rates. The strength of the growth seasonality response among trees is significantly correlated to functional traits: consistent with a hypothesised trade-off between maximum potential growth rate and hydraulic safety, tall and fast-growing trees with broad stems had the most strongly seasonal biomass accumulation, suggesting that they are more productive in the wet season, but more vulnerable to water limitation in the dry season. PMID:24026500

  6. Low urinary indoxyl sulfate levels early after transplantation reflect a disrupted microbiome and are associated with poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniela; Oefner, Peter J; Hiergeist, Andreas; Koestler, Josef; Gessner, André; Weber, Markus; Hahn, Joachim; Wolff, Daniel; Stämmler, Frank; Spang, Rainer; Herr, Wolfgang; Dettmer, Katja; Holler, Ernst

    2015-10-01

    Indole, which is produced from l-tryptophan by commensal bacteria expressing tryptophanase, not only is an important intercellular signal in microbial communities, but also modulates mucosal barrier function and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes by intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesized that decreased urinary excretion of 3-indoxyl sulfate (3-IS), the major conjugate of indole found in humans, may be a marker of gut microbiota disruption and increased risk of developing gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host-disease. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, 3-IS was determined in urine specimens collected weekly within the first 28 days after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in 131 patients. Low 3-IS levels within the first 10 days after ASCT were associated with significantly higher transplant-related mortality (P = .017) and worse overall survival (P = .05) 1 year after ASCT. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression models trained on log-normalized counts of 763 operational taxonomic units derived from next-generation sequencing of the hypervariable V3 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene showed members of the families of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae of the class of Clostridia to be associated with high urinary 3-IS levels, whereas members of the class of Bacilli were associated with low 3-IS levels. Risk factors of early suppression of 3-IS levels were the type of GI decontamination (P = .01), early onset of antibiotic treatment (P = .001), and recipient NOD2/CARD15 genotype (P = .04). In conclusion, our findings underscore the relevance of microbiota-derived indole and metabolites thereof in mucosal integrity and protection from inflammation. PMID:26209659

  7. Elevated basal FSH levels, if it is under 15 IU/L, will not reflect poor ART outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Koji; Nakashima, Akira; Horikawa, Takashi; Ohgi, Shirei; Saito, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose For this study, the impact of basal FSH levels on ART outcomes was assessed. Methods From June 2003 to May 2006, 191 ART cycles were performed in our hospital. All cases were treated with GnRH-a long protocol. The patients were classified according to their basal FSH level as follows: group A: FSH < 10 IU/l, group B: 10 ≦ FSH < 15 IU/l, and group C: 15 IU/l ≦ FSH. ART outcomes were compared among the three groups. Results The number of retrieved oocytes in group A was significantly higher than in group B, but fertilized oocytes and the pregnancy rates were comparable. The pregnancy rate in group C was not significantly lower than those found in either group A or B, but the trend was lower. Conclusion Oocytes retrieved from the patients who showed basal FSH levels below 15 IU/l were found to possess significant pregnancy potential. PMID:18228128

  8. Comparison of seasonal phenol and p-cresol emissions from ground-level area sources in a dairy operation in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Borhan, M S; Capareda, S; Mukhtar, S; Faulkner, W B; McGee, R; Parnell, C B

    2012-04-01

    Although there are more than 200 odor-causing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenol and p-cresol are two prominent odor-causing VOCs found downwind from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The VOC emissions from cattle and dairy production are difficult to quantify accurately because of their low concentrations, spatial variability, and limitations of available instruments. To quantify VOCs, a protocol following US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method TO-14A has been established based on the isolation flux chamber method and a portable gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a purge-and-trap system. The general objective of this research was to quantify phenol and p-cresol emission rates (ERs) from different ground-level area sources (GLASs) in a free-stall dairy during summer and winter seasons using this protocol. Two-week-long sampling campaigns were conducted in a dairy operation in central Texas. Twenty-nine air samples were collected during winter and 37 samples were collected during summer from six specifically delineated GLASs (barn, loafing pen, lagoon, settling basin, silage pile, and walkway) at the free-stall dairy. Thirteen VOCs were identified during the sampling period and the GC was calibrated for phenol and p-cresol, the primary odorous VOCs identified. The overall calculated ERs for phenol and p-cresol were 2656 +/- 728 and 763 +/- 212 mg hd(-1) day(-1), respectively, during winter. Overall phenol and p-cresol ERs were calculated to be 1183 +/- 361 and 551 +/- 214 mg hd(-1) day(-1), respectively, during summer. In general, overall phenol and p-cresol ERs during winter were about 2.3 and 1.4 times, respectively, higher than those during summer. PMID:22616280

  9. Seasonal prevalence of MS disease activity(Podcast)

    PubMed Central

    Meier, D.S.; Balashov, K.E.; Healy, B.; Weiner, H.L.; Guttmann, C.R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This observational cohort study investigated the seasonal prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity (likelihood and intensity), as reflected by new lesions from serial T2-weighted MRI, a sensitive marker of subclinical disease activity. Methods: Disease activity was assessed from the appearance of new T2 lesions on 939 separate brain MRI examinations in 44 untreated patients with MS. Likelihood functions for MS disease activity were derived, accounting for the temporal uncertainty of new lesion occurrence, individual levels of disease activity, and uneven examination intervals. Both likelihood and intensity of disease activity were compared with the time of year (season) and regional climate data (temperature, solar radiation, precipitation) and among relapsing and progressive disease phenotypes. Contrast-enhancing lesions and attack counts were also compared for seasonal effects. Results: Unlike contrast enhancement or attacks, new T2 activity revealed a likelihood 2–3 times higher in March–August than during the rest of the year, and correlated strongly with regional climate data, in particular solar radiation. In addition to the likelihood or prevalence, disease intensity was also elevated during the summer season. The elevated risk season appears to lessen for progressive MS and occur about 2 months earlier. Conclusion: This study documents evidence of a strong seasonal pattern in subclinical MS activity based on noncontrast brain MRI. The observed seasonality in MS disease activity has implications for trial design and therapy assessment. The observed activity pattern is suggestive of a modulating role of seasonally changing environmental factors or season-dependent metabolic activity. GLOSSARY CEL = contrast-enhancing lesions; MS = multiple sclerosis. PMID:20805526

  10. Combined Inflammatory and Metabolic Defects Reflected by Reduced Serum Protein Levels in Patients with Buruli Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Oldenburg, Reid; Frimpong, Michael; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Abass, Kabiru; Thompson, William; Forson, Mark; Fontanet, Arnaud; Niang, Fatoumata; Demangel, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is spreading in tropical countries, with major public health and economic implications in West Africa. Multi-analyte profiling of serum proteins in patients and endemic controls revealed that Buruli ulcer disease down-regulates the circulating levels of a large array of inflammatory mediators, without impacting on the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood. Notably, several proteins contributing to acute phase reaction, lipid metabolism, coagulation and tissue remodelling were also impacted. Their down-regulation was selective and persisted after the elimination of bacteria with antibiotic therapy. It involved proteins with various functions and origins, suggesting that M. ulcerans infection causes global and chronic defects in the host's protein metabolism. Accordingly, patients had reduced levels of total serum proteins and blood urea, in the absence of signs of malnutrition, or functional failure of liver or kidney. Interestingly, slow healers had deeper metabolic and coagulation defects at the start of antibiotic therapy. In addition to providing novel insight into Buruli ulcer pathogenesis, our study therefore identifies a unique proteomic signature for this disease. PMID:24722524

  11. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  12. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  13. Transcript Level Alterations Reflect Gene Dosage Effects Across Multiple Tissues in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kahlem, Pascal; Sultan, Marc; Herwig, Ralf; Steinfath, Matthias; Balzereit, Daniela; Eppens, Barbara; Saran, Nidhi G.; Pletcher, Mathew T.; South, Sarah T.; Stetten, Gail; Lehrach, Hans; Reeves, Roger H.; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    2004-01-01

    Human trisomy 21, which results in Down syndrome (DS), is one of the most complicated congenital genetic anomalies compatible with life, yet little is known about the molecular basis of DS. It is generally accepted that chromosome 21 (Chr21) transcripts are overexpressed by about 50% in cells with an extra copy of this chromosome. However, this assumption is difficult to test in humans due to limited access to tissues, and direct support for this idea is available for only a few Chr21 genes or in a limited number of tissues. The Ts65Dn mouse is widely used as a model for studies of DS because it is at dosage imbalance for the orthologs of about half of the 284 Chr21 genes. Ts65Dn mice have several features that directly parallel developmental anomalies of DS. Here we compared the expression of 136 mouse orthologs of Chr21 genes in nine tissues of the trisomic and euploid mice. Nearly all of the 77 genes which are at dosage imbalance in Ts65Dn showed increased transcript levels in the tested tissues, providing direct support for a simple model of increased transcription proportional to the gene copy number. However, several genes escaped this rule, suggesting that they may be controlled by additional tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms revealed in the trisomic situation. PMID:15231742

  14. The Health Literacy of Hong Kong Chinese Parents with Preschool Children in Seasonal Influenza Prevention: A Multiple Case Study at Household Level

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Health literacy influences individual and family health behaviour, health services use, and ultimately health outcomes and health care costs. In Hong Kong, people are at risk of seasonal influenza infection twice a year for three-month periods. Seasonal influenza is significantly associated with an increased number of hospitalized children. There is no research that provides an understanding of parents’ health knowledge and their access to health information concerning seasonal influenza, nor their capacity to effectively manage influenza episodes in household. Such knowledge provides valuable insight into enhancing parents’ health literacy to effectively communicate health messages to their children and support healthy behaviour development through role modelling. Methods A multiple case study was employed to gain a multifaceted understanding of parents’ health literacy regarding seasonal influenza prevention. Purposive intensity sampling was adopted to recruit twenty Hong Kong Chinese parents with a healthy three-to-five year old preschool child from three kindergartens. A content analysis was employed to categorize, tabulate and combine data to address the propositions of the study. Comprehensive comparisons were made across cases to reveal the commonalities and differences. Results Four major themes were identified: inadequate parents' knowledge and reported skills and practices related to seasonal influenza prevention; parental knowledge seeking and exchange practices through social connection; parents’ approaches to health information and limited enabling environments including shortage of health resources and uneven resource allocation for health promotion. Conclusions The findings recommend that community health professionals can play a critical role in increasing parents’ functional, interactive and critical health literacy; important elements when planning and implementing seasonal influenza health promotion. PMID:26624284

  15. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level does not reflect intestinal calcium absorption: an assay using strontium as a surrogate marker.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Marília Brasilio Rodrigues; Vilaça, Tatiane; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Rocha, Olguita G Ferreira; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2015-05-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to the optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration for intestinal calcium absorption (Abs-Ca). Our purpose was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and Abs-Ca in postmenopausal women. Fifty volunteers with low bone mass were grouped according to their serum 25(OH)D concentration as follows: mild deficient, <50 nmol/L (DEF) and sufficient, ≥75 nmol/L (SUF). The subjects were submitted to an oral strontium overload test to assess their Abs-Ca. Fasting blood samples were obtained to perform the relevant hormonal and biochemical tests. After the subjects received the test solution, blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min to determine the strontium concentrations. Abs-Ca was indirectly expressed as the area under the serum strontium concentration curve (AUC). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine the differences among the groups. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to study the associations between the variables. The mean 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations differed between the groups (SUF vs. DEF) as follows: 98.7 ± 18.2 vs. 38.4 ± 8.5 nmol/L (p < 0.001) and 36.2 ± 10.2 vs. 24.9 ± 4.6 pg/mL (p < 0.001), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for parathyroid hormone and AUC. Only 1,25(OH)2D influenced the strontium absorption in the last 2 h of the test. In the studied population, no correlation between levels of 25(OH)D and Abs-Ca was found. Only 1,25(OH)2D influenced Abs-Ca as measured by a strontium absorption test. PMID:24858975

  16. The peach volatilome modularity is reflected at the genetic and environmental response levels in a QTL mapping population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The improvement of fruit aroma is currently one of the most sought-after objectives in peach breeding programs. To better characterize and assess the genetic potential for increasing aroma quality by breeding, a quantity trait locus (QTL) analysis approach was carried out in an F1 population segregating largely for fruit traits. Results Linkage maps were constructed using the IPSC peach 9 K Infinium ® II array, rendering dense genetic maps, except in the case of certain chromosomes, probably due to identity-by-descent of those chromosomes in the parental genotypes. The variability in compounds associated with aroma was analyzed by a metabolomic approach based on GC-MS to profile 81 volatiles across the population from two locations. Quality-related traits were also studied to assess possible pleiotropic effects. Correlation-based analysis of the volatile dataset revealed that the peach volatilome is organized into modules formed by compounds from the same biosynthetic origin or which share similar chemical structures. QTL mapping showed clustering of volatile QTL included in the same volatile modules, indicating that some are subjected to joint genetic control. The monoterpene module is controlled by a unique locus at the top of LG4, a locus previously shown to affect the levels of two terpenoid compounds. At the bottom of LG4, a locus controlling several volatiles but also melting/non-melting and maturity-related traits was found, suggesting putative pleiotropic effects. In addition, two novel loci controlling lactones and esters in linkage groups 5 and 6 were discovered. Conclusions The results presented here give light on the mode of inheritance of the peach volatilome confirming previously loci controlling the aroma of peach but also identifying novel ones. PMID:24885290

  17. Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krepper, Carlos M.; García, Norberto O.; Jones, Phil D.

    2006-07-01

    The use of river flow as a surrogate to study climatic variability implies the assumption that changes in rainfall are mirrored and likely amplified in streamflow. This is probably not completely true in large basins, particularly those that encompass different climatic regions, like the Paraguay river basin. Not all the signals present in precipitation are reflected in river flow and vice versa. The complex relationship between precipitation and streamflow could filter some signals and introduce new oscillatory modes in the discharge series. In this study the whole basin (1 095 000 km2) was divided into two sub-basins. The upper basin is upstream of the confluence with the River Apa and the lower basin is between the Apa river confluence and the Puerto Bermejo measuring station. The rainfall contribution shows a clear wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. A singular spectrum analysis (SSA) shows that there are trends in rainfall contributions over the upper and lower basins. Meanwhile, the lower basin only presents a near-decadal cycle (T 10 years). To determine the flow response to seasonal rainfall contributions, an SSA was applied to seasonal flow discharges at Puerto Bermejo. The seasonal flows, Q(t)O-M and Q(t)A-S, present high significant modes in the low-frequency band, like positive trends. In addition, Q(t)O-M presents a near-decadal mode, but only significant at the 77% level for short window lengths (M ≤ 15 years). Really, the Paraguay river flow is not a good surrogate to study precipitation variation. The low-frequency signals play an important role in the flow behaviour, especially during extreme events from the second half of the last century onwards.

  18. Reflection-mode micro-spherical fiber-optic probes for in vitro real-time and single-cell level pH sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingbo; Wang, Hanzheng; Lan, Xinwei; Cheng, Baokai; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2014-01-01

    pH sensing at the single-cell level without negatively affecting living cells is very important but still a remaining issue in the biomedical studies. A 70 μm reflection-mode fiber-optic micro-pH sensor was designed and fabricated by dip-coating thin layer of organically modified aerogel onto a tapered spherical probe head. A pH sensitive fluorescent dye 2′, 7′-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was employed and covalently bonded within the aerogel networks. By tuning the alkoxide mixing ratio and adjusting hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) priming procedure, the sensor can be optimized to have high stability and pH sensing ability. The in vitro real-time sensing capability was then demonstrated in a simple spectroscopic way, and showed linear measurement responses with a pH resolution up to an average of 0.049 pH unit within a narrow, but biological meaningful pH range of 6.12–7.81. Its novel characterizations of high spatial resolution, reflection mode operation, fast response and high stability, great linear response within biological meaningful pH range and high pH resolutions, make this novel pH probe a very cost-effective tool for chemical/biological sensing, especially within the single cell level research field. PMID:25530670

  19. Structure of single-supported DMPC lipid bilayer membranes as a function of hydration level studied by neutron reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskowiec, A.; Schnase, P.; Bai, M.; Taub, H.; Hansen, F. Y.; Dubey, M.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2012-02-01

    We have recently been investigating the diffusion of water on single-supported DMPC lipid bilayer membranes at different levels of hydration, using high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS). To aid in the interpretation of these QNS studies, we have conducted neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements on SPEAR at LANSCE to characterize the structure of similarly prepared samples. Protonated DMPC membranes were deposited onto SiO2-coated Si(100) substrates and characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at different levels of hydration. We find reasonable agreement between the membrane thickness determined by NR and AFM at room temperature. We also find consistency between the scattering length density (SLD) profile in the vicinity of the upper leaflet of the supported DMPC membrane and that found in a molecular dynamics simulation of a freestanding membrane at 303 K. However, the fit to the reflectivity curve can be improved by modifying the SLD profile near the leaflet closest to the SiO2 surface.

  20. Inter-Seasonal and Annual Co-Variation of Smallholder Production Portfolios, Volumes and Incomes with Rainfall and Flood Levels in the Amazon Estuary: Implications for Building Livelihood Resilience to Increasing Variability of Hydro-Climatic Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.; Brondizio, E. S.; Almeida, O.; Rivero, S.; Rabelo, F. R.; Dou, Y.; Deadman, P.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we investigate inter-seasonal and annual co-variations of rainfall and flood levels with Caboclo production portfolios, and proportions of it they sell and consume, in the Amazon Estuary from August 2012 to August 2014. Caboclos of the estuary maintain a diverse and flexible land-use portfolio, with a shift in dominant use from agriculture to agroforestry and forestry since WWII (Vogt et al., 2014). The current landscape is configured for acai, shrimp and fish production. In the last decade the frequency of wet seasons with anomalous flood levels and duration has increased primarily from changes in rainfall and discharge from upstream basins. Local rainfall, though with less influence on extreme estuarine flood levels, is reported to be more sporadic and intense in wet season and variable in both wet and dry seasons, for yet unknown reasons. The current production portfolio and its flexibility are felt to build resilience to these increases in hydro-climatic variability and extreme events. What is less understood, for time and costliness of daily measures at household levels, is how variations in flood and rainfall levels affect shifts in the current production portfolio of estuarine Caboclos, and the proportions of it they sell and consume. This is needed to identify what local hydro-climatic thresholds are extreme for current livelihoods, that is, that most adversely affect food security and income levels. It is also needed identify the large-scale forcings driving those extreme conditions to build forecasts for when they will occur. Here we present results of production, rainfall and flood data collected daily in households from both the North and South Channel of the Amazon estuary over last two years to identify how they co-vary, and robustness of current production portfolio under different hydro-climatic conditions.

  1. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782

  2. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  3. Electronic structure near the Fermi level in the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs studied by ultrafast time-resolved light-induced reflectivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tomoaki; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Terada, Hiroshi; Muneta, Iriya; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu

    The determination of the Fermi level (EF) position is important to understand the origin of the ferromagnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs. The recent transient reflectivity (TR) spectroscopy measurement, which is potentially sensitive to the absorption edges, indicated that the EF exists in the valence band. However, the pump fluence in this study is rather high, and the accumulation of photo-carriers can shift the absorption edges. Thus, the definition of both the band gap and EF is obscure. Here, we have performed TR spectroscopy measurements on GaMnAs films with the pump fluence carefully controlled to suppress the accumulation of photo-carriers. The energy resolution of the TR spectrum was improved to 0.5 meV. The data shows light-induced change in the reflectivity spectra which is attributed to the band-gap renormalization and band filling. We have reproduced the observed TR spectra using the Kramers-Kronig relation and found the Mn-induced electronic states near the EF in the band gap. This work was partially supported by Grants-in-Aids for Scientific Research including Specially Promoted Research and Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT.

  4. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on growth and reflectance characteristics of winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Bauer, M. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to determine seasonal changes in agronomic and spectral properties of winter wheat canopies with different levels of N fertilization is investigated. Field experiments were conducted at Purdue Agronomy Farm, West Lafayette, IN during the 1978-1979 and 1979-1980 growing season. Spectral reflectance, total leaf N concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration, leaf are index (LAI), and fresh and dry phytomass are measured and analyzed. Three distinct wheat canopies are detected for the O, 60, and 120 kg N/ha levels of fertilization; it is observed that with an increase in N the reflectance in the visible, and middle IR wavelengths decrease, and the IR reflectance is increased. The canopies with 120 kg N/ha display the highest LAI, maintain green leaf area the longest, and increase in fresh and dry phytomass. The relationship between spectral and agronomic variables is examined; the effect of changing chlorophyll concentration and LAI on the reflectance is studied.

  5. Effects of season and agro-ecological zone on the microbial quality of raw milk along the various levels of the value chain in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Grimaud, Patrice; Sserunjogi, Mohamed; Wesuta, Milton; Grillet, Nelly; Kato, Moses; Faye, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    Dairy production in Uganda is pasture-based and traditional Ankole cattle make up 80% of the cattle herd, reared in both pastoral and agro-pastoral ecological zones. Regardless of the zone, milk quality is lowest in production basin during the dry season when ambient temperatures are highest and water is scarce. Poor hygiene and quality management contributed to the deterioration of raw milk quality during its storage and delivery to the final consumer, and concealed the seasonal effect when milk reached urban consumption areas. Poor milk quality is a challenge for the Ugandan Dairy Development Authorities who wish to make the milk value chain safe. This study provides baseline information for the implementation of an HACCP-based system to ensure the hygienic quality of milk from the farm to the market place. PMID:19016339

  6. Systems-Level Comparison of Host-Responses Elicited by Avian H5N1 and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Viruses in Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suki M. Y.; Gardy, Jennifer L.; Cheung, C. Y.; Cheung, Timothy K. W.; Hui, Kenrie P. Y.; Ip, Nancy Y.; Guan, Y.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Peiris, J. S. Malik

    2009-01-01

    Human disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 can lead to a rapidly progressive viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is increasing evidence from clinical, animal models and in vitro data, which suggests a role for virus-induced cytokine dysregulation in contributing to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. The key target cells for the virus in the lung are the alveolar epithelium and alveolar macrophages, and we have shown that, compared to seasonal human influenza viruses, equivalent infecting doses of H5N1 viruses markedly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in both primary cell types in vitro. Whether this H5N1-induced dysregulation of host responses is driven by qualitative (i.e activation of unique host pathways in response to H5N1) or quantitative differences between seasonal influenza viruses is unclear. Here we used microarrays to analyze and compare the gene expression profiles in primary human macrophages at 1, 3, and 6 h after infection with H5N1 virus or low-pathogenic seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus. We found that host responses to both viruses are qualitatively similar with the activation of nearly identical biological processes and pathways. However, in comparison to seasonal H1N1 virus, H5N1 infection elicits a quantitatively stronger host inflammatory response including type I interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α genes. A network-based analysis suggests that the synergy between IFN-β and TNF-α results in an enhanced and sustained IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine response at the early stage of viral infection that may contribute to the viral pathogenesis and this is of relevance to the design of novel therapeutic strategies for H5N1 induced respiratory disease. PMID:20011590

  7. Sexually selected lip colour indicates male group-holding status in the mating season in a multi-level primate society

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Zhu, Pingfen; Allen, William L.; Higham, James P.; Ren, Baoping; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection typically produces ornaments in response to mate choice, and armaments in response to male–male competition. Unusually among mammals, many primates exhibit colour signals that may be related to one or both processes. Here, we document for the first time correlates of facial coloration in one of the more brightly coloured primates, the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). Snub-nosed monkeys have a one-male unit (OMU) based social organization, but these units aggregate semi-permanently into larger bands. This form of mating system causes many males to become associated with bachelor groups. We quantified redness of the prominent lower lip in 15 males (eight bachelors, seven OMU holders) in a group at Xiangguqing, China. Using mixed models, our results show that lip redness increases with age. More interestingly, there is a significant effect of the interaction of group-holding status and mating season on redness; that is, lip colour of OMU males undergoes reddening in the mating season, whereas the lips of subadult and juvenile bachelor males become paler at that time of year. These results indicate that lip coloration is a badge of (group-holding) status during the mating season, with non-adults undergoing facial differentiation, perhaps to avoid the costs of reproductive competition. Future research should investigate whether lip coloration is a product of male–male competition, and/or female mate choice. PMID:27019735

  8. Direct characterization of the energy level alignments and molecular components in an organic hetero-junction by integrated photoemission spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Shin, Weon-Ho; Bulliard, Xavier; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Seyun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Kim, Yongsu; Heo, Sung; Kim, Seong Heon

    2016-08-01

    A novel, direct method for the characterization of the energy level alignments at bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)/electrode interfaces on the basis of electronic spectroscopy measurements is proposed. The home-made in situ photoemission system is used to perform x-ray/ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy of organic-semiconductors (OSCs) deposited onto a Au substrate. Through this analysis system, we are able to obtain the electronic structures of a boron subphthalocyanine chloride:fullerene (SubPC:C60) BHJ and those of the separate OSC/electrode structures (SubPC/Au and C60/Au). Morphology and chemical composition analyses confirm that the original SubPC and C60 electronic structures remain unchanged in the electrodes prepared. Using this technique, we ascertain that the position and area of the nearest peak to the Fermi energy (EF = 0 eV) in the UPS (REELS) spectra of SubPC:C60 BHJ provide information on the highest occupied molecular orbital level (optical band gap) and combination ratio of the materials, respectively. Thus, extracting the adjusted spectrum from the corresponding SubPC:C60 BHJ UPS (REELS) spectrum reveals its electronic structure, equivalent to that of the C60 materials. This novel analytical approach allows complete energy-level determination for each combination ratio by separating its electronic structure information from the BHJ spectrum.

  9. Direct characterization of the energy level alignments and molecular components in an organic hetero-junction by integrated photoemission spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Shin, Weon-Ho; Bulliard, Xavier; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Seyun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Kim, Yongsu; Heo, Sung; Kim, Seong Heon

    2016-08-26

    A novel, direct method for the characterization of the energy level alignments at bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)/electrode interfaces on the basis of electronic spectroscopy measurements is proposed. The home-made in situ photoemission system is used to perform x-ray/ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy of organic-semiconductors (OSCs) deposited onto a Au substrate. Through this analysis system, we are able to obtain the electronic structures of a boron subphthalocyanine chloride:fullerene (SubPC:C60) BHJ and those of the separate OSC/electrode structures (SubPC/Au and C60/Au). Morphology and chemical composition analyses confirm that the original SubPC and C60 electronic structures remain unchanged in the electrodes prepared. Using this technique, we ascertain that the position and area of the nearest peak to the Fermi energy (EF = 0 eV) in the UPS (REELS) spectra of SubPC:C60 BHJ provide information on the highest occupied molecular orbital level (optical band gap) and combination ratio of the materials, respectively. Thus, extracting the adjusted spectrum from the corresponding SubPC:C60 BHJ UPS (REELS) spectrum reveals its electronic structure, equivalent to that of the C60 materials. This novel analytical approach allows complete energy-level determination for each combination ratio by separating its electronic structure information from the BHJ spectrum. PMID:27420635

  10. Determination of calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc levels in representative samples of two onion cultivars using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and ultrasound extraction procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, J.; Marcó, L. M.; Arroyo, J.; Greaves, E. D.; Rivas, R.

    2003-12-01

    The chemical characterization of onion cultivar samples is an important tool for the enhancement of their productivity due to the fact that chemical composition is closed related to the quality of the products. A new sample preparation procedure for elemental characterization is proposed, involving the acid extraction of the analytes from crude samples by means of an ultrasonic bath, avoiding the required digestion of samples in vegetable tissue analysis. The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the elements Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The procedure was compared with the wet ashing and dry ashing procedures for all the elements using multivariate analysis and the Scheffé test. The technique of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was employed for comparison purposes and accuracy evaluation of the proposed analysis method. A good agreement between the two techniques was found when using the dry ashing and ultrasound leaching procedures. The levels of each element found for representative samples of two onion cultivars (Yellow Granex PRR 502 and 438 Granex) were also compared by the same method. Levels of K, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the 438 Granex cultivar, while levels of Ca, Fe and Cu were significantly higher in the Yellow Granex PRR 502 cultivar.

  11. Assessing hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    With the official conclusion of the Atlantic hurricane season on 29 November, Irene was the only hurricane to strike the United States this year and the first one since Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas in 2008, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Irene “broke the ‘hurricane amnesia’ that can develop when so much time lapses between landfalling storms,” indicated Jack Hayes, director of NOAA's National Weather Service. “This season is a reminder that storms can hit any part of our coast and that all regions need to be prepared each and every season.” During the season, there were 19 tropical storms, including 7 that became hurricanes; 3 of those were major hurricanes, of category 3 or above. The activity level was in line with NOAA predictions. The agency stated that Hurricane Irene was an example of improved accuracy in forecasting storm tracks: NOAA National Hurricane Center had accurately predicted the hurricane's landfall in North Carolina and its path northward more than 4 days in advance.

  12. Volatile compounds and sensory attributes of wine from cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under differential levels of water deficit with or without a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influences on wine volatile composition and wine sensory attributes from a foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film on vines under differing levels of water deficit were evaluated over three consecutive seasons for the cultivar Merlot grown in the high desert region of southwestern Ida...

  13. FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood do not reflect changes in the ileal FGF15/19 or hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Quan; Guo, Grace L.; Honda, Akira; Saumoy, Monica; Salen, Gerald; Xu, Guorong

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that bile acid suppression of CYP7A1 gene expression is mediated through a gut-liver signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor (FGF)15/19-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 which is initiated by activation of farnesoid X receptor in the ileum but not in the liver. This study evaluated whether FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood reflected changes in FGF15/19 mRNA in the ileum. Studies were conducted in Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits fed regular chow (controls), supplemented with cholesterol (Ch) or cholic acid (CA). After feeding CA, ileal FGF15 mRNA increased 8.5-fold in rats and FGF19 rose 16-fold in rabbits associated with 62 and 75% reduction of CYP7A1 mRNA, respectively. Neither FGF15 nor FGF19 protein levels changed in the portal blood to correspond with the marked increase of FGF15/19 mRNA levels in the ileum or inhibited CYP7A1 expression in the liver. Further, in Ch-fed rats, CYP7A1 mRNA increased 1.9-fold (P < 0.001) although FGF15 mRNA levels in the ileum and portal blood FGF15 protein levels were not decreased. In Ch-fed rabbits, although FGF19 mRNA levels in the ileum and liver did not increase significantly, CYP7A1 mRNA declined 49% (P < 0.05). We were unable to find corresponding changes of FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood in rats and rabbits where the mRNA levels of FGF15/19 in the ileum and CYP7A1 in the liver change significantly. PMID:23852734

  14. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    PubMed

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. PMID:26798998

  15. Seasonal variations in Soudan 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M. C.; Soudan 2 Collaboration

    1999-06-23

    Seasonal Variations in an underground detector may be a signature for Dark Matter. The Soudan 2 detector searches for nucleon decay and atmospheric neutrinos. The trigger rate is about 0.5 Hertz. It is dominated by approximately equal numbers of atmospheric muons and low level radioactivityy. The muon rate has a seasonal variation of {+-}2%, which is consistent with a similar effect at MACRO. The MACRO effect has been correlated with temperature in the upper atmosphere. Our trigger rate has a seasonal variation of {+-}15% which we believe is due to radon in the mine, and variations in air flow with outside temperature.

  16. Levels of infection and seasonal occurrence of Gyrodactylus alviga (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on the whiting Merlangius merlangus off the Turkish and Russian coasts of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Özer, A; Kornyychuk, Y; Öztürk, T; Yurakhno, V

    2016-05-01

    Gyrodactylus alviga is a generalist species reported in many Black Sea fish species, but whiting is known to be its main host. It is the only monogenean parasite that has been reported so far on the skin, fins and gills of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the Black Sea. A total of 690 fish from Turkey and 423 fish from Russia were examined to detect parasites. Infection indices of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance values were calculated for length classes and sex of fish, as well as for the seasons. There is a gradual increase in infection indices in relation with increasing host length classes and there are higher infection indices on female fish. Furthermore, despite lower prevalence indices in spring and winter, higher parasite intensity values were determined in these seasons. It is concluded that larger fish provided more space and food for G. alviga, and female fish were more parasitized as they were more active in searching for food, which enables the parasite to switch between hosts. In addition, winter and spring were more appropriate for reproduction of G. alviga. PMID:26050672

  17. Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PiéTé, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2013-05-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

  18. Effect of supplementation of beef cattle with different protein levels and degradation rates during transition from the dry to rainy season.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rodolfo Maciel; de Almeida, Chafic Mustafé; Carvalho, Bruna Caldas; Alves Neto, João Alexandrino; Mota, Verônica Aparecida Costa; de Resende, Flávio Dutra; Siqueira, Gustavo Rezende

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the supply of protein with different degradation rates on the performance and metabolism of growing Nellore cattle reared on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture during the transition period from the dry to rainy season. The experiment was installed on an area of 34 ha, divided into 12 paddocks with an average area of 2.85 ha. In the performance evaluation were utilized 72 recently weaned, non-castrated Nellore cattle with an initial body weight (BW) of 199 kg (SEM = 16). The following supplements were used: energy protein supplement containing 25% crude protein (CP) (C-25) and energy protein supplements containing 40% CP with one third highly degradable CP and two thirds poorly degradable CP (40-1/3NPN), one half highly degradable CP and one half poorly degradable CP (40-1/2NPN), and two thirds highly degradable CP and one third poorly degradable CP (40-2/3NPN). Higher protein degradation rates reduced supplement intake (P < 0.01). In the first period, animals consuming supplement 40-1/3NPN exhibited higher average daily gain (ADG) (0.30 kg/day), similar to that of animals receiving supplement 40-1/2NPN (P = 0.04). In the second period, supplement 40-2/3NPN resulted in lower ADG (0.19 kg/day less than the other supplements). There was no effect of supplement on animal performance in the third period (P > 0.10), when ADG was 0.56 kg/day. In conclusion, the response to supplementation is associated with interactions with characteristics of the forage canopy. Supplementation with a true protein source will be beneficial only during the early stage of the dry-rainy season transition period. PMID:26433723

  19. Reflections on the process of using systematic review techniques to evaluate the literature regarding the neurotoxicity of low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah; McManus, Chris; Harrison, Virginia; Mason, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a systematic review (incorporating meta-analysis) of the literature concerning the neurotoxicity of cumulative low level occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which was published online by the journal Critical Reviews in Toxicology in 2012. As far as we are aware, we were the first research team to attempt quantitative evaluation of study findings on this topic, using meta-analysis. We wish to encourage others to apply systematic review techniques in chemical risk assessment to reduce bias, increase transparency and better inform public policy. We thought it would be useful to share our experience of undertaking a systematic review in the hope of dispelling misconceptions about the complexity, time and resource issues involved along with the view that meta-analysis is meaningless when studies are not homogeneous. In this commentary paper we reflect on aspects of the process which were relatively straightforward; aspects which were more challenging; the advantages of using systematic review techniques; and the advantages and limitations of using statistical techniques such as meta-analysis in this context. PMID:26526517

  20. Reflected Glory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific model of how people see things is far removed from children's real-world experience. They know that light is needed in order to see an object, but may not know that light is reflected off the object and some of that light enters the eyes. In this article, the author explores children's understanding of reflection and how to develop…

  1. Annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs levels in satellite cities of Seoul, Korea during 2003-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yoonki; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Donggi; Heo, Jongwon

    2013-10-01

    Long-term measurements of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were conducted in six satellite cities of Seoul, the capital of South Korea, from January 2003 to December 2009. Of the six sites, three were located in residential areas (Suwon, Anyang, and Seongnam) and the other three were in industrial areas (Ansan, Bucheon, and Siheung). For the 7 years, the average concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs were higher at industrial sites than those at residential sites, and their lowest and highest concentrations were 0.113 ± 0.073 pg international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) m-3 and 0.0071 ± 0.0040 pg World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ m-3 at Seongnam and 0.625 ± 0.597 pg I-TEQ m-3 and 0.0376 ± 0.0285 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 at Ansan, respectively. The annual averages of these compounds tended to decrease from 2003 to 2009, with the most apparent change in 2006 when the regulation of dioxin emission standard was reinforced for flue gas from incineration facilities. Complying with the reinforced standard, the concentrations of PCDFs were reduced more effectively than those of PCDDs, leading to increase in ratios of PCDDs to PCDFs since 2006. Additionally, a seasonal tendency was observed for PCDDs/PCDFs with higher concentrations in winter than summer, which was opposite for dl-PCBs. This seasonal difference suggests their sources such as combustion processes and volatilization and the influence of synoptic-scale circulation. The congener profiles indicated that 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the most abundant, comprising 65.0% of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs mass. The three congeners of 2,3‧,4,4‧,5-PeCB, 2,3,3‧,4,4‧-PeCB, and 3,3‧,4,4‧-TeCB comprised 75.9% of the 12 dl-PCBs.

  2. SEASONALITY AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MASS VACCINATION

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dennis L.; Dimitrov, Dobromir T.

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases have seasonal outbreaks, which may be driven by cyclical environmental conditions (e.g., an annual rainy season) or human behavior (e.g., school calendars or seasonal migration). If a pathogen is only transmissible for a limited period of time each year, then seasonal outbreaks could infect fewer individuals than expected given the pathogen’s in-season transmissibility. Influenza, with its short serial interval and long season, probably spreads throughout a population until a substantial fraction of susceptible individuals are infected. Dengue, with a long serial interval and shorter season, may be constrained by its short transmission season rather than the depletion of susceptibles. Using mathematical modeling, we show that mass vaccination is most efficient, in terms of infections prevented per vaccine administered, at high levels of coverage for pathogens that have relatively long epidemic seasons, like influenza, and at low levels of coverage for pathogens with short epidemic seasons, like dengue. Therefore, the length of a pathogen’s epidemic season may need to be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of vaccination programs. PMID:27105983

  3. Ozone measurements in Amazonia: Dry season versus wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H. ); Da Silva, I.M.O. ); Browell, E.V. )

    1990-09-20

    Observations were made almost continuously at the surface, and in addition, 20 ozone profiles were obtained in the troposphere and stratosphere. These ozone measurements were part of a field expedition to the Brazilian Amazon region, the ABLE 2B mission, a joint American-Brazilian effort to measure local concentrations of several species relevant to atmospheric chemistry. The time period of this expedition was April-May 1987, during the local wet season. For the surface ozone data the measurement technique sued was UV absorption. Ozone profiles were obtained with electrochemical concentration cell sondes, launched on balloons. The major site of operation was set up near Manaus (3{degree}S, 60{degree}W). The results are presented and compared with a previous dry season experiment. Surface ozone mixing ratios show diurnal variations that have maxima in the daytime and minima at night. The diurnal maximum at noontime, considered very low (12 ppbv) in the dry season was even lower in this wet season period (6 ppbv). A significant difference can be seen between clearing and forest data, and between different height levels above the surface, showing the existence of a large positive gradient of ozone with height. The ozone profiles in the troposphere show that there is less ozone not only at the surface but in the whole troposphere, with the wet season average showing between 6 and 12 ppbv less ozone. This difference is much smaller in the stratosphere, where there is slightly more ozone in the region of the peak, during the wet season. An isolated shower or thunderstorm in the dry season could produce transient ozone variations (mixing ratio increases or decreases) that were not observed in the wet season.

  4. Kaolin-based foliar reflectant and water deficit influence Malbec leaf and berry temperature, pigments, and photosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a kaolin-based foliar reflectant on traits of commercial interest in the red-skinned wine grape cultivar Malbec (Vitis vinifera L.) were evaluated over three growing seasons by measuring the surface temperatures of leaves and clusters, leaf-level assimilation, leaf and berry pigment c...

  5. Freeze resistance in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax): seasonal pattern of glycerol and antifreeze protein levels and liver enzyme activity associated with glycerol production.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Johanne M; Ewart, K Vanya; Driedzic, William R

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) inhabit inshore waters along the North American Atlantic coast. During the winter, these waters are frequently ice covered and can reach temperatures as low as -1.9 degrees C. To prevent freezing, smelt accumulate high levels of glycerol, which lower the freezing point via colligative means, and antifreeze proteins (AFP). The up-regulation of the antifreeze response (both glycerol and AFP) occurs in early fall, when water temperatures are 5 degrees -6 degrees C. The accumulation of glycerol appears to be the main mechanism of freeze resistance in smelt because it contributes more to the lowering of the body's freezing point than the activity of the AFP (0.5 degrees C vs. 0.25 degrees C for glycerol and AFP, respectively) at a water temperature of -1.5 degrees C. Moreover, AFP in smelt appears to be a safeguard mechanism to prevent freezing when glycerol levels are low. Significant increases in activities of the liver enzymes glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) during the initiation of glycerol production and significant correlations between enzyme activities and plasma glycerol levels suggest that these enzymes are closely associated with the synthesis and maintenance of elevated glycerol levels for use as an antifreeze. These findings add further support to the concept that carbon for glycerol is derived from amino acids. PMID:15286915

  6. Coupling fast all-season soil strength land surface model with weather research and forecasting model to assess low-level icing in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sines, Taleena R.

    Icing poses as a severe hazard to aircraft safety with financial resources and even human lives hanging in the balance when the decision to ground a flight must be made. When analyzing the effects of ice on aviation, a chief cause for danger is the disruption of smooth airflow, which increases the drag force on the aircraft therefore decreasing its ability to create lift. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) is a collaboratively created, flexible model designed to run on distributed computing systems for a variety of applications including forecasting research, parameterization research, and real-time numerical weather prediction. Land-surface models, one of the physics options available in the WRF-ARW, output surface heat and moisture flux given radiation, precipitation, and surface properties such as soil type. The Fast All-Season Soil STrength (FASST) land-surface model was developed by the U.S. Army ERDC-CRREL in Hanover, New Hampshire. Designed to use both meteorological and terrain data, the model calculates heat and moisture within the surface layer as well as the exchange of these parameters between the soil, surface elements (such as snow and vegetation), and atmosphere. Focusing on the Presidential Mountain Range of New Hampshire under the NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) Icing Assessments in Cold and Alpine Environments project, one of the main goals is to create a customized, high resolution model to predict and assess ice accretion in complex terrain. The purpose of this research is to couple the FASST land-surface model with the WRF to improve icing forecasts in complex terrain. Coupling FASST with the WRF-ARW may improve icing forecasts because of its sophisticated approach to handling processes such as meltwater, freezing, thawing, and others that would affect the water and energy budget and in turn affect icing forecasts. Several transformations had to take place in order

  7. Structures for Facilitating Student Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe a continuum of levels of reflection. It briefly focuses on Deanna Kuhn's research into the development of scientific thinking and Robert Kegan's Object-Subject Theory of Development applied to the problems of inspiring students to be able to reflect. Assignments for improving students' ability to reflect are…

  8. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  9. Dry season streamflow persistence in seasonal climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems exhibit periods of high water availability followed by extended intervals during which rainfall is negligible and streamflows decline. Eventually, such declining flows will fall below the minimum values required to support ecosystem functions or services. The time at which dry season flows drop below these minimum values (Q*), relative to the start of the dry season, is termed the "persistence time" (). The persistence time determines how long seasonal streams can support various human or ecological functions during the dry season. In this study, we extended recent work in the stochastic hydrology of seasonally dry climates to develop an analytical model for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the persistence time. The proposed model accurately captures the mean of the persistence time distribution, but underestimates its variance. We demonstrate that this underestimation arises in part due to correlation between the parameters used to describe the dry season recession, but that this correlation can be removed by rescaling the flow variables. The mean persistence time predictions form one example of the broader class of streamflow statistics known as crossing properties, which could feasibly be combined with simple ecological models to form a basis for rapid risk assessment under different climate or management scenarios.

  10. Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his study of parent participation at an international school in Spain offering the British curriculum. He used quantitative methods and administered questionnaires to gather data that reflected the views of a large proportion of the school's parent community. He administered semi-structured interviews to gain a…

  11. The Impact of Transformational Leadership, Experiential Learning, and Reflective Journaling on the Conservation Ethic of Tertiary-Level Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bradley Robert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of transformational leadership, experiential learning, and reflective journaling on the conservation ethic of non-science majors in a general education survey course was investigated. The main research questions were: (1) Is the Conservation of Biodiversity professor a transformational leader? (2) Is there a difference in the…

  12. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  13. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  14. Storage efficiency of off-season irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water levels in the Ogallala aquifer are declining, and with the resultant decrease in water capacity of wells, irrigators face difficulty in meeting crop water needs. Off-season irrigation is common in the region, although research has shown it is often inefficient. Storage efficiency of off-season...

  15. Hypopigmentation, anomalous cerebral dominance and seasonality.

    PubMed

    London, W P

    1993-12-01

    This paper proposes a prenatal seasonal hypopigmentation influence associated with anomalous cerebral dominance that occurs during the winter or early spring. A possible mechanism would be seasonal changes in sex hormone levels that affect the activation and inactivation of DNA by reversible methylation. The proposed prenatal seasonal hypopigmentation effect might be relevant to dyslexia, Prader-Willi syndrome, breast cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Putative chromosomal loci associated with the proposed seasonal mechanism would be 15q11-13 (dyslexia and Prader-Willi syndrome), 21q region (breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease) and 19p region (pigmentation gene). PMID:8183125

  16. Effects of age on H1N1-specific serum IgG1 and IgG3 levels evaluated during the 2011–2012 influenza vaccine season

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously reported an age-related impairment in the serum antibody response to pandemic (p)2009 H1N1, measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay and ELISA. The present study extends these observations and evaluates IgG subclass distribution in healthy individuals of different ages vaccinated during the 2011–2012 season. Results The 2011-2012 vaccination season was characterized by a vaccine containing the pandemic (p)2009 H1N1 strain for the third consecutive year. All of our subjects were previously immunized, and therefore seroprotected at t0. Nevertheless, aging impaired the serum antibody response to H1N1, as antibody titers increased after vaccination in young and less in elderly individuals. The peak of the response was at day 7 (t7), in contrast with what is usually seen at day 21–28, suggesting a memory response characterized by the induction of an IgG subclass with a shorter half-life. We hypothesized that the IgG3 response, with its much shorter half-life, might be more represented. Antibodies were predominantly of the IgG1 subclass in both age groups, although a robust IgG3 response was also induced and accounted for a significant proportion of the overall response. IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies were at indiscernible levels. We showed a much higher percentage of IgG3 (40–50%) than previously in the literature (less than 10%). To explain if this was associated with a particular cytokine profile, we measured H1N1-induced T cell cytokines in vitro and found that IgG3 levels were positively correlated with TNF-α and IL-6. Moreover, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mRNA expression, a predictive biomarker of optimal in vivo vaccine response, was found to significantly correlate with IgG3 and also with IgG1 similar to what we have shown previously for total IgG. Conclusions In the 2011–2012 season, the pandemic (p)2009 H1N1 strain was present in the vaccine for the third consecutive year and therefore each individual was

  17. Hydrological and Biogeochemical Controls on Seasonal and Spatial Differences in Food Webs in the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Wankel, S. D.; Bemis, B. E.; Rawlik, P. S.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Lange, T.

    2002-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be used to determine the relative trophic positions of biota within a food web, and to improve our understanding of the biomagnification of contaminants. Plants at the base of the food web uptake dissolved organic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) for growth, and their tissue reflects the isotopic composition of these sources. Animals then mirror the isotopic composition of the primary producers, as modified by consumer-diet fractionations at successive trophic steps. During 1995-99, we collected algae, macrophyte, invertebrate, and fish samples from 15 USGS sites in the Everglades and analyzed them for d13C and d15N with the goal of characterizing seasonal and spatial differences in food web relations. Carbon isotopes effectively distinguish between two main types of food webs: ones where algae is the dominant base of the food web, which are characteristic of relatively pristine marsh sites with long hydroperiods, and ones where macrophyte debris appears to be a significant source of nutrients, which are apparently characteristic of shorter hydroperiod sites, and nutrient-impacted marshes and canals. There usually is an inverse relation between d13C and d15N of organisms over time, especially in more pristine environments, reflecting seasonal changes in the d13C of DIC and the d15N of DIN. The d13C and d15N of algae also show strong positive correlations with seasonal changes in water levels. This variability is substantially damped up the food chain, probably because of the longer integration times of animals vs. plants. We speculate that these seasonal shifts in water level result in changes in biogeochemical reactions and nutrient levels, with corresponding variations in the d15N and d13C of biota. For example, small changes in water level may change the balance of photosynthesis, bacterial respiration, and atmospheric exchange reactions that control the d13C of DIC. Such changes will probably also affect the d15N of dissolved inorganic N (DIN

  18. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  19. An In Vivo Analysis of the Effect of Season-Long Open-Air Elevation of Ozone to Anticipated 2050 Levels on Photosynthesis in Soybean1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Patrick B.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Ort, Donald R.; Long, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) is widely recognized, but less appreciated is a concomitant rise in tropospheric ozone concentration ([O3]). In industrialized countries, [O3] has risen by 0.5% to 2.5% per year. Tropospheric [O3] is predicted to reach a global mean of >60 nL L−1 by 2050 with greater averages locally. Previous studies in enclosures suggest that this level of [O3] will decrease leaf photosynthesis, thereby limiting growth and yield of Glycine max L. Merr. SoyFACE (Soybean Free Air gas Concentration Enrichment) is the first facility to elevate atmospheric [O3] (approximately 1.2× current) in replicated plots under completely open-air conditions within an agricultural field. Measurements of gas exchange (assimilation versus light and assimilation versus intercellular [CO2]) were made on excised leaves from control and treatment plots (n = 4). In contrast to expectations from previous chamber studies, elevated [O3] did not alter light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat, P = 0.09), carboxylation capacity (Vc,max, P = 0.82), or maximum electron transport (Jmax, P = 0.66) for the topmost most recently fully expanded leaf at any stage of crop development. Leaves formed during the vegetative growth stage did not show a significant ozone-induced loss of photosynthetic capacity as they aged. Leaves formed during flowering did show a more rapid loss of photosynthetic capacity as they aged in elevated [O3]. Asat, Vc,max, and Jmax (P = 0.04, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively) were decreased 20% to 30% by treatment with ozone. This is noteworthy since these leaves provide photosynthate to the developing grain. In conclusion, a small (approximately 20%) increase in tropospheric [O3] did not significantly alter photosynthetic capacity of newly expanded leaves, but as these leaves aged, losses in photosynthetic carbon assimilation occurred. PMID:15299126

  20. An in vivo analysis of the effect of season-long open-air elevation of ozone to anticipated 2050 levels on photosynthesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Patrick B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2004-08-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) is widely recognized, but less appreciated is a concomitant rise in tropospheric ozone concentration ([O(3)]). In industrialized countries, [O(3)] has risen by 0.5% to 2.5% per year. Tropospheric [O(3)] is predicted to reach a global mean of >60 nL L(-1) by 2050 with greater averages locally. Previous studies in enclosures suggest that this level of [O(3)] will decrease leaf photosynthesis, thereby limiting growth and yield of Glycine max L. Merr. SoyFACE (Soybean Free Air gas Concentration Enrichment) is the first facility to elevate atmospheric [O(3)] (approximately 1.2x current) in replicated plots under completely open-air conditions within an agricultural field. Measurements of gas exchange (assimilation versus light and assimilation versus intercellular [CO(2)]) were made on excised leaves from control and treatment plots (n = 4). In contrast to expectations from previous chamber studies, elevated [O(3)] did not alter light-saturated photosynthesis (A(sat), P = 0.09), carboxylation capacity (V(c,max), P = 0.82), or maximum electron transport (J(max), P = 0.66) for the topmost most recently fully expanded leaf at any stage of crop development. Leaves formed during the vegetative growth stage did not show a significant ozone-induced loss of photosynthetic capacity as they aged. Leaves formed during flowering did show a more rapid loss of photosynthetic capacity as they aged in elevated [O(3)]. A(sat), V(c,max), and J(max) (P = 0.04, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively) were decreased 20% to 30% by treatment with ozone. This is noteworthy since these leaves provide photosynthate to the developing grain. In conclusion, a small (approximately 20%) increase in tropospheric [O(3)] did not significantly alter photosynthetic capacity of newly expanded leaves, but as these leaves aged, losses in photosynthetic carbon assimilation occurred. PMID:15299126

  1. [Population dynamics of thrushes and seasonal resource partition].

    PubMed

    Burskiĭ, O V; Demidova, E Iu; Morkovin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We studied seasonal population dynamics in birds using four thrush species from the Yenisei middle taiga region as an example. Long-term data on bird route censuses, capture-mark-recapture, and nest observa- tions were incorporated in the analysis. Particularly, methodological problems that complicate a direct comparison between assessed numbers at different phases of the annual cycle are considered. The integrated analysis of the results allowed comparing changes in numbers, energy expenditure, age structure, migrating status, and density distribution of selected populations during the snowless period and relating them to seasonal changes in food resource abundance. Thrush population numbers within the breeding range, and their energy consumption in the Yenisei middle taiga proportionately reflect the seasonal change in abundance of food resources. The compliance between resource intake and carrying capacity of the environment is attained by: timing of arrival and departure regarding to the species' range of tolerance; change in numbers as a result of reproduction and mortality; change in numbers due to habitat changes and long-distance movements; increasing energetic expenditures during reproduction and molt; timing, intensity and replication of nesting attempts; timing of molt and proportion of molting individuals in a population; individual variations of the annual cycle. Reproductive growth of local bird populations is not fast enough to catch up with seasonal growth of ecosystems productivity. Superabundance of invertebrates at the peak of the season offers a temporal niche which, on the one hand, is suitable for species capable of diet switching, while, on the other hand, may be used by specialized consumers, namely tropical migrants for whom, at high resource level, a shortened breeding period suffices. PMID:25786310

  2. Seasonal variation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest there are seasonal variations in the incidence of severe cardiac events with peak levels being evident in the winter. Whether autonomic indices including muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) vary with season remains unclear. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that resting MSNA varies with the seasons of the year with peak levels evident in the winter. We analyzed the supine resting MSNA in 60 healthy subjects. Each subject was studied during two, three, or four seasons (total 237 visits). MSNA burst rate in the winter (21.0 ± 6.8 burst/min, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than in the summer (13.5 ± 5.8 burst/min, P < 0.001), the spring (17.1 ± 9.0 burst/min, P = 0.03), and the fall (17.9 ± 7.7 burst/min, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MSNA for other seasonal comparisons. The results suggest that resting sympathetic nerve activity varies along the seasons, with peak levels evident in the winter. We speculate that the seasonal changes in sympathetic activity may be a contribution to the previously observed seasonal variations in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26265752

  3. Seasonal variation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest there are seasonal variations in the incidence of severe cardiac events with peak levels being evident in the winter. Whether autonomic indices including muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) vary with season remains unclear. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that resting MSNA varies with the seasons of the year with peak levels evident in the winter. We analyzed the supine resting MSNA in 60 healthy subjects. Each subject was studied during two, three, or four seasons (total 237 visits). MSNA burst rate in the winter (21.0 ± 6.8 burst/min, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than in the summer (13.5 ± 5.8 burst/min, P < 0.001), the spring (17.1 ± 9.0 burst/min, P = 0.03), and the fall (17.9 ± 7.7 burst/min, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MSNA for other seasonal comparisons. The results suggest that resting sympathetic nerve activity varies along the seasons, with peak levels evident in the winter. We speculate that the seasonal changes in sympathetic activity may be a contribution to the previously observed seasonal variations in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26265752

  4. Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.

    PubMed

    Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-06-01

    Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea. PMID:26022847

  5. Haitian reflections.

    PubMed

    Docrat, Fathima

    2010-08-01

    Natural disasters and acts of terrorism demonstrate a similar critical need for national preparedness. As one of a team of volunteers with a local South African NGO who recently went on a medical mission, I would like to share glimpses of our experience and reflect on the mistakes - and also to state the obvious: that we do not learn from our mistakes. A simple literature search has shown that the same mistakes happen repeatedly. 'Humanitarian disasters occur with frightening regularity, yet international responses remain fragmented, with organizations and responders being forced to "reinvent the wheel" with every new event'. This is the result of an obvious lack of preparedness. PMID:20822625

  6. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  7. On the seasonality of flooding across the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the seasonality of flooding across the continental United States using circular statistics. Analyses are based on 7506 USGS stream gage stations with a record of least 30 years of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharge. Overall, there is a very strong seasonality in flooding across the United States, reflecting differences in flood generating mechanisms. Most of the flood events along the western and eastern United States tend to occur during the October-March period and are associated with extratropical cyclones. The average seasonality of flood events shifts to April-May in regions where snowmelt is the dominant flood agent, and later in the spring-summer across the central United States. The strength of the seasonal cycle also varies considerably, with the weakest seasonality in the Appalachian Mountains and the strongest in the northern Great Plains. The seasonal distribution of flooding is described in terms of circular uniform, reflective symmetric and asymmetric distributions. There are marked differences in the shape of the distribution across the continental United States, with the majority of the stations exhibiting a reflective symmetric distribution. Finally, nonstationarities in the seasonality of flooding are examined. Analyses are performed to detect changes over time, and to examine changes that are due to urbanization and regulation. Overall, there is not a strong signal of temporal changes. The strongest impact of urbanization and regulation is on the strength of the seasonal cycle, with indications that the signal weakens (i.e., the seasonal distribution becomes wider) under the effects of regulation.

  8. Development and validation of a GC-MS method for the evaluation of 17 endocrine disruptor compounds, including phytoestrogens and sitosterol, in coastal waters - their spatial and seasonal levels in Porto costal region (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria João; Cruzeiro, Catarina; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    A gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) method was developed and optimized for the determination of 17 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in coastal water samples. The evaluated EDCs were from different origins and included estrogens, bisphenol A, alkylphenolethoxylates, alkylphenols, phytoestrogens and sitosterol (SITO). The EDCs were extracted from samples using Oasis HLB (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance) cartridges and derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) added with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The validation parameters revealed that this method was highly specific for all assayed compounds (>99%) and the linearity of the calibration curves showed a correlation higher than 0.99. The detection limits were at low ng/L level and the recovery rates were higher than 70%. The performance of the method was checked using coastal water samples taken every 2 months during 2009-2010 from the Douro River estuary and the Porto coastline (Portugal). These data revealed that approximately 98.0% of the analyzed compounds showed levels above their limits of detection (LODs). The measured estrogens (2-20 ng/L) and industrial pollutants (up to 1.1 μg/L) were in biologic hazardous concentrations. Besides, a clear seasonal pattern of fluctuation was established for phytoestrogens and SITO. The physicochemical data, namely the amounts of nitrates, nitrites and phosphorous, confirmed the low water quality of this area. PMID:23708576

  9. Seasonal concentrations, contamination levels, and health risk assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in the suspended particulate matter from an urban household environment in a metropolitan city, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Y; Liu, L Y; Guo, L L; Lv, Y L; Zhang, G M; Lei, J; Liu, W T; Xiong, Y Y; Wen, H M

    2015-07-01

    The levels and health risks of arsenic and heavy metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from an urban household environment in Beijing of China for 12 months were investigated. The mean concentrations of the studied toxic elements were higher and lower than crustal abundance and PM2.5 in the urban outdoors of Beijing. The concentrations of the studied elements displayed significant seasonality. The highest concentrations of the total elements occurred in winter, followed by autumn, while the lowest concentrations were recorded in summer. Based on the calculated values of enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), the levels for As and Cu were heavily contaminated, while those for Cd, Pb, and Zn were extremely contaminated. As and Pb might pose risks to children and adults via ingestion exposure. The accumulative risks of multi-elements resulted from dermal contact and inhalation exposures were not negligible. More attention should be paid to reducing the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed by the toxic elements bound to urban household SPM particles via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure. PMID:26048587

  10. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Osborn J, Raetz J, Kost A. Seasonal ...

  11. Diurnal resting in brown lemurs in a dry deciduous forest, northwestern Madagascar: implications for seasonal thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroki

    2012-07-01

    Decreased activity has been reported in both nocturnal and diurnal primates during the prolonged dry season in western Madagascar, and this has been interpreted as a reaction to the severe environment, with its food scarcity and/or thermal stress. Several day-active lemurs rest more as trees defoliate, although the reason for this is unclear. To understand the mechanism underpinning the diurnal resting of lemurs in seasonal deciduous forests, I observed common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) for one year in Ankarafantsika National Park, northwestern Madagascar. In Ankarafantsika, despite high fruit availability during the dry season, brown lemurs are known to engage in diurnal resting. To examine the effects of thermal factors and defoliation on lemur inactivity, I recorded the activity of a troop at 1 min intervals, hourly ambient temperature, daily rainfall, and weather during observations (06:00-18:00). I quantified the amount of leaves biweekly for 680 trees. I tested correlations between percentages of resting time and each factor across hours during the day and across seasons. During the rainy season, resting time did not differ between sunny and cloudy days, and lemurs were active throughout the daytime. At the hourly level during the dry season, lemurs rested exclusively at midday, apparently at peak sunlight intensity rather than at peak ambient temperature. At seasonal level, percentages of total resting time from 08:00 to 16:00 were greater during dry season (81.9%) than during rainy season (62.6%), and percentages increased as ambient temperatures increased. Defoliation was related to seasonal decrease in weekly rainfall, which served as an index of water retained in the forest. Defoliation probably reflected aridification as well as the penetration of sunlight into the forest. Diurnal resting increased as both the amount of leaves and weekly rainfall decreased seasonally. These results suggest that heat stress under dry conditions may promote

  12. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp.: r2 = 0.63, n = 30; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall input was generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry season being more recalcitrant to decay.

  13. Spatial variability in the seasonal south polar CAP of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, Wendy M.; Martin, Terry Z.

    1994-10-01

    The first comprehensive discussion of the south seasonal polar cap spectra obtained by the Mariner 7 infrared spectrometer in the short-wavelength region (2-4 microns) is presented. The infrared spectra is correlated with images acquired by the wide-angle camera. Significant spectral variation is noted in the cap interior and regions of varying water frost abundance, CO2 ice/frost cover, and CO2-ice path length can be distinguished. Many of these spectral variations correlate with heterogeneity noted in the camera images, but certain significant infrared spectral variations are not discernible in the visible. Simple reflectance models are used to classify the observed spectral variations into four regions. Region I is at the cap edge, where there is enhanced absorption beyond 3 microns inferred to be caused by an increased abundance of water frost. The increase in water abundance over that in the interior is on the level of a few parts per thousand or less. Region II is the typical cap interior characterized by spectral features of CO2 ice at grain sizes of several millimeters to centimeters. These spectra also indicate the presence of water frost at the parts per thousand level. A third, unusual region (III), is defined by three spectra in which weak CO2 absorption features are as much as twice as strong as in the average cap spectra and are assumed to be caused by an increased path length in the CO2. Such large paths are inconsistent with the high reflectance in the visible and at 2.2 microns and suggest layered structures or deposition conditions that are not accounted for in current reflectance models. The final region (IV) is an area of thinning frost coverage or transparent ice well in the interior of the seasonal cap. These spectra are a combination of CO2 and ground signatures.

  14. Field-Scale N Application Using Crop Reflectance Sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research suggests that variable-rate nitrogen application based on within-season crop canopy reflectance sensing can improve N use efficiency. The overall objective of this project was to use commercial dual-wavelength active reflectance sensors on a fertilizer applicator to quantify reflectance var...

  15. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  16. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  17. Teaching with the Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Describes a natural science course designed to teach students that nature is nearby rather than somewhere else. Students learn about local flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor the progression of the seasons. The course uses no textbook, regularly uses the outdoors as a classroom, and follows the seasons' phenology as the…

  18. Seasoned Reflections: A Dialogue with Clayton A. Morgan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Brent M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents an interview with Clayton A. Morgan, a distinguished rehabilitation counselor educator. Focuses on Morgan's experience and insight in areas such as the helping relationship, noncounseling variables in counseling, creative thinking and applied imagination, selection of graduate students, and communication. (Author/ABL)

  19. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is not reflected in decreased levels of nuclear diversity

    PubMed Central

    Provan, J.; Powell, W; Dewar, H.; Bryan, G.; Machray, G. C.; Waugh, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the polymorphic chloroplast (cp) and nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyse levels of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum). Primers designed from the complete chloroplast sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were used to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cpSSR loci gave 26 haplotypes, one of which (haplotype A) accounted for 151 out of the 178 individuals studied and corresponded to the T-type cytoplasm previously identified in cultivated potatoes using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phylogenetic and diversity analyses of the relationships between cpSSR haplotypes confirmed much higher levels of cytoplasmic diversity outwith the T-type group. Diversity levels at eight nuclear SSR loci, however, were not significantly different between cytoplasmic groups, suggesting a severe maternal bottleneck in the evolution of the modern cultivated potato. These results highlight the importance in quantifying levels of cytoplasmic as well as nuclear diversity and confirm the need for a change in breeding practices to increase levels of non-T-type cytoplasm in the cultivated gene pool, thus helping reduce problems associated with pollen sterility. This may be facilitated by germplasm analysis using cpSSRs, which will allow efficient selection of diverse cytoplasm donors.

  20. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field – a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level

    PubMed Central

    Mitzkat, Anika; Berger, Sarah; Reeves, Scott; Mahler, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies. PMID:27280147

  1. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field - a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level.

    PubMed

    Mitzkat, Anika; Berger, Sarah; Reeves, Scott; Mahler, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies. PMID:27280147

  2. Seasonality and Children’s Blood Lead Levels: Developing a Predictive Model Using Climatic Variables and Blood Lead Data from Indianapolis, Indiana, Syracuse, New York, and New Orleans, Louisiana (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Mark A.S.; Mielke, Howard W.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Johnson, David L.; Gonzales, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    On a community basis, urban soil contains a potentially large reservoir of accumulated lead. This study was undertaken to explore the temporal relationship between pediatric blood lead (BPb), weather, soil moisture, and dust in Indianapolis, Indiana; Syracuse, New York; and New Orleans, Louisiana. The Indianapolis, Syracuse, and New Orleans pediatric BPb data were obtained from databases of 15,969, 14,467, and 2,295 screenings, respectively, collected between December 1999 and November 2002, January 1994 and March 1998, and January 1998 and May 2003, respectively. These average monthly child BPb levels were regressed against several independent variables: average monthly soil moisture, particulate matter < 10 μm in diameter (PM10), wind speed, and temperature. Of temporal variation in urban children’s BPb, 87% in Indianapolis (R2 = 0.87, p = 0.0004), 61% in Syracuse (R2 = 0.61, p = 0.0012), and 59% in New Orleans (R2 = 0.59, p = 0.0000078) are explained by these variables. A conceptual model of urban Pb poisoning is suggested: When temperature is high and evapotranspiration maximized, soil moisture decreases and soil dust is deposited. Under these combined weather conditions, Pb-enriched PM10 dust disperses in the urban environment and causes elevated Pb dust loading. Thus, seasonal variation of children’s Pb exposure is probably caused by inhalation and ingestion of Pb brought about by the effect of weather on soils and the resulting fluctuation in Pb loading. PMID:15929906

  3. Combinatorial effects of malaria season, iron deficiency, and inflammation determine plasma hepcidin concentration in African children

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Andrew E.; Khandwala, Shivani; Mwangi, Tabitha W.; Uyoga, Sophie; Bejon, Philip A.; Williams, Thomas N.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Drakesmith, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Hepcidin is the master regulatory hormone that governs iron homeostasis and has a role in innate immunity. Although hepcidin has been studied extensively in model systems, there is less information on hepcidin regulation in global health contexts where iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and high infectious burdens (including malaria) all coexist but fluctuate over time. We evaluated iron status, hepcidin levels, and determinants of hepcidin in 2 populations of rural children aged ≤8 years, in the Gambia and Kenya (total n = 848), at the start and end of a malaria season. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling demonstrated, for both populations, similar combinatorial effects of upregulating stimuli (iron stores and to a lesser extent inflammation) and downregulating stimuli (erythropoietic drive) on hepcidin levels. However, malaria season was also a significant factor and was associated with an altered balance of these opposing factors. Consistent with these changes, hepcidin levels were reduced whereas the prevalence of ID was increased at the end of the malaria season. More prevalent ID and lower hepcidin likely reflect an enhanced requirement for iron and an ability to efficiently absorb it at the end of the malaria season. These results, therefore, have implications for ID and malaria control programs. PMID:24596418

  4. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

  5. Blood B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS)/BAFF levels may reflect natural immunity to HIV in highly exposed uninfected Beninese Commercial Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sabourin-Poirier, Catherine; Fourcade, Lyvia; Chagnon-Choquet, Josiane; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Alary, Michel; Guédou, Fernand; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that excess B lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS)/BAFF in plasma and on surface of blood dendritic cells (DC) of HIV-infected progressors coincides with B-cell dysregulations and increased frequencies of “precursor” innate marginal zone (MZ)-like B-cells. In contrast, both blood BLyS levels and frequencies of this population remained unaltered in HIV elite-controllers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that control of BLyS and innate B-cell status could be associated with natural immunity against HIV infection. Therefore, we assessed blood BLyS levels and B-cell status in HIV highly-exposed commercial sex workers (CSWs) from Benin. We found blood BLyS levels of HIV-uninfected CSWs were lower than those observed in both HIV-infected CSW and HIV-uninfected non-CSW groups. Furthermore, levels of BLyS expression on blood T-cells and monocytes were lower in HIV-uninfected CSWs when compared to HIV-infected CSWs, but higher than those observed for HIV-uninfected non-CSWs. Concomitantly, HIV-infected CSWs presented a dysregulated blood B-cell compartment, characterized by increased total IgG1, increased frequencies of populations presenting immature and/or innate profiles and a higher ratio of IgG+/IgA+ plasmablasts. In contrast, relatively low levels of BLyS in the blood of HIV-uninfected CSWs coincided with a rather preserved B-cell compartment. PMID:27561453

  6. Blood B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS)/BAFF levels may reflect natural immunity to HIV in highly exposed uninfected Beninese Commercial Sex Workers.

    PubMed

    Sabourin-Poirier, Catherine; Fourcade, Lyvia; Chagnon-Choquet, Josiane; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Alary, Michel; Guédou, Fernand; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that excess B lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS)/BAFF in plasma and on surface of blood dendritic cells (DC) of HIV-infected progressors coincides with B-cell dysregulations and increased frequencies of "precursor" innate marginal zone (MZ)-like B-cells. In contrast, both blood BLyS levels and frequencies of this population remained unaltered in HIV elite-controllers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that control of BLyS and innate B-cell status could be associated with natural immunity against HIV infection. Therefore, we assessed blood BLyS levels and B-cell status in HIV highly-exposed commercial sex workers (CSWs) from Benin. We found blood BLyS levels of HIV-uninfected CSWs were lower than those observed in both HIV-infected CSW and HIV-uninfected non-CSW groups. Furthermore, levels of BLyS expression on blood T-cells and monocytes were lower in HIV-uninfected CSWs when compared to HIV-infected CSWs, but higher than those observed for HIV-uninfected non-CSWs. Concomitantly, HIV-infected CSWs presented a dysregulated blood B-cell compartment, characterized by increased total IgG1, increased frequencies of populations presenting immature and/or innate profiles and a higher ratio of IgG(+)/IgA(+) plasmablasts. In contrast, relatively low levels of BLyS in the blood of HIV-uninfected CSWs coincided with a rather preserved B-cell compartment. PMID:27561453

  7. Uncertainties in projected climate changes of the rainy season over West Africa related to bias adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Grigory; Bosshard, Thomas; Wilcke, Renate; Yang, Wei; Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Bias adjustment has become an integral part of pre-processing of climate simulations for use in impact modeling studies. Considered now as a necessary step to deal with inability of climate models to accurately simulate the present/recent climate, bias adjustment is a statistical approach missing physical arguments. Even if bias adjustment is widely used nowadays it is still a topic for debates and criticism. One of the main questions is what level of uncertainty does bias adjustment introduce to future climate projections? In this study, using an ensemble of the CORDEX-Africa simulations, we investigate potential impact of bias adjustment on the simulated rainy season in West Africa. A number of characteristics reflecting different aspects of the rainy season are used, namely: onset and cessation of the rainy season, mean intensity, total amount of precipitation and intra-seasonal variability within the rainy season. All these characteristics are evaluated in the original CORDEX-Africa simulations and in bias-adjusted ones for a reference period first and then future climate projections of these characteristics are compared between two ensembles. Additionally, we examine how bias adjustment may impact selection of a smaller more manageable ensemble of regional climate simulations from a grand one.

  8. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-06-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability, using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp: r2 = 0.63, n = 30 plots; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall inputs were generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry being more recalcitrant to decay.

  9. Seasonal shifts in bacteria associated with Jersey cows on a small dairy farm and the potential for bedding choice and low levels of iodine use to inhibit mastitic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Waltemyer, Jessica R; Hennings, Rachel; Hoostal, Matt J

    2014-03-01

    Milk products from small dairies are increasingly in demand, as access to pasture provides benefits to the cow, consumer, and environment. The productivity and profitability of small dairy farms particularly rely on the prevention of infectious diseases. Cattle on seasonal grazing dairies live primarily outdoors until inclement weather warrants relocation indoors. While shifts in the amounts of bacteria associated with livestock may be expected from this transition, potentially increasing risks for infectious diseases, changes in bacteria levels on cows relocated to indoor facilities have not been well-studied. In addition, the optimal use of bedding materials and iodine are critical in bovine infectious diseases prevention. However, the antibacterial potential of bedding material with high polyphenol content or low concentrations of iodine, are poorly understood. Cow teats were swabbed and total bacteria and coliform counts, as well as extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) were utilized to assess shifts in bacterial levels on cows at pasture and then housed indoors. To test the antibacterial efficacy of bedding materials, as well as low concentrations of povidone-iodine, growth curves with laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as S. aureus isolated from a dairy farm, were performed with three concentrations of red cedar shavings or iodine. Post hoc multiple comparisons indicated that total bacteria, coliform, and β-galactosidase activities were significantly greater among cows housed indoors compared to bacterial samples from cows at pasture. Laboratory strains of S. aureus, but not K. pneumoniae, were significantly inhibited by moderate and high treatments of red cedar shavings, while S. aureus isolated from a dairy were inhibited by the high treatment only. All low iodine concentrations significantly inhibited each bacterial strain investigated. These results may help optimize strategies for the prevention of infectious

  10. Recent Changes in the Arctic Melt Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.

  11. The Arctic Ocean's seasonal cycle must change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James; Ding, Yanni

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses anticipated changes to the seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean along with Arctic surface climate due to the reduction of seasonal sea ice cover expected in the 21st century. Net surface shortwave radiation is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric transparency as well as solar declination. Recent observational studies and modeling results presented here strongly suggest that this excess heat in the summer is currently being stored locally in the form of ocean warming and sea ice melt. This heat is lost in winter/spring through surface loss through longwave and turbulent processes causing ocean cooling and the refreezing of sea ice. A striking feature of Arctic climate during the 20th century has been the enhanced warming experienced during winter in response to increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of surface air temperature is declining by gradually warming winter temperatures relative to summer temperatures. Bintanja and van der Linden (2013) show this process will eventually cause the 30C seasonal change in air temperature to reduce by half as seasonal sea ice disappears. The much weaker seasonal cycle of ocean temperature, which is controlled by the need to store excess surface heat seasonally, is also going to be affected by the loss of sea ice but in quite different ways. In particular the ocean will need to compensate for the loss of seasonal heat storage by the ice pack. This study examines consequences for the Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation in a suite of CMIP5 models under future emissions scenarios relative to their performance during the 20th century and to explore a range of model ocean responses to declining sea ice cover on the Arctic Ocean.

  12. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Hg(0) Over New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Sigler, J.; Sive, B.; Hegarty, J.

    2007-12-01

    Diurnal to interannual variability of Hg° over New England was investigated using multiple years of Hg° measurements at two inland sites, Thompson Farm (TF, 43.11° N, 70.95° W, 24 m, 25 km inland) and Pac Monadnock (PM, 42.86° N, 71.88° W, 700 m, 180 km inland), and one summer of measurements from a marine site, Appledore Island (AI, 42.97° N, 70.62° W, sea level), from the University of New Hampshire AIRMAP observing network. Possible sources were identified via a thorough examination of relationships between Hg° and a number of trace gases, e.g., CO, CO2, CH4, NOy, NO, SO2, and VOCs. The measurements of Hg at TF showed distinct seasonality with an annual maxima in late winter - early spring and a minima in early fall, with large day-to-day variation. A decreasing trend in the mixing ratio of Hg over the time period of March - September occurred at a rate of 0.5 - 0.6 ppqv d-1 for all years except 2004 (0.3 ppqv d-1). Measurements of Hg° at the elevated site PM exhibited much smaller daily and annual variation, particularly reflected in the slower warm season decline (relative to TF) of 0.2 and 0.3 ppqv d-1 in 2005 and 2006 respectively. The AI data appeared to track the variation observed at TF albeit with much higher minima. Hg° was correlated most strongly with CO and NOy in winter suggesting that anthropogenic emissions were the primary source of Hg° . Applying the Hg° - CO relationship, we found that the seasonally averaged Hg° mixing ratio of ~160 ppqv at PM can be considered the regional background level. The positive Hg° -NOy correlation along the lower boundary of all data points indicated dry deposition as a stronger sink for Hg° than suggested by previous studies. We estimated a dry deposition velocity for Hg° of 0.17 - 0.20 cm s-1, and a lifetime of ~11 days in the local PBL at TF. Correlation between Hg° and CHBr3 at both TF and AI suggested a role of the oceanic source influencing the ambient levels of Hg° in the marine and coastal

  13. Seasonality of bioaccumulation of trace organics and lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Wu, Rudolf S S; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Shin, Paul K S

    2010-02-15

    Lysosomal integrity in mussels is widely used as a biomarker in coastal environments to demonstrate exposure to trace organic pollutants. However, few studies have determined the long-term influences of seasonal variations on the bioaccumulation of trace organics and subsequently altered response of lysosomal integrity in mussels. This study aimed to test three null hypotheses that (1) bioaccumulations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (SigmaPAH) and (2) total polychlorinated biphenyl (SigmaPCB), and (3) lysosomal integrity as indicated by Neutral Red retention time (NRRT) in haemocytes, in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were not seasonally dependent. The tissue concentrations of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB and haemocytic NRRT were determined in P. viridis in a metropolitan harbour, subtropical Hong Kong during the wet and dry seasons from 2004 to 2007. Additional information on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and total ammonia nitrogen in seawater, and sediment levels of SigmaPAH and SigmaPCB, were extracted from published data and re-analyzed. Our results accepted all null hypotheses, based on the minimal seasonal influences of seawater temperature and salinity on all studied parameters, in which no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons were detected. The seasonal effect was likely outweighed by the greatly improved water quality and pollution abatement noted inside the harbour, with a gradual shift in mussel PAHs from a pyrolytic origin to a petrogenic origin. Spatially, the site east of the harbour was relatively unpolluted. The single use of NRRT in P. viridis explained 25% of the total variation of the integrated pollution patterns in seawater, sediments and mussels. The present study suggested that the dynamic change of trace organics could be reflected by the response on lysosomal integrity in P. viridis, which was recommended as a routine screening biomarker in monitoring of harbour water quality across seasons. PMID

  14. Distinguishing seasonal androgen responses from male-male androgen responsiveness-revisiting the Challenge Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Landys, Meta M; Wingfield, John C

    2007-04-01

    Androgen levels show strong patterns throughout the year in male vertebrates and play an important role in the seasonal modulation of the frequency, intensity and persistence of aggression. The Challenge Hypothesis (Wingfield, J.C., Hegner, R.E., Dufty, A.M., Ball, G.F., 1990. The "Challenge Hypothesis": Theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. Am. Nat. 136, 829-846) predicts that seasonal patterns in androgen levels vary as a function of mating system, male-male aggression and paternal care. Although many studies have addressed these predictions, investigators have often assumed that the ratio of the breeding season maximum and breeding baseline concentrations (termed "androgen responsiveness") reflects hormonal responses due to social stimulation. However, increasing evidence suggests that seasonal androgen elevations are not necessarily caused by social interactions between males. Here, we separate the seasonal androgen response (R(seasonal)) and the androgen responsiveness to male-male competition (R(male-male)) to begin to distinguish between different kinds of hormonal responses. We demonstrate that R(seasonal) and R(male-male) are fundamentally different and should be treated as separate variables. Differences are particularly evident in single-brooded male birds that show no increase in plasma androgen levels during simulated territorial intrusions (STIs), even though R(seasonal) is elevated. In multiple-brooded species, STIs typically elicit a rise in androgens. We relate these findings to the natural history of single- and multiple-brooded species and suggest a research approach that could be utilized to increase our understanding of the factors that determine different types of androgen responses. This approach does not only include R(seasonal) and R(male-male), but also the androgen responsiveness to receptive females (R(male-female)) and to non-social environmental cues (R

  15. Controlling Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of asthma and allergic diseases. Immune Tolerance Network (ITN): The ITN is an international ... mold spores can cause seasonal allergic reactions. The immune system is ... Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ( ...

  16. PMC from 2009 Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (AIM-CIPS) instrument for the 2009 season in the northern polar region. The North Pole (90N...

  17. Seasonality of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-02-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  18. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  19. Effects of nitrogen nutrition on the growth, yield and reflectance characteristics of corn canopies. [Purdue Agronomy Farm, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Walburg, G.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Spectral and agronomic measurements were collected from corn (Zea mays L.) canopies under four nitrogen treatment levels (0, 67, 134, and 202 kg/ha) on 11 dates during 1978 and 12 dates during 1979. Data were analyzed to determine the relationship between the spectral responses of canopies and their argonomic characteristics as well as the spectral separability of the four treatments. Red reflectance was increased, while the near infrared reflectance was decreased for canopies under nitrogen deprivation. Spectral differences between treatments were seen throughout each growing season. The near infrared/red reflectance ratio increased spectral treatment differences over those shown by single band reflectance measures. Of the spectral variables examined, the near infrared/red reflectance ratio most effectively separated the treatments. Differences in spectral response between treatments were attributed to varying soil cover, leaf area index, and leaf pigmentation values, all of which changed with N treatment.

  20. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  1. Teaching Preservice Physical Education Teachers to Reflect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placek, Judith H.; Smyth, Donna M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that examined undergraduate physical education teacher education majors' levels of reflectivity. During one semester, students wrote about reflective teaching following various reading assignments, teaching experiences, and classroom observations. Analysis of the writing assignments for levels of reflectivity indicated that…

  2. Spatial and seasonal variations in the trophic spectrum of demersal fish assemblages in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongyan; Xue, Ying; Ren, Yiping; Ma, Qiuyun

    2015-07-01

    Trophic structure of fish communities is fundamental for ecosystem-based fisheries management, and trophic spectrum classifies fishes by their positions in food web, which provides a simple summary on the trophic structure and ecosystem function. In this study, both fish biomass and abundance trophic spectra were constructed to study the spatial and seasonal variations in the trophic structure of demersal fish assemblages in Jiaozhou Bay, China. Data were collected from four seasonal bottom trawl surveys in Jiaozhou Bay from February to November in 2011. Trophic levels (TLs) of fishes were determined by nitrogen stable isotope analysis. This study indicated that most of these trophic spectra had a single peak at trophic level (TL) of 3.4-3.7, suggesting that demersal fish assemblages of Jiaozhou Bay were dominated by secondary consumers (eg. Pholis fangi and Amblychaeturichthys hexanema). The spatial and seasonal variations of trophic spectra of Jiaozhou Bay reflected the influence of fish reproduction, fishing pressure and migration of fishes. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that seasonal variations in trophic spectra in Jiaozhou Bay were significant ( P<0.05), but variations among different areas were not significant ( P>0.05). The trophic spectrum has been proved to be a useful tool to monitor the trophic structure of fish assemblages. This study highlighted the comprehensive application of fish biomass and abundance trophic spectra in the study on trophic structure of fish assemblages.

  3. [Seasonal differences in the leaf hydraulic conductance of mature Acacia mangium in response to its leaf water use and photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Sun, Gu-Chou; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, measurements were made on the leaf water potential (psi1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate, leaf area index, and sapwood area of mature Acacia mangium, aimed to understand the relationships of the leaf hydraulic conductance (K1) with the leaf water use and photosynthetic characteristics of the A. mangium in wet season (May) and dry season (November). The ratio of sapwood area to leaf area (A(sp)/A(cl)) of the larger trees with an average height of 20 m and a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 0.26 m was 8.5% higher than that of the smaller trees with an average height of 14.5 m and a DBH of 0.19 m, suggesting that the larger trees had a higher water flux in their leaf xylem, which facilitated the water use of canopy leaf. The analysis on the vulnerability curve of the xylem showed that when the K1 decreased by 50%, the psi1 in wet season and dry season was -1.41 and -1.55 MPa, respectively, and the vulnerability of the xylem cavitation was higher in dry season than in wet season. The K1 peak value in wet season and dry season was 5.5 and 4.5 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1) x MPa(-1), and the maximum transpiration rate (T(r max)) was 3.6 and 1.8 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. Both the K1 and T(r max), were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Within a day, the K1 and T(r), fluctuated many times, reflecting the reciprocated cycle of the xylem cavitation and refilling. The leaf stomatal closure occurred when the K1 declined over 50% or the psi1 reached -1.6 MPa. The g(s) would be maintained at a high level till the K1 declined over 50%. The correlation between the hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic rate was more significant in dry season than in wet season. The loss of leaf hydraulic conductance induced by seasonal change could be the causes of the decrease of T(r) and CO2 gas exchange. PMID:23717989

  4. Seasonal Dynamics of Mobile Carbon Supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the Upper Elevational Limit

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (<3 m in height) are determined by carbon limitation or growth limitation. We studied the seasonal variations in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) and its pool size in Q. aquifolioides grown at 3000 m, 3500 m, and at its elevational limit of 3950 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation. PMID:22479567

  5. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  6. Are species shade and drought tolerance reflected in leaf-level structural and functional differentiation in Northern Hemisphere temperate woody flora?

    PubMed

    Hallik, Lea; Niinemets, Ulo; Wright, Ian J

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-level determinants of species environmental stress tolerance are still poorly understood. Here, we explored dependencies of species shade (T(shade)) and drought (T(drought)) tolerance scores on key leaf structural and functional traits in 339 Northern Hemisphere temperate woody species. In general, T(shade) was positively associated with leaf life-span (L(L)), and negatively with leaf dry mass (M(A)), nitrogen content (N(A)), and photosynthetic capacity (A(A)) per area, while opposite relationships were observed with drought tolerance. Different trait combinations responsible for T(shade) and T(drought) were observed among the key plant functional types: deciduous and evergreen broadleaves and evergreen conifers. According to principal component analysis, resource-conserving species with low N content and photosynthetic capacity, and high L(L) and M(A), had higher T(drought), consistent with the general stress tolerance strategy, whereas variation in T(shade) did not concur with the postulated stress tolerance strategy. As drought and shade often interact in natural communities, reverse effects of foliar traits on these key environmental stress tolerances demonstrate that species niche differentiation is inherently constrained in temperate woody species. Different combinations of traits among key plant functional types further explain the contrasting bivariate correlations often observed in studies seeking functional explanation of variation in species environmental tolerances. PMID:19674334

  7. Seasonal, Variably Saturated Flows in a Vernal Pool Wetland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarten, N. F.; Rains, M. C.; Harter, T.

    2008-12-01

    Vernal pool complexes are an important seasonal wetland ecosystem in California. The pools form in shallow landscape depressions during the rainy winter season. Only under extremely wet conditions, pools become part of a surface drainage network. The surface drainage network is typically much shorter-lived than the pools. Pools may have standing water from as little as two weeks to as long as six months during the rainy season (late fall to late spring). While ecologically important, little is known about the subsurface hydrology associated with vernal pools. We have implemented an extensive hydrologic monitoring program to begin understanding the role of variably saturated flow within these vernal pools catchments. At our field sites on older tertiary alluvial terraces, we find that winter precipitation (PPT) is the principal contribution to a variably saturated aquifer on a shallow, duripan aquitard. During the onset of the winter season, infiltration throughout the local catchment results in a gradual wetting up of the relatively dry soil profile. Soil moisture content increases due to macropore flow in a clay layer overlaying the duripan, thus creating a bottom up increase in saturated soil. Overlying landscape depressions begin to expose surface water not as a result of surface runoff, but as a result of increasing perched water table elevation, thus creating the vernal pools. Subsequent fluctuations in pool basin water levels are primarily controlled by evapotranspiration (ET) within the pool and by subsurface gravitational flows, often into seasonal drainages. Multiple vernal pool basins within a catchment are shown to exhibit a high level of groundwater connectivity. Intense periods of PPT continue to supply the perched aquifer with water. Rapid fluctuations in soil moisture content can occur over periods of 10 to 30 minutes increasing surface soil moisture to near saturation levels. Macroporous clay loam soils in the A horizon quickly discharge water

  8. Global Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamerius, James

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low specific humidity conditions facilitate the transmission of the influenza virus in temperate regions and result in annual winter epidemics. However, this relationship does not account for the epidemiology of influenza in tropical and subtropical regions where epidemics often occur during the rainy season or transmit year-round without a well-defined season. We assessed the role of specific humidity and other local climatic variables on influenza virus seasonality by modeling epidemiological and climatic information from 78 study sites sampled globally. We substantiated that there are two types of environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: "cold-dry" and "humid-rainy". For sites where monthly average specific humidity or temperature decreases below thresholds of approximately 11-12 g/kg and 18-21 °C during the year, influenza activity peaks during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter) when specific humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. For sites where specific humidity and temperature do not decrease below these thresholds, seasonal influenza activity is more likely to peak in months when average precipitation totals are maximal and greater than 150 mm per month. Based on these findings, we develop Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIRS) models forced by daily weather observations of specific humidity and precipitation that simulate the diversity of seasonal influenza signals worldwide.

  9. Seasonal and Interannual Variabilities in Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of seasonal and interannual variability in tropical tropospheric column ozone (TCO). TCO time series are derived from 20 years (1979-1998) of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data using the convective cloud differential (CCD) method. Our study identifies three regions in the tropics with distinctly different zonal characteristics related to seasonal and interannual variability. These three regions are the eastern Pacific, Atlantic, and western Pacific. Results show that in both the eastern and western Pacific seasonal-cycle variability of northern hemisphere (NH) TCO exhibits maximum amount during NH spring whereas largest amount in southern hemisphere (SH) TCO occurs during SH spring. In the Atlantic, maximum TCO in both hemispheres occurs in SH spring. These seasonal cycles are shown to be comparable to seasonal cycles present in ground-based ozonesonde measurements. Interannual variability in the Atlantic region indicates a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) signal that is out of phase with the QBO present in stratospheric column ozone (SCO). This is consistent with high pollution and high concentrations of mid-to-upper tropospheric O3-producing precursors in this region. The out of phase relation suggests a UV modulation of tropospheric photochemistry caused by the QBO in stratospheric O3. During El Nino events there is anomalously low TCO in the eastern Pacific and high values in the western Pacific, indicating the effects of convectively-driven transport of low-value boundary layer O3 (reducing TCO) and O3 precursors including H2O and OH. A simplified technique is proposed to derive high-resolution maps of TCO in the tropics even in the absence of tropopause-level clouds. This promising approach requires only total ozone gridded measurements and utilizes the small variability observed in TCO near the dateline. This technique has an advantage compared to the CCD method because the latter requires high

  10. Correlations between soil magnetic susceptibility and the content of particular elements as a reflection of pollution level, land use and parent rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Bens, Oliver; Kardel, Kati

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is a worldwide used measure of (ferri)magnetic minerals occurring in soils, sediments and dusts. In soils, these minerals are of various origin: air-derived particulate pollutions, parent rocks or pedogenesis. Human activity causes different changes in the content of magnetic minerals as well as their spatial and vertical distribution in soil profiles. Magnetic minerals are characterized by an affinity for other elements occurring in the soil, so positive correlations between magnetic susceptibility and particular elements like macrocomponents or heavy metals often occurs. The archival soil samples collected from different soil horizons in the territory of the Free State of Saxony (Germany) were subjected to the magnetic susceptibility measurements using Bartington MS2B. Additionally, samples were chemically analyzed by the S Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam. Values of magnetic susceptibility varied from 9.3 to 1382 ×10-8 m3/kg in organic soil horizon and from 0.1 to 2105 ×10-8 m3/kg in dipper layers. Calculated correlation coefficients between magnetic susceptibility and some elements indicate significant relationships characteristic for different factors influenced soil properties (pollution level, land use and parent rocks). The northern part of Saxony is divided by the Elbe into two parts: east part with loose sedimentary rocks and the west one with more solid loess bedrock enriched by spectrum of elements from the Ore Mountains. Correlations between magnetic susceptibility and Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn were stated in the eastern, while soil magnetic susceptibility of the western part revealed a correlation with Fe, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, U, V, and W. Taking into account influences of industry and urbanization, soil magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in the areas with higher population density comparing with rural sites. In the area of Hoyerswerda and Weisswasser with low magnetic natural

  11. Monocyte surface expression of Fcγ receptor RI (CD64), a biomarker reflecting type-I interferon levels in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction More than half of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients show evidence of excess type I interferon (IFN-I) production, a phenotype associated with renal disease and certain autoantibodies. However, detection of IFN-I proteins in serum is unreliable, and the measurement of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression is expensive and time consuming. The aim of this study was to identify a surrogate marker for IFN-I activity in clinical samples for monitoring disease activity and response to therapy. Methods Monocyte surface expression of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), chemokine receptors, and activation markers were analyzed with flow cytometry in whole blood from patients with SLE and healthy controls. FcγR expression also was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy controls cultured with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, cytokines, or serum from SLE patients. Expression of ISGs was analyzed with real-time PCR. Results Circulating CD14+ monocytes from SLE patients showed increased surface expression of FcγRI (CD64). The mean fluorescent intensity of CD64 staining correlated highly with the ISG expression (MX1, IFI44, and Ly6E). In vitro, IFN-I as well as TLR7 and TLR9 agonists, induced CD64 expression on monocytes from healthy controls. Exposure of monocytes from healthy controls to SLE sera also upregulated the expression of CD64 in an IFN-I-dependent manner. Decreased CD64 expression was observed concomitant with the reduction of ISG expression after high-dose corticosteroid therapy. Conclusions Expression of CD64 on circulating monocytes is IFN-I inducible and highly correlated with ISG expression. Flow-cytometry analysis of CD64 expression on circulating monocytes is a convenient and rapid approach for estimating IFN-I levels in SLE patients. PMID:20478071

  12. Constraining canopy biophysical simulations with MODIS reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewry, D. T.; Duveiller, G.

    2013-05-01

    Modern vegetation models incorporate ecophysiological details that allow for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide uptake, water use and energy exchange, but require knowledge of dynamic structural and biochemical traits. Variations in these traits are controlled by genetic factors as well as growth stage and nutrient and moisture availability, making them difficult to predict and prone to significant error. Here we explore the use of MODIS optical reflectance data for constraining key canopy- and leaf-level traits required by forward biophysical models. A multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to invert the PROSAIL canopy radiation transfer model, which accounts for the effects of leaf-level optical properties, foliage distribution and orientation on canopy reflectance across the optical range. Inversions are conducted for several growing seasons for both soybean and maize at several sites in the Central US agro-ecosystem. These inversions provide estimates of seasonal variations, and associated uncertainty, of variables such as leaf area index (LAI) that are then used as inputs into the MLCan biophysical model to conduct forward simulations. MLCan characterizes the ecophysiological functioning of a plant canopy at a half-hourly timestep, and has been rigorously validated for both C3 and C4 crops against observations of canopy CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and sensible heat exchange across a wide range of meteorological conditions. The inversion-derived canopy properties are used to examine the ability of MODIS data to characterize seasonal variations in canopy properties in the context of a detailed forward canopy biophysical model, and the uncertainty induced in forward model estimates as a function of the uncertainty in the inverted parameters. Special care is made to ensure that the satellite observations match adequately, in both time and space, with the coupled model simulations. To do so, daily MODIS observations are used and a validated model of

  13. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  14. Seasonal prediction of ocean surface waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Brune, Sebastian; Fröhlich, Kristina; Bunzel, Felix; Pohlmann, Holger; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Due to the short-term nature of wind, storms and surface ocean waves dynamics, the seasonal prediction of ocean wave requires a robust prediction system which can realistically represent the variably of sea level pressure and wind on a seasonal scale. The seasonal prediction system based on the mixed resolution CMIP5 version of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM MR) provides a skilful seasonal prediction of sea level pressure and wind. The system is initialised every six months by reanalysis and observations in the atmospheric, ocean and sea ice components of the model. The seasonal prediction system was extended by the wave model WAM, which is running offline, using the wind re-forecast provided by the MPI-ESM MR. Our 10-member wave re-forecast over the period from 1982 to 2012 demonstrates a skilful prediction of the wave height up to 2-4 months in the Pacific, Equatorial Atlantic and Indian Ocean depending on the season. We evaluate our re-forecast by statistical metrics such as the anomaly correlation, spread-error ratio, and root-mean-square-error using the ERA-Interim forced wave reanalysis and buoys measurements as a reference.

  15. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon II: seasonal and annual variation.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2006-06-01

    The water quality of a river at any point reflects several major influences including but are not limited to climatic conditions and anthropogenic inputs. Assessing these influences is essential for managing land and water resources within a particular river catchment. The objectives of this study were to identify the causes of increasing or decreasing trends in the concentrations of various water quality parameters in the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon and to account for the consequential variations both annual and seasonal (low/high flow). The assessment was conducted at the end of the dry season in October 2002 and 2003 and the end of the wet season in March 2003 and 2004. Results established that dissolved oxygen levels were consistently higher at the end of the wet season. The concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen and ortho-phosphates did not exhibit a clear seasonal or annual variation. While the levels of total dissolved solids and nitrate nitrogen exhibited a decreasing trend in urban catchments, an increasing trend was observed in rural, agricultural and forested areas. The findings of this study reinforce the notion that management of point and non-point sources should be integrated as the combination of both sources connected with land use results in deleterious effects on water quality. The lack of good quality water hinders economic development and the potential for long term sustainability. PMID:16336989

  16. Growth and reflectance characteristics of winter wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Bauer, M. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    A valuable input to crop growth and yield models would be estimates of current crop condition. If multispectral reflectance indicates crop condition, then remote sensing may provide an additional tool for crop assessment. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on the spectral reflectance and agronomic characteristics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were determined through field experiments. Spectral reflectance was measured during the 1979 and 1980 growing seasons with a spectroradiometer. Agronomic data included total leaf N concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration, stage of development, leaf area index (LAI), plant moisture, and fresh and dry phytomass. Nitrogen deficiency caused increased visible, reduced near infrared, and increased middle infrared reflectance. These changes were related to lower levels of chlorophyll and reduced leaf area in the N-deficient plots. Green LAI, an important descriptor of wheat canopies, could be reliably estimated with multispectral data. The potential of remote sensing in distinguishing stressed from healthy crops is demonstrated. Evidence suggests multispectral imagery may be useful for monitoring crop condition.

  17. Use of field reflectance data for crop mapping using airborne hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidamanuri, Rama Rao; Zbell, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in hyperspectral remote sensing technologies enable acquisition of image with high spectral resolution, which is typical to the laboratory or in situ reflectance measurements. There has been an increasing interest in the utilization of in situ reference reflectance spectra for rapid and repeated mapping of various surface features. Here we examined the prospect of classifying airborne hyperspectral image using field reflectance spectra as the training data for crop mapping. Canopy level field reflectance measurements of some important agricultural crops, i.e. alfalfa, winter barley, winter rape, winter rye, and winter wheat collected during four consecutive growing seasons are used for the classification of a HyMAP image acquired for a separate location by (1) mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF), (2) spectral feature fitting (SFF), and (3) spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods. In order to answer a general research question "what is the prospect of using independent reference reflectance spectra for image classification", while focussing on the crop classification, the results indicate distinct aspects. On the one hand, field reflectance spectra of winter rape and alfalfa demonstrate excellent crop discrimination and spectral matching with the image across the growing seasons. On the other hand, significant spectral confusion detected among the winter barley, winter rye, and winter wheat rule out the possibility of existence of a meaningful spectral matching between field reflectance spectra and image. While supporting the current notion of "non-existence of characteristic reflectance spectral signatures for vegetation", results indicate that there exist some crops whose spectral signatures are similar to characteristic spectral signatures with possibility of using them in image classification.

  18. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  19. Sex, scarring, and stress: understanding seasonal costs in a cryptic marine mammal

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Janine L.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in adrenal activity in the dugong, a vulnerable cryptic marine mammal species, in a population inhabiting the lower thermal limit of their range. We sampled 319 live wild dugongs and examined faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations in relationship to sex, reproductive state (immature, sexually mature, or pregnant), and season, as well as associations with body condition, male-induced aggressive conspecific interactions, and environmental temperature. Physiological validations with apparently healthy and unhealthy animals indicated that fGC levels reliably reflect adrenal activation in dugongs. Glucocorticoid levels and body condition varied seasonally, with individuals expressing lowest fGC levels and an improving body condition over summer and autumn. Best body condition was observed in winter, which may have enhanced the ability of the animals to cope with thermal and nutritional challenges and helped to sustain the subsequent costs of reproduction (including mating activity in spring). Immature dugongs, especially those recently estranged from their mothers, may be particularly vulnerable to stress during winter, and also at risk of injury from adult conspecifics. During the spring mating period, mature and sexually active males with large erupted tusks had high fGC and poorer body condition compared with all dugongs, except pregnant females, in all other seasons. This finding was consistent with high levels of body scarring on adults of both sexes, resulting from agonistic behaviour by mature males. Competitive reproductive behaviour, inherent in a promiscuous mating system, may have stressful consequences for male dugongs, especially given that strenuous mating activity follows unfavourable thermal and nutritional conditions. Overall, fGC levels appear to be a good proxy for stressors in dugongs associated with season and/or temperature, intra-specific aggression, and pregnancy, but not lactation and/or maternal care. Understanding

  20. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and seminars,…

  1. Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Su-Jung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Hsu, Tsui-Lieh; Yu, Wen-Chung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19.2°C and 27.6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32.7% versus 12.5%, p = 0.017) and from NHIRD (10.4% versus 4.6%, p = 0.019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44.2% versus 22.9%, p = 0.025) and D-dimer level (5.5 ± 3.8 versus 2.4 ± 1.8 μg/ml, p = 0.017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

  2. Teaching Science: Eclipse Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for a three-dimensional model as an aid for teaching students why eclipses do not occur every two weeks, as falsely indicated by two-dimensional models such as books, chalkboards, and computer screens. Describes procedure to construct the model. Indicates question related to seasons likely to arise from such a model and…

  3. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  4. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  5. Seasonal Change Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The author describes how the yearlong Investigating Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…

  6. Seasonal evapotranspiration patterns in mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Jordan G.; DeLonge, Marcia S.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2014-04-01

    Diurnal and seasonal controls on water vapor fluxes were investigated in a subtropical mangrove forest in Everglades National Park, Florida. Energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes was highly variable during the 2004-2005 study period. During the dry season, the mangrove forest behaved akin to a semiarid ecosystem as most of the available energy was partitioned into sensible heat, which gave Bowen ratio values exceeding 1.0 and minimum latent heat fluxes of 5 MJ d-1. In contrast, during the wet season the mangrove forest acted as a well-watered, broadleaved deciduous forest, with Bowen ratio values of 0.25 and latent heat fluxes reaching 18 MJ d-1. During the dry season, high salinity levels (> 30 parts per thousand, ppt) caused evapotranspiration to decline and correspondingly resulted in reduced canopy conductance. From multiple linear regression, daily average canopy conductance to water vapor declined with increasing salinity, vapor pressure deficit, and daily sums of solar irradiance but increased with air temperature and friction velocity. Using these relationships, appropriately modified Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor models reliably reproduced seasonal trends in daily evapotranspiration. Such numerical models, using site-specific parameters, are crucial for constructing seasonal water budgets, constraining hydrological models, and driving regional climate models over mangrove forests.

  7. Seasonal expression of androgen receptor in scented gland of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Liu, Shuqiang; Li, Qinglin; Huang, Shiyang; Bao, Lihong; Sheng, Xia; Han, Yingying; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Weng, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Muskrat is a seasonal breeder, males of which secret musk from paired perineal scented glands found beneath the skin at the ventral base of the tail for attracting female during the breeding season. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal changes of expression of androgen receptor (AR) in the scented gland of muskrat during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Histologically, glandular cells, interstitial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands in both seasons, whereas epithelial cells were sparse in the nonbreeding season. AR was observed in glandular cells of scented glands during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons with stronger immunostaining during the breeding season compared to the nonbreeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, AR protein level was higher in the scented glands of the breeding season, and then decreased to a relatively low level in the nonbreeding season. The mean mRNA level of Ar was significantly higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations were remarkably higher in the breeding season than those in the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that muskrat scented gland was the direct target organ of androgen, and stronger expression of AR in scented glands during the breeding season suggested that androgens may directly influence scented glandular function of the muskrats and also courtship behavior as we inferred. PMID:24818970

  8. Ozone and aerosol distributions over the Amazon basin during the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Browell, E.V.; Gregory, G.L. ); Harriss, R.C. ); Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}) and aerosols were made over the tropical rain forest of Brazil during the wet season in April-May 1987 as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment to study the Amazon boundary layer. Remote and in situ measurements of O{sub 3} and aerosols were made from aircraft on flights over Brazil in the vicinity of Manaus and between Manaus and Belem. Ozonesonde data were also obtained near Manaus. Ozone mixing ratios of <12 ppbv were found in the mixed layer during the wet season with no significant evidence of O{sub 3} produced from biomass burning or photochemistry. These values are lower than those found during the 1985 dry season by 6-8 ppbv. These low O{sub 3} mixing ratios indicate a strong removal process near the surface during the wet season. The region from the mixed layer top to 3 km in altitude had a slowly increasing O{sub 3} profile from 12 to 20 ppbv. On long-range flights between Manaus and Belem, no significant difference was found in the distribution of O{sub 3} above the mixed layer between the inland tropical rain forest and the marine conditions near the coast. Within the mixed layer, there was a definite trend to lower O{sub 3} levels above the forest compared to over the ocean. This reflects the marked difference in the sinks for O{sub 3} over these two regions. The rate of growth of the mixed layer over the rain forest in the wet season was found to be {approximately}9 cm s{sup {minus}1}, which is within the 7-10 cm s{sup {minus}1} range found for the dry season. There was no evidence of the trade wind inversion that was seen during the dry season, and due to frequent precipitation, the background aerosol loading was lower in the wet season than in the dry season.

  9. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  10. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  11. Seasonal indoor radon concentration in Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sogukpinar, H; Algin, E; Asici, C; Altinsoz, M; Cetinkaya, H

    2014-12-01

    Indoor radon concentrations are subject to seasonal variation, which directly depends on weather conditions. The seasonal indoor radon concentrations were measured and the annual effective dose was estimated for the city centre of Eskisehir, Turkey. In order to reflect annual averages measurements were performed over all seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) including also the entire year. Measurements were carried out using Kodak-Pathe LR 115 Type II passive alpha track detectors in 220 different houses. A total of 534 measurements including measurements of different seasons were taken between 2010 and 2011. The radon concentrations for winter ranged from 34 to 531 Bq m(-3), for spring ranged from 22 to 424 Bq m(-3), for summer ranged from 25 to 320 Bq m(-3), and for autumn ranged from 19 to 412 Bq m(-3). Yearly measurements ranged from 19 to 338 Bq m(-3). In this study the average annual effective total dose from radon and its decay products was calculated to be 3.398 mSv y(-1). PMID:24379436

  12. Octocorals in a changing environment: Seasonal response of stress biomarkers in natural populations of Veretillum cynomorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeira, Carolina; Madeira, Diana; Vinagre, Catarina; Diniz, Mário

    2015-09-01

    Current concerns about climate change emphasize the need for an accurate monitoring of physiological conditions in wild populations. Therefore, the aims of this work were to a) assess the response of the octocoral Veretillum cynomorium to thermal variation in natural populations during low tide, by quantifying several biochemical indicators of thermal and oxidative stress and b) evaluate the effect of seasonality in the results and the adequacy of the use of biochemical indicators of stress in field monitoring studies in octocorals. Sampling took place during spring (April) and summer (June). Heat shock protein (Hsp70) and ubiquitin (Ub) content, enzyme activities - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed in rachis and peduncle tissues separately. The results showed significant seasonal fluctuations in the set of biomarkers tested. Differences were detected between spring and summer, with significant decreases in biomarker levels from April to June being a major observed trend. These results suggest that V. cynomorium is thermo-tolerant during summer low tide conditions. Seasonal variation seems to reflect a metabolic suppression strategy and/or may also be related to seasonal changes in food availability and reproductive status. Differences in activity between tissue types were also found significant for GST, LPO and Ub. Biomarker levels were correlated with total protein concentration, but not with wet body weight of the specimens. This study suggests that season influences the expression of biomarkers and must be taken into consideration in the preliminary stages of sampling design for climate change biomonitoring studies. In addition, the results suggest that this octocoral species is likely to survive in future challenging thermal conditions.

  13. Thermoregulation of foraging honeybees on flowering plants: seasonal variability and influence of radiative heat gain

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    1. During nectar and pollen foraging in a temperate climate, honeybees are exposed to a broad range of ambient temperatures, challenging their thermoregulatory ability. The body temperature that the bees exhibit results from endothermic heat production, exogenous heat gain from solar radiation, and heat loss. In addition to profitability of foraging, season was suggested to have a considerable influence on thermoregulation. To assess the relative importance of these factors, the thermoregulatory behaviour of foragers on 33 flowering plants in dependence on season and environmental factors was investigated. 2. The bees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman) were always endothermic. On average, the thorax surface temperature (Tth) was regulated at a high and rather constant level over a broad range of ambient temperatures (Tth = 33.7–35.7°C, Ta = 10–27°C). However, at a certain Ta, Tth showed a strong variation, depending on the plants from which the bees were foraging. At warmer conditions (Ta = 27–32°C) the Tth increased nearly linearly with Ta to a maximal average level of 42.6 °C. The thorax temperature excess decreased strongly with increasing Ta (Tth−Ta = 21.6 − 3.6°C). 3. The bees used the heat gain from solar radiation to elevate the temperature excess of thorax, head, and abdomen. Seasonal dependance was reflected in a 2.7 °C higher mean Tth in the spring than in the summer. An anova revealed that season had the greatest effect on Tth, followed by Ta and radiation. 4. It was presumed the foragers' motivational status to be the main factor responsible for the variation of Tth between seasons and different plants. PMID:22419834

  14. Seasonal and Circadian Variation in Salivary Testosterone in Rural Bolivian Men

    PubMed Central

    Vitzthum, Virginia J.; Worthman, Carol M.; Beall, Cynthia M.; Thornburg, Jonathan; Vargas, Enrique; Villena, Mercedes; Soria, Rudy; Caceres, Esperanza; Spielvogel, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone (T) plays a key role in the increase and maintenance of muscle mass and bone density in adult men. Life history theory predicts that environmental stress may prompt a reallocation of such investments to those functions critical to survival. We tested this hypothesis in two studies of rural Bolivian adult men by comparing free T levels and circadian rhythms during late winter, which is especially severe, to those in less arduous seasons. For each pair of salivary TAM/TPM samples (collected in a ~12-hour period), circadian rhythm was considered classic (CCLASSIC) if TAM>110%TPM, reverse (CREVERSE) if TPM>110%TAM, and flat (CFLAT) otherwise. We tested the hypotheses that mean TAM>mean TPM and that mean TLWseasons). In Study A, of 115 TPM-TAM pairs, 51%=CCLASSIC, 39%=CREVERSE, 10%=CFLAT; in Study B, of 184 TAM-TPM pairs, 55%=CCLASSIC, 33%=CREVERSE, 12%=CFLAT. Based on fitting linear mixed models, in both studies TOTHER-AM>TOTHER-PM (A: p=0.035, B: p=0.0005) and TOTHER-AM>TLW-AM (A: p=0.054, B: p=0.007); TPM did not vary seasonally, and T diurnality was not significant during late winter. T diurnality varied substantially between days within an individual, between individuals and between seasons, but neither T levels nor diurnality varied with age. These patterns may reflect the seasonally varying but unscheduled, life-long, strenuous physical labor that typifies many non-industrialized economies. These results also suggest that single morning samples may substantially underestimate peak circulating T for an individual and, most importantly, that exogenous signals may moderate diurnality and the trajectory of age-related change in the male gonadal axis. PMID:19367574

  15. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world. PMID:20980087

  16. Seasonal hyporheic temperature dynamics over riffle bedforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, D. M.; Malcolm, I. A.; Bradley, C.

    2009-04-01

    There is growing interest in riverbed temperature due to the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the hyporheic zone, and its potential to moderate river temperature. Riffles exhibit complex thermal behaviour, hypothesised to be caused by local alteration of groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions; but hitherto most research has been in upland/ gravel-bed/ hard rock catchments. Accordingly, this article aims: (1) to characterise spatio- temporal variability in hyporheic temperature over two riffles (R1 and R2) in a lowland river basin (Tern, Shropshire, UK) underlain by sandstone; and (2) to explain thermal dynamics by inferring hyporheic processes and the influence of GW-SW interactions. Hyporheic [riffle head, crest and tail at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 m], water column, spring water and air temperature were collected at 15 min resolution over 22 months and used to explore seasonal variations. Borehole water levels and temperature provide insight into groundwater variability over a hydrological year. Hyporheic temperature is cooler (warmer) than water column in summer (winter), with convergence in spring and autumn. Riffle heads and R2 crest yield small thermal gradients; and R1 tail larger vertical difference. R1 crest temperature is similar and attenuated (cf. water column) at all depths. R2 tail temperature differs markedly from surface water. Thus, hyporheic temperature varies temporally across and between riffles, reflecting: (1) hydroclimatological controls on river and groundwater temperature, and (2) hydrological, local morphological and sedimentary controls on surface water and groundwater flux. This research demonstrates the utility of depth-related riverbed temperature time-series in understanding hyporheic zone processes and groundwater-surface water interactions.

  17. The source of the Leeuwin Current seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K. R.; Godfrey, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    The seasonal circulation around the southwestern boundary of Australia is documented using sea level anomalies from satellite altimetry. Results extrapolated to the coast agree closely with tide gauge observations indicating that seasonal altimeter fields are realistic. Monthly sea level maps identify an annual propagating wave along a waveguide extending along the shelf edge, from the Gulf of Carpentaria to southern Tasmania. The annual sea level pulse does not originate from the Pacific Ocean, as annual Pacific sea level variations are completely out of phase with signals south of the Indonesian archipelago. The presence of a phase discontinuity is demonstrated in annual sea level, temperature, and salinity observations. The origin of the Leeuwin Current seasonality is in the Gulf of Carpentaria where monsoonal winds drive a massive buildup of sea level from November to December. During December-February, a sea level "pulse" emerges from the region, and rapidly propagates poleward along the western and southern Australian boundary. In the broad shelf region centered at 19°S, an independent process forms a high sea level feature when a positive heat flux anomaly induces an annual increase in sea surface temperature which is rapidly mixed through the water column by the strong regional tides. In March, the winds relax and switch to a downwelling favorable alongshore component. In this period, the sea level pulse is essentially in a quasi-static equilibrium with the annual propagating wind systems. The change in cross-shelf sea level gradient along the 8000 km path length at the western and southern boundaries, drives the seasonal changes in the Leeuwin Current flow.

  18. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  19. The Seasons of Competency Development for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeffler, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses stages of competency development, using the seasons of the year as a metaphor. Identifies educational strategies that outdoor educators can use at each stage to help women overcome gender role socialization pressures that discourage them from achieving or recognizing their true competency levels. (TD)

  20. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills. PMID:11040626

  1. Estimating Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Seasonal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have been making summer-­-time geodetic measurements in south central Alaska for decades to estimate the rate at which a continental-­-ocean terrane is accreting to the North American continent. Southern Alaska has big earthquakes every century and large, rapidly changing glaciers. In the last decade, primarily as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, continuous GPS measurements have recorded the response of sites such as the near-­-coastal geodetic site, AB35 to competing processes: uplift and movement to the northwest due to tectonic forces and the response of the solid Earth to seasonal and longer-­-term changes in the cryosphere (snow and ice) surrounding the site. Which process causes the largest displacements of the site? Figure 1 (Blewitt, Nevada Geodetic Lab, 2015) shows the Northward, Eastward, and Upward motion of AB35 between 2007 and 2015. The site is moving rapidly to the north and west reflecting the tectonic convergence of site toward interior Alaska but there is small wiggle on the North component reflecting seasonal displacements of the site associated with snow loading and unloading. However, the Up component, shows a large seasonal signal due to snow loading in the winter (down) and ice and snow melting in the warmer months (site goes up). Between 2007 and the present, the site position is slowly moving upward, due to tectonic forcing but probably associated with longer-­- term ice melting as well. We are using the CIG finite element modeling (FEM) program Pylith to estimate the surface displacements and stresses associated with seasonal loading changes (top figure and Figure 2 far right) for water year 2012, 2011.8 - 2012.8) and the longer-­-term retreat of the surrounding glaciers.

  2. Benefits of Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kathi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses what she was able to learn from an exercise in self-reflection regarding her teaching. She also discusses the advantages of reflection for administrators: First, a reflective practice is data-driven, making it a more valid way to evaluate administrators' knowledge and skills. Second, a reflective practice…

  3. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  4. Seasonal Variations of Stratospheric Age Spectra in GEOSCCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Pawson, Steven; Stolarski, Richard S.; Strahan, Susan E.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2011-01-01

    There are many pathways for an air parcel to travel from the troposphere to the stratosphere, each of which takes different time. The distribution of all the possible transient times, i.e. the stratospheric age spectrum, contains important information on transport characteristics. However, it is computationally very expensive to compute seasonally varying age spectra, and previous studies have focused mainly on the annual mean properties of the age spectra. To date our knowledge of the seasonality of the stratospheric age spectra is very limited. In this study we investigate the seasonal variations of the stratospheric age spectra in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We introduce a method to significantly reduce the computational cost for calculating seasonally dependent age spectra. Our simulations show that stratospheric age spectra in GEOSCCM have strong seasonal cycles and the seasonal cycles change with latitude and height. In the lower stratosphere extratropics, the average transit times and the most probable transit times in the winter/early spring spectra are more than twice as old as those in the summer/early fall spectra. But the seasonal cycle in the subtropical lower stratosphere is nearly out of phase with that in the extratropics. In the middle and upper stratosphere, significant seasonal variations occur in the sUbtropics. The spectral shapes also show dramatic seasonal change, especially at high latitudes. These seasonal variations reflect the seasonal evolution of the slow Brewer-Dobson circulation (with timescale of years) and the fast isentropic mixing (with timescale of days to months).

  5. Seasonal variation in the secretion of mammotrophic hormones in normal women and women with previous breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, I M; Mason, B H; Gibbs, E E; Rajasoorya, C; Lethaby, A; Hopkins, K D; Evans, M C; Lim, T; Schooler, B

    1997-01-01

    Hormones such as melatonin whose serum concentrations vary seasonally have been previously implicated in the growth of breast cancer. The present study was undertaken to identify possible seasonal variation in a range of mammotrophic hormones which could exert a chronobiologic influence in women with breast tumours. Fifteen premenopausal women with a history of previous breast cancer (BC subjects) and 10 control women underwent 2-hourly serum sampling for 24 h at both summer and winter solstice for measurement of melatonin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), cortisol, prolactin and thyrotrophin (TSH). Hormone secretion at the different seasons was compared by measuring the area under the 24 h serum hormone concentration x time curves and by time series analysis of summer-to-winter differences in hormone concentration. Control women had significantly higher GH and IGF-I levels in summer compared to winter and significantly higher cortisol secretion in winter than summer. In contrast, BC women had no significant seasonal difference in IGF-I concentrations and had a reversal of the normal seasonal pattern of melatonin secretion, although seasonal changes in GH production were similar to controls. Prolactin and TSH showed no significant summer/winter variation in either group. Thus, seasonal variations in hormone secretion seen in normal women were, with exception of GH, absent or reversed in women with a previous history of breast cancer. As a result these individuals may be exposed to an asynchronous hormonal stimulus which could influence tumour growth. These changes could reflect a constitutional abnormality in BC women or may have been induced by the previous breast tumour. PMID:9116314

  6. Seasonality, disease and behavior: using multiple methods to explore socio-environmental health risks in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Few, Roger; Lake, Iain; Hunter, Paul R; Tran, Pham Gia

    2013-03-01

    Any analysis of how changing environmental hazards impact on public health is fundamentally constrained unless it recognizes the centrality of the social and behavioral dimensions of risk. This paper reports on a research project conducted among low-income peri-urban households in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The research was based on cross-disciplinary inputs to develop a multi-layered understanding of the implications of a dynamic seasonal environment for diarrheal disease risk. It is a widely held assumption that the major changes in the abundance of surface water between the flood and dry seasons in the Mekong Delta are likely to be reflected in the changing patterns of disease risk, especially for poorer households that tend to rely heavily on river water for domestic water use. Therefore, this study investigated seasonal patterns in the contamination of environmental water, incidences of diarrheal illnesses, water use and hygiene behavior, together with perceptions of health risks and seasonality. During the period of October 2007 to October 2008, the UK and Vietnamese research team worked with a total of 120 households in four low-income sites around the city of Long Xuyen to conduct water testing; administer questionnaires on self-reported health, risk perceptions and behavior; and conduct semi-structured interviews. The research team found no overall evidence of a systematic seasonal risk pattern. At the population level, marginal temporal variations in water quality in the environment failed to translate into health outcomes. A complex risk narrative emerged from the interweaving data elements, demonstrating major inter- and intra-household variations in risk perceptions, hygiene behavior, seasonal behavior and other risk factors. It is suggested that these complexities of human behavior and transmission routes challenge simplistic assumptions about change in health outcomes as a result of seasonal environmental changes. These findings demonstrate the key

  7. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  8. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  9. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jill C; Sandve, Simen R

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve. PMID:23761798

  10. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jill C.; Sandve, Simen R.

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve. PMID:23761798

  11. Relative Likelihood of In-Season and Off-Season Use of Alcohol by High School Athletes in North Carolina: Trends and Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Edgar W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Examines in-season and off-season use of alcohol by high school athletes. Changes in the odds of use were determined for gender, grade level, race, school classification, and geographic region. Results show that the odds of high school athletes using alcohol were less, both in- and off-season, in 1996 than in 1988. (MKA)

  12. Season and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stallybrass, C. O.

    1928-01-01

    The seasonal variations in disease, as is the case in the spread of infective diseases generally, depend upon three primary factors: (1) the presence of the micro-organisms of adequate virulence and infectivity; (2) the means of transmission to (3) the susceptible tissues of the susceptible individual. All other factors, in this relation largely climatic, can act directly only through these three primary factors and are therefore termed secondary. The paper is largely an attempt to express the effect of the variations in the secondary factors in terms of the alterations they produce in the primary factors. The total effect of the three primary factors in the spread of infection is termed “dispersability” and a ratio or measure of dispersability is described. This ratio emphasizes occurrences in the pre-epidemic period. The relationship of temperature and humidity to the alimentary, respiratory and percutaneous diseases and to the ectodermoses, is investigated. In the autumnal group of infections, attention is drawn to the action of carriers in causing a rise in dispersability in the spring and the frequent occurrence of a double wave of dispersability. The effect of climatic changes is often cumulative, and this is most evident in the autumnal group of infections, the seasonal occurrence of which cannot be directly explained by temperature changes, or even by the action of light on phagocytes. The possibility of vitamin deficiency or excess producing cumulative effects is considered. Secular changes in seasonal periodicities are investigated and these are associated with other changes, such as the intrinsic periodicities, mode of spread, etc., the combined changes being described by the terms aggradation and degradation of disease. Slides covering the majority of the infective diseases of temperate climates and exhibiting the secular changes in Liverpool, and various geographical differences, in some 175 curves displayed. PMID:19986502

  13. Crop sensors for automation of in-season nitrogen application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop canopy reflectance sensing can be used to assess in-season crop nitrogen (N) health for automatic control of N fertilization. Typically, sensor data are processed to an established index, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) and differences in that index from a well-fertili...

  14. Understanding reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Jacqueline Sian; Dosser, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives use feedback as an opportunity for reflection and learning, to improve practice. The NMC revalidation process stipulates that practitioners provide examples of how they have achieved this. To reflect in a meaningful way, it is important to understand what is meant by reflection, the skills required, and how reflection can be undertaken successfully. Traditionally, reflection occurs after an event encountered in practice. The authors challenge this perception, suggesting that reflection should be undertaken before, during and after an event. This article provides practical guidance to help practitioners use reflective models to write reflective accounts. It also outlines how the reflective process can be used as a valuable learning tool in preparation for revalidation. PMID:27154119

  15. Spectral reflectance of rice seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Alois J.; Herden, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of young rice plants was measured in the visible and near-IR region of the spectrum using a commercially available fiber optic contact probe and miniature spectrometer. This work aims to identify an empirical spectral index which changes when rice is exposed to increased levels of chloride anions in the irrigation water and soil. The ratio of near IR reflectance to that of green, R750/555 is known to be a quantitative measure of chlorophyll content in the leaf but int his study does not show a consistent shift for sample which are exposed to chloride levels equal to or less than 0.1 percent by mass of soil. However, leaf contact spectral reflectance measurements did reveal a significant and consistent increase in R750/555 along the length of the leaves, and this variation should represent an important factor in modeling remote and proximal sensing data.

  16. Warm spring temperatures induce persistent season-long changes in shoot development in grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Markus; Tarara, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The influence of temperature on the timing of budbreak in woody perennials is well known, but its effect on subsequent shoot growth and architecture has received little attention because it is understood that growth is determined by current temperature. Seasonal shoot development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) was evaluated following differences in temperature near budbreak while minimizing the effects of other microclimatic variables. Methods Dormant buds and emerging shoots of field-grown grapevines were heated above or cooled below the temperature of ambient buds from before budbreak until individual flowers were visible on inflorescences, at which stage the shoots had four to eight unfolded leaves. Multiple treatments were imposed randomly on individual plants and replicated across plants. Shoot growth and development were monitored during two growing seasons. Key Results Higher bud temperatures advanced the date of budbreak and accelerated shoot growth and leaf area development. Differences were due to higher rates of shoot elongation, leaf appearance, leaf-area expansion and axillary-bud outgrowth. Although shoots arising from heated buds grew most vigorously, apical dominance in these shoots was reduced, as their axillary buds broke earlier and gave rise to more vigorous lateral shoots. In contrast, axillary-bud outgrowth was minimal on the slow-growing shoots emerging from buds cooled below ambient. Variation in shoot development persisted or increased during the growing season, well after temperature treatments were terminated and despite an imposed soil water deficit. Conclusions The data indicate that bud-level differences in budbreak temperature may lead to marked differences in shoot growth, shoot architecture and leaf-area development that are maintained or amplified during the growing season. Although growth rates commonly are understood to reflect current temperatures, these results demonstrate a persistent effect of early-season

  17. Cascading effects of early-season herbivory on late-season herbivores and their parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattran; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness that herbivory by one insect species induces changes in a plant that affect the performance of other herbivore species that feed on the same plant. However, previous studies of interspecies interactions mediated by plant defense responses have rarely taken into account different insect guilds or the third trophic level. Using a combination of field and laboratory experiments, we examined how early-season herbivory in lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus) by the leaf-chewing herbivore Cerotoma ruficornis and the bean pod weevil Apion godmani affects the abundance and performance of the seed beetle Zabrotes subfasciatus and that of its parasitoid Stenocorse bruchivora, which occurs on the plants at the end of the growing season. In addition, we determined the consequences of early-season herbivore-induced defenses on plant performance. We hypothesized that early-season induction would affect plant reproduction and, hence, would alter the suitability of seeds for late-season seed-eating beetles, and that this would in turn alter the vulnerability of these seed beetles to parasitoids. We found strong support for these hypotheses. In the field, early-season herbivory negatively affected plant reproduction and seeds of these plants suffered lower levels of infestation by seed-eating beetles, which in turn suffered less parasitism. Laboratory assays with field-collected seeds confirmed that the performance of beetles and parasitoids was lower on seeds from plants that had been subjected to early-season herbivory. Further analyses revealed that seeds produced by control plants were larger, heavier, and had a higher concentration of cyanogenic glycosides and total protein content than seeds from plants subjected to herbivory. Our results provide insight into how direct and indirect interactions between and within different trophic levels affect the dynamics and structure of complex communities. PMID:27349104

  18. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Seasonally-Acquired Imported Fire Ant Mound Features (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, residential, and commercial settings. Ground-based hyperspectral studies focused on the seasonal monitoring of reflectance characteristics of imported f...

  19. Reflections in art

    PubMed Central

    CAVANAGH, PATRICK; CHAO, JESSICA; WANG, DINA

    2009-01-01

    When artists depict a mirror in a painting, it necessarily lacks the most obvious property of a mirror: as we move around the painting of the mirror, the reflections we see in it do not change. And yet representations of mirrors and other reflecting surfaces can be quite convincing in paintings. Here, we will examine the rules of reflection, the many ways that painters can break those rules without losing the impression of reflection and the rules that cannot be broken. The rules that govern the perception of reflection are a small subset of the physical rules of reflection. PMID:18534102

  20. Seasonal influenza: an overview.

    PubMed

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity are estimated to cost US$10.4 billion in direct medical expenses and US$16.4 billion in lost potential earnings. Given the enormous burden of seasonal influenza and the important role that school-age children play in the cycle of disease, school nurses need to be knowledgeable about all aspects of this condition, including its clinical course and how it is transmitted; the range of options for preventing and treating the disease; and steps that can be taken to improve the rates of immunization against influenza. School nurses also can help by making sure that they themselves are vaccinated in a timely manner. PMID:19197008

  1. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from <0.01 to 0.15μgg(-1)h(-1). BER of up to 1.2μgg(-1)h(-1) of the SQT germacrene B were found from Q. gambelii, peaking in late summer. The β-factor, used to define temperature dependence in emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2

  2. Electronic addressing reflective cholesteric LCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Viktor M.; Sorokin, A.; Rybalochka, A.; Valyukh, S.

    2001-06-01

    Some new simple two level electronic driving circuits for the Cholesteric Reflective Displays are shown. The electronic module that consists of drivers, controller and special thermo-compensation units is described. The prototypes of ChLCD with electronic driving circuits are demonstrated.

  3. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  4. Seasonal acclimation of prairie deer mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Prairie deer mice responded to long nights by reducing their metabolic rates, core temperatures, thermal conductances and incremental metabolic responses to cold stimulus, while increasing their capacities for nonshivering thermogenesis. Some winter animals spontaneously entered daily torpor in the mornings and thereby further reduced their metabolic rates and core temperatures. Provision of exogenous melatonin (by subdermal implants) mimiced short photoperiod effects on metabolic rates and core temperatures of wild-caught, laboratory maintained animals. Provision of supplemental dietary tryptophan to laboratory animals conditioned to natural light cycles mimiced metabolic effects of long nights in summer animals, and further reduced metabolic rates of winter mice, but did not affect their core temperature levels. Newly caught, laboratory maintained deer mice responded to natural seasonal clues of shortphotoperiod and increased dietary tryptophan by reducing their resting energy requirements through both lower metabolic and lower core temperature levels. Short photoperiod and seasonal change also promoted gonadal involution, and resulted in more socially tolerant huddling by mice with reduced core temperature. Reduced 24-hour LH excretion rates were also observed in winter animals which were exposed to seasonal light cycles at warm (25°C) room temperatures. We propose that seasonal acclimatization involves pineal effects on sex hormone-influenced social behaviors and on resting metabolism. These effects serve to conserve resting energy expenditure and promote hypothermic insulation by wild prairie deer mice.

  5. Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D; Vermote, Eric F; Harding, David J; North, Peter R J

    2014-02-13

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability. PMID:24499816

  6. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  7. The evidence for seasonal variations of testosterone in men.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Kovac, Jason R; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-03-01

    Ample evidence exists to support the concept of diurnal variations in testosterone levels; however, substantiation for seasonal fluctuations is sparse and inconsistent. Since circadian disparities exist, laboratory screening for hypogonadism has traditionally been conducted using serum testosterone levels obtained in the early morning. Should circannual variability of testosterone be confirmed, it would make the monitoring of testosterone levels more difficult while forcing the development of seasonal reference standards to allow for comparison. Moreover, decisions to begin treatment and adjustment of practice patterns would likely follow. This review thoroughly explores all of the available evidence concerning seasonal variations in testosterone levels. The impacts of melatonin, vitamin D, sleep-wake cycles, light exposure, physical activity, BMI, and waist circumference are also discussed. Current research suggests that while some evidence exists to support the notion of seasonal testosterone variations, the discussed inconsistencies preclude the incorporation of this concept into current clinical standards. PMID:23294933

  8. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  9. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  10. Seasonal glucocorticoid responses to capture in wild free-living mammals.

    PubMed

    Romero, L Michael; Meister, Cecile J; Cyr, Nicole E; Kenagy, G J; Wingfield, John C

    2008-02-01

    We determined baseline and capture-induced glucocorticoid concentrations during two different seasons in three species of wild free-living rodents: brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus), golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus saturatus), and yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus). Initial blood samples were obtained within 3 min of capture, so that initial glucocorticoid levels reflect baseline titers of undisturbed animals. Animals were held for an additional 30 min, when a second blood sample was taken to measure stress-induced glucocorticoid titers. The primary glucocorticoid differed in each species. Lemmings secreted extremely large amounts of corticosterone (as high as 8,000 ng/ml). These high concentrations were accompanied by high corticosterone-binding globulin capacity and resistance to negative feedback. Squirrels and chipmunks secreted a mixture of cortisol and corticosterone (10-400 ng/ml). In males of all three species and female squirrels and chipmunks, glucocorticoid levels were significantly elevated 30 min after capture. Baseline and 30-min glucocorticoid levels differed seasonally in each species. Levels were higher during summer (with no snow cover) than in spring (with approximately 60% snow cover) in female lemmings, higher during breeding than before hibernation in squirrels, and higher postreproductively than during breeding in chipmunks. Together, these data indicate that glucocorticoid responses to stress in these free-living species are similar to those in laboratory species, but the magnitude of the response appears to depend on life-history features specific to each species. PMID:18094060

  11. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  12. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  13. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  14. An introduction to mid-Atlantic seasonal pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.J.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal pools, also known as vernal ponds, provide important ecological services to the mid-Atlantic region. This publication serves as an introduction to seasonal pool ecology and management; it also provides tools for exploring seasonal pools, including a full-color field guide to wildlife. Seasonal pools are defined as having four distinctive features: surface water isolation, periodic drying, small size and shallow depth, and support of a characteristic biological community. Seasonal pools experience regular drying that excludes populations of predatory fish. Thus, pools in the mid-Atlantic region provide critical breeding habitat for amphibian and invertebrate species (e.g., spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), and fairy shrimp (Order Anostraca)) that would be at increased risk of predation in more permanent waters. The distinctive features of seasonal pools also make them vulnerable to human disturbance. In the mid-Atlantic region, land-use changes pose the greatest challenges to seasonal pool conservation. Seasonal pools are threatened by direct loss (e.g., filling or draining of the pool) as well as by destruction and fragmentation of adjoining terrestrial habitat. Many of the species that depend on seasonal pools for breeding spend the majority of their lives in the surrounding lands that extend a radius of 1000 feet or more from the pools; these vital habitats are being transected by roads and converted to other land uses. Other threats to seasonal pools include biological introductions and removals, mosquito control practices, amphibian diseases, atmospheric deposition, and climate change. The authors recommend a three-pronged strategy for seasonal pool conservation and management in the mid-Atlantic region: education and research, inventory and monitoring of seasonal pools, and landscape-level planning and management.

  15. Pooling European all-cause mortality: methodology and findings for the seasons 2008/2009 to 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J; Mazick, A; Andrews, N; Detsis, M; Fenech, T M; Flores, V M; Foulliet, A; Gergonne, B; Green, H K; Junker, C; Nunes, B; O'Donnell, J; Oza, A; Paldy, A; Pebody, R; Reynolds, A; Sideroglou, T; Snijders, B E; Simon-Soria, F; Uphoff, H; VAN Asten, L; Virtanen, M J; Wuillaume, F; Mølbak, K

    2013-09-01

    Several European countries have timely all-cause mortality monitoring. However, small changes in mortality may not give rise to signals at the national level. Pooling data across countries may overcome this, particularly if changes in mortality occur simultaneously. Additionally, pooling may increase the power of monitoring populations with small numbers of expected deaths, e.g. younger age groups or fertile women. Finally, pooled analyses may reveal patterns of diseases across Europe. We describe a pooled analysis of all-cause mortality across 16 European countries. Two approaches were explored. In the ‘summarized’ approach, data across countries were summarized and analysed as one overall country. In the ‘stratified’ approach, heterogeneities between countries were taken into account. Pooling using the ‘stratified’ approach was the most appropriate as it reflects variations in mortality. Excess mortality was observed in all winter seasons albeit slightly higher in 2008/09 than 2009/10 and 2010/11. In the 2008/09 season, excess mortality was mainly in elderly adults. In 2009/10, when pandemic influenza A(H1N1) dominated, excess mortality was mainly in children. The 2010/11 season reflected a similar pattern, although increased mortality in children came later. These patterns were less clear in analyses based on data from individual countries. We have demonstrated that with stratified pooling we can combine local mortality monitoring systems and enhance monitoring of mortality across Europe. PMID:23182146

  16. Seasonal patterns and individual differences in the calls of male haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus.

    PubMed

    Casaretto, L; Picciulin, M; Hawkins, A D

    2015-09-01

    Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus males observed in captivity proved to be vocally active throughout the whole year, although the highest levels of vocal activity were reached in the spawning season between February and April. During this season, the most common type of sound consisted of sequences of regularly repeated, almost identical, double-pulsed knocks (KN). These sequences were mostly associated with a particular behaviour pattern, the patrolling display, which has previously been shown to play a key role in territoriality and spawning. Differences in the double-pulsed KNs produced by three individual males were demonstrated by two different statistical methods and it is suggested that these differences may allow individual males to be discriminated by other fish, perhaps conveying fitness-related information on the sender. Some aspects of the calls changed seasonally, perhaps reflecting observed variations in the mass of the drumming muscles. When using passive listening to locate M. aeglefinus spawning grounds, the physical characteristics of the sounds may indicate how close the individual males are to spawning. PMID:26333138

  17. Fatty acid profiling reveals seasonal and spatial shifts in zooplankton diet in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Azeiteiro, U. M.; Pardal, M. A.; De Troch, M.

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids composition of copepod and cladoceran species and their possible food sources was investigated in the Mondego estuary (southern Europe) in order to explain the seasonal variation of the small copepods Acartia clausi, Acartia tonsa, Copidodiaptomus numidicus, Temora longicornis and the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina. A total of 12 zooplankton species (7 marine, 2 estuarine and 3 freshwater species) were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed a clear seasonal distribution of zooplankton species in terms of fatty acids composition and abundance, with winter and spring zooplankton species showing maximal concentrations and diversity of total fatty acids. These findings underline the role of lipids as storage during the colder seasons in a highly variable environment like an estuary. Estuarine and freshwater species showed a more diverse array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids rather than marine species, except for Centropages typicus. Fatty acids markers of trophic position indicated the presence of two trophic levels: copepod species were primarily omnivorous, whereas cladocerans showed to be herbivorous. Our results suggest that feeding patterns of plankton change spatially and temporally, reflecting the shifts in dominance between diatoms and flagellates as well as between dinoflagellates/diatoms and small animals.

  18. Revalidation and reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Finch, Alison

    2016-04-01

    From April 2016 nurses must meet the requirements of the new Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) revalidation process to maintain their registration. It is their responsibility to ensure they meet all revalidation requirements, but organisations and nurse leaders can support them to do so. Reflection is an important part of revalidation, and nurses are required to submit written reflective accounts and engage in reflective discussion. This article discusses how revalidation encourages a more conscious and active form of reflection. It also describes how leaders can help nurses to reflect on practice to identify improvements and become more familiar with the NMC Code. PMID:27032284

  19. Inter-Seasonal Influenza is Characterized by Extended Virus Transmission and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Ross, Zoe; Komadina, Naomi; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Kelly, Heath A.; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Barr, Ian G.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    The factors that determine the characteristic seasonality of influenza remain enigmatic. Current models predict that occurrences of influenza outside the normal surveillance season within a temperate region largely reflect the importation of viruses from the alternate hemisphere or from equatorial regions in Asia. To help reveal the drivers of seasonality we investigated the origins and evolution of influenza viruses sampled during inter-seasonal periods in Australia. To this end we conducted an expansive phylogenetic analysis of 9912, 3804, and 3941 hemagglutinnin (HA) sequences from influenza A/H1N1pdm, A/H3N2, and B, respectively, collected globally during the period 2009-2014. Of the 1475 viruses sampled from Australia, 396 (26.8% of Australian, or 2.2% of global set) were sampled outside the monitored temperate influenza surveillance season (1 May – 31 October). Notably, rather than simply reflecting short-lived importations of virus from global localities with higher influenza prevalence, we documented a variety of more complex inter-seasonal transmission patterns including “stragglers” from the preceding season and “heralds” of the forthcoming season, and which included viruses sampled from clearly temperate regions within Australia. We also provide evidence for the persistence of influenza B virus between epidemic seasons, in which transmission of a viral lineage begins in one season and continues throughout the inter-seasonal period into the following season. Strikingly, a disproportionately high number of inter-seasonal influenza transmission events occurred in tropical and subtropical regions of Australia, providing further evidence that climate plays an important role in shaping patterns of influenza seasonality. PMID:26107631

  20. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5pp00398a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweintzger, N. A.; Gruber-Wackernagel, A.; Shirsath, N.; Quehenberger, F.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127– Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml–1. Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml–1). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s). PMID:26911519