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Sample records for lexical characteristics interact

  1. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  2. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  3. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  4. Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

  5. Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

  6. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  7. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  8. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

  9. Children's Syntactic-Priming Magnitude: Lexical Factors and Participant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. "the yellow…

  10. Lexical and Articulatory Interactions in Children's Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e. a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in…

  11. Task Dependent Lexicality Effects Support Interactive Models of Reading: A Meta-Analytic Neuroimaging Review

    PubMed Central

    McNorgan, Chris; Chabal, Sarah; O’Young, Daniel; Lukic, Sladjana; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Models of reading must explain how orthographic input activates a phonological representation, and elicits the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory. Comparisons between tasks that theoretically differ with respect to the degree to which they rely on connections between orthographic, phonological and semantic systems during reading can thus provide valuable insight into models of reading, but such direct comparisons are not well-represented in the literature. An ALE meta-analysis explored lexicality effects directly contrasting words and pseudowords using the lexical decision task and overt or covert naming, which we assume rely most on the semantic and phonological systems, respectively. Interactions between task and lexicality effects demonstrate that different demands of the lexical decision and naming tasks lead to different manifestations of lexicality effects. PMID:25524364

  12. The interaction of lexical and phrasal prosody in whispered speech.

    PubMed

    Heeren, W F L; van Heuven, V J

    2014-12-01

    The production and perception of Dutch whispered boundary tones, i.e., phrasal prosody, was investigated as a function of characteristics of the tone-bearing word, i.e., lexical prosody. More specifically, the disyllabic tone-bearing word also carried a pitch accent, either on the same syllable as the boundary tone (clash condition), or on the directly adjacent syllable (no clash condition). In a statement/question classification task listeners showed moderate, but above-chance performance for both conditions in whisper, which, however, was much worse as well as slower than in normal speech. The syllabic rhymes of speakers' productions were investigated for acoustic correlates of boundary tones. Results showed mainly secondary cues to intonation, that is, cues that are present in whisper as in normal speech, but minimal compensatory cues, which would reflect speakers' efforts to enhance their whispered speech signal in some way. This suggests that multiple prosodic events in close proximity are challenging to perceive and produce in whispered speech. A moderate increase in classification performance was found when that acoustic cue was enhanced that whispering speakers seemed to employ in a compensatory way: changing the spectral tilt of the utterance-final syllable improved perception of especially the poorer speakers and of intonation on stressed syllables. PMID:25480073

  13. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  14. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the Extended Statistical Learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Method Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n=57; ages 21–37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n=41; ages 22–26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler’s lexicon was calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Results Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Vocabulary size was predicted by word length for toddlers with ASD and by phonological neighborhood density for toddlers without ASD. Conclusions Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24687027

  15. Interactions between language and attention systems: early automatic lexical processing?

    PubMed

    Shtyrov, Yury; Kujala, Teija; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2010-07-01

    An ongoing debate is whether and to what extent access to cortical representations is automatic or dependent on attentional processes. To address this, we modulated the level of attention on auditory input and recorded ERPs elicited by syllables completing acoustically matched words and pseudowords. Under nonattend conditions, the word-elicited response (peaking at approximately 120 msec) was larger than that to pseudowords, confirming early activation of lexical memory traces. However, when attention was directed toward the auditory input, such word-pseudoword difference disappeared. Whereas responses to words seemed unchanged by attentional variation, early pseudoword responses were modulated significantly by attention. Later on, attention modulated a positive deflection at approximately 230 msec and a second negativity at approximately 370 msec for all stimuli. The data indicate that the earliest stages of word processing are not affected by attentional demands and may thus possess certain automaticity, with attention effects on lexical processing accumulating after 150-200 msec. We explain this by robustness of preexisting memory networks for words whose strong internal connections guarantee rapid full-scale activation irrespective of the attentional resources available. Conversely, the processing of pseudowords, which do not have such stimulus-specific cortical representations, appears to be strongly modulated by the availability of attentional resources, even at its earliest stages. Topography analysis and source reconstruction indicated that left peri-sylvian cortices mediate attention effects on memory trace activation. PMID:19580394

  16. Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

  17. Lexical Characteristics of Emotional Narratives in Schizophrenia: Relationships With Symptoms, Functioning, and Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Buck, Benjamin; Penn, David L

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that complexity of speech, speech rate, use of emotion words, and use of pronouns are all potential indicators of important clinical components of schizophrenia, but little research has examined the relationships of these disturbances to cognitive variables impaired in schizophrenia, including social cognition. The current study examined these lexical differences to better characterize the cognitive substrates of speech disturbances in schizophrenia. Brief narratives of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 42) and non-clinical controls (n = 48) were compared according to their lexical characteristics, and these were examined for relationships to social cognition and real-world functioning. Significant differences between the groups were found in words per sentence (related to functioning, but not negative symptoms) as well as pronoun use (related to attributional style and theory of mind). Additionally, lexical characteristics effectively distinguished individuals with schizophrenia from non-clinical controls. Language disturbances in schizophrenia seem related to social cognition impairments and real-world functioning, and are a robust indicator of clinical status. PMID:26252823

  18. Modulation of additive and interactive effects in lexical decision by trial history.

    PubMed

    Masson, Michael E J; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-05-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model analyses applied to 2 lexical decision experiments indicating that apparent additive effects can be the product of aggregating over- and underadditive interaction effects that are modulated by recent trial history, particularly the lexical status and stimulus quality of the previous trial's target. Even a simple practice effect expressed as improved response speed across trials was powerfully modulated by the nature of the previous target item. These results suggest that additivity and interaction between factors may reflect trial-to-trial variation in stimulus representations and decision processes rather than fundamental differences in processing architecture. PMID:22774856

  19. Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

    2011-01-01

    The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

  20. Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

    2011-01-01

    The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

  1. Resolving 20 Years of Inconsistent Interactions Between Lexical Familiarity and Orthography, Concreteness, and Polysemy

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Numerous word recognition studies conducted over the past 2 decades are examined. These studies manipulated lexical familiarity by presenting words of high versus low printed frequency and most reported an interaction between printed frequency and one of several second variables, namely, orthographic regularity, semantic concreteness, or polysemy. However, the direction of these interactions was inconsistent from study to study. Six new experiments clarify these discordant results. The first two demonstrate that words of the same low printed frequency are not always equally familiar to subjects. Instead, subjects’ ratings of “experiential familiarity” suggest that many of the low-printed-frequency words used in prior studies varied along this dimension. Four lexical decision experiments reexamine the prior findings by orthogonally manipulating lexical familiarity, as assessed by experiential familiarity ratings, with bigram frequency, semantic concreteness, and number of meanings. The results suggest that of these variables, only experiential familiarity reliably affects word recognition latencies. This in turn suggests that previous inconsistent findings are due to confounding experiential familiarity with a second variable. PMID:6242753

  2. Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of Web multimodality plus dialogical interactions in the acquisition and retention of novel lexical items among EFL students under a social constructionist framework. The lexical acquisition of 107 1st-year English majors at the University of Costa Rica was analyzed through…

  3. Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of Web multimodality plus dialogical interactions in the acquisition and retention of novel lexical items among EFL students under a social constructionist framework. The lexical acquisition of 107 1st-year English majors at the University of Costa Rica was analyzed through…

  4. The interaction of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context in on-line spoken word recognition: an ERP study on Cantonese Chinese.

    PubMed

    Kung, Carmen; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we investigate the on-line interplay of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context during spoken word recognition in Cantonese Chinese. Experiment 1 shows that lexical tone and intonation interact immediately. Words with a low lexical tone at the end of questions (with a rising question intonation) lead to a processing conflict. This is reflected in a low accuracy in lexical identification and in a P600 effect compared to the same words at the end of a statement. Experiment 2 shows that a strongly biasing semantic context leads to much better lexical-identification performance for words with a low tone at the end of questions and to a disappearance of the P600 effect. These results support the claim that semantic context plays a major role in disentangling the tonal information from the intonational information, and thus, in resolving the on-line conflict between intonation and tone. However, the ERP data indicate that the introduction of a semantic context does not entirely eliminate on-line processing problems for words at the end of questions. This is revealed by the presence of an N400 effect for words with a low lexical tone and for words with a high-mid lexical tone at the end of questions. The ERP data thus show that, while semantic context helps in the eventual lexical identification, it makes the deviation of the contextually expected lexical tone from the actual acoustic signal more salient. PMID:24315803

  5. Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L.; Francis, Alexander L.

    2008-01-01

    Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of lexical stress contrasts by 10 Mandarin and 10 native English speakers. Results showed that Mandarin speakers produced significantly less native-like stress patterns, although they did use all four acoustic correlates to distinguish stressed from unstressed syllables. Mandarin and English speakers’ use of amplitude and duration were comparable for both stressed and unstressed syllables, but Mandarin speakers produced stressed syllables with a higher F0 than English speakers. There were also significant differences in formant patterns across groups, such that Mandarin speakers produced English-like vowel reduction in certain unstressed syllables, but not in others. Results suggest that Mandarin speakers’ production of lexical stress contrasts in English is influenced partly by native-language experience with Mandarin lexical tones, and partly by similarities and differences between Mandarin and English vowel inventories. PMID:18537399

  6. Load and distinctness interact in working memory for lexical manual gestures

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, Mary; Toscano, Elena; Holmer, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Ease of Language Understanding model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) predicts that decreasing the distinctness of language stimuli increases working memory load; in the speech domain this notion is supported by empirical evidence. Our aim was to determine whether such an over-additive interaction can be generalized to sign processing in sign-naïve individuals and whether it is modulated by experience of computer gaming. Twenty young adults with no knowledge of sign language performed an n-back working memory task based on manual gestures lexicalized in sign language; the visual resolution of the signs and working memory load were manipulated. Performance was poorer when load was high and resolution was low. These two effects interacted over-additively, demonstrating that reducing the resolution of signed stimuli increases working memory load when there is no pre-existing semantic representation. This suggests that load and distinctness are handled by a shared amodal mechanism which can be revealed empirically when stimuli are degraded and load is high, even without pre-existing semantic representation. There was some evidence that the mechanism is influenced by computer gaming experience. Future work should explore how the shared mechanism is influenced by pre-existing semantic representation and sensory factors together with computer gaming experience. PMID:26321979

  7. Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

  8. Richness of information about novel words influences how episodic and semantic memory networks interact during lexicalization.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Atsuko; Bakker, Iske; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

    2014-01-01

    The complementary learning systems account of declarative memory suggests two distinct memory networks, a fast-mapping, episodic system involving the hippocampus, and a slower semantic memory system distributed across the neocortex in which new information is gradually integrated with existing representations. In this study, we investigated the extent to which these two networks are involved in the integration of novel words into the lexicon after extensive learning, and how the involvement of these networks changes after 24h. In particular, we explored whether having richer information at encoding influences the lexicalization trajectory. We trained participants with two sets of novel words, one where exposure was only to the words' phonological forms (the form-only condition), and one where pictures of unfamiliar objects were associated with the words' phonological forms (the picture-associated condition). A behavioral measure of lexical competition (indexing lexicalization) indicated stronger competition effects for the form-only words. Imaging (fMRI) results revealed greater involvement of phonological lexical processing areas immediately after training in the form-only condition, suggesting that tight connections were formed between novel words and existing lexical entries already at encoding. Retrieval of picture-associated novel words involved the episodic/hippocampal memory system more extensively. Although lexicalization was weaker in the picture-associated condition, overall memory strength was greater when tested after a 24hour delay, probably due to the availability of both episodic and lexical memory networks to aid retrieval. It appears that, during lexicalization of a novel word, the relative involvement of different memory networks differs according to the richness of the information about that word available at encoding. PMID:23962957

  9. Lexical Configuration and Lexical Engagement: When Adults Learn New Words

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement – the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement. PMID:17367775

  10. An Attribute-Treatment Interaction Study: Lexical-Set versus Semantically-Unrelated Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Gowdasiaei, Farah

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to assess the effectiveness of the lexical-set (LS) and the semantically-unrelated (SU) vocabulary instruction, separately and relative to each other, and (b) to assess the differential effects of the two methods for students of lower and upper English proficiency levels. Two intact EFL classes were…

  11. Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

  12. Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

  13. Observer Bias: An Interaction of Temperament Traits with Biases in the Semantic Perception of Lexical Material

    PubMed Central

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of “background emotionality” and a “projection through capacities” were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study of stable individual differences. PMID:24475048

  14. Flexible recruitment of semantic richness: context modulates body-object interaction effects in lexical-semantic processing

    PubMed Central

    Tousignant, Cody; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    Body-object interaction (BOI) is a semantic richness variable that measures the perceived ease with which the human body can physically interact with a word's referent. Lexical and semantic processing is facilitated when words are associated with relatively more bodily experience. To date, BOI effects have only been examined in the context of one semantic categorization task (SCT; is it imageable?). It has been argued that semantic processing is dynamic and can be modulated by context. We examined these influences by testing how task knowledge modulated BOI effects. Participants discriminated between the same sets of entity (high- and low-BOI) and action words in each of four SCTs. Task framing was manipulated: participants were told about one (is it an action? vs. is it an entity?) or both (action or entity? vs. entity or action?) categories of words in the decision task. Facilitatory BOI effects were only observed when participants knew that “entity” was part of the decision category. That BOI information was only useful when participants had expectations that entity words would be presented suggests a strong role for the decision context in lexical-semantic processing, and supports a dynamic view of conceptual knowledge. PMID:22435058

  15. A Case-Series Test of the Interactive Two-step Model of Lexical Access: Predicting Word Repetition from Picture Naming

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Gary S.; Martin, Nadine; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2010-01-01

    Lexical access in language production, and particularly pathologies of lexical access, are often investigated by examining errors in picture naming and word repetition. In this article, we test a computational approach to lexical access, the two-step interactive model, by examining whether the model can quantitatively predict the repetition-error patterns of 65 aphasic subjects from their naming errors. The model’s characterizations of the subjects’ naming errors were taken from the companion paper to this one (Schwartz, Dell, N. Martin, Gahl & Sobel, 2006), and their repetition was predicted from the model on the assumption that naming involves two error prone steps, word and phonological retrieval, whereas repetition only creates errors in the second of these steps. A version of the model in which lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological connections could be independently lesioned was generally successful in predicting repetition for the aphasics. An analysis of the few cases in which model predictions were inaccurate revealed the role of input phonology in the repetition task. PMID:21085621

  16. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    PubMed

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803

  17. A Dual-Route Perspective on Brain Activation in Response to Visual Words: Evidence for a Length by Lexicality Interaction in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA)

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., “Does xxx sound like an existing word?”) presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. PMID:19896538

  18. Lexical effects on speech production and intelligibility in Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yi-Fang

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have speech deficits that lead to reduced speech intelligibility. Previous research provides a rich database regarding the articulatory deficits associated with PD including restricted vowel space (Skodda, Visser, & Schlegel, 2011) and flatter formant transitions (Tjaden & Wilding, 2004; Walsh & Smith, 2012). However, few studies consider the effect of higher level structural variables of word usage frequency and the number of similar sounding words (i.e. neighborhood density) on lower level articulation or on listeners' perception of dysarthric speech. The purpose of the study is to examine the interaction of lexical properties and speech articulation as measured acoustically in speakers with PD and healthy controls (HC) and the effect of lexical properties on the perception of their speech. Individuals diagnosed with PD and age-matched healthy controls read sentences with words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Acoustic analysis was performed to compare second formant transitions in diphthongs, an indicator of the dynamics of tongue movement during speech production, across different lexical characteristics. Young listeners transcribed the spoken sentences and the transcription accuracy was compared across lexical conditions. The acoustic results indicate that both PD and HC speakers adjusted their articulation based on lexical properties but the PD group had significant reductions in second formant transitions compared to HC. Both groups of speakers increased second formant transitions for words with low frequency and low density, but the lexical effect is diphthong dependent. The change in second formant slope was limited in the PD group when the required formant movement for the diphthong is small. The data from listeners' perception of the speech by PD and HC show that listeners identified high frequency words with greater accuracy suggesting the use of lexical knowledge during the recognition process. The relationship between acoustic results and perceptual accuracy is limited in this study suggesting that listeners incorporate acoustic and non-acoustic information to maximize speech intelligibility.

  19. Interaction, Modality, and Word Engagement as Factors in Lexical Learning in a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Ruiying; Helms-Park, Rena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of collaborative output, the modality of output, and word engagement in vocabulary learning and retention by Chinese-speaking undergraduate EFL learners. The two treatment groups reconstructed a passage that they had read in one of two ways: (1) dyadic oral interaction while producing a written report (Written…

  20. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  1. Lexical Morphology: Structure, Process, and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the importance of derivational morphology to later language development and has led to a consensus that derivation is a lexical process. In this review, derivational morphology is discussed in terms of lexical representation models from both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Input characteristics, including…

  2. The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

  3. Shower center of gravity and interaction characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheyn, Lev

    2015-08-01

    The shower center of gravity is used for studying the interconnection between shower longitudinal profile and hadronic interaction characteristics. The equations for the shower originated by high energy proton in the atmosphere are written and, within certain simplifications, solved for the case of logarithmically decreasing interaction length of hadrons in the air. The obtained expression explicitely splits into center of gravity of the purely electromagnetic cascade at the primary proton energy and modification of that by hadronic cascading and provides transparent view of the way in which hadronic interaction characteristics determine the longitudinal shower development.

  4. Lexical effects on spoken word recognition in children with normal hearing a

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Vidya; Choi, Sangsook; Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Summary This paper outlines the development of a theoretically-motivated sentence recognition test for children. Previous sentence tests such as the Lexical Neighborhood Test and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test examined lexical effects on children's recognition of words. In previous studies related to their test development, lexical characteristics were confounded. This study examines independent effects of word frequency and lexical density on a new test of spoken word recognition in children. Results show that word frequency and lexical density influence word recognition both independently, and in combination. Lexical density appears to be more heavily weighted than word frequency in children. PMID:19701087

  5. Modeling Lexical Borrowability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hout, Roeland; Muysken, Pieter

    1994-01-01

    Develops analytical techniques to determine "borrowability," the ease with which a lexical item or category of lexical items can be borrowed by one language from another. These techniques are then applied to Spanish borrowings in Bolivian Quechua on the basis of a set of bilingual texts. (29 references) (MDM)

  6. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  7. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  8. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  9. An integrated analysis of speech and gestural characteristics in conversational child-computer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Serdar; Montanari, Simona; Andersen, Elaine; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the fine details of children's speech and gestural characteristics helps, among other things, in creating natural computer interfaces. We analyze the acoustic, lexical/non-lexical and spoken/gestural discourse characteristics of young children's speech using audio-video data gathered using a Wizard of Oz technique from 4 to 6 year old children engaged in resolving a series of age-appropriate cognitive challenges. Fundamental and formant frequencies exhibited greater variations between subjects consistent with previous results on read speech [Lee et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1455-1468 (1999)]. Also, our analysis showed that, in a given bandwidth, phonemic information contained in the speech of young child is significantly less than that of older ones and adults. To enable an integrated analysis, a multi-track annotation board was constructed using the ANVIL tool kit [M. Kipp, Eurospeech 1367-1370 (2001)]. Along with speech transcriptions and acoustic analysis, non-lexical and discourse characteristics, and child's gesture (facial expressions, body movements, hand/head movements) were annotated in a synchronized multilayer system. Initial results showed that younger children rely more on gestures to emphasize their verbal assertions. Younger children use non-lexical speech (e.g., um, huh) associated with frustration and pondering/reflecting more frequently than older ones. Younger children also repair more with humans than with computer.

  10. Lexical neighborhood effects in pseudoword spelling

    PubMed Central

    Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Bosse, Marie-Line; Roberts, Daniel J.; Valdois, Sylviane; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes that underpin skilled adult spelling. More specifically, it investigates the influence of lexical neighbors on pseudo-word spelling with the goal of providing a more detailed account of the interaction between lexical and sublexical sources of knowledge in spelling. In prior research examining this topic, adult participants typically heard lists composed of both words and pseudo-words and had to make a lexical decision to each stimulus before writing the pseudo-words. However, these priming paradigms are susceptible to strategic influence and may therefore not give a clear picture of the processes normally engaged in spelling unfamiliar words. In our two Experiments involving 71 French-speaking literate adults, only pseudo-words were presented which participants were simply requested to write to dictation using the first spelling that came to mind. Unbeknownst to participants, pseudo-words varied according to whether they did or did not have a phonological word neighbor. Results revealed that low-probability phoneme/grapheme mappings (e.g., /o/ -> aud in French) were used significantly more often in spelling pseudo-words with a close phonological lexical neighbor with that spelling (e.g., /krepo/ derived from “crapaud,” /krapo/) than in spelling pseudo-words with no close neighbors (e.g., /frøpo/). In addition, the strength of this lexical influence increased with the lexical frequency of the word neighbors as well as with their degree of phonetic overlap with the pseudo-word targets. These results indicate that information from lexical and sublexical processes is integrated in the course of spelling, and a specific theoretical account as to how such integration may occur is introduced. PMID:24348436

  11. V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

  12. Universals versus historical contingencies in lexical evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bochkarev, V.; Solovyev, V.; Wichmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency with which we use different words changes all the time, and every so often, a new lexical item is invented or another one ceases to be used. Beyond a small sample of lexical items whose properties are well studied, little is known about the dynamics of lexical evolution. How do the lexical inventories of languages, viewed as entire systems, evolve? Is the rate of evolution of the lexicon contingent upon historical factors or is it driven by regularities, perhaps to do with universals of cognition and social interaction? We address these questions using the Google Books N-Gram Corpus as a source of data and relative entropy as a measure of changes in the frequency distributions of words. It turns out that there are both universals and historical contingencies at work. Across several languages, we observe similar rates of change, but only at timescales of at least around five decades. At shorter timescales, the rate of change is highly variable and differs between languages. Major societal transformations as well as catastrophic events such as wars lead to increased change in frequency distributions, whereas stability in society has a dampening effect on lexical evolution. PMID:25274040

  13. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  14. Star formation enhancement characteristics in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Font, J.; Camps-Fariña, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.

    2015-02-01

    We have observed 12 interacting galaxies using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GH?FaS (Galaxy H? Fabry-Perot system) on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma). We have extracted the physical properties (sizes, H? luminosity and velocity dispersion) of 236 HII regions for the full sample of interacting galaxies. We have derived the physical properties of 664 HII regions for a sample of 28 isolated galaxies observed with the same instrument in order to compare both populations of HII regions, finding that there are brighter and denser star forming regions in the interacting galaxies compared with the isolated galaxies sample.

  15. On the Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency in Lexical Decision: Evidence for Opposing Interactive Influences Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Besner, Derek

    2008-01-01

    The joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency in lexical decision were examined in 4 experiments as a function of nonword type (legal nonwords, e.g., BRONE, vs. pseudohomophones, e.g., BRANE). When familiarity was a viable dimension for word-nonword discrimination, as when legal nonwords were used, additive effects of stimulus quality…

  16. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  17. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-12-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word's meaning (e.g., the verb's inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn't readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  18. Lexical decision in children: sublexical processing or lexical search?

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M

    2012-01-01

    Length effects in the lexical decision latencies of children might indicate that children rely on sublexical processing and essentially approach the task as a naming task. We examined this possibility by means of the effects of neighbourhood size and articulatory suppression on lexical decision performance. Sixty-six beginning and 62 advanced readers performed a lexical decision task in a standard, articulatory suppression, or tapping condition. We found length effects on words and nonwords in the children's lexical decisions. However, the effects of neighbourhood size were similar to those reported for adult lexical decisions, rather than the effects previously found in children's naming. In addition, no effect was found of articulatory suppression. Both findings suggest that, despite clear length effects, children do not adopt a naming task approach but, like adults, base lexical decisions mainly on a lexical search. These results pose a challenge for several computational models of reading. PMID:22489669

  19. Lexical and Metrical Stress in Word Recognition: Lexical or Pre-Lexical Influences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowiaczek, Louisa M.; Soltano, Emily G.; Bernstein, Hilary L.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of lexical stress and/or metrical stress on spoken word recognition was examined. Two experiments were designed to determine whether response times in lexical decision or shadowing tasks are influenced when primes and targets share lexical stress patterns (JUVenile-BIBlical [Syllables printed in capital letters indicate those…

  20. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  1. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  2. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  3. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  4. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  5. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  6. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  7. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  8. Speech perception in children with cochlear implants: effects of lexical difficulty, talker variability, and word length.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K I; Hay-McCutcheon, M; Sehgal, S T; Miyamoto, R T

    2000-12-01

    The present results demonstrated that all 3 factors --lexical difficulty, stimulus variability, and word length--significantly influenced spoken word recognition by children with multichannel cochlear implants. Lexically easy words were recognized significantly better than lexically hard words, regardless of talker condition or word length of the stimuli. These results support the earlier findings of Kirk et al(12) obtained with live-voice stimulus presentation and suggest that lexical effects are very robust. Despite the fact that listeners with cochlear implants receive a degraded speech signal, it appears that they organize and access words from memory relationally in the context of other words. The present results concerning talker variability contradict those previously reported in the literature for listeners with normal hearing(7,11) and for listeners with mild-to-moderate hearing loss who use hearing aids.(14) The previous investigators used talkers and word lists different from those used in the current study and found that word recognition declined as talker variability increased. In the current study, word recognition was better in the multiple-talker condition than in the single-talker condition. Kirk(15) reported similar results for postlingually deafened adults with cochlear implants who were tested on the recorded word lists used in the present study. Although the talkers were equally intelligible to listeners with normal hearing in the pilot study, they were not equally intelligible to children or adults with cochlear implants. It appears that either the man in the single-talker condition was particularly difficult to understand or that some of the talkers in the multiple-talker condition were particularly easy to understand. Despite the unexpected direction of the talker effects, the present results demonstrate that children with cochlear implants are sensitive to differences among talkers and that talker characteristics influence their spoken word recognition. We are conducting a study to assess the intelligibility of each of the 6 talkers to listeners with cochlear implants. Such studies should aid the development of equivalent testing conditions for listeners with cochlear implants. There are 2 possible reasons the children in the present study identified multisyllabic words better than monosyllabic words. First, they may use the linguistic redundancy cues in multisyllabic words to aid in spoken word recognition. Second, multisyllabic words come from relatively sparse lexical neighborhoods compared with monosyllabic tokens. That is, multisyllabic words have fewer phonetically similar words, or neighbors, competing for selection than do monosyllabic stimuli. These lexical characteristics most likely contribute to the differences in identification noted as a function of word length. The significant lexical and word length effects noted here may yield important diagnostic information about spoken word recognition by children with sensory aids. For example, children who can make relatively fine phonetic distinctions should demonstrate only small differences in the recognition of lexically easy versus hard words or of monosyllabic versus multisyllabic stimuli. In contrast, children who process speech using broad phonetic categories should show much larger differences. That is, they may not be able to accurately encode words in general or lexically hard words specifically. Further study is warranted to determine the interaction between spoken word recognition and individual word encoding strategies. PMID:11141016

  9. The effect of response mode on lateralized lexical decision performance.

    PubMed

    Weems, Scott A; Zaidel, Eran

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of manipulations of response programming, i.e. post-lexical decision making requirements, on lateralized lexical decision. Although response hand manipulations tend to elicit weaker laterality effects than those involving visual field of presentation, the implementation of different lateralized response strategies remains relatively unexplored. Four different response conditions were compared in a between-subjects design: (1) unimanual, (2) bimanual, (3) congruent visual field/response hand, and (4) confounded response hand/target lexicality response. It was observed that hemispheric specialization and interaction effects during the lexical decision task remained unchanged despite the very different response requirements. However, a priori examination of each condition revealed that some manipulations yielded a reduced power to detect laterality effects. The consistent observation of left hemisphere specialization, and both left and right hemisphere lexicality priming effects (interhemispheric transfer), indicate that these effects are relatively robust and unaffected by late occurring processes in the lexical decision task. It appears that the lateralized response mode neither determines nor reflects the laterality of decision processes. In contrast, the target visual half-field is critical for determining the deciding hemisphere and is a sensitive index of hemispheric specialization, as well as of directional interhemispheric transfer. PMID:15707615

  10. Word frequency and the lateralization of lexical processes.

    PubMed

    Coney, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Despite the extensive clinical and neuropsychological evidence for major differences in language function between the left and right hemispheres, it has proven difficult to demonstrate reliable differences in lexical processing. It is particularly surprising that frequency has been found to have no differential effects upon word recognition in the hemispheres, in view of the evidence that this variable has significant effects upon lexical processing. It is possible, however, that any interaction between word frequency and hemispheric processes is too subtle or too complex to be revealed by the simple dichotomous studies previously attempted. This study manipulated word frequency across seven levels in an effort to provide a fine-grained insight into the relationship between word frequency and lexical processing in the hemispheres. The results revealed a clear additivity between visual field and word frequency across all levels of frequency, for both RT and errors. Such findings create difficulties for the interpretation of studies of lateralized lexical access in general, and are particularly hard to reconcile with lateral asymmetries revealed in other aspects of lexical processing. It is proposed that a resolution of this problem may depend upon the development of theories that emphasise the notion of laterally distributed word representations, rather than discrete lexical structures on each side of the brain. PMID:15488913

  11. Developing a Large Lexical Database for Information Retrieval, Parsing, and Text Generation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Sumali Pin-Ngern; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Important characteristics of lexical databases and their applications in information retrieval and natural language processing are explained. An ongoing project using various machine-readable sources to build a lexical database is described, and detailed designs of individual entries with examples are included. (Contains 66 references.) (EAM)

  12. Morphological Idiosyncracies in Classical Arabic: Evidence Favoring Lexical Representations over Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann M.

    A lexical representational analysis of Classical Arabic is proposed that captures a generalization that McCarthy's (1979, 1981) autosegmental analysis misses, namely that idiosyncratic characteristics of the derivational binyanim in Arabic are lexical, not morphological. This analysis captures that generalization by treating all the idiosyncracies…

  13. The Influence of Lexical Status and Neighborhood Density on Children's Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsala, Jamie L.; Chisholm, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of lexical status and neighborhood density of constituent syllables on children's nonword repetition and interactions with nonword length. Lexical status of the target syllable impacted repetition accuracy for the longest nonwords. In addition, children made more errors that changed a nonword syllable to a word syllable…

  14. The Influence of Lexical Status and Neighborhood Density on Children's Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsala, Jamie L.; Chisholm, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of lexical status and neighborhood density of constituent syllables on children's nonword repetition and interactions with nonword length. Lexical status of the target syllable impacted repetition accuracy for the longest nonwords. In addition, children made more errors that changed a nonword syllable to a word syllable…

  15. Lexical alignment in triadic communication.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one's interlocutor's lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants' lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  16. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  17. Little Frog and Toad: Interaction of Orthography and Phonology in Polish Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the interaction of lexical and non-lexical processes in spelling through lexical priming of non-lexical spelling in Polish. Explains that orthographic choice for nonwords was assessed under free and primed spelling conditions for both adults and children using direct and associative priming. Finds that lexical orthography influences…

  18. Interchanging Lexical Information for a Multilingual Dictionary

    PubMed Central

    Baud, RH; Nyström, M; Borin, L; Evans, R; Schulz, S; Zweigenbaum, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective To facilitate the interchange of lexical information for multiple languages in the medical domain. To pave the way for the emergence of a generally available truly multilingual electronic dictionary in the medical domain. Methods An interchange format has to be neutral relative to the target languages. It has to be consistent with current needs of lexicon authors, present and future. An active interaction between six potential authors aimed to determine a common denominator striking the right balance between richness of content and ease of use for lexicon providers. Results A simple list of relevant attributes has been established and published. The format has the potential for collecting relevant parts of a future multilingual dictionary. An XML version is available. Conclusion This effort makes feasible the exchange of lexical information between research groups. Interchange files are made available in a public repository. This procedure opens the door to a true multilingual dictionary, in the awareness that the exchange of lexical information is (only) a necessary first step, before structuring the corresponding entries in different languages. PMID:16778996

  19. Bihemispheric processing of redundant bilateral lexical information.

    PubMed

    Hasbrooke, R E; Chiarello, C

    1998-01-01

    Cerebral asymmetries in lexical ambiguity resolution were studied. In 2 experiments, targets related to the dominant and subordinate meanings of ambiguous word primes were presented for lexical decision after a 750-ms stimulus onset asynchrony. Experiment 1 compared presentation of target words to the left visual field/right-hemisphere (LVF/RH), to the right visual field/left-hemisphere (RVF/LH), or after redundant bilateral visual field (BVF) presentation. Experiment 2 examined unilateral priming in the absence of a BVF condition. On unilateral trials, priming was observed for dominant meanings in both the LVF/RH and RVF/LH, whereas subordinate priming was obtained only in the RVF/LH. These results suggest a possible role of hemispheric interaction in the availability of ambiguous word meanings. BVF performance evidenced a bilateral redundancy gain and priming that resembled that obtained on RVF/LH trials. Additional BVF analyses were not consistent with a strict race model interpretation and appear to implicate hemispheric cooperation in the bihemisperic processing of lexical information. PMID:9460737

  20. Context effects on lexical choice and lexical activation.

    PubMed

    Jescheniak, Jörg D; Hantsch, Ansgar; Schriefers, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    Speakers are regularly confronted with the choice among lexical alternatives when referring to objects, including basic-level names (e.g., car) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Beetle). Which of these names is eventually selected often depends on contextual factors. The present article reports a series of picture-word interference experiments that explored how the designated target name (basic level vs. subordinate level) and contextual constraints rendering the name alternative either appropriate or inappropriate affect lexical activation and lexical choice. The experimental data demonstrate clear context effects on the eventual lexical choice. However, they also show that alternative nonselected object names are phonologically activated, even if a constraining context makes these alternative names currently inappropriate. PMID:16248741

  1. Word-fragment cuing: the lexical search hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D L; Keelean, P D; Negrao, M

    1989-05-01

    In four experiments we evaluated aspects of the hypothesis that word-fragment completion depends on the results of lexical but not semantic search. Experiment 1 showed that the number of meaningful associates linked to a studied word does not affect its recovery when the test cue consists of letters and spaces for missing letters. Experiments 2 and 3 showed retroactive interference effects in fragment completion when words in a second list were lexically related to words in a first list but not when the words in the second list were meaningfully related. Experiment 4 indicated that for studied words, instructions to search at the word level facilitated completion performance and that instructions to generate letters to fill missing spaces had no effect. Other findings indicated that completion was affected by the number of words lexically related to the fragment and by the number of letters missing from the fragment. In general, experimental manipulations that focused on lexical characteristics were effective, and those that focused on semantic characteristics were ineffective. The findings support the conclusion that word fragments engender a lexical search process that does not depend on retrieving encoded meaning. PMID:2524544

  2. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  3. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

  4. Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals.

    PubMed

    Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production. PMID:25071614

  5. Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production. PMID:25071614

  6. Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

  7. Early Phonological and Lexical Markers of Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan Lambrecht

    2009-01-01

    Phonological and lexical characteristics of 30-month-old children's spontaneous language samples were examined as indicators of later reading outcome. Participants were 27 children, 10 children with reading disability and 17 children without reading disability. Of the non-disabled readers, 7 were at high familial risk for reading disability, and…

  8. Semantic richness effects in lexical decision: The role of feedback.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvin J; Lim, Gail Y; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Across lexical processing tasks, it is well established that words with richer semantic representations are recognized faster. This suggests that the lexical system has access to meaning before a word is fully identified, and is consistent with a theoretical framework based on interactive and cascaded processing. Specifically, semantic richness effects are argued to be produced by feedback from semantic representations to lower-level representations. The present study explores the extent to which richness effects are mediated by feedback from lexical- to letter-level representations. In two lexical decision experiments, we examined the joint effects of stimulus quality and four semantic richness dimensions (imageability, number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity). With the exception of semantic diversity, robust additive effects of stimulus quality and richness were observed for the targeted dimensions. Our results suggest that semantic feedback does not typically reach earlier levels of representation in lexical decision, and further reinforces the idea that task context modulates the processing dynamics of early word recognition processes. PMID:26155967

  9. Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

  10. Whole body lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Miguel A; Stepp, Nigel; Turvey, M T

    2011-02-25

    When a person standing upright raises an arm on cue, muscles of the left and right sides of the body exhibit changes prior to and specific to the responding arm. We had standing participants perform a visual lexical decision task ("is this letter string a word?"), responding yes by raising one arm and no by raising the other arm. We recorded onset of the arm movement and onset of electromyographic activity in thigh, trunk, and shoulder muscles. We observed the expected responding arm specificity and found that the onset difference favoring word decisions was evident in similar magnitude at all measurement sites, with the difference at the levels of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles available 225, 189, and 120 ms, respectively, prior to its manifestation at the level of arm movement. We discuss including (a) whole body reaction time along with event-related potentials in determining the decision-response, brain-body temporal relation and (b) response execution along with response initiation in investigating mental chronometry. PMID:21184808

  11. Conflicting Strategies and Hemispheric Suppression in a Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Barbara J.; Lutz, Kevin T.

    2004-01-01

    The research tests the prediction of the inhibitory-interaction hypothesis (Wey, Cook, Landis, Regard, & Graves, 1993) that experience with a task accentuates the functional imbalance between the hemispheres. Right-handed males who were experienced readers were presented a letter string to the centre visual field for lexical decision. The string…

  12. Effects of Lexical Prosody and Word Familiarity on Lexical Access of Spoken Japanese Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiguchi, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Lexical prosody (e.g., stress and pitch accent) has been shown to constrain lexical activation of spoken words in various languages. In the present study, whether or not the constraint of lexical prosody is affected by word familiarity in lexical access of Japanese words was examined using a cross-modal priming task. The stimuli were pairs of…

  13. Perception of Lexical Stress by Brain-Damaged Individuals: Effects on Lexical-Semantic Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Amee P.; Baum, Shari R.

    2006-01-01

    A semantic priming, lexical-decision study was conducted to examine the ability of left- and right-brain damaged individuals to perceive lexical-stress cues and map them onto lexical-semantic representations. Correctly and incorrectly stressed primes were paired with related and unrelated target words to tap implicit processing of lexical prosody.…

  14. Perception of Lexical Stress by Brain-Damaged Individuals: Effects on Lexical-Semantic Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Amee P.; Baum, Shari R.

    2006-01-01

    A semantic priming, lexical-decision study was conducted to examine the ability of left- and right-brain damaged individuals to perceive lexical-stress cues and map them onto lexical-semantic representations. Correctly and incorrectly stressed primes were paired with related and unrelated target words to tap implicit processing of lexical prosody.…

  15. Not All Lexical Access Tasks Are Created Equal: Lexical Development between Three and Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isacoff, Nora M.; Stromswold, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Lexical access tasks are designed to measure efficiency of lexical access, but task demands and methods vary greatly. Many lexical access tasks do not account for confounding factors including competence in other linguistic abilities. In this study, preschoolers were given two lexical access tasks. In the single-category naming (SCN) task,…

  16. Not All Lexical Access Tasks Are Created Equal: Lexical Development between Three and Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isacoff, Nora M.; Stromswold, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Lexical access tasks are designed to measure efficiency of lexical access, but task demands and methods vary greatly. Many lexical access tasks do not account for confounding factors including competence in other linguistic abilities. In this study, preschoolers were given two lexical access tasks. In the single-category naming (SCN) task,…

  17. Determination of tube-to-tube support interaction characteristics. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Haslinger, K.H.

    1983-11-01

    Tube-to-tube support interaction characteristics were determined on a multi-span tube geometry representative of the hot-leg side of the C-E, System 80 steam generator design. Results will become input for an autoclave type wear test program on steam generator tubes, performed by Kraftwerk Union (KWU). Correlation of test data reported here with similar data obtained from the wear tests will be performed in an attempt to make predictions about the long-term fretting behavior of steam generator tubes.

  18. Novel word lexicalization and the prime lexicality effect.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in which less priming is obtained due to form similarity when the prime is a word. In the first experiment, subjects were taught the meanings of novel words that were neighbors of real words, but no PLE was observed; that is, equally strong form priming was obtained for both trained and untrained novel primes. In the second experiment, 4 training sessions were spread over 4 weeks, and under these conditions, a clear PLE was obtained in the final session. It is concluded that lexicalization requires multiple training sessions. Possible explanations of the PLE are discussed. PMID:23088548

  19. First Language Activation during Second Language Lexical Processing: An Investigation of Lexical Form, Meaning, and Grammatical Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderman, Gretchen; Kroll, Judith F.

    2006-01-01

    This study places the predictions of the bilingual interactive activation model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 1998) and the revised hierarchical model (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) in the same context to investigate lexical processing in a second language (L2). The performances of two groups of native English speakers, one less proficient and the other more…

  20. Lexical Processing in Spanish Sign Language (LSE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Baquero, Silvia; Corina, David

    2008-01-01

    Lexical access is concerned with how the spoken or visual input of language is projected onto the mental representations of lexical forms. To date, most theories of lexical access have been based almost exclusively on studies of spoken languages and/or orthographic representations of spoken languages. Relatively few studies have examined how…

  1. Lexicalized Aspectual Usage in Oral Proficiency Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study suggests that Intermediate High and Advanced speakers produce aspectually valid constructions in Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) in large part because they are doing more than assigning aspect to lexical categories (Lexical aspect hypothesis), but because they are assigning lexicalized meaning to discrete verbs, for example "govorit"…

  2. Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

  3. Lexical Processing in Spanish Sign Language (LSE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Baquero, Silvia; Corina, David

    2008-01-01

    Lexical access is concerned with how the spoken or visual input of language is projected onto the mental representations of lexical forms. To date, most theories of lexical access have been based almost exclusively on studies of spoken languages and/or orthographic representations of spoken languages. Relatively few studies have examined how…

  4. Lexicalized Aspectual Usage in Oral Proficiency Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study suggests that Intermediate High and Advanced speakers produce aspectually valid constructions in Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) in large part because they are doing more than assigning aspect to lexical categories (Lexical aspect hypothesis), but because they are assigning lexicalized meaning to discrete verbs, for example "govorit"…

  5. Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

  6. Context Effects on Lexical Choice and Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Hantsch, Ansgar; Schriefers, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Speakers are regularly confronted with the choice among lexical alternatives when referring to objects, including basic-level names (e.g., car) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Beetle). Which of these names is eventually selected often depends on contextual factors. The present article reports a series of picture-word interference experiments…

  7. Retention in SLA Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2011-01-01

    Second language learners are faced with the challenging task of remembering many new words. Exactly how learners are supposed to accomplish that task is disputed. Research on lexical processing that has been carried out in cognitive psychology showed that rehearsing words in expanded patterns, that is, with a delay between each rehearsal, leads to…

  8. Retention in SLA Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2011-01-01

    Second language learners are faced with the challenging task of remembering many new words. Exactly how learners are supposed to accomplish that task is disputed. Research on lexical processing that has been carried out in cognitive psychology showed that rehearsing words in expanded patterns, that is, with a delay between each rehearsal, leads to…

  9. Lexical Innovation in Ghanaian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamiro, Edmund O.

    An analysis of lexical innovation in Ghanaian English uses ten linguistic categories identified in earlier research on Nigerian English, offering an explanation of each category and a number of examples. The categories include: loanshifts (English words manipulated to produce and transmit meanings beyond purely denotative reference and conveying a…

  10. Evaluation of Polymer-Filler Interaction Characteristics by Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A

    2007-04-23

    Silicone polymers are frequently used as cushions and inserts between load bearing parts. In this capacity, they must act to position their associated parts and distribute mechanical force as appropriate. One type of failure is specific to silicones that are filled with high surface area particulates for purposes of tailoring the polymer compressive properties. Additives such as fumed silicon oxide are presumed to have a high degree of surface interaction with the polymer matrix, thus causing the polymer to stiffen and to display greater dimensional stability as a function of temperature. However, it has been observed that the compressive behavior of these materials is not always invariant over long times. There is evidence that suggests changes in humidity and temperature can irreversibly alter the silicone-filler interaction, thereby changing the overall characteristics of parts made from such materials. As before, changes in compressive or shear stability can have serious effects on the ability of these materials to effectively position precision parts or distribute high mechanical loads. We approach the analysis of the filled systems by creating controlled layers of silicone polymers attached to silicon oxide substrates. Straight chain vinyl-silicone polymers identical to those used in the formulation of pads for stockpile systems are chemically appended to a substrate surface, and cross-linked to form a three dimensional network. This type of structure serves as a model of silicone polymer coating a silicon oxide filler particle. We study these model systems first by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to image the samples with nanometer resolution, and then by measuring the forces of interactions between single model silica filler particles and polymer-coated surfaces. We use normal longitudinal force AFM to measure adhesion, and a relatively newly developed technique, lateral force AFM, to determine the frictional forces between the silica particles and the polymer films. Lateral force AFM is a sophisticated technique that involves observing the torsional deflections of a cantilever that is scanned across a surface perpendicular to the normal mode deflection. For a carefully calibrated system, this gives information on the dynamic frictional component of the particle/polymer interaction. Both force-measuring techniques utilize colloidal silicon oxide probes ranging from 0.6 {micro}m to 2.0 {micro}m in diameter. These probes replace the standard sharp AFM tip on the cantilever with a spherical bead (Figure 1) and are used to examine interactions between the bead material and the sample surface.

  11. Lexique 2: a new French lexical database.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Pallier, Christophe; Brysbaert, Marc; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2004-08-01

    In this article, we present a new lexical database for French: Lexique. In addition to classical word information such as gender, number, and grammatical category, Lexique includes a series of interesting new characteristics. First, word frequencies are based on two cues: a contemporary corpus of texts and the number of Web pages containing the word. Second, the database is split into a graphemic table with all the relevant frequencies, a table structured around lemmas (particularly interesting for the study of the inflectional family), and a table about surface frequency cues. Third, Lexique is distributed under a GNU-like license, allowing people to contribute to it. Finally, a metasearch engine, Open Lexique, has been developed so that new databases can be added very easily to the existing ones. Lexique can either be downloaded or interrogated freely from http://www.lexique.org. PMID:15641440

  12. Conceptual pacts and lexical choice in conversation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, S E; Clark, H H

    1996-11-01

    When people in conversation refer repeatedly to the same object, they come to use the same terms. This phenomenon, called lexical entrainment, has several possible explanations. Ahistorical accounts appeal only to the informativeness and availability of terms and to the current salience of the object's features. Historical accounts appeal in addition to the recency and frequency of past references and to partner-specific conceptualizations of the object that people achieve interactively. Evidence from 3 experiments favors a historical account and suggests that when speakers refer to an object, they are proposing a conceptualization of it, a proposal their addresses may or may not agree to. Once they do establish a shared conceptualization, a conceptual pact, they appeal to it in later references even when they could use simpler references. Over time, speakers simplify conceptual pacts and, when necessary, abandon them for new conceptualizations. PMID:8921603

  13. Lexical ambiguity in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2009-01-01

    An event-related fMRI paradigm was used to investigate brain activity during the reading of sentences containing either a lexically ambiguous word or an unambiguous control word. Higher levels of activation occurred during the reading of sentences containing a lexical ambiguity. Furthermore, the activated cortical network differed, depending on: (1) whether the sentence contained a balanced (i.e., both meanings equally likely) or a biased (i.e., one meaning more likely than other meanings) ambiguous word; and, (2) the working memory capacity of the individual as assessed by reading span. The findings suggest that encountering a lexical ambiguity is dealt with by activating multiple meanings utilizing processes involving both hemispheres. When an early interpretation of a biased ambiguous word is later disambiguated to the subordinate meaning, the superior frontal cortex activates in response to the coherence break and the right inferior frontal gyrus and the insula activate, possibly to suppress the incorrect interpretation. Negative correlations between reading span scores and activation in the right hemisphere for both types of ambiguous words suggest that readers with lower spans are more likely to involve show right hemisphere involvement in the processing of the ambiguity. A positive correlation between reading span scores and insula activation appearing only for biased sentences disambiguated to the subordinate meaning indicates that individuals with higher spans were more likely to initially maintain both meanings and as a result had to suppress the unintended dominant meaning. PMID:17433891

  14. Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2014-01-01

    Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

  15. Lexical Stress and Linguistic Predictability Influence Proofreading Behavior.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the segmental (i.e., phonemic) layer of phonology is routinely activated during reading, but little is known about whether phonological activation extends beyond phonemes to subsegmental layers (which include articulatory information, such as voicing) and suprasegmental layers (which include prosodic information, such as lexical stress). In three proofreading experiments, we show that spelling errors are detected more reliably in syllables that are stressed than in syllables that are unstressed if comprehension is a goal of the reader, indicating that suprasegmental phonology is both active during silent reading and can influence orthographic processes. In Experiment 1, participants received instructions to read for both errors and comprehension, and we found that the effect of lexical stress interacted with linguistic predictability, such that detection of errors in more predictable words was aided by stress but detection of errors in less predictable words was not. This finding suggests that lexical stress patterns can be accessed prelexically if an upcoming word is sufficiently predictable from context. Participants with stronger vocabularies showed decreased effects of stress on task performance, which is consistent with previous findings that more skilled readers are less swayed by phonological information in decisions about orthographic form. In two subsequent experiments, participants were instructed to read only for errors (Experiment 2) or only for comprehension (Experiment 3); the effect of stress disappeared when participants read for errors and reappeared when participants read for comprehension, reconfirming our hypothesis that predictability is a driver of lexical stress effects. In all experiments, errors were detected more reliably in words that were difficult to predict from context than in words that were highly predictable. Taken together, this series of experiments contributes two important findings to the field of reading and cognition: (1) The prosodic property of lexical stress can influence orthographic processing, and (2) Predictability inhibits the detection of errors in written language processing. PMID:26903904

  16. Lexical Stress and Linguistic Predictability Influence Proofreading Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the segmental (i.e., phonemic) layer of phonology is routinely activated during reading, but little is known about whether phonological activation extends beyond phonemes to subsegmental layers (which include articulatory information, such as voicing) and suprasegmental layers (which include prosodic information, such as lexical stress). In three proofreading experiments, we show that spelling errors are detected more reliably in syllables that are stressed than in syllables that are unstressed if comprehension is a goal of the reader, indicating that suprasegmental phonology is both active during silent reading and can influence orthographic processes. In Experiment 1, participants received instructions to read for both errors and comprehension, and we found that the effect of lexical stress interacted with linguistic predictability, such that detection of errors in more predictable words was aided by stress but detection of errors in less predictable words was not. This finding suggests that lexical stress patterns can be accessed prelexically if an upcoming word is sufficiently predictable from context. Participants with stronger vocabularies showed decreased effects of stress on task performance, which is consistent with previous findings that more skilled readers are less swayed by phonological information in decisions about orthographic form. In two subsequent experiments, participants were instructed to read only for errors (Experiment 2) or only for comprehension (Experiment 3); the effect of stress disappeared when participants read for errors and reappeared when participants read for comprehension, reconfirming our hypothesis that predictability is a driver of lexical stress effects. In all experiments, errors were detected more reliably in words that were difficult to predict from context than in words that were highly predictable. Taken together, this series of experiments contributes two important findings to the field of reading and cognition: (1) The prosodic property of lexical stress can influence orthographic processing, and (2) Predictability inhibits the detection of errors in written language processing. PMID:26903904

  17. Characteristics of quercetin interactions with liposomal and vacuolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowska-Pawl?ga, Bo?ena; Dziubi?ska, Halina; Król, El?bieta; Tr?bacz, Kazimierz; Jarosz-Wilko?azka, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Gawron, Antoni; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is claimed to exert many beneficial health effects. With application of (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) techniques, quercetin interaction with liposomes formed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was analyzed. Patch-clamp technique was employed to study quercetin effects at single channel level of vacuolar membranes in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Light and electron microscopy were applied to study quercetin effects on human negroid cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). Enzymatic measurements along with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) bioassay were performed to investigate the influence of quercetin on antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inclusion of quercetin to the membrane exerted pronounced ordering effect on the motional freedom of lipids in the head group region as manifested by broadening of the (1)H NMR spectral line representing the choline groups. FTIR analysis revealed quercetin incorporation into DPPC liposomes via hydrogen bonding between its own hydroxyl groups and lipid polar head groups in the C-O-P-O-C segment. Both, FTIR and NMR techniques indicated also quercetin spectral effects in the region corresponding to alkyl chains. Patch-clamp experiments showed that quercetin stabilizes tonoplast and promotes a close state of SV channels. Microscopic observations of HeLa cells revealed characteristic changes in ultrastructure and morphology of the examined cells in comparison to control cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cells with quercetin alleviated H2O2-induced cell injury by improving redox balance as indicated by the increase in glutathione content and SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels as well as by the decrease in ROS level. \\In conclusion, the incorporation, distribution and the changes of biophysical properties of the membranes are very important for the effectiveness of phenolic compounds as antioxidant and anticancer factors. PMID:24001508

  18. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Interactional Types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines patterns of sibling relationship qualities or interactional types and their association with family characteristics, parenting, and the characteristics of 1 of those children. Participants were 65 children (34 boys; Time 1 mean age = 51 months), their mothers, fathers, and Head Start teachers. Approximately…

  19. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk???SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit???INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly???LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production. PMID:25163539

  20. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate online probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  1. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  2. Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2014-02-01

    Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. PMID:24269488

  3. Modeling the Lexical Morphology of Western Handwritten Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Ferrer, Miguel A.; Morales, Aythami

    2015-01-01

    A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures. PMID:25860942

  4. Modeling the lexical morphology of Western handwritten signatures.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Ferrer, Miguel A; Morales, Aythami

    2015-01-01

    A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures. PMID:25860942

  5. Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2013-01-01

    Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. PMID:24269488

  6. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  7. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  8. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  9. Lexical integration of novel words without sleep.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M Gareth

    2013-03-01

    Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can occur within a single day. The degree to which a new spoken word (e.g., cathedruke) engaged in lexical competition with established phonological neighbors (e.g., cathedral) was employed as a marker for lexical integration. We found evidence for improvements in recognition and cued recall following a time period including sleep, but we also found lexical competition effects emerging within a single day. Spaced exposure to novel words on its own did not bring about this within-day lexical competition effect (Experiment 2), which instead occurred with either spaced or massed exposure to novel words, provided that there was also spaced exposure to the phonological neighbors (Experiments 1 and 3). Although previous studies have indicated that sleep-dependent memory consolidation may be sufficient for lexical integration, our results show it is not a necessary precondition. PMID:22774854

  10. Dialectal Variation in the Lexical Tone System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Discusses dialectal variation in the lexical tone system of Ma'ya, an Austronesian language featuring three lexically contrastive tonemes. Representative acoustic data were collected from the Missol, Slawati, and Laganyan dialects, and on the basis of these data, an account is given of their tone systems and of how these tone systems compare to…

  11. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  12. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  13. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  14. Second Language Lexical Acquisition: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenston, Edward A.

    Most second language acquisition research has been concerned with grammar or phonology and has failed to discuss lexical acquisition. The main reason for this neglect has been the lack of vocabulary study by linguists. However, recent concern with semantic theory has brought new impetus to work on lexical acquisition. Useful research on lexical…

  15. Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical…

  16. How Noisy is Lexical Decision?

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Kevin; Brysbaert, Marc; Neri, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Lexical decision is one of the most frequently used tasks in word recognition research. Theoretical conclusions are typically derived from a linear model on the reaction times (RTs) of correct word trials only (e.g., linear regression and ANOVA). Although these models estimate random measurement error for RTs, considering only correct trials implicitly assumes that word/non-word categorizations are without noise: words receive a yes-response because they have been recognized, and they receive a no-response when they are not known. Hence, when participants are presented with the same stimuli on two separate occasions, they are expected to give the same response. We demonstrate that this not true and that responses in a lexical decision task suffer from inconsistency in participants' response choice, meaning that RTs of "correct" word responses include RTs of trials on which participants did not recognize the stimulus. We obtained estimates of this internal noise using established methods from sensory psychophysics (Burgess and Colborne, 1988). The results show similar noise values as in typical psychophysical signal detection experiments when sensitivity and response bias are taken into account (Neri, 2010). These estimates imply that, with an optimal choice model, only 83-91% of the response choices can be explained (i.e., can be used to derive theoretical conclusions). For word responses, word frequencies below 10 per million yield alarmingly low percentages of consistent responses (near 50%). The same analysis can be applied to RTs, yielding noise estimates about three times higher. Correspondingly, the estimated amount of consistent trial-level variance in RTs is only 8%. These figures are especially relevant given the recent popularity of trial-level lexical decision models using the linear mixed-effects approach (e.g., Baayen et al., 2008). PMID:23015793

  17. How Noisy is Lexical Decision?

    PubMed Central

    Diependaele, Kevin; Brysbaert, Marc; Neri, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Lexical decision is one of the most frequently used tasks in word recognition research. Theoretical conclusions are typically derived from a linear model on the reaction times (RTs) of correct word trials only (e.g., linear regression and ANOVA). Although these models estimate random measurement error for RTs, considering only correct trials implicitly assumes that word/non-word categorizations are without noise: words receive a yes-response because they have been recognized, and they receive a no-response when they are not known. Hence, when participants are presented with the same stimuli on two separate occasions, they are expected to give the same response. We demonstrate that this not true and that responses in a lexical decision task suffer from inconsistency in participants’ response choice, meaning that RTs of “correct” word responses include RTs of trials on which participants did not recognize the stimulus. We obtained estimates of this internal noise using established methods from sensory psychophysics (Burgess and Colborne, 1988). The results show similar noise values as in typical psychophysical signal detection experiments when sensitivity and response bias are taken into account (Neri, 2010). These estimates imply that, with an optimal choice model, only 83–91% of the response choices can be explained (i.e., can be used to derive theoretical conclusions). For word responses, word frequencies below 10 per million yield alarmingly low percentages of consistent responses (near 50%). The same analysis can be applied to RTs, yielding noise estimates about three times higher. Correspondingly, the estimated amount of consistent trial-level variance in RTs is only 8%. These figures are especially relevant given the recent popularity of trial-level lexical decision models using the linear mixed-effects approach (e.g., Baayen et al., 2008). PMID:23015793

  18. Recognition memory for foreign language lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Lidia; Goh, Winston D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated whether English speakers retained the lexical stress patterns of newly learned Spanish words. Participants studied spoken Spanish words (e.g., DUcha [shower], ciuDAD [city]; stressed syllables in capital letters) and subsequently performed a recognition task, in which studied words were presented with the same lexical stress pattern (DUcha) or the opposite lexical stress pattern (CIUdad). Participants were able to discriminate same- from opposite-stress words, indicating that lexical stress was encoded and used in the recognition process. Word-form similarity to English also influenced outcomes, with Spanish cognate words and words with trochaic stress (MANgo) being recognized more often and more quickly than Spanish cognate words with iambic stress (soLAR) and noncognates. The results suggest that while segmental and suprasegmental features of the native language influence foreign word recognition, foreign lexical stress patterns are encoded and not discarded in memory. PMID:23468133

  19. Categorical perception of lexical tones in mandarin-speaking congenital amusics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia), whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics, and amusics with tone agnosia) participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception (CP) of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the CP of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical CP of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the CP of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception. PMID:26136714

  20. Processing Cantonese lexical tones: Evidence from oddball paradigms.

    PubMed

    Jia, S; Tsang, Y-K; Huang, J; Chen, H-C

    2015-10-01

    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were conducted to investigate whether Cantonese lexical tones are processed with general auditory perception mechanisms and/or a special speech module. Two tonal features (f0 direction and f0 height deviation) were manipulated to reflect acoustic processing, and the contrast between syllables and hums was used to reveal the involvement of a speech module. Experiment 1 adopted a passive oddball paradigm to study a relatively early stage of tonal processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P3 (P3a) were modulated by the interaction between tonal feature and stimulus type. Similar interactions were found for N2 and P3 in Experiment 2, where more in-depth tonal processing was examined with an active oddball paradigm. Moreover, detecting tonal deviants of syllables elicited N1 and P2 that were not found in hum detection. Together, these findings suggest that the processing of lexical tone relies on both acoustic and linguistic processes from the early stage. Another noteworthy finding is the absence of brain lateralization in both experiments, which challenges the use of a lateralization pattern as evidence for processing lexical tones through a special speech module. PMID:26265553

  1. Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Dysarthria in Greek with a Focus on Lexical Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakyritsis, Ioannis

    The field of motor speech disorders in Greek is substantially underresearched. Additionally, acoustic studies on lexical stress in dysarthria are generally very rare (Kim et al. 2010). This dissertation examined the acoustic and perceptual effects of Greek dysarthria focusing on lexical stress. Additional possibly deviant speech characteristics were acoustically analyzed. Data from three dysarthric participants and matched controls was analyzed using a case study design. The analysis of lexical stress was based on data drawn from a single word repetition task that included pairs of disyllabic words differentiated by stress location. This data was acoustically analyzed in terms of the use of the acoustic cues for Greek stress. The ability of the dysarthric participants to signal stress in single words was further assessed in a stress identification task carried out by 14 naive Greek listeners. Overall, the acoustic and perceptual data indicated that, although all three dysarthric speakers presented with some difficulty in the patterning of stressed and unstressed syllables, each had different underlying problems that gave rise to quite distinct patterns of deviant speech characteristics. The atypical use of lexical stress cues in Anna's data obscured the prominence relations of stressed and unstressed syllables to the extent that the position of lexical stress was usually not perceptually transparent. Chris and Maria on the other hand, did not have marked difficulties signaling lexical stress location, although listeners were not 100% successful in the stress identification task. For the most part, Chris' atypical phonation patterns and Maria's very slow rate of speech did not interfere with lexical stress signaling. The acoustic analysis of the lexical stress cues was generally in agreement with the participants' performance in the stress identification task. Interestingly, in all three dysarthric participants, but more so in Anna, targets stressed on the 1st syllable were more impervious to error judgments of lexical stress location than targets stressed on the 2nd syllable, although the acoustic metrics did not always suggest a more appropriate use of lexical stress cues in 1st syllable position. The findings contribute to our limited knowledge of the speech characteristics of dysarthria across different languages.

  2. Effects of prosodic and lexical constraints on parsing in young children (and adults)

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing (Trueswell, Sekerina, Hill & Logrip, 1999; Snedeker & Trueswell, 2004). This pattern is consistent with either a modular parsing system driven by stored lexical information or an interactive system which has yet to acquire low-validity referential constraints. In two experiments we explored whether children could use a third constraint—prosody—to resolve globally ambiguous prepositional-phrase attachments (“You can feel the frog with the feather”). Four to six years olds and adults were tested using the visual world paradigm. In both groups the fixation patterns were influenced by lexical cues by around 200ms after the onset of the critical PP-object noun (“feather”). In adults the prosody manipulation had an effect in this early time window. In children the effect of prosody was delayed by approximately 500 ms. The effects of lexical and prosodic cues were roughly additive: prosody influenced the interpretation of utterances with strong lexical cues and lexical information had an effect on utterances with strong prosodic cues. We conclude that young children, like adults, can rapidly use both of these information sources to resolve structural ambiguities. PMID:19190721

  3. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  4. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  5. Lexical knowledge without a lexicon?

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words — with primary interest on rules — this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon. PMID:22069438

  6. Lexical knowledge without a lexicon?

    PubMed

    Elman, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words - with primary interest on rules - this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon. PMID:22069438

  7. Individual Differences in the Joint Effects of Semantic Priming and Word Frequency Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses: The Role of Lexical Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the…

  8. Unfolding Visual Lexical Decision in Time

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called “lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as “lexical" or “non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

  9. His Lips Are Moving: Pinocchio Effect and Other Lexical Indicators of Political Deceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Michael T.; Van Swol, Lyn M.; Vang, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Using the software program LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count), this study used political statements classified as truths and lies by website Politifact.com and examined lexical differences between statement type (lie or truth) and the setting (interactive or scripted) in which the statement was given. In interactive settings (where…

  10. His Lips Are Moving: Pinocchio Effect and Other Lexical Indicators of Political Deceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Michael T.; Van Swol, Lyn M.; Vang, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Using the software program LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count), this study used political statements classified as truths and lies by website Politifact.com and examined lexical differences between statement type (lie or truth) and the setting (interactive or scripted) in which the statement was given. In interactive settings (where…

  11. Lexical and semantic search in cued recall, fragment completion, perceptual identification, and recognition.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D L; McEvoy, C L; Bajo, M T

    1988-01-01

    Search processes in word-stem cued recall, fragment completion, perceptual identification, and recognition are contrasted. These retention tests involve letters as cues, but the lexical characteristics of these cues vary considerably. In word-stem cued recall, ending letters are presented as recall cues for studied targets (e.g., ONEY as a cue for HONEY). In fragment completion, the test cues consist of letters and spaces (e.g., HO__Y); in perceptual identification, they consist of letter features that survive the mask; and in recognition, they consist of all the letters of the studied word (e.g., HONEY). These differences in retention tests and lexical characteristics were evaluated by manipulating three variables with known effects in cued recall: (a) the presence of study context words emphasizing lexical information, (b) lexical set size corresponding to the number of words that fit the letter cue, and (c) meaning set size corresponding to the number of meaningful associates linked to the studied targets. The results indicated that (a) the presence of study contexts emphasizing lexical information reduced accuracy and response time equally in all tasks, (b) larger lexical set sizes reduced accuracy and response time in all tasks except recognition, and (c) larger meaning set size reduced accuracy in cued recall but not in the other tasks. Lexical search appears to be a significant component process in word-stem cued recall, fragment completion, and identification. Searching through meaning-related concepts encoded during study is a significant component process only in cued recall. PMID:3232723

  12. Parent--Child Interactions in Autism: Characteristics of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on parent-child interactions in young children with autism has examined dyadic style, synchrony, and sustained engagement, the examination of parental skill in sustaining and developing play skills themselves has not been targeted. This study examined the extent to which parents of young children with autism match and…

  13. Sub- and Supralexical Information in Early Phases of Lexical Access

    PubMed Central

    Järvikivi, Juhani; Pyykkönen, Pirita

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated sub- and supralexical effects in morphological processing for inflected and pseudo complex words and pseudo words in lexical decision with masked and cross-modal priming. The results showed that the early stage of morphological processing is not only sensitive to whether the orthographic string can be segmented into an existing stem and affix, but also whether the full form is an existing word the meaning of which differs from the meaning of the segmented stem. It is thus likely that from early on morphological processing is probably not governed by morpho-orthographic processes alone, but is most likely sensitive to top-down information, perhaps originating from supralexical semantic connections between the words morphological family members. In addition, whereas semantic interpretability has a clear advantage later in processing, this stage seems to be sensitive to bottom-up form information as well. In a detailed theoretical discussion we show how these findings, along with earlier findings, are explained by a model that assumes that morphological information is represented at two interactive levels, corresponding to sublexical form (orthographic) and supralexical (semantic) information mediated by a lexical level. This allows supralexical (semantic) effects to feed top-down, predicting differences between regular inflected and pseudo complex words at the lexical level, affecting the early phases of processing for these words. PMID:22046167

  14. Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

  15. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

  16. Lexical diversity in listeners' judgments of children.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, E

    1991-08-01

    This study explored the influence of children's lexical diversity during conversation on the way the children were evaluated by adults. Four adults listened to 93 2-min, samples of children, aged 36 to 78 months, conversing with an adult. They rated each child on 10 7-point bipolar adjective scales. Analysis indicated that children who conversed with low lexical diversity were perceived as less appealing, mature, and talkative than those who conversed with high diversity. PMID:1945687

  17. Characteristics of lipopolysaccharide interaction with human peripheral-blood monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, S J; Savage, N; Mitchell, D

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between radioiodinated lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 (125I-LPS) and human peripheral-blood monocytes was studied. The association of 125I-LPS with monocytes at 37 degrees C appeared to depend on binding to the cell membrane with subsequent internalization of the molecule, and was not saturable with time (up to 2 h) or 125I-LPS concentration (up to 10 micrograms/ml). There was no apparent difference in the behaviour of unlabelled LPS and 125I-LPS with respect to monocyte association. 125I-LPS association with monocytes was inhibited by LPS and O-polysaccharide from E. coli 0111:B4 and Salmonella typhi 0901, but not by lipid A or polymyxin B. We propose that the mechanism of human monocyte stimulation by LPS involves polysaccharide-dependent binding to the cell membrane followed by internalization of the LPS molecule. We were unable to demonstrate a specific LPS receptor such as that found on murine B-lymphocytes. PMID:3911946

  18. The Personality and Family-Interaction Characteristics of Parents of Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Assesses personality and family-interaction characteristics of 49 parents of autistic children and investigates the level of parental stress. Results suggested that the cause of the chldren's disorder is unrelated to characteristics of their parents and that an overall stress reaction may not exist. (LLL)

  19. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  20. More on Lexical Bias: How Efficient Can a "Lexical Editor'" Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The lexical bias effect (the tendency for phonological speech errors to create words more often than nonwords) has been debated for over 30 years. One account attributes the effect to a lexical editor, a strategic component of the production system that examines each planned phonological string, and suppresses it if it is a nonword. The…

  1. Pseudohomophone Priming in Lexical Decision Is Not Fragile in a Sparse Lexical Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In lexical decision, to date few studies in English have found a reliable pseudohomophone priming advantage with orthographically similar primes (the "klip-plip effect"; Frost, Ahissar, Gotesman, & Tayeb, 2003; see Rastle & Brysbaert, 2006, for a review). On the basis of the Bayseian reader model of lexical decision (Norris, 2006, 2009), we…

  2. Acoustic Correlates of Lexical Stress in Native Speakers of Uyghur and L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakup, Mahire

    2013-01-01

    Some syllables are louder, longer and stronger than other syllables at the lexical level. These prominent prosodic characteristics of certain syllables are captured by suprasegmental features including fundamental frequency, duration and intensity. A language like English uses fundamental frequency, duration and intensity to distinguish stressed…

  3. Acoustic Correlates of Lexical Stress in Native Speakers of Uyghur and L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakup, Mahire

    2013-01-01

    Some syllables are louder, longer and stronger than other syllables at the lexical level. These prominent prosodic characteristics of certain syllables are captured by suprasegmental features including fundamental frequency, duration and intensity. A language like English uses fundamental frequency, duration and intensity to distinguish stressed…

  4. Developmental Differences in the Effects of Phonological, Lexical and Semantic Variables on Word Learning by Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of phonological (i.e. individual sounds), lexical (i.e. whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e. meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e. positional segment average, biphone average), two…

  5. Lexical and Nonlexical Processes in the Skilled Reading and Spelling of Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of lexical and nonlexical processes to skilled reading and spelling in Persian. Persian is a mixed orthography that allows one to study within one language characteristics typically found in shallow orthographies as well as those found in deeper orthographies. 61 senior high-school…

  6. Lexical influences on speech perception: A Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.; Segawa, Jennifer A.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural and functional imaging studies have demonstrated that lexical knowledge influences the categorization of perceptually ambiguous speech sounds. However, methodological and inferential constraints have so far been unable to resolve the question of whether this interaction takes the form of direct top-down influences on perceptual processing, or feedforward convergence during a decision process. We examined top-down lexical influences on the categorization of segments in a /s/?/?/ continuum presented in different lexical contexts to produce a robust Ganong effect. Using integrated MEG/EEG and MRI data we found that, within a network identified by 40Hz gamma phase locking, activation in the supramarginal gyrus associated with wordform representation influences phonetic processing in the posterior superior temporal gyrus during a period of time associated with lexical processing. This result provides direct evidence that lexical processes influence lower level phonetic perception, and demonstrates the potential value of combining Granger causality analyses and high spatiotemporal resolution multimodal imaging data to explore the functional architecture of cognition. PMID:18703146

  7. Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus. PMID:20433237

  8. Lexical influences on auditory streaming.

    PubMed

    Billig, Alexander J; Davis, Matthew H; Deeks, John M; Monstrey, Jolijn; Carlyon, Robert P

    2013-08-19

    Biologically salient sounds, including speech, are rarely heard in isolation. Our brains must therefore organize the input arising from multiple sources into separate "streams" and, in the case of speech, map the acoustic components of the target signal onto meaning. These auditory and linguistic processes have traditionally been considered to occur sequentially and are typically studied independently [1, 2]. However, evidence that streaming is modified or reset by attention [3], and that lexical knowledge can affect reports of speech sound identity [4, 5], suggests that higher-level factors may influence perceptual organization. In two experiments, listeners heard sequences of repeated words or acoustically matched nonwords. After several presentations, they reported that the initial /s/ sound in each syllable formed a separate stream; the percept then fluctuated between the streamed and fused states in a bistable manner. In addition to measuring these verbal transformations, we assessed streaming objectively by requiring listeners to detect occasional targets-syllables containing a gap after the initial /s/. Performance was better when streaming caused the syllables preceding the target to transform from words into nonwords, rather than from nonwords into words. Our results show that auditory stream formation is influenced not only by the acoustic properties of speech sounds, but also by higher-level processes involved in recognizing familiar words. PMID:23891107

  9. Lexical Influences on Auditory Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Billig, Alexander J.; Davis, Matthew H.; Deeks, John M.; Monstrey, Jolijn; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biologically salient sounds, including speech, are rarely heard in isolation. Our brains must therefore organize the input arising from multiple sources into separate “streams” and, in the case of speech, map the acoustic components of the target signal onto meaning. These auditory and linguistic processes have traditionally been considered to occur sequentially and are typically studied independently [1, 2]. However, evidence that streaming is modified or reset by attention [3], and that lexical knowledge can affect reports of speech sound identity [4, 5], suggests that higher-level factors may influence perceptual organization. In two experiments, listeners heard sequences of repeated words or acoustically matched nonwords. After several presentations, they reported that the initial /s/ sound in each syllable formed a separate stream; the percept then fluctuated between the streamed and fused states in a bistable manner. In addition to measuring these verbal transformations, we assessed streaming objectively by requiring listeners to detect occasional targets—syllables containing a gap after the initial /s/. Performance was better when streaming caused the syllables preceding the target to transform from words into nonwords, rather than from nonwords into words. Our results show that auditory stream formation is influenced not only by the acoustic properties of speech sounds, but also by higher-level processes involved in recognizing familiar words. PMID:23891107

  10. Neural Signatures of Lexical Tone Reading

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Veronica P.Y.; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Yakpo, Kofi; Zhu, Linlin; Fox, Peter T.; Tan, Li Hai

    2016-01-01

    Research on how lexical tone is neuroanatomically represented in the human brain is central to our understanding of cortical regions subserving language. Past studies have exclusively focused on tone perception of the spoken language, and little is known as to the lexical tone processing in reading visual words and its associated brain mechanisms. In this study, we performed two experiments to identify neural substrates in Chinese tone reading. First, we used a tone judgment paradigm to investigate tone processing of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that, relative to baseline, tone perception of printed Chinese characters were mediated by strong brain activation in bilateral frontal regions, left inferior parietal lobule, left posterior middle/medial temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal region, bilateral visual systems, and cerebellum. Surprisingly, no activation was found in superior temporal regions, brain sites well known for speech tone processing. In activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to combine results of relevant published studies, we attempted to elucidate whether the left temporal cortex activities identified in Experiment one is consistent with those found in previous studies of auditory lexical tone perception. ALE results showed that only the left superior temporal gyrus and putamen were critical in auditory lexical tone processing. These findings suggest that activation in the superior temporal cortex associated with lexical tone perception is modality-dependent. PMID:25196948

  11. Consequences of Lexical Stress on Learning an Artificial Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined effects of lexical stress on lexical access for recently learned words. Participants learned artificial lexicons (48 words) containing phonologically similar items and were tested on their knowledge in a 4-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) referent-selection task. Lexical stress differences did not reduce confusions…

  12. Effects of Lexical Tone Contour on Mandarin Sentence Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…

  13. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

  14. Effects of Lexical Tone Contour on Mandarin Sentence Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…

  15. Does Horse Activate Mother? Processing Lexical Tone in Form Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Lexical tone languages make up the majority of all known languages of the world, but the role of tone in lexical processing remains unclear. In the present study, four form priming experiments examined the role of Mandarin tones in constraining lexical activation and the time course of the activation. When a prime and a target were related…

  16. On the Use of Lexical Stress in Reading Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Palma-Reyes, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether or not lexical stress is used for lexical access in Spanish. A lexical decision task and a masking priming procedure were used to compare correctly-versus-incorrectly stressed words (e.g., "tecla-TECLA vs. tecla-TECLA"). SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was manipulated at 33, 66, 100, and 143 ms. The results showed…

  17. Lexical Attrition in Younger and Older Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mira; Libben, Gary; Obler, Loraine K.; Jarema, Gonia; Ohayon, Keren

    2008-01-01

    Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be…

  18. Lexical Access in Bilingual Speakers: What's the (Hard) Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Gollan, Tamar H.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Models of bilingual speech production generally assume that translation equivalent lexical nodes share a common semantic representation. Though this type of architecture is highly desirable on both theoretical and empirical grounds, it could create difficulty at the point of lexical selection. If two translation equivalent lexical nodes are…

  19. Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

  20. On the Use of Lexical Stress in Reading Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Palma-Reyes, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether or not lexical stress is used for lexical access in Spanish. A lexical decision task and a masking priming procedure were used to compare correctly-versus-incorrectly stressed words (e.g., "tecla-TECLA vs. tecla-TECLA"). SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was manipulated at 33, 66, 100, and 143 ms. The results showed…

  1. Do Statistical Segmentation Abilities Predict Lexical-Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Abilities in Children with and without SLI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty…

  2. Do Statistical Segmentation Abilities Predict Lexical-Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Abilities in Children with and without SLI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty…

  3. Social Interaction and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A Case Study in Authentic Enterprise Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Christina W. M.; Man, Thomas W. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is an empirical study which aims to investigate the development of social interaction and their impacts on developing learners' entrepreneurial characteristics throughout their participation in an authentic enterprise activity. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of this study was drawn from the participants of an…

  4. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

  5. Spectro-temporal correlates of lexical access during auditory lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Jonathan; Lignos, Constantine; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2014-06-01

    Lexical access during speech comprehension comprises numerous computations, including activation, competition, and selection. The spatio-temporal profile of these processes involves neural activity in peri-auditory cortices at least as early as 200 ms after stimulation. Their oscillatory dynamics are less well understood, although reports link alpha band de-synchronization with lexical processing. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether these alpha-related oscillations reflect the speed of lexical access, as would be predicted if they index lexical activation. In an auditory semantic priming protocol, monosyllabic nouns were presented while participants performed a lexical decision task. Spatially-localizing beamforming was used to examine spectro-temporal effects in left and right auditory cortex time-locked to target word onset. Alpha and beta de-synchronization (10-20 Hz ERD) was attenuated for words following a related prime compared to an unrelated prime beginning about 270 ms after stimulus onset. This timing is consistent with how information about word identity unfolds incrementally in speech, quantified in information-theoretic terms. These findings suggest that alpha de-synchronization during auditory word processing is associated with early stages of lexical access. PMID:24769280

  6. Spectro-temporal Correlates of Lexical Access during Auditory Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jonathan; Lignos, Constantine; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Lexical access during speech comprehension comprises numerous computations, including activation, competition, and selection. The spatio-temporal profile of these processes involves neural activity in peri-auditory cortices at least as early as 200ms after stimulation. Their oscillatory dynamics are less well understood, although reports link alpha band de-synchronization with lexical processing. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether these alpha-related oscillations reflect the speed of lexical access, as would be predicted if they index lexical activation. In an auditory semantic priming protocol, monosyllabic nouns were presented while participants performed a lexical decision task. Spatially-localizing beamforming was used to examine spectro-temporal effects in left and right auditory cortex time-locked to target word onset. Alpha and beta de-synchronization (10-20Hz ERD) was attenuated for words following a related prime compared to an unrelated prime beginning about 270ms after stimulus onset. This timing is consistent with how information about word identity unfolds incrementally in speech, quantified in information-theoretic terms. These findings suggest that alpha de-synchronization during auditory word processing is associated with early stages of lexical access. PMID:24769280

  7. Stress Priming in Reading and the Selective Modulation of Lexical and Sub-Lexical Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Lucia; Zevin, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments employed a priming methodology to investigate different mechanisms of stress assignment and how they are modulated by lexical and sub-lexical mechanisms in reading aloud in Italian. Lexical stress is unpredictable in Italian, and requires lexical look-up. The most frequent stress pattern (Dominant) is on the penultimate syllable [laVOro (work)], while stress on the antepenultimate syllable [MAcchina (car)] is relatively less frequent (non-Dominant). Word and pseudoword naming responses primed by words with non-dominant stress – which require whole-word knowledge to be read correctly – were compared to those primed by nonwords. Percentage of errors to words and percentage of dominant stress responses to nonwords were measured. In Experiments 1 and 2 stress errors increased for non-dominant stress words primed by nonwords, as compared to when they were primed by words. The results could be attributed to greater activation of sub-lexical codes, and an associated tendency to assign the dominant stress pattern by default in the nonword prime condition. Alternatively, they may have been the consequence of prosodic priming, inducing more errors on trials in which the stress pattern of primes and targets was not congruent. The two interpretations were investigated in Experiments 3 and 4. The results overall suggested a limited role of the default metrical pattern in word pronunciation, and showed clear effect of prosodic priming, but only when the sub-lexical mechanism prevailed. PMID:19787062

  8. Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical…

  9. Lexical Semantics and Its Philosophical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leben, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Lexical semantics is the field of cognitive science which attempts to explain how speakers learn to use and accept sentences like "She filled the glass with water" but avoid and reject sentences like "She poured the glass with water," often with poor or impoverished evidence. In order to explain why some verbs alternate in…

  10. Lexical Acquisition in Elementary Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Rachel M.; Dockrell, Julie E.; Braisby, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further researchers' understanding of lexical acquisition in the beginning primary schoolchild by investigating word learning in small-group elementary science classes. Two experiments were conducted to examine the role of semantic scaffolding (e.g., use of synonymous terms) and physical scaffolding (e.g., pointing…

  11. Lexical Semantics and Its Philosophical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leben, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Lexical semantics is the field of cognitive science which attempts to explain how speakers learn to use and accept sentences like "She filled the glass with water" but avoid and reject sentences like "She poured the glass with water," often with poor or impoverished evidence. In order to explain why some verbs alternate in…

  12. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  13. Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogasawara, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

  14. Some Lexical Redundancy Rules for English Nouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starosta, Stanley

    In line with current thinking in transformational grammar, syntax as a system can and should be studied before a study is made of the use of that system. Chomsky's lexical redundancy rule is an area for further study, possibly to come closer to defining and achieving explanatory adequacy. If it is observed that English nouns come in two types,…

  15. Overnight Lexical Consolidation Revealed by Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumay, Nicolas; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of…

  16. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  17. A Lexical Approach to Passive in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Fred

    Dissatisfaction with the standard transformational grammar approach to teaching passive voice sentences gave rise to the method developed. It is based on the framework of a lexical-functional grammar, which claims that both active and passive sentences are base-generated, and that both active and passive verb forms occur in the lexicon. It would…

  18. Bilingual Lexical Activation in Sentence Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ana I.; Kroll, Judith F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the cognitive nature of second language (L2) lexical processing in sentence context. We examined bilinguals' L2 word recognition performance for language-ambiguous words [cognates (e.g., "piano") and homographs (e.g., "pan")] in two sentence context experiments with highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals living…

  19. Overnight Lexical Consolidation Revealed by Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumay, Nicolas; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of…

  20. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  1. Lexical Frequency Profiles and Zipf's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roderick; Collins, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Laufer and Nation (1995) proposed that the Lexical Frequency Profile (LFP) can estimate the size of a second-language writer's productive vocabulary. Meara (2005) questioned the sensitivity and the reliability of LFPs for estimating vocabulary sizes, based on the results obtained from probabilistic simulations of LFPs. However, the underlying…

  2. Lexical Innovations in South Asian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachru, Braj B.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses certain lexical features of South Asian English peculiar to this variety of English as opposed to its other native and non-native varieties. A taxonomic classification of hybrids which developed over years of cultural and linguistic contact with the English-speaking world is presented. (SCC)

  3. Assessing Lexical Proficiency Using Analytic Ratings: A Case for Collocation Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; Mcnamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes lexical proficiency in oral and written texts produced by second language (L2) learners of English. The purpose of the study is to examine relationships between analytic scores of depth of lexical knowledge, breadth of lexical knowledge, and access to core lexical items and holistic scores of lexical proficiency. A corpus of…

  4. Lexical support for phonetic perception during nonnative spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Arthur G; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-01

    Second language comprehension is generally not as efficient and effective as native language comprehension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lower-level processes such as lexical support for phonetic perception are a contributing factor to these differences. For native listeners, it has been shown that the perception of ambiguous acoustic–phonetic segments is driven by lexical factors (Samuel Psychological Science, 12, 348-351, 2001). Here, we tested whether nonnative listeners can use lexical context in the same way. Native Hebrew speakers living in Israel were tested with American English stimuli. When subtle acoustic cues in the stimuli worked against the lexical context, these nonnative speakers showed no evidence of lexical guidance of phonetic perception. This result conflicts with the performance of native speakers, who demonstrate lexical effects on phonetic perception even with conflicting acoustic cues. When stimuli without any conflicting cues were used, the native Hebrew subjects produced results similar to those of native English speakers, showing lexical support for phonetic perception in their second language. In contrast, native Arabic speakers, who were less proficient in English than the native Hebrew speakers, showed no ability to use lexical activation to support phonetic perception, even without any conflicting cues. These results reinforce previous demonstrations of lexical support of phonetic perception and demonstrate how proficiency modulates the use of lexical information in driving phonetic perception. PMID:26866066

  5. Lexical support for phonetic perception during nonnative spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Arthur G; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-01

    Second language comprehension is generally not as efficient and effective as native language comprehension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lower-level processes such as lexical support for phonetic perception are a contributing factor to these differences. For native listeners, it has been shown that the perception of ambiguous acoustic-phonetic segments is driven by lexical factors (Samuel Psychological Science, 12, 348-351, 2001). Here, we tested whether nonnative listeners can use lexical context in the same way. Native Hebrew speakers living in Israel were tested with American English stimuli. When subtle acoustic cues in the stimuli worked against the lexical context, these nonnative speakers showed no evidence of lexical guidance of phonetic perception. This result conflicts with the performance of native speakers, who demonstrate lexical effects on phonetic perception even with conflicting acoustic cues. When stimuli without any conflicting cues were used, the native Hebrew subjects produced results similar to those of native English speakers, showing lexical support for phonetic perception in their second language. In contrast, native Arabic speakers, who were less proficient in English than the native Hebrew speakers, showed no ability to use lexical activation to support phonetic perception, even without any conflicting cues. These results reinforce previous demonstrations of lexical support of phonetic perception and demonstrate how proficiency modulates the use of lexical information in driving phonetic perception. PMID:26497662

  6. Lexical support for phonetic perception during nonnative spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Arthur G; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-01

    Second language comprehension is generally not as efficient and effective as native language comprehension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lower-level processes such as lexical support for phonetic perception are a contributing factor to these differences. For native listeners, it has been shown that the perception of ambiguous acoustic–phonetic segments is driven by lexical factors (Samuel Psychological Science, 12, 348-351, 2001). Here, we tested whether nonnative listeners can use lexical context in the same way. Native Hebrew speakers living in Israel were tested with American English stimuli. When subtle acoustic cues in the stimuli worked against the lexical context, these nonnative speakers showed no evidence of lexical guidance of phonetic perception. This result conflicts with the performance of native speakers, who demonstrate lexical effects on phonetic perception even with conflicting acoustic cues. When stimuli without any conflicting cues were used, the native Hebrew subjects produced results similar to those of native English speakers, showing lexical support for phonetic perception in their second language. In contrast, native Arabic speakers, who were less proficient in English than the native Hebrew speakers, showed no ability to use lexical activation to support phonetic perception, even without any conflicting cues. These results reinforce previous demonstrations of lexical support of phonetic perception and demonstrate how proficiency modulates the use of lexical information in driving phonetic perception. PMID:26866137

  7. Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody, but atypical lexical prosody production. Method 16 children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers participated in three experiments: 1. Perception of affective prosody, 2. Lexical stress perception, 3. Lexical stress production. In Experiment 1, participants labeled sad, happy, and neutral spoken sentences that were low-pass filtered, to eliminate verbal content. In Experiment 2 participants disambiguated word meanings based on lexical stress (HOTdog, vs. hotDOG). In Experiment 3 participants produced these words in a sentence completion task. Productions were analyzed using acoustic measures. Results Accuracy levels showed no group differences. Participants with HFA could determine affect from filtered sentences and disambiguate words based on lexical stress. They produced appropriately differentiated lexical stress patterns but demonstrated atypically long productions indicating reduced ability in natural prosody production. Conclusions Children with HFA were as capable as their TD peers in receptive tasks of lexical stress and affective prosody. Prosody productions were atypically long, despite accurate differentiation of lexical stress patterns. Future research should use larger samples and spontaneous vs. elicited productions. PMID:20530388

  8. Individual differences in the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency: The role of lexical integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency are critically dependent upon differences in the vocabulary knowledge of the participants. Specifically, across two Universities, additive effects of the two variables were observed in participants with more vocabulary knowledge, while interactive effects were observed in participants with less vocabulary knowledge. These results are discussed with reference to Borowsky and Besner’s (1993) multistage account and Plaut and Booth’s (2000) single-mechanism model. In general, the findings are also consistent with a flexible lexical processing system that optimizes performance based on processing fluency and task demands. PMID:20161653

  9. Effect of van der Waals interaction on the mode I fracture characteristics of graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Avinash; Mertiny, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a study has been performed to investigate the effect of van der Waals interaction forces on the mode I (opening mode) fracture characteristics of a graphene sheet. Finite element based atomistic approach was employed to perform the investigation, where graphene structure was assumed to behave like a space frame structure. Few graphene sheets were modeled in finite element environment with different set of interlayer spacing. Modified virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was employed to estimate the strain energy release rate (SERR) under mode I of fracture criteria. Significant effect of van der Waals forces was observed on the mode I fracture characteristics of graphene.

  10. Role of Pre-Course Student Characteristics on Student Learning in Interactive Teaching Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kelly Anne

    The goal of this dissertation is to broaden our understanding of interactive teaching strategies, in the context of the introductory physics classroom at the undergraduate level. The dissertation is divided into four main projects, each of which investigates a specific aspect of teaching physics interactively. All four projects look towards improving the effectiveness of interactive teaching by understanding how pre-course student characteristics affect the way students learn interactively. We first discuss lecture demonstrations in the context of an interactive classroom using Peer Instruction. We study the role of predictions in conceptual learning. We examine how students' predictions affect what they report having seen during a demonstration. We also examine how student predictions affect what they recall as the outcome of the demonstration at the end of the semester. We then analyze student response patterns to conceptual questions posed during Peer Instruction. We look at the relationship between a student's tendency to switch their answer and pre-course student characteristics like science self-efficacy. Next we elucidate response timing to conceptual questions posed over the course of the semester, in two introductory physics classes taught using Peer Instruction. We look at the relationship between student response times and student characteristics like pre-course physics knowledge, science self-efficacy and gender. We study response times as a way of gaining insight into students thinking in Peer Instruction environments as well as to improve the implementation of Peer Instruction. Finally, we present work on the role of NB, an online collaborative textbook annotation tool, in a flipped, project based, physics class. We analyze the relationship between students' level of online engagement and traditional learning metrics to understand the effectiveness of NB in the context of flipped classrooms. We also report the results of experiments conducted to explore ways to steer discussion forums to produce high-quality learning interactions.

  11. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS The redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific processes and various levels of word processing. PMID:23818879

  12. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTSThe redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific processes and various levels of word processing. PMID:23818879

  13. Interaction effects on the unstable discharge-energy characteristic of pump-turbine in pump mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Xiao, R. F.; Yang, W.; Liu, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    For a pump-turbine, unstable discharge-energy characteristic is an important factor for operating stability. In this study, the rotor-stator interaction effects on the pump-turbine which has the unstable discharge-energy characteristic has been studied. A series of transient CFD simulations under different discharge conditions have been conducted. Through the contrast between the simulations and experiments, it is found out that the energy decline is strongly affected by the flow loss in the adjustable vane. More importantly, the magnitude and direction of fluid flowing into the adjustable vane are varying with the impeller rotating. Disordered flow structure occurs in the adjustable vane and causes the energy losses due to the interaction effects. Based on this study, improvements on the flow uniformity at impeller outlet will help us to solve the unstable discharge-energy problem.

  14. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:25786956

  15. Resonance, synchronization, and lexical redundancy in the expanding dynamics of brain stem neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Arnold J.; Selz, Karen A.

    1993-11-01

    Interspike interval patterns of brain stem neurons that project directly or indirectly to much of the neocortex interactively influence electroencephalographically-defined states of consciousness and modulate patterns of temporal-spatial coherence, `binding,' in cortical field potential oscillations. Neurochemical classes of brain stem neurons manifest discriminable dynamical characteristics apart from the statistics of their firing rates. These sequences of interspike intervals are not well described by either harmonic functions or the Poisson statistics of renewal processes. We cast these patterns within the context of information bearing processes by using moment partitions and symbolic dynamics. We describe the expanding behavior of model and real brain stem neurons in relationship to states of resonance (the presence of complex singularities in the power spectrum with amplitudes related to the persistence of unstable fixed points in the nonexponential decay of correlations), synchronization (how closely the measure of maximal entropy comes to equaling the Sinai- Ruelle-Bowen area measure), and lexical redundancy (as repetitions of symbol subsequences).

  16. Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning. PMID:20100042

  17. Perceptual inference through global lexical similarity.

    PubMed

    Johns, Brendan T; Jones, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    The literature contains a disconnect between accounts of how humans learn lexical semantic representations for words. Theories generally propose that lexical semantics are learned either through perceptual experience or through exposure to regularities in language. We propose here a model to integrate these two information sources. Specifically, the model uses the global structure of memory to exploit the redundancy between language and perception in order to generate inferred perceptual representations for words with which the model has no perceptual experience. We test the model on a variety of different datasets from grounded cognition experiments and demonstrate that this diverse set of results can be explained as perceptual simulation (cf. Barsalou, Simmons, Barbey, & Wilson, 2003) within a global memory model. PMID:22253184

  18. Coreference and Lexical Repetition: Mechanisms of Discourse Integration

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Peter C.; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2006-01-01

    The use of repeated expressions to establish coreference allows an investigation of the relationship between basic processes of word recognition and higher-level language processes that involve the integration of information into a discourse model. In two experiments on reading, we used eye tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether repeated expressions that are coreferential within a local discourse context show the kind of repetition priming that is shown in lists of words. In both experiments, effects of lexical repetition were modulated by effects of local discourse context that arose from manipulations of the linguistic prominence of the antecedent of a coreferentially repeated name. These results are interpreted within the context of discourse prominence theory, which suggests that processes of coreferential interpretation interact with basic mechanisms of memory integration during the construction of a model of discourse. PMID:17848036

  19. Lexical competition in young children’s word learning

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Daniel; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, 1.5 year olds were taught novel words whose sound patterns were phonologically similar to familiar words (novel neighbors) or were not (novel nonneighbors). Learning was tested using a picture fixation task. In both experiments, children learned the novel nonneighbors but not the novel neighbors. In addition, exposure to the novel neighbors impaired recognition performance on familiar neighbors. Finally, children did not spontaneously use phonological differences to infer that a novel word referred to a novel object. Thus, lexical competition—inhibitory interaction among words in speech comprehension—can prevent children from using their full phonological sensitivity in judging words as novel. These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word. PMID:17054932

  20. Artificial neural network versus case-based approaches to lexical combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, George L.

    1994-03-01

    Lexical combination presents a number of intriguing problems for cognitive science. By studying the empirical phenomena of combination we can derive constraints on models of the representation of individual lexical items. One particular phenomenon that symbolic models have been unable to accommodate is `semantic interaction'. Medin & Shoben (1988) have shown that properties associated with nouns by subjects vary with the choice of adjective. For example, wooden spoons are not just made of a different material: the phrase is interpreted as denoting a `larger' object. However, the adjective wooden is not generally held to carry implications as to size. We report experimental results showing similar effects across a range of properties for a single adjective in combination with different nouns from a single semantic field. It is this more radical dependence of interpretative features on lexical partners that we term `semantic interaction'. The phenomenon described by Medin and Shoben cannot be accounted for by the Selective Modification model, the most complete model hitherto. We show that a case-based reasoning system could account for earlier data because of the particular examples chosen, but that such a model could not handle semantic interaction. A neural network system is presented that does handle semantic interaction.

  1. Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in Adolescents with History of Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Borovsky, Arielle; Burns, Erin; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    One remarkable characteristic of speech comprehension in typically developing (TD) children and adults is the speed with which the listener can integrate information across multiple lexical items to anticipate upcoming referents. Although children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) show lexical deficits (Sheng & McGregor, 2010) and slower speed of processing (Leonard et al., 2007), relatively little is known about how these deficits manifest in real-time sentence comprehension. In this study, we examine lexical activation in the comprehension of simple transitive sentences in adolescents with a history of SLI and age-matched, TD peers. Participants listened to sentences that consisted of the form, Article-Agent-Action-Article-Theme, (e.g., The pirate chases the ship) while viewing pictures of four objects that varied in their relationship to the Agent and Action of the sentence (e.g., Target, Agent-Related, Action-Related, and Unrelated). Adolescents with SLI were as fast as their TD peers to fixate on the sentence’s final item (the Target) but differed in their post-action onset visual fixations to the Action-Related item. Additional exploratory analyses of the spatial distribution of their visual fixations revealed that the SLI group had a qualitatively different pattern of fixations to object images than did the control group. The findings indicate that adolescents with SLI integrate lexical information across words to anticipate likely or expected meanings with the same relative fluency and speed as do their TD peers. However, the failure of the SLI group to show increased fixations to Action-Related items after the onset of the action suggests lexical integration deficits that result in failure to consider alternate sentence interpretations. PMID:24099807

  2. Interactions between donor Agreeableness and recipient characteristics in predicting charitable donation and positive social evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Yoni K.; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Agreeable people are more likely to display prosocial attitudes and helpful behavior in a broad range of situations. Here we show that this tendency interacts with the personal characteristics of interaction partners. In an online study (n = 284), participants were given the opportunity to report attitudes toward and make monetary donations to needy individuals who were described in dynamically generated biographies. Using a machine learning and multilevel modeling framework, we tested three potential explanations for the facilitatory influence of Agreeableness on charitable behavior. We find that Agreeableness preferentially increased donations and prosocial attitudes toward targets normatively rated as being more deserving. Our results advance understanding of person-by-situation interactions in the context of charitable behavior and prosocial attitudes. PMID:26312168

  3. Paternal Work Characteristics and Father-Infant Interactions in Low-Income, Rural Families

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the implications of paternal occupational conditions for the quality of father-infant interactions, home visits, including interviews and videotaped observations of father-infant interactions, were conducted with 446 fathers living in six low-income, nonmetropolitan counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania. When a variety of individual and demographic characteristics were controlled for, a less supportive work environment was associated with lower levels of fathers’ engaged and sensitive parenting. Significant interactions pointed to the importance of understanding combinations of risk factors. Experiencing high levels of workplace stressors, including low levels of self-direction and high levels of care work, in the presence of other individual or demographic risk factors was associated with lower levels of father parenting quality. PMID:20011453

  4. Calculating the radiation characteristics of accelerated electrons in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Qu, J. F.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied the characteristics of radiation emitted by electrons accelerated in a laser-plasma interaction by using the Lienard-Wiechert field. In the interaction of a laser pulse with a underdense plasma, electrons are accelerated by two mechanisms: direct laser acceleration (DLA) and laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). At the beginning of the process, the DLA electrons emit most of the radiation, and the DLA electrons emit a much higher peak photon energy than the LWFA electrons. As the laser-plasma interaction progresses, the LWFA electrons become the major radiation emitter; however, even at this stage, the contribution from DLA electrons is significant, especially to the peak photon energy.

  5. Lexical–semantic priming effects during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

    2009-01-01

    When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word–word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants’ attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime–target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical–semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic–associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137

  6. Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented. PMID:22518273

  7. Lexical Familiarity and Processing Efficiency: Individual Differences in Naming, Lexical Decision, and Semantic Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Lewellen, Mary Jo; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Greene, Beth G.

    2012-01-01

    College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming visually presented words. They were also faster and more accurate in making difficult lexical decisions and in rejecting homophone foils in semantic categorization. Taken together, the results demonstrate that Ss who differ in lexical familiarity also differ in processing efficiency. The relationship between processing efficiency and working memory accounts of individual differences in language processing is also discussed. PMID:8371087

  8. Lexical-semantic immaturities manifesting as grammatical disorders: evidence from a child language sample.

    PubMed

    Mok, Zaneta; Kipka, Peter F

    2009-11-01

    Given the growing evidence of the integral role that semantic development plays in normal child syntactic acquisition, it is very likely that lexical-semantic deficits can have ramifications for a child's grammar. This paper illustrates how semantics and syntax interact in a case study of a child, 5;3 years, with apparent grammatical deficits. Using concepts from Principles and Parameters Theory, a language sample analysis revealed that what appeared to be purely grammatical deficits arose via underlying lexical-semantic mechanisms. Language sample analyses to adequately guide intervention planning may thus need to move beyond superficial surface structures and utilize linguistic frameworks capable of addressing the interaction among language-internal components. PMID:19891522

  9. Manipulation of length and lexicality localizes the functional neuroanatomy of phonological processing in adult readers.

    PubMed

    Church, Jessica A; Balota, David A; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2011-06-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. A developmental fMRI study of reading and repetition reveals changes in phonological and visual mechanisms over age. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2054-2065, 2008]. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus. PMID:20433237

  10. Lexical and grammatical development in a child with cochlear implant and attention deficit: A case study.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Torres, Santiago; Santana, Rafael

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study to explore lexical and grammatical development in a deaf child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive sub-type (ADHD/I). The child, whose family language was Spanish, was fitted with a cochlear implant (CI) when she was 18 months old. ADHD/I, for which she was prescribed medication, was diagnosed 3;6 years later. Speech samples were videotaped over the first 4 years of CI use and during a follow-up session 1 year later. Samples were transcribed according to CHAT conventions and several measures of expressive language were obtained. Receptive language was evaluated with standardized tests. Results show that while some aspects of her development seemed relatively positive (e.g., acquisition of verbal morphemes at the same auditory age as typical children), other characteristics were atypical for a CI user: (1) preference for paralexical expressions in early lexicon; (2) lexical errors in colours and other abstract words; and (3) low MLU and varied grammatical errors including disorganized discourse. Medication had a positive effect on all these characteristics, providing evidence of a link with ADHD/I. This study concludes that ADHD/I had a direct impact on the lexical and grammatical development in this child, as well as an indirect influence over her communicative style. More studies are needed to explore language characteristics of children with CI and ADHD. PMID:20645855

  11. The impact of material characteristics on tire pavement interaction noise for flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocak, Salih

    Noise pollution has recently been one of the growing problems all over the world. While there are many sources of the noise, traffic noise is the main contributor to the total environmental noise. Although there are different sources for traffic noise, the tire pavement interaction noise is the most dominant component within most city and highway limits. One of the ways to reduce the tire pavement noise is to improve the material characteristics of the pavements such that they produce less noise. In this study, the relationship between basic material characteristics (e.g., Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) volumetrics) and sound generation and absorption characteristics of flexible pavements was investigated. In addition, the effect of linear visco-elastic properties (e.g., dynamic modulus (|E*|) and phase angle (delta)) on sound absorption was studied. In order to focus only on impact of material characteristics and overshadow the effect of surface texture, a novel laboratory tire pavement noise measurement simulator (TIPANOS) was developed. The statistical analysis results showed that although the individual material characteristics do not have appreciable influence on sound absorption, there is a significant correlation between sound pressure levels (SPL) and combination of several material and linear visco-elastic parameters.

  12. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  13. Many neighbors are not silent. fMRI evidence for global lexical activity in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Richlan, Fabio; Hawelka, Stefan; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurocognitive studies investigated the neural correlates of visual word recognition, some of which manipulated the orthographic neighborhood density of words and nonwords believed to influence the activation of orthographically similar representations in a hypothetical mental lexicon. Previous neuroimaging research failed to find evidence for such global lexical activity associated with neighborhood density. Rather, effects were interpreted to reflect semantic or domain general processing. The present fMRI study revealed effects of lexicality, orthographic neighborhood density and a lexicality by orthographic neighborhood density interaction in a silent reading task. For the first time we found greater activity for words and nonwords with a high number of neighbors. We propose that this activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reflects activation of orthographically similar codes in verbal working memory thus providing evidence for global lexical activity as the basis of the neighborhood density effect. The interaction of lexicality by neighborhood density in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed lower activity in response to words with a high number compared to nonwords with a high number of neighbors. In the light of these results the facilitatory effect for words and inhibitory effect for nonwords with many neighbors observed in previous studies can be understood as being due to the operation of a fast-guess mechanism for words and a temporal deadline mechanism for nonwords as predicted by models of visual word recognition. Furthermore, we propose that the lexicality effect with higher activity for words compared to nonwords in inferior parietal and middle temporal cortex reflects the operation of an identification mechanism based on local lexico-semantic activity. PMID:26257634

  14. Many neighbors are not silent. fMRI evidence for global lexical activity in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M; Richlan, Fabio; Hawelka, Stefan; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurocognitive studies investigated the neural correlates of visual word recognition, some of which manipulated the orthographic neighborhood density of words and nonwords believed to influence the activation of orthographically similar representations in a hypothetical mental lexicon. Previous neuroimaging research failed to find evidence for such global lexical activity associated with neighborhood density. Rather, effects were interpreted to reflect semantic or domain general processing. The present fMRI study revealed effects of lexicality, orthographic neighborhood density and a lexicality by orthographic neighborhood density interaction in a silent reading task. For the first time we found greater activity for words and nonwords with a high number of neighbors. We propose that this activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reflects activation of orthographically similar codes in verbal working memory thus providing evidence for global lexical activity as the basis of the neighborhood density effect. The interaction of lexicality by neighborhood density in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed lower activity in response to words with a high number compared to nonwords with a high number of neighbors. In the light of these results the facilitatory effect for words and inhibitory effect for nonwords with many neighbors observed in previous studies can be understood as being due to the operation of a fast-guess mechanism for words and a temporal deadline mechanism for nonwords as predicted by models of visual word recognition. Furthermore, we propose that the lexicality effect with higher activity for words compared to nonwords in inferior parietal and middle temporal cortex reflects the operation of an identification mechanism based on local lexico-semantic activity. PMID:26257634

  15. Prediction of Linear Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Based on Characteristics Responsible for Their Interaction with the Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most available antimicrobial peptides (AMP) prediction methods use common approach for different classes of AMP. Contrary to available approaches, we suggest that a strategy of prediction should be based on the fact that there are several kinds of AMP that vary in mechanisms of action, structure, mode of interaction with membrane, etc. According to our suggestion for each kind of AMP, a particular approach has to be developed in order to get high efficacy. Consequently, in this paper, a particular but the biggest class of AMP, linear cationic antimicrobial peptides (LCAP), has been considered and a newly developed simple method of LCAP prediction described. The aim of this study is the development of a simple method of discrimination of AMP from non-AMP, the efficiency of which will be determined by efficiencies of selected descriptors only and comparison the results of the discrimination procedure with the results obtained by more complicated discriminative methods. As descriptors the physicochemical characteristics responsible for capability of the peptide to interact with an anionic membrane were considered. The following characteristics such as hydrophobicity, amphiphaticity, location of the peptide in relation to membrane, charge density, propensities to disordered structure and aggregation were studied. On the basis of these characteristics, a new simple algorithm of prediction is developed and evaluation of efficacies of the characteristics as descriptors performed. The results show that three descriptors, hydrophobic moment, charge density and location of the peptide along the membranes, can be used as discriminators of LCAPs. For the training set, our method gives the same level of accuracy as more complicated machine learning approaches offered as CAMP database service tools. For the test set accuracy obtained by our method gives even higher value than the one obtained by CAMP prediction tools. The AMP prediction tool based on the considered method is available at http://www.biomedicine.org.ge/dbaasp/. PMID:24730612

  16. Non-local sub-characteristic zones of influence in unsteady interactive boundary-layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothmayer, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of incompressible, unsteady, interactive, boundary layers are examined for a model hypersonic boundary layer and internal flow past humps or, equivalently, external flow past short-scaled humps. Using a linear high frequency analysis, it is shown that the domains of dependence within the viscous sublayer may be a strong function of position within the sublayer and may be strongly influenced by the pressure displacement interaction, or the prescribed displacement condition. Detailed calculations are presented for the hypersonic boundary layer. This effect is found to carry over directly to the fully viscous problem as well as the nonlinear problem. In the fully viscous problem, the non-local character of the domains of dependence manifests itself in the sub-characteristics. Potential implications of the domain of dependence structure on finite difference computations of unsteady boundary layers are briefly discussed.

  17. Changes of microstructure characteristics and intermolecular interactions of preserved egg white gel during pickling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Zhangyi; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Shao, Yaoyao; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-07-15

    Changes in gel microstructure characteristics and in intermolecular interactions of preserved egg whites during pickling were investigated. Spin-spin relaxation times of preserved egg whites significantly decreased in the first 8days and remained unchanged after the 16th day. SEM images revealed a three-dimensional gel network, interwoven with a loose linear fibrous mesh structure. The protein gel mesh structure became more regular, smaller, and compacted with pickling time. Free sulfhydryl contents in the egg whites increased significantly, while total sulfhydryl contents dramatically decreased during pickling. The primary intermolecular forces in the preserved egg white gels were ionic and disulfide bonds. Secondary forces included hydrophobic interaction and relatively few hydrogen bonds. During the first 8days, the proportion of ionic bonds sharply decreased, and that of disulfide bonds increased over the first 24days. PMID:26948621

  18. Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

  19. The Role of Lexical-Semantic Neighborhood in Object Naming: Implications for Models of Lexical Access

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The role of lexical-semantic neighborhood is relevant to models of lexical access. Recently it has been claimed that the size of the cohort of activated competitors affects ease of lexical selection in word production as well as the effect of semantically related distractors in picture–word interference tasks. Three experiments are reported in which subjects had to name pictures from large and small semantic categories (cf. “lion,” “hammer” versus “funnel,” “cage”). In Experiment 1, naming-impaired subjects exhibited semantic errors for targets from large categories. No semantic but many omission errors occurred for targets from small categories suggesting that few competitors were available for these “low competition targets.” In contrast in two experiments with unimpaired subjects, targets were named equally fast. These experiments were sensitive enough to yield a highly significant repetition effect in Experiment 2. Contrary to the explicit predictions of a recent proposal, semantically related distractors caused interference for both groups of words in Experiment 3. The results suggest no role of neighborhood size in the naming of unimpaired individuals. Implications for models of lexical selection are discussed. PMID:21713062

  20. Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

  1. Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

  2. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  3. Word Length and Lexical Activation: Longer Is Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Many models of spoken word recognition posit the existence of lexical and sublexical representations, with excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms used to affect the activation levels of such representations. Bottom-up evidence provides excitatory input, and inhibition from phonetically similar representations leads to lexical competition. In such a…

  4. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  5. Lexical Bundles in University Spoken and Written Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Barbieri, Federica

    2007-01-01

    Lexical bundles--recurrent sequences of words--are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. Previous research has shown that lexical bundles are especially prevalent in university classroom teaching, where they serve three major discourse functions: stance expressions, discourse organizers, and referential…

  6. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  7. What Lexical Decision and Naming Tell Us about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Leonard; Brancazio, Larry; Irwin, Julia; Katz, Stephen; Magnuson, James; Whalen, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    The lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) tasks are ubiquitous paradigms that employ printed word identification. They are major tools for investigating how factors like morphology, semantic information, lexical neighborhood and others affect identification. Although use of the tasks is widespread, there has been little research into how…

  8. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Lexical Reading in Italian Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Italian developmental dyslexic readers show a striking length effect and have been hypothesised to rely mostly on nonlexical reading. Our experiments tested this hypothesis by assessing whether or not the deficit underlying dyslexia is specific to lexical reading. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and length were investigated in the same…

  10. Lexical Viability Constraints on Speech Segmentation by Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Jusczyk, Peter W.; Cutler, Anne; Norris, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The Possible Word Constraint limits the number of lexical candidates considered in speech recognition by stipulating that input should be parsed into a string of lexically viable chunks. For instance, an isolated single consonant is not a feasible word candidate. Any segmentation containing such a chunk is disfavored. Five experiments using the…

  11. Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

  12. Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

  13. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  14. Lexical Inferencing in First and Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zeeland, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Lexical inferencing is an important vocabulary learning strategy. Unfortunately, almost all research on this issue has been carried out in the reading context. This study is the first to directly measure lexical inferencing success in listening, by both native (N?=?47) and nonnative (N?=?30) speakers of English. It analysed the effects of…

  15. Lexical Effects on Children's Pseudoword Reading in a Transparent Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolini, Stefania; Burani, Cristina; Colombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the involvement of lexical knowledge in pseudoword reading by Italian children aged 8-10. In both lexical decision and reading aloud tasks, inhibitory effects were found on pseudowords derived from high-frequency words in comparison to pseudowords derived from low-frequency words. A group of adult readers showed…

  16. Speed of Lexical Access to Arabic and English Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasali, Hesham H.; Aljomaa, Suliman S.

    2015-01-01

    To examining the role of cultural differences in speed of lexical access, we employed two types of Posner (1967) name matching task: Arabic and English types. We have conducted an experiment on 30 native Arabic speakers from King Saud University. The results showed that the lexical access to physically identical letters is faster than lexical…

  17. Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Jayaraj

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

  18. On the Nature of Semantic Constraints on Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…

  19. Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Mi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

  20. Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

  1. On the Nature of Semantic Constraints on Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…

  2. Bilingual and Monolingual Processing of Competing Lexical Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Spivey, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Examined the performance of bilingual Russian-English speakers and monolingual English speakers during auditory processing of competing lexical items using eye tracking. Results revealed that both bilinguals and monolinguals experienced competition from English lexical items overlapping phonetically with an English target item. (VWL)

  3. Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

  4. Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Mi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

  5. Segregation of Lexical and Sub-Lexical Reading Processes in the Left Perisylvian Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Jucla, Mélanie; Réhault, Emilie; Reddy, Marion; Démonet, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is the existence of two major, sub-lexical and lexical, reading processes and their possible segregation in the left posterior perisylvian cortex. Using cortical electrostimulation mapping, we identified the cortical areas involved on reading either orthographically irregular words (lexical, “direct” process) or pronounceable pseudowords (sublexical, “indirect” process) in 14 right-handed neurosurgical patients while video-recording behavioral effects. Intraoperative neuronavigation system and Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates were used to identify the localization of stimulation sites. Fifty-one reading interference areas were found that affected either words (14 areas), or pseudo-words (11 areas), or both (26 areas). Forty-one (80%) corresponded to the impairment of the phonological level of reading processes. Reading processes involved discrete, highly localized perisylvian cortical areas with individual variability. MNI coordinates throughout the group exhibited a clear segregation according to the tested reading route; specific pseudo-word reading interferences were concentrated in a restricted inferior and anterior subpart of the left supramarginal gyrus (barycentre x?=??68.1; y?=??25.9; z?=?30.2; Brodmann’s area 40) while specific word reading areas were located almost exclusively alongside the left superior temporal gyrus. Although half of the reading interferences found were nonspecific, the finding of specific lexical or sublexical interferences is new evidence that lexical and sublexical processes of reading could be partially supported by distinct cortical sub-regions despite their anatomical proximity. These data are in line with many brain activation studies that showed that left superior temporal and inferior parietal regions had a crucial role respectively in word and pseudoword reading and were core regions for dyslexia. PMID:23226349

  6. The role of lexical expertise in reading homophones.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; Jared, Debra

    2016-07-01

    In Experiment 1, university students classified on lexical expertise on the basis of spelling plus nonword pronunciation accuracy made lexical decisions to homophones and control words. Homophones were accepted as words more slowly than control words, but lexical experts showed a smaller homophone cost than the less skilled group. In Experiment 2, similarly classified groups showed a large difference in their ability to detect homophones, with the low-expertise group showing a yes bias to high-frequency words, and having difficulty detecting homophones when mate-frequency was low. The results suggest superior use of orthography in the lexical experts and more reliance on semantic information in nonexperts, and support the importance of facility with orthography-phonology mappings in lexical expertise. PMID:26158491

  7. Lexical access and evoked traveling alpha waves

    PubMed Central

    Zauner, Andrea; Gruber, Walter; Himmelstoß, Nicole Alexandra; Lechinger, Julia; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval from semantic memory is usually considered within a time window around 300–600 ms. Here we suggest that lexical access already occurs at around 100 ms. This interpretation is based on the finding that semantically rich and frequent words exhibit a significantly shorter topographical latency difference between the site with the shortest P1 latency (leading site) and that with the longest P1 latency (trailing site). This latency difference can be described in terms of an evoked traveling alpha wave as was already shown in earlier studies. PMID:24486978

  8. RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mah?bh?rata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Diwakar

    The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mah?bh?rata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devan?gar? Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

  9. Grammatical aspect, lexical aspect, and event duration constrain the availability of events in narratives.

    PubMed

    Becker, Raymond B; Ferretti, Todd R; Madden-Lombardi, Carol J

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates how readers' representations of narratives are constrained by three sources of temporal information; grammatical aspect, lexical aspect, and the duration of intervening events. Participants read short stories in which a target event with an intrinsic endpoint or not (lexical aspect: accomplishments/activities) was described as ongoing or completed (grammatical aspect: imperfective/perfective). An intervening sentence described either a long or short duration event before the target situation was reintroduced later in the story. The electroencephalogram time-locked to the reintroduction of the target event elicited a larger N400 for perfective versus imperfective accomplishments, and this effect occurred only after short intervening events. Alternatively, the N400 to targets in the activity condition did not vary as a function of grammatical aspect or duration of intervening events. These results provide novel insight into how the temporal properties of events interact to constrain the availability of concepts in situation models. PMID:23942347

  10. The Role of Amplitude Envelope in Lexical Tone Perception: Evidence from Cantonese Lexical Tone Discrimination in Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yining Victor

    2012-01-01

    Previously published studies on the role of amplitude envelope in lexical tone perception focused on Mandarin only. Amplitude envelope was found to co-vary with fundamental frequency in Mandarin lexical tones, and amplitude envelope alone could cue tone perception in Mandarin which uses primarily tone contour for phonemic tonal contrasts. The…

  11. The Role of Amplitude Envelope in Lexical Tone Perception: Evidence from Cantonese Lexical Tone Discrimination in Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yining Victor

    2012-01-01

    Previously published studies on the role of amplitude envelope in lexical tone perception focused on Mandarin only. Amplitude envelope was found to co-vary with fundamental frequency in Mandarin lexical tones, and amplitude envelope alone could cue tone perception in Mandarin which uses primarily tone contour for phonemic tonal contrasts. The…

  12. Lexical Selection and Verbal Self-Monitoring: Effects of Lexicality, Context, and Time Pressure in Picture-Word Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Current views of lexical selection in language production differ in whether they assume lexical selection by competition or not. To account for recent data with the picture-word interference (PWI) task, both views need to be supplemented with assumptions about the control processes that block distractor naming. In this paper, we propose that such…

  13. Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

  14. Do statistical segmentation abilities predict lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic abilities in children with and without SLI?

    PubMed

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty children with SLI and twenty with typical development. Children completed Saffran's statistical word segmentation task, a lexical-phonological access task (gating task), and a word definition task. Poor statistical learners were also poor at managing lexical-phonological competition during the gating task. However, statistical learning was not a significant predictor of semantic richness in word definitions. The ability to track statistical sequential regularities may be important for learning the inherently sequential structure of lexical-phonological, but not as important for learning lexical-semantic knowledge. Consistent with the procedural/declarative memory distinction, the brain networks associated with the two types of lexical learning are likely to have different learning properties. PMID:23425593

  15. The Role of Lexical Competition and Acoustic-Phonetic Structure in Lexical Processing: Evidence from Normal Subjects and Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurski, Cara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Rissman, Jesse; Berman, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects that the acoustic-phonetic structure of a stimulus exerts on the processes by which lexical candidates compete for activation. An auditory lexical decision paradigm was used to investigate whether shortening the VOT of an initial voiceless stop consonant in a real word results in the activation of the…

  16. Lexical Selection and Verbal Self-Monitoring: Effects of Lexicality, Context, and Time Pressure in Picture-Word Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Current views of lexical selection in language production differ in whether they assume lexical selection by competition or not. To account for recent data with the picture-word interference (PWI) task, both views need to be supplemented with assumptions about the control processes that block distractor naming. In this paper, we propose that such…

  17. Interactions Between Channel Topography and Hydrokinetic Turbines: Sediment Transport, Turbine Performance, and Wake Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Craig Steven

    Accelerating marine hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy development towards commercial viability requires investigating interactions between the engineered environment and its surrounding physical and biological environments. Complex and energetic hydrodynamic and morphodynamic environments desired for such energy conversion installations present difficulties for designing efficient yet robust sustainable devices, while permitting agency uncertainties regarding MHK device environmental interactions result in lengthy and costly processes prior to installing and demonstrating emerging technologies. A research program at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), University of Minnesota, utilized multi-scale physical experiments to study the interactions between axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines, turbulent open channel flow, sediment transport, turbulent turbine wakes, and complex hydro-morphodynamic processes in channels. Model axial-flow current-driven three-bladed turbines (rotor diameters, dT = 0.15m and 0.5m) were installed in open channel flumes with both erodible and non-erodible substrates. Device-induced local scour was monitored over several hydraulic conditions and material sizes. Synchronous velocity, bed elevation and turbine performance measurements provide an indication into the effect channel topography has on device performance. Complimentary experiments were performed in a realistic meandering outdoor research channel with active sediment transport to investigate device interactions with bedform migration and secondary turbulent flow patterns in asymmetric channel environments. The suite of experiments undertaken during this research program at SAFL in multiple channels with stationary and mobile substrates under a variety of turbine configurations provides an in-depth investigation into how axial-flow hydrokinetic devices respond to turbulent channel flow and topographic complexity, and how they impact local and far-field sediment transport characteristics. Results provide the foundation for investigating advanced turbine control strategies for optimal power production in non-stationary environments, while also providing a robust data-set for computational model validation for further investigating the interactions between energy conversion devices and the physical environment.

  18. Influence of affective words on lexical decision task in major depression.

    PubMed Central

    Stip, E; Lecours, A R; Chertkow, H; Elie, R; O'Connor, K

    1994-01-01

    In cognitive science, lexical decision task is used to investigate visual word recognition and lexical access. The issue of whether or not individuals who are depressed differ in their access to affectively laden words and specifically to words that have negative affect was examined. Based on some aspects of the Resource Allocation Model (Ellis), it was postulated that patients suffering from depression take more time to recognize items from an affective-loaded list. In order to compare their behavior in a lexical decision task, patients suffering from depression and healthy controls were studied. We hoped to find an interaction between the mood state of subjects and the categories (affective or neutral) of words. Two groups of right-handed adults served as subjects in our experiment. The first group consisted of 11 patients suffering from depression (mean age: 40.2; sd: 6.8). All of this group met the DSM-III-R and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for major depressive disorder. Severity of their disease was rated using the 24-item Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale. All patients suffering from depression were without psychotropic medication. The control group was composed of 24 subjects (mean age: 32.7; sd: 7.9). A depressive word-list and a neutral word-list were built and a computer was used for the lexical-decision task. A longer reaction time to detect the non-word stimuli (F1,33 = 11.19, p < 0.01) was observed with the patients by comparison to the normal subjects. In the analysis of the word stimuli, a group by list interaction (F1,33 = 7.18, p < 0.01) was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8031744

  19. Code-Switching as Indexical of Native Language Lexical Deficiency in Mauritania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sounkalo, Jiddou

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between French instruction and the phenomena of discontinued lexical development, lexical attrition, and lexical deficiency in the speech of Mauritanians. Findings indicate native-language lexical deficiency was reflected in code switching, and subjects (Ss) with low native-language fluency code switched more than Ss…

  20. Impact of Visual, Vocal, and Lexical Cues on Judgments of Counselor Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, Carole; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1976-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=130) rated Carl Rogers via visual, lexical, vocal, or vocal-lexical communication channels. Lexical cues were more important in creating favorable impressions among females. Subsequent exposure to combined visual-vocal-lexical cues resulted in warmer and less distant ratings, but not on a consistent basis. (Author)

  1. Interaction and Representational Integration: Evidence from Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated…

  2. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  3. Spatiotemporal Signatures of Lexical-Semantic Prediction.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ellen F; Weber, Kirsten; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2016-04-01

    Although there is broad agreement that top-down expectations can facilitate lexical-semantic processing, the mechanisms driving these effects are still unclear. In particular, while previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has demonstrated a reduction in the N400 response to words in a supportive context, it is often challenging to dissociate facilitation due to bottom-up spreading activation from facilitation due to top-down expectations. The goal of the current study was to specifically determine the cortical areas associated with facilitation due to top-down prediction, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings supplemented by EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic priming paradigm. In order to modulate expectation processes while holding context constant, we manipulated the proportion of related pairs across 2 blocks (10 and 50% related). Event-related potential results demonstrated a larger N400 reduction when a related word was predicted, and MEG source localization of activity in this time-window (350-450 ms) localized the differential responses to left anterior temporal cortex. fMRI data from the same participants support the MEG localization, showing contextual facilitation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus for the high expectation block only. Together, these results provide strong evidence that facilitatory effects of lexical-semantic prediction on the electrophysiological response 350-450 ms postonset reflect modulation of activity in left anterior temporal cortex. PMID:25316341

  4. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context.

    PubMed

    Biggio, Gianluca; Cortese, Claudio G

    2013-01-01

    Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

  5. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

  6. The Relationship between Neonatal Characteristics and Three-Month Mother-Infant Interaction in High-Risk Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jamie G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) To what extent do risk factors of prematurity and illness affect neonatal characteristics? (2) Do these risk factors continue to account for differences in mother and infant social interactive behavior at three months? and (three) To what degree are neonatal characteristics predictive of mother and infant behavior at…

  7. Inference of cell-cell interactions from population density characteristics and cell trajectories on static and growing domains.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert J H; Yates, C A; Baker, R E

    2015-06-01

    A key feature of cell migration is how cell movement is affected by cell-cell interactions. Furthermore, many cell migratory processes such as neural crest stem cell migration [Thomas and Erickson, 2008; McLennan et al., 2012] occur on growing domains or in the presence of a chemoattractant. Therefore, it is important to study interactions between migrating cells in the context of domain growth and directed motility. Here we compare discrete and continuum models describing the spatial and temporal evolution of a cell population for different types of cell-cell interactions on static and growing domains. We suggest that cell-cell interactions can be inferred from population density characteristics in the presence of motility bias, and these population density characteristics for different cell-cell interactions are conserved on both static and growing domains. We also study the expected displacement of a tagged cell, and show that different types of cell-cell interactions can give rise to cell trajectories with different characteristics. These characteristics are conserved in the presence of domain growth, however, they are diminished in the presence of motility bias. Our results are relevant for researchers who study the existence and role of cell-cell interactions in biological systems, so far as we suggest that different types of cell-cell interactions could be identified from cell density and trajectory data. PMID:25871920

  8. Lexical attrition in younger and older bilingual adults

    PubMed Central

    GORAL, MIRA; LIBBEN, GARY; OBLER, LORAINE K.; JAREMA, GONIA; OHAYON, KEREN

    2011-01-01

    Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be attributed to the typical processes accompanying older age, the typical processes accompanying first-language attrition in bilingual contexts, or both. The challenge, then, in understanding how lexical skills change in bilingual older individuals, lies in dissociating these processes. This paper addresses the difficulty of teasing apart the effects of ageing and attrition in older bilinguals and proposes some solutions. It presents preliminary results from a study of lexical processing in bilingual younger and older individuals. Processing differences were found for the older bilingual participants in their first language (L1), but not in their second language (L2). It is concluded that the lexical behaviour found for older bilinguals in this study can be attributed to L1 attrition and not to processes of ageing. These findings are discussed in the context of previous reports concerning changes in lexical skills associated with typical ageing and those associated with bilingual L1 attrition. PMID:18568793

  9. Lexical organization of language-ambiguous and language-specific words in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown the importance of sublexical orthographic cues in determining the language of a given word when the two languages of a bilingual reader share the same script. In this study, we explored the extent to which cross-language sublexical characteristics of words-measured in terms of bigram frequencies-constrain selective language activation during reading. In Experiment 1, we investigated the impact of language-nonspecific and language-specific orthography in letter detection using the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm in a seemingly monolingual experimental context. In Experiment 2, we used the masked translation priming paradigm in order to better characterize the role of sublexical language cues during lexical access in bilinguals. Results show that bilinguals are highly sensitive to statistical orthographic regularities of their languages and that the absence of such cues promotes language-nonspecific lexical access, whereas their presence partially reduces parallel language activation. We conclude that language coactivation in bilinguals is highly modulated by sublexical processing and that orthographic regularities of the two languages of a bilingual are a determining factor in lexical access. PMID:26123205

  10. Determination of major phlorotannins in Eisenia bicyclis using hydrophilic interaction chromatography: seasonal variation and extraction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Min; Kang, Suk Woo; Jeon, Je-Seung; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kim, Woo-Ri; Kim, Chul Young; Um, Byung-Hun

    2013-06-15

    In this study, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) condition was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major phlorotannins from an extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell with good linearity (r(2)>0.999). Based on this method, the seasonal variations and extraction characteristics, in terms of total extraction yield and the content of the phlorotannins, were investigated under various extraction conditions. In results, the yields and phlorotannins were increased two-to-four times in summer (June-October) and then, were decreased to normal levels in winter (November-March). In the extraction of E. bicyclis, ethanol percentage in water, extraction time and washing time significantly affected the yield of the extract and the phlorotannins, whereas the temperature and the sample/solvent ratio impacted the extraction to a lesser degree. These results will be useful information in the application of this macroalga in the commercial areas related to nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. PMID:23497901

  11. Micromotors with step-motor characteristics by controlled magnetic interactions among assembled components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Xu, Xiaobin; Fan, Donglei Emma

    2015-01-27

    In this study, we investigated the control of the rotation dynamics of an innovative type of rotary micromotors with desired performances by tuning the magnetic interactions among the assembled micro/nanoscale components. The micromotors are made of metallic nanowires as rotors, patterned magnetic nanodisks as bearings and actuated by external electric fields. The magnetic forces for anchoring the rotors on the bearings play an essential role in the rotation dynamics of the micromotors. By varying the moment, orientation, and dimension of the magnetic components, distinct rotation behaviors can be observed, including repeatable wobbling and rolling in addition to rotation. We understood the rotation behaviors by analytical modeling, designed and realized micromotors with step-motor characteristics. The outcome of this research could inspire the development of high-performance nanomachines assembled from synthetic nanoentities, relevant to nanorobotics, microfluidics, and biomedical research. PMID:25536023

  12. Micromotors with Step-Motor Characteristics by Controlled Magnetic Interactions among Assembled Components

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the control of the rotation dynamics of an innovative type of rotary micromotors with desired performances by tuning the magnetic interactions among the assembled micro/nanoscale components. The micromotors are made of metallic nanowires as rotors, patterned magnetic nanodisks as bearings and actuated by external electric fields. The magnetic forces for anchoring the rotors on the bearings play an essential role in the rotation dynamics of the micromotors. By varying the moment, orientation, and dimension of the magnetic components, distinct rotation behaviors can be observed, including repeatable wobbling and rolling in addition to rotation. We understood the rotation behaviors by analytical modeling, designed and realized micromotors with step-motor characteristics. The outcome of this research could inspire the development of high-performance nanomachines assembled from synthetic nanoentities, relevant to nanorobotics, microfluidics, and biomedical research. PMID:25536023

  13. Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word-frequency (high, low), context (none, low-constraining, high-constraining), and level of English proficiency (monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals, Dutch-English bilinguals), on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context, but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraining context, and were reduced by high-constraining context only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages, and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production, but a frequency driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production. PMID:21219080

  14. Interaction between socio-demographic characteristics: traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers.

    PubMed

    Alver, Y; Demirel, M C; Mutlu, M M

    2014-11-01

    Young drivers' high traffic violation involvement rate and significant contribution to traffic crashes compared to older drivers creates the need for detailed analyses of factors affecting young drivers' behaviors. This study is based on survey data collected from 2,057 18-29 year old young adults. Data were collected via face-to-face questionnaire surveys in four different cities in Turkey. The main objective of this study is to identify the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violations, and traffic crashes among young drivers. Four main traffic rule violations are examined: red light violations, seat belt violations, speeding, and driving under the influence of alcohol, which are decisive in determining driving behavior and traffic crashes. The survey investigates the socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violation behavior and traffic crash histories of young adults. Four hypothetical scenarios were prepared for each traffic rule violation and data from the scenarios were modeled using the ordered probit model. Significant variables affecting each traffic rule violation are stated. Finally, significant variables that interact with crash involvements were investigated with binary logit models. According to the data analysis, 23.9% of drivers stated that they were involved in at least one traffic crash within the last three years. This crash rate increases to 38.3% for those who received at least one traffic citation/violation in last three years and peaks to 47.4% for those who were fined for seat belt violations in last three years. PMID:25019690

  15. When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context

    PubMed Central

    Gullifer, Jason W.; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.

    2013-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing. PMID:23750141

  16. An Interactive Method of Characteristics Java Applet to Design and Analyze Supersonic Aircraft Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Method of Characteristics (MOC) is a classic technique for designing supersonic nozzles. An interactive computer program using MOC has been developed to allow engineers to design and analyze supersonic nozzle flow fields. The program calculates the internal flow for many classic designs, such as a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle, an ideal 2D or axisymmetric nozzle, or a variety of plug nozzles. The program also calculates the plume flow produced by the nozzle and the external flow leading to the nozzle exit. The program can be used to assess the interactions between the internal, external and plume flows. By proper design and operation of the nozzle, it may be possible to lessen the strength of the sonic boom produced at the rear of supersonic aircraft. The program can also calculate non-ideal nozzles, such as simple cone flows, to determine flow divergence and nonuniformities at the exit, and its effect on the plume shape. The computer program is written in Java and is provided as free-ware from the NASA Glenn central software server.

  17. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase. PMID:26407347

  18. Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

  19. Repetition reduction: Lexical repetition in the absence of referent repetition

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated words are produced with reduced acoustic prominence compared to words that are new to a discourse. Although these effects are often attributed to priming in the production system, the locus of the effect within the production system remains unresolved because in natural speech, repetition often involves repetition of referents and lexical items simultaneously. Therefore, repetition reduction could be due to repeated mention of a referent, or repetition of a word or referring expression. In our study, we test whether repetition reduction is due to repetition of lexical items or repeated mention of referents using an event description task. The results show that repeated lexical items lead to reduced duration and intensity even in the absence of referent repetition whereas repeated referents lead to reduced intensity alone. The general pattern suggests that repetition reduction is due most strongly to repetition of the lexical item, rather than repeated mention of the referent. PMID:24548320

  20. Grammatical context constrains lexical competition in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Strand, Julia; Simenstad, Andrea; Cooperman, Allison; Rowe, Jonathon

    2014-05-01

    When perceiving spoken language, listeners must match the incoming acoustic phonetic input to lexical representations in memory. Models that quantify this process propose that the input activates multiple lexical representations in parallel and that these activated representations compete for recognition (Weber & Scharenborg, 2012). In two experiments, we assessed how grammatically constraining contexts alter the process of lexical competition. The results suggest that grammatical context constrains the lexical candidates that are activated to grammatically appropriate competitors. Stimulus words with little competition from items of the same grammatical class benefit more from the addition of grammatical context than do words with more within-class competition. The results provide evidence that top-down contextual information is integrated in the early stages of word recognition. We propose adding a grammatical class level of analysis to existing models of word recognition to account for these findings. PMID:24288171

  1. Syntactic Priming During Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports two eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The experiments were designed to determine the degree to which lexical overlap between prime and target sentences produced larger effects, comparable to the widely observed ‘lexical boost’ in production experiments (Pickering & Branigan, 1998; Pickering & Ferreira, 2008). The current experiments showed that priming effects during on-line comprehension were in fact larger when a verb was repeated across the prime and target sentences (see also Tooley et al., 2009). The finding of larger priming effects with lexical repetition supports accounts under which syntactic form representations are connected to individual lexical items (e.g., Vosse & Kempen, 2000, 2009; Tomasello, 2003). PMID:24707789

  2. Evidence accumulation as a model for lexical selection.

    PubMed

    Anders, R; Riès, S; van Maanen, L; Alario, F X

    2015-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate evidence accumulation as a plausible theoretical and/or empirical model for the lexical selection process of lexical retrieval. A number of current psycholinguistic theories consider lexical selection as a process related to selecting a lexical target from a number of alternatives, which each have varying activations (or signal supports), that are largely resultant of an initial stimulus recognition. We thoroughly present a case for how such a process may be theoretically explained by the evidence accumulation paradigm, and we demonstrate how this paradigm can be directly related or combined with conventional psycholinguistic theory and their simulatory instantiations (generally, neural network models). Then with a demonstrative application on a large new real data set, we establish how the empirical evidence accumulation approach is able to provide parameter results that are informative to leading psycholinguistic theory, and that motivate future theoretical development. PMID:26375509

  3. Interaction Layer Characteristics in U-xMo Dispersion/Monolithic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Porter

    2010-11-01

    Published data concerning the interaction layer (IL) formed between U-xMo fuel alloy and aluminum (Al)-based matrix or cladding materials was reviewed, including the effects of silicon (Si) content in the matrix/cladding, molybdenum (Mo) content in the fuel, pre irradiation thermal treatments, irradiation, and test temperature. The review revealed that tests conducted in the laboratory produce results different from those conducted in an irradiation environment. However, the laboratory testing relates well to thermal treatments performed prior to irradiation and helps in understanding the effects that these pre irradiation treatments have on in reactor performance. A pre-formed, Si-enriched IL seems to be important in delaying the onset of rapid growth of fission gas bubbles at low irradaiiation temperatures. Several other conclusions can be drawn: 1. An IL with phases akin to UAl3 is desired for optimum fuel performance, but at low temperatures, and especially in an irradiation atmosphere, the desired (Al+Si)/(U+Mo) ratio of three is difficult to produce. When the fuel operating temperature is low, it is important to create a pre-irradiation IL, enriched in Si. This pre-formed IL is relatively stable, performs well in terms of swelling resistance, and prevents rapid IL growth during irradiation. 2. At higher operating temperatures (>150–170°C), IL formation in reactor may not be so dependent on pre-irradiation IL formation, especially at high burnup; a pre-fabricated IL seems to be less stable at high burnup and high operating temperature. Moreover, the (Al+SI)/(U+Mo) ratio of three occurs more often at higher temperature. For these two reasons, it is important at high operating temperature to also have a matrix with significant Si content to create an IL in reactor with the right characteristics. 3. Out-of-reactor testing seems to indicate that Si in the matrix material is required in some concentration (2%, 5%, ?) to provide for a thin, Si-enriched IL formed before irradiation of a fuel plate. It ensures that the IL contains beneficial phases, or prevents formation of some known to promote poor fuel performance. Significant progress has been made in determining the desired characteristics of the IL. 4. The use of a fuel with stable gamma phase appears to allow more predictable performance regarding both a beneficial pre-irradiation layer, and the fuel performance (low swelling) to high burnup. Destabilization of the gamma phase may create problems with IL breakaway growth. 5. A theory whereby prevention of the U6Mo4Al43 complex phase in interaction layers formed during fabrication may be a key to good irradiation performance. Si additions to the matrix allow for solubility of Mo in the desirable (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 or perhaps (U,Mo)(Al,Si)4 phase, helping to prevent formation of the complex phase. Keeping alloy Mo content as low as possible may also help so long as decomposition does not occur in fabrication, forcing Mo into the interaction layer. This theory may explain a number of apparent anomalies observed in testing results. 6. More work is needed in order to prescribe the conditions to best produce a beneficial IL. Another necessity is a better understanding of any correlation between beneficial characteristics of the pre-fabricated IL and the irradiation conditions to which it will be subjected.

  4. Evaluating lexical variant generation to improve information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Divita, G.; Browne, A. C.; Rindflesch, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques for managing lexical variation constitute an integral part of information retrieval systems. We report on a series of experiments aimed at evaluating LVG, a lexical variant management tool which addresses the particular problems involved in matching health related vocabularies to concepts in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. Experiments conducted on data from the Large Scale Vocabulary Test indicate the effectiveness of this approach to managing biomedical information. PMID:9929324

  5. [Lexical gap and translation of traditional Chinese medical terms].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun Mei

    2007-03-01

    The phenomenon of lexical gap, a commonly encountered problem in cross-cultural communication, often causes trouble to translation in cross-cultural communication. The author analyzes the phenomenon of lexical gap in the English translation of traditional Chinese medical terms from the viewpoint of TCM culture, and puts forward the principles for their translation, that is, equivalence translation, equivalence in meaning translation and transliteration. PMID:17432697

  6. Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2014-04-01

    We study the introduction of lexical innovations into a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e. new term added to people's vocabulary, plays an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, information is spread through a variety of networks, including, among others, online and offline social networks and the World Wide Web. The entire system, comprising networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, lexical innovations diffusion occurs in a peculiar fashion. In particular, a lexical innovation can undergo three different processes: its original meaning is accepted; its meaning can be changed or misunderstood (e.g. when not properly explained), hence more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Lastly, in the case of a loan word, it can be translated into the population language (i.e. defining a new lexical innovation or using a synonym) or into a dialect spoken by part of the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered simply as information. We develop a model for analyzing this scenario using a multi-layer network comprising a social network and a media network. The latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g. television, the World Wide Web and radio. Furthermore, we identify temporal directed edges between the nodes of these two networks. In particular, at each time-step, nodes of the media network can be connected to randomly chosen nodes of the social network and vice versa. In doing so, information spreads through the whole system and people can share a lexical innovation with their neighbors or, in the event they work as reporters, by using media nodes. Lastly, we use the concept of "linguistic sign" to model lexical innovations, showing its fundamental role in the study of these dynamics. Many numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the proposed model and its outcomes.

  7. Influence of Acoustic Field Structure on Polarization Characteristics of Acousto-optic Interaction in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muromets, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    Influence of acoustic field structure on polarization characteristics of acousto-optic interaction is investigated. It is shown that inhomogeneity of acoustic field and mechanism of ultrasound excitation causes changes in values of acousto-optic figure of merit for ordinary and extraordinary light beams in comparison with theoretic values. The theoretic values were derived under assumption that acoustic wave is homogeneous. Experimental analysis was carried out in acousto-optic cell based on lithium niobate crystal where the acoustic wave propagates at the angle 13 degrees to Z axis of the crystal. We used three different methods of ultrasound generation in the crystal: by means of external piezotransducer, by interdigital transducer and by two sets of electrodes placed on top of the crystal surface. In the latter case, the first pair of the electrodes was directed along X crystal axis, while the second pair of the electrodes was directed orthogonally to X crystal axis and the direction of ultrasound. Obtained values for diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary polarized optical beams were qualitatively different which may be caused by spatial inhomogeneity of the generated acoustic waves in the crystal. Structure of acoustic field generated by these sets of electrodes was examined by laser probing. We performed the analysis of the acoustic field intensity using acousto-optic method. A relation of diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary light waves was measured during each iteration of the laser probing.

  8. Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

  9. Influence of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of photoperiod, light intensity and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers in 2 trials. In each trial, 540 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled rooms (30 males/30 females chicks...

  10. Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

  11. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

  12. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

  13. Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

  14. Interaction between Shiga Toxin and Monoclonal Antibodies: Binding Characteristics and in Vitro Neutralizing Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Letícia B.; Luz, Daniela E.; Moraes, Claudia T. P.; Caravelli, Andressa; Fernandes, Irene; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been employed either for diagnosis or treatment of infections caused by different pathogens. Specifically for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), numerous immunoassays have been developed for STEC diagnosis, showing variability in sensitivity and specificity when evaluated by reference laboratories, and no therapy or vaccines are currently approved. Thus, the aim of this work was the characterization of the interaction between MAbs against Stx1 and Stx2 toxins and their neutralizing abilities to enable their use as tools for diagnosis and therapy. The selected clones designated 3E2 (anti-Stx1) and 2E11 (anti-Stx2) were classified as IgG1. 3E2 recognized the B subunit of Stx1 with an affinity constant of 2.5 × 10?10 M, detected as little as 6.2 ng of Stx1 and was stable up to 50 ºC. In contrast, 2E11 recognized the A subunit of Stx2, was stable up to 70 ºC, had a high dissociation constant of 6.1 × 10?10 M, and detected as little as 12.5 ng of Stx2. Neutralization tests showed that 160 ng of 3E2 MAb inhibited 80% of Stx1 activity and 500 µg 2E11 MAb were required for 60% inhibition of Stx2 activity. These MAb amounts reversed 25 to 80% of the cytotoxicity triggered by different STEC isolates. In conclusion, these MAbs show suitable characteristics for their use in STEC diagnosis and encourage future studies to investigate their protective efficacy. PMID:23105978

  15. Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?

    PubMed Central

    Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models. PMID:18942035

  16. Comparing the Effect of Teacher Codeswitching with English-Only Explanations on the Vocabulary Acquisition of Chinese University Students: A Lexical Focus-on-Form Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Lili; Macaro, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of teacher codeswitching on second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition during listening comprehension activities in a lexical Focus-on-Form context. To date there has been research on teacher beliefs about first language (L1) use, its functions and its distribution in the interaction, but little on its effect on…

  17. Effects of particle dipole interaction on the ac magnetically induced heating characteristics of ferrite nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeun, Minhong; Bae, Seongtae; Tomitaka, Asahi; Takemura, Yasushi; Park, Ki Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Kyung-Won

    2009-08-01

    Magnetic particle dipole interaction was revealed as a crucial physical parameter to be considered in optimizing the ac magnetically induced heating characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles. The ac heating temperature of soft MFe2O4 (M =Mg,Ni) nanoparticles was remarkably increased from 17.6 to 94.7 °C (MgFe2O4) and from 13.1 to 103.1 °C (NiFe2O4) by increasing the particle dipole interaction energy at fixed ac magnetic field of 140 Oe and frequency of 110 kHz. The increase in "magnetic hysteresis loss" that resulted from the particle dipole interaction was the main physical reason for the significant improvement of ac heating characteristics.

  18. Alpha phase determines successful lexical decision in noise.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Antje; Henry, Molly J; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-18

    Psychophysical target detection has been shown to be modulated by slow oscillatory brain phase. However, thus far, only low-level sensory stimuli have been used as targets. The current human electroencephalography (EEG) study examined the influence of neural oscillatory phase on a lexical-decision task performed for stimuli embedded in noise. Neural phase angles were compared for correct versus incorrect lexical decisions using a phase bifurcation index (BI), which quantifies differences in mean phase angles and phase concentrations between correct and incorrect trials. Neural phase angles in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz) over right anterior sensors were approximately antiphase in a prestimulus time window, and thus successfully distinguished between correct and incorrect lexical decisions. Moreover, alpha-band oscillations were again approximately antiphase across participants for correct versus incorrect trials during a later peristimulus time window (?500 ms) at left-central electrodes. Strikingly, lexical decision accuracy was not predicted by either event-related potentials (ERPs) or oscillatory power measures. We suggest that correct lexical decisions depend both on successful sensory processing, which is made possible by the alignment of stimulus onset with an optimal alpha phase, as well as integration and weighting of decisional information, which is coupled to alpha phase immediately following the critical manipulation that differentiated words from pseudowords. The current study constitutes a first step toward characterizing the role of dynamic oscillatory brain states for higher cognitive functions, such as spoken word recognition. PMID:25698760

  19. Lexical effects in word naming in spanish children.

    PubMed

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Castejón, Luis; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Reading strategies depend on the consistency of the orthographic system. Recently the use of lexical strategies at early stages of reading acquisition has been shown even in transparent orthographies. The aim of this study was to know how different lexical and sublexical variables affect the reaction times (RTs) and articulation times (ATs) in word reading in Spanish children. A group of 46 children of typical reading level in the second and fourth grades of primary school were asked to read aloud 100 words presented on a computer screen. The stimuli were morphologically simple nouns with different ranges of length, frequency, imageability, orthographic neighbors and age of acquisition (AoA). Reading and articulation time were measured. Differences between means of the second and the fourth grade were seen in RTs (p < .001; Cohens' d = 1.41) and ATs (p < 001;Cohen's d = 1.41) in a t-test. Analyses of mixed-effects revealed that word length, a sublexical variable, and frequency and AoA, lexical variables, affected both grades, mainly on the RTs. The presence of lexical variables reducing RTs and ATs in second grade suggests that lexical reading is present from very early stages in Spanish children. PMID:25012871

  20. Bilingual Picture–Word Studies Constrain Theories of Lexical Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    Whether lexical selection is by competition is the subject of current debate in studies of monolingual language production. Here, I consider whether extant data from bilinguals can inform this debate. In bilinguals, theories that accept the notion of lexical selection by competition are divided between those positing competition among all lexical nodes vs. those that restrict competition to nodes in the target language only. An alternative view rejects selection by competition altogether, putting the locus of selection in a phonological output buffer, where some potential responses are easier to exclude than others. These theories make contrasting predictions about how quickly bilinguals should name pictures when non-target responses are activated. In Part 1, I establish the empirical facts for which any successful theory must account. In Part 2, I evaluate how well each theory accounts for the data. I argue that the data do not support theories that reject lexical selection by competition, and that although theories where competition for selection is restricted to the target language can be altered to fit the data, doing so would fundamentally undermine the distinctness of their position. Theories where selection is by competition throughout both target and non-target language lexicons must also be modified to account for the data, but these modifications are relatively peripheral to the theoretical impetus of the model. Throughout, I identify areas where our empirical facts are sparse, weak, or absent, and propose additional experiments that should help to further establish how lexical selection works, in both monolinguals and bilinguals. PMID:22232610

  1. The role of phonological and orthographic information in lexical selection.

    PubMed

    Alario, F-Xavier; Schiller, Niels O; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2003-03-01

    We report the performance of two patients with lexico-semantic deficits following left MCA CVA. Both patients produce similar numbers of semantic paraphasias in naming tasks, but presented one crucial difference: grapheme-to-phoneme and phoneme-to-grapheme conversion procedures were available only to one of them. We investigated the impact of this availability on the process of lexical selection during word production. The patient for whom conversion procedures were not operational produced semantic errors in transcoding tasks such as reading and writing to dictation; furthermore, when asked to name a given picture in multiple output modalities--e.g., to say the name of a picture and immediately after to write it down--he produced lexically inconsistent responses. By contrast, the patient for whom conversion procedures were available did not produce semantic errors in transcoding tasks and did not produce lexically inconsistent responses in multiple picture-naming tasks. These observations are interpreted in the context of the summation hypothesis (Hillis & Caramazza, 1991), according to which the activation of lexical entries for production would be made on the basis of semantic information and, when available, on the basis of form-specific information. The implementation of this hypothesis in models of lexical access is discussed in detail. PMID:12662977

  2. Lexical and context effects in children's audiovisual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Rachael; Kirk, Karen; Pisoni, David; Burckhartzmeyer, Lisa; Lin, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The Audiovisual Lexical Neighborhood Sentence Test (AVLNST), a new, recorded speech recognition test for children with sensory aids, was administered in multiple presentation modalities to children with normal hearing and vision. Each sentence consists of three key words whose lexical difficulty is controlled according to the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM) of spoken word recognition. According to NAM, the recognition of spoken words is influenced by two lexical factors: the frequency of occurrence of individual words in a language, and how phonemically similar the target word is to other words in the listeners lexicon. These predictions are based on auditory similarity only, and thus do not take into account how visual information can influence the perception of speech. Data from the AVLNST, together with those from recorded audiovisual versions of isolated word recognition measures, the Lexical Neighborhood, and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Tests, were used to examine the influence of visual information on speech perception in children. Further, the influence of top-down processing on speech recognition was examined by evaluating performance on the recognition of words in isolation versus words in sentences. [Work supported by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, the American Hearing Research Foundation, and the NIDCD, T32 DC00012 to Indiana University.

  3. Word Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task, lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or under-additive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  4. Word Frequency Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or underadditive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again, we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  5. Interactive power flow characteristics of an integrated equipment—nonlinear isolator—travelling flexible ship excited by sea waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y. P.; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.

    2005-10-01

    A nonlinear interactive system comprising of equipment, nonlinear isolator and travelling flexible ship excited by waves is studied from a vibratory power flow viewpoint to examine its dynamical behaviour and power flow characteristics. The mathematical model describing the dynamics of this nonlinear interactive system is developed. Dynamical interactions between equipment, nonlinear isolator, flexible foundation and water waves are addressed. The nonlinearities of the isolator are characterized by a general pth power model for damping and qth power for stiffness. A harmonic balance method is adopted to derive the steady-state harmonic response of the nonlinear system. A Newton-Raphson iteration process in association with an efficient numerical algorithm is used to obtain the solutions of this nonlinear problem. Through simulations the dynamical behaviour, power flow characteristics and isolation efficiency of this complex nonlinear interaction system are investigated. For different values of power p and q, different wave excitations and flexible or rigid ship, the power transmitted to the equipment and power flow transmission ratios are calculated and analysed. The effect of the vibration source with different wave conditions of the seaway is studied through examining its vibratory power input to the overall system. The effects of the assumptions of flexible or rigid ship, the nonlinearities on the power flows in the system are examined. Nonlinear power flow phenomena and mechanisms are revealed, which provides an insight to the understanding of power flow characteristics in nonlinear systems. Practical guidelines for the design of vibration isolation systems applicable to maritime engineering are suggested.

  6. Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody but atypical lexical prosody production. Method: Sixteen children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers…

  7. With or without Semantic Mediation: Retrieval of Lexical Representations in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Caccaro, Arianna; Pavani, Francesco; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Peressotti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    How are lexical representations retrieved during sign production? Similar to spoken languages, lexical representation in sign language must be accessed through semantics when naming pictures. However, it remains an open issue whether lexical representations in sign language can be accessed via routes that bypass semantics when retrieval is…

  8. Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

  9. The Relationship of Lexical Richness to the Quality of ESL Learners' Oral Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xiaofei

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the relationship of lexical richness to the quality of English as a second language (ESL) learners' oral narratives. A computational system was designed to automate the measurement of 3 dimensions of lexical richness, that is, lexical density, sophistication, and variation, using 25 different metrics proposed in…

  10. Lexical Retrieval: An Aspect of Fluent Second-Language Production that Can Be Enhanced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellings, Patrick; van Gelderen, Amos; de Glopper, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Examines feasibility of an experimental computerized training for fluent lexical retrieval in the second language in a classroom setting, applying techniques previously restricted to laboratory use. Results on both a lexical decision task and written lexical retrieval task show students in each condition have higher accuracy scores and superior…

  11. Effects of Training on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Using Lexically Hard Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Matthew H.; Humes, Larry E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how repeated presentations of lexically difficult words within a background noise affect a listener's ability to understand both trained (lexically difficult) and untrained (lexically easy) words in isolation and within sentences. Method: In the 1st experiment, 9 young listeners with normal hearing completed a…

  12. Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

  13. Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

  14. Effects of Lexicality and Word Frequency on Brain Activation in Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…

  15. How Involved Are American L2 Learners of Spanish in Lexical Input Processing Tasks during Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the involvement load (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) in second language (L2) lexical input processing through reading by considering the effects of the reader-based factors of L2 reading proficiency and background knowledge. The lexical input processing aspects investigated were lexical inferencing (search), attentional…

  16. Lexical Transfer in the Written Production of a CLIL Group and a Non-CLIL Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano Vázquez, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the difference in terms of lexical transfer between CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) and non-CLIL students has revealed that CLIL students produce fewer lexical transfer errors than non-CLIL students. This study aimed at comparing the lexical transfer production of two groups of students (CLIL and non-CLIL) and…

  17. Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

  18. Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

  19. With or without Semantic Mediation: Retrieval of Lexical Representations in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Caccaro, Arianna; Pavani, Francesco; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Peressotti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    How are lexical representations retrieved during sign production? Similar to spoken languages, lexical representation in sign language must be accessed through semantics when naming pictures. However, it remains an open issue whether lexical representations in sign language can be accessed via routes that bypass semantics when retrieval is…

  20. The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

  1. Characteristics of erosion plasma in the region of interaction of a flow with an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramtsov, P. P.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Grishchenko, V. M.; Shikh, I. A.

    2010-03-01

    Results of investigation of the characteristics of an erosion plasma flow directed to an obstacle are presented. Stable quasi-stationary spherical plasma formations existing for more than 50 ?sec were obtained for the first time. It is shown that the parameters, length, and localization of the cumulative zone in this plasma can be controlled by changing the dynamic characteristics of the incident flow.

  2. The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

  3. Interacting Linear and Nonlinear Characteristics Produce Population Coding Asymmetries between ON and OFF Cells in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Zachary; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The early visual system is a model for understanding the roles of cell populations in parallel processing. Cells in this system can be classified according to their responsiveness to different stimuli; a prominent example is the division between cells that respond to stimuli of opposite contrasts (ON vs OFF cells). These two cell classes display many asymmetries in their physiological characteristics (including temporal characteristics, spatial characteristics, and nonlinear characteristics) that, individually, are known to have important roles in population coding. Here we describe a novel distinction between the information that ON and OFF ganglion cell populations carry in mouse—that OFF cells are able to signal motion information about both light and dark objects, while ON cells have a selective deficit at signaling the motion of dark objects. We found that none of the previously reported asymmetries in physiological characteristics could account for this distinction. We therefore analyzed its basis via a recently developed linear–nonlinear-Poisson model that faithfully captures input/output relationships for a broad range of stimuli (Bomash et al., 2013). While the coding differences between ON and OFF cell populations could not be ascribed to the linear or nonlinear components of the model individually, they had a simple explanation in the way that these components interact. Sensory transformations in other systems can likewise be described by these models, and thus our findings suggest that similar interactions between component properties may help account for the roles of cell classes in population coding more generally. PMID:24027295

  4. Lexical Variation and Change in British Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas; Woll, Bencie; Cormier, Kearsy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a corpus-based study investigating lexical variation in BSL. An earlier study investigating variation in BSL numeral signs found that younger signers were using a decreasing variety of regionally distinct variants, suggesting that levelling may be taking place. Here, we report findings from a larger investigation looking at regional lexical variants for colours, countries, numbers and UK placenames elicited as part of the BSL Corpus Project. Age, school location and language background were significant predictors of lexical variation, with younger signers using a more levelled variety. This change appears to be happening faster in particular sub-groups of the deaf community (e.g., signers from hearing families). Also, we find that for the names of some UK cities, signers from outside the region use a different sign than those who live in the region. PMID:24759673

  5. Lexical profiles of bilingual children with primary language impairment*

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study used lexical tasks to examine associations between languages, tasks, and age in bilingual children with primary language impairment. Participants (n = 41, mean age 8;8 years) lived in the United States, spoke primarily Spanish (L1) at home and English (L2) at school, and were identified with moderate to severe impairments in both languages. A total of eight tasks (four in each language) measured breadth of vocabulary knowledge (receptive and expressive vocabulary) and aspects of lexical processing (rapid automatic naming and nonword repetition). Correlational analyses revealed older children outperformed younger children on lexical tasks in L2 but not L1, as well as relative L2 dominance for most individuals and tasks. Positive associations were found between languages on processing-based tasks but not vocabulary measures. Findings were consistent with literature on typical bilingual learners, albeit with a notable increased risk of plateau in L1 growth. Results are interpreted within a Dynamic Systems framework. PMID:25404865

  6. Lexical retrieval in discourse: an early indicator of Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Pekkala, Seija; Wiener, Debra; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Obler, Loraine K; Liu, Yulin; McKee, Ann; Auerbach, Sanford; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

    2013-12-01

    We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n = 24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS) and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7-9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2-4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD. PMID:23985011

  7. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  8. Intervocabulary Mapping Within the UMLS: The Role of Lexical Matching*

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, D.D.; Tuttle, M.S.; Blois, M.S.; Erlbaum, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Within the NLM's UMLS Project, one challenge is mapping concepts from one information resource to another. While a complete solution to this problem requires construction of a comprehensive biomedical thesaurus, the present research provides evidence that considerable progress can be made with a straightforward lexical approach. Furthermore, such a lexical approach is the only practical way to begin construction of, and maintain, any such thesaurus. Related research has demonstrated the regularity of word usage within the context of biomedicine. This regularity suggests that mapping between biomedical information resources that have a constrained vocabulary can use lexical matching techniques with considerable success. A method has been developed to map ‘phrases’ from candidate sources to MeSH. In one experiment, this method attempts to map 834 disease names from the disease descriptions composed at UCSF for the UMLS. In a second experiment, the same method attempts to map disease attributes from these diseases.

  9. A reason to rhyme: phonological and semantic influences on lexical access.

    PubMed

    Rapp, David N; Samuel, Arthur G

    2002-05-01

    During on-line language production, speakers rapidly select a sequence of words to express their desired meaning. The current study examines whether this lexical selection is also dependent on the existing activation of surface properties of the words. Such surface properties clearly matter in various forms of wordplay, including poetry and musical lyrics. The experiments in this article explore whether language processing more generally is sensitive to these properties. Two experiments examined the interaction between phonological and semantic features for written and verbal productions. In Experiment 1, participants were given printed sentences with a missing word, and were asked to generate reasonable completions. The completions reflected both the semantic and the surface features of the preceding context. In Experiment 2, listeners heard sentence contexts, and were asked to rapidly produce a word to complete the utterance. These spontaneous completions again incorporated surface features activated by the context. The results suggest that lexical access in naturalistic language processing is influenced by an interaction between the surface and semantic features of language. PMID:12018508

  10. Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks

    PubMed Central

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims The study aims were (a) to explore the differences between the oral language samples of PWA and NIA in terms of LD as measured by dedicated computer software (voc-D), (b) to determine whether PWA are sensitive to discourse elicitation task in terms of LD, and (c) to identify whether differences between PWA and NIA vary in magnitude as a function of discourse task. Method & Procedures Oral language samples from 25 PWA and 27 NIA were analysed. Participants completed three commonly used discourse elicitation tasks (single pictures, sequential pictures, story telling) and voc-D was used to obtain estimates of their LD. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA revealed a significant group task interaction that was followed by an investigation of simple main effects and tetrad×comparisons. Different patterns of LD were uncovered for each group. For the NIA group results were consistent with previous findings in the literature according to which LD varies as a function of elicitation technique. However, for PWA sequential pictures and story telling elicited comparable estimates of LD. Conclusions Results indicated that LD is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by elicitation task and the presence of aphasia. These findings have important implications for modelling lexical diversity and selecting and interpreting results from different discourse elicitation tasks. PMID:23125474

  11. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  12. Riding the lexical speedway: a critical review on the time course of lexical selection in speech production.

    PubMed

    Strijkers, Kristof; Costa, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Speech requires time. How much time often depends on the amount of labor the brain has to perform in order to retrieve the linguistic information related to the ideas we want to express. Although most psycholinguistic research in the field of language production has focused on the net result of time required to utter words in various experimental conditions, over the last years more and more researchers pursued the objective to flesh out the time course of particular stages implicated in language production. Here we critically review these studies, with particular interest for the time course of lexical selection. First, we evaluate the data underlying the estimates of an influential temporal meta-analysis on language production (Indefrey and Levelt, 2004). We conclude that those data alone are not sufficient to provide a reliable time frame of lexical selection. Next, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence which we argue to offer more explicit insights into the time course of lexical selection. Based on this evidence we suggest that, despite the absence of a clear time frame of how long lexical selection takes, there is sufficient direct evidence to conclude that the brain initiates lexical access within 200 ms after stimulus presentation, hereby confirming Indefrey and Levelt's estimate. In a final section, we briefly review the proposed mechanisms which could lead to this rapid onset of lexical access, namely automatic spreading activation versus specific concept selection, and discuss novel data which support the notion of spreading activation, but indicate that the speed with which this principle takes effect is driven by a top-down signal in function of the intention to engage in a speech act. PMID:22144973

  13. Lava-ice interaction: A database describing characteristics and known examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lescinsky, D. T.

    2005-12-01

    The identification of past lava-ice interaction is accomplished using specific features, such as: 1) the presence of fractures that indicate of rapid cooling, the penetration of water, and/or the presence of non-horizontal cooling surfaces; and 2) unusually great lava flow thicknesses that show confinement or ponding against now non-existent walls (implied to have been glacial walls). In addition to helping reconstruct the physical parameters during specific volcanic events, the recognition of lava-ice interaction provides important information regarding the climate and local environment at the time of eruption. To aid in the identification of lava-ice interaction and paleoclimatological studies, a comprehensive database has been created of examples from around the world. The examples of lava-ice interaction come from publications of field studies, personal observations and personal communications. This database includes descriptions, photos, detailed locations, lava compositions and ages as available and will be available on the World Wide Web. The database currently contains over 200 examples of lava-ice interaction, representing more than 125 volcanoes. Lava-ice interaction examples range from subglacial to englacial to emergent and include eruptions associated with both ice sheets and valley glaciers. The database also includes descriptions and photos from more than 17 historic volcanic eruptions that experienced lava and ice interaction.

  14. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  15. Interaction between carbon dioxide and coal: atomic-scale characteristics and electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingdi; Wang, Sanwu

    2015-03-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 in unmineable coal seams has been suggested to mitigate the effect of the increasing of the atmospheric CO2 concentration on global warming. Extensive experimental studies have been performed for the injection of CO2 into coalbeds. However, the atomic-level mechanism for the interaction between CO2 and coal has not been fully explored. We report first-principles density-functional calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the interaction between CO2 and the coal network. In particular, we report results about atomic-scale and electronic properties of the interaction. We also report a comparison with the interaction between CH4 and coal. This research used the supercomputer resources at NERSC, of XSEDE, at TACC, and at the Tandy Supercomputing Center.

  16. Comparing Alternative Biometric Models with and without Gene-by-Measured Environment Interaction in Behavior Genetic Designs: Statistical Operating Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    To extend Purcell's well known ACE model in testing gene by measured environment interactions (GxM) in behavior genetic designs, Rathouz et al. considered a broader class of models for quantifying and testing such interactions. Only a sub-group of these extended models have been investigated for their statistical operating characteristics by Van Hulle et al. due to lack of closed form likelihood. With an estimation procedure developed using numerical techniques in a companion paper, we study statistical operating characteristics of these extended models, especially those with non-linear effects. Type I error analysis shows the likelihood ratio test for GxM to be conservative in testing models extended from the bivariate Cholesky model, and to be liberal for models extended from the bivariate correlated factors model. Parameter estimation for all models is very good, with little bias exhibited for most models and parameters. Comparisons among alternative models under various simulated conditions show that it is relatively more difficult to confirm the existence of gene by environment interactions versus to detect non-linear effects which exclude such interactions. PMID:25724590

  17. Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

    2014-10-01

    Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. PMID:25218952

  18. Lexical use in emotional autobiographical narratives of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kai; Nenkova, Ani; March, Mary E; Parker, Amber P; Verma, Ragini; Kohler, Christian G

    2015-01-30

    Language dysfunction has long been described in schizophrenia and most studies have focused on characteristics of structure and form. This project focuses on the content of language based on autobiographical narratives of five basic emotions. In persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls, we employed a comprehensive automated analysis of lexical use and we identified specific words and semantically or functionally related words derived from dictionaries that occurred significantly more often in narratives of either group. Patients employed a similar number of words but differed in lower expressivity and complexity, more self-reference and more repetitions. We developed a classification method for predicting subject status and tested its accuracy in a leave-one-subject-out evaluation procedure. We identified a set of 18 features that achieved 65.7% accuracy in predicting clinical status based on single emotion narratives, and 74.4% accuracy based on all five narratives. Subject clinical status could be determined automatically more accurately based on narratives related to anger or happiness experiences and there were a larger number of lexical differences between the two groups for these emotions compared to other emotions. PMID:25480546

  19. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self-esteem than adolescents from the other two regions. PMID:23172992

  20. Stress Matters: Effects of Anticipated Lexical Stress on Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Mara; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from two eye-tracking studies designed to investigate the role of metrical prosody in silent reading. In Experiment 1, participants read stress-alternating noun-verb or noun-adjective homographs (e.g. "PREsent", "preSENT") embedded in limericks, such that the lexical stress of the homograph, as determined by context,…

  1. Lexical and Default Stress Assignment in Reading Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana; Alexandri, Stella

    2006-01-01

    Greek is a language with lexical stress that marks stress orthographically with a special diacritic. Thus, the orthography and the lexicon constitute potential sources of stress assignment information in addition to any possible general default metrical pattern. Here, we report two experiments with secondary education children reading aloud…

  2. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  3. Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

  4. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  5. Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jangjamras, Jirapat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

  6. Appraising Lexical Bundles in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: Obligation and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David

    2010-01-01

    Working from a large corpus of transcripts from secondary mathematics classrooms, we identify patterns of speech that encode interpersonal positioning. We extend our analysis from a previous article (Herbel-Eisenmann, Wagner & Cortes, Educ Stud Math, 2010, in press), in which we introduced a concept from corpus linguistics--a "lexical bundle,"…

  7. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  8. Kindergarten Children Can Be Taught to Detect Lexical Ambiguities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamowski-Shakibai, Margaret T.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of metalinguistic skills, particularly ambiguity detection, and whether training accelerates this development for prereaders in kindergarten (5;5-6;6). It is the first to compare homophone detection with lexically ambiguous sentence detection in which the same homophones appear. The experimental group…

  9. Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

  10. Being Forward Not Backward: Lexical Limits to Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether masked priming is mediated by existing memory representations by determining whether nonwords targets would show repetition priming. To avoid the potential confound that nonword repetition priming would be obscured by a familiarity response bias, the standard lexical decision and naming tasks were modified to make…

  11. The South-East Lexical Usage Region of Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Pauline

    1989-01-01

    This paper defines the South-East (SE) region, one of the lexical usage regions of Australian English. This region covers Victoria, part of South Australia, and the Riverina area of New South Wales. Extensive data is provided in maps of the continent. (Contains three references.) (JL)

  12. Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

  13. Determiner Primes as Facilitators of Lexical Retrieval in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner…

  14. Lexical Errors in Second Language Scientific Writing: Some Conceptual Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrió Pastor, María Luisa; Mestre-Mestre, Eva María

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, scientific writers are required not only a thorough knowledge of their subject field, but also a sound command of English as a lingua franca. In this paper, the lexical errors produced in scientific texts written in English by non-native researchers are identified to propose a classification of the categories they contain. This study…

  15. The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

  16. Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jangjamras, Jirapat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

  17. Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

  18. Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…

  19. Effects of Vocabulary Size on Online Lexical Processing by Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Franzo, II; Edwards, Jan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between vocabulary size and the speed and accuracy of lexical processing in preschoolers between the ages of 30 and 46 months using an automatic eye tracking task based on the looking-while-listening paradigm (Fernald, Zangl, Portillo, & Marchman, 2008) and mispronunciation paradigm…

  20. Lexical and Semantic Binding in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Frankish, Clive R.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2006-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients make numerous phoneme migration errors in their immediate serial recall of poorly comprehended words. In this study, similar errors were induced in the word recall of healthy participants by presenting unpredictable mixed lists of words and nonwords. This technique revealed that lexicality, word frequency, imageability,…

  1. The Effects of Prohibiting Gestures on Children's Lexical Retrieval Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Karen J.; Bird, Hannah; Kirk, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two alternative accounts have been proposed to explain the role of gestures in thinking and speaking. The Information Packaging Hypothesis (Kita, 2000) claims that gestures are important for the conceptual packaging of information before it is coded into a linguistic form for speech. The Lexical Retrieval Hypothesis (Rauscher, Krauss & Chen, 1996)…

  2. A Corpus-Based Assessment of French CEFR Lexical Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusseling, Françoise; Lonsdale, Deryle

    2013-01-01

    The French CEFR vocabulary profiles as presented in the "Référentiels"--while a valuable resource for a wide range of applications focused on lexical content--result from introspection, intuition-based judgements, and unquantifiable experience. The result is a specification of vocabulary that has been largely untested from a…

  3. Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

  4. Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

  5. The Role of Grammar in Second Language Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paribakht, T. Sima

    2004-01-01

    The role of grammatical knowledge in second language (L2) lexical processing is far from clear. Providing evidence from a recent introspective study, this paper seeks to demonstrate the significant contribution that such knowledge can make to inferring the meanings of unfamiliar words while reading, and to possible consequent acquisition of L2…

  6. Children's Abstraction and Generalization of English Lexical Stress Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Melissa A.; Oh, Grace E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated school-aged children's internalization of the distributional patterns of English lexical stress as a function of vocabulary size. Sixty children (5;3 to 8;3) participated in the study. The children were asked to blend two individually presented, equally stressed syllables to produce disyllabic nonwords with different…

  7. A Study of Strategy Use in Producing Lexical Collocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Candi Chen-Pin

    This study examined strategy use in producing lexical collocations among freshman English majors at the Chinese Culture University. Divided into two groups by English writing proficiency, students completed three tasks: a collocation test, an optimal revision task, and a task-based structured questionnaire regarding their actions and mental…

  8. Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While…

  9. Speech Perception and Lexical Effects in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

    2013-01-01

    Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6-9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CVtsets [word-word (WW), nonword-nonword (NN), word-nonword (WN) and…

  10. Dissociating Visual Form from Lexical Frequency Using Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Tae; Duncan, Keith J. Kawabata; Hogan, John S.; Morita, Kenji; Umeda, Kazumasa; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    In Japanese, the same word can be written in either morphographic Kanji or syllabographic Hiragana and this provides a unique opportunity to disentangle a word's lexical frequency from the frequency of its visual form--an important distinction for understanding the neural information processing in regions engaged by reading. Behaviorally,…

  11. Linguistic, Cognitive, and Social Constraints on Lexical Entrenchment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    How do new words become established in a speech community? This dissertation documents linguistic, cognitive, and social factors that are hypothesized to affect "lexical entrenchment," the extent to which a new word becomes part of the lexicon of a speech community. First, in a longitudinal corpus study, I find that linguistic properties such as…

  12. Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationships between lexical and phonological development has been enhanced in recent years by increased interest in this area from language scientists, psychologists and phonologists. This review article provides a summary of research, highlighting similarities and differences across studies. It is suggested that the…

  13. The Lexical Breadth of Undergraduate Novice Level Writing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Scott Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on previous work exploring reading and listening lexical thresholds (Nation, 2006; Laufer & Ravenhorst-Kalovski, 2010; Schmitt, Jiang, & Grabe, 2011) in order to investigate productive vocabulary targets that mark successful entry-level undergraduate writing. Papers that passed the Effective Writing Test (EWT) were chosen…

  14. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  15. Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

  16. D-LTAG: Extending Lexicalized Tag to Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys work on applying the insights of lexicalized grammars to low-level discourse, to show the value of positing an autonomous grammar for low-level discourse in which words (or idiomatic phrases) are associated with discourse-level predicate-argument structures or modification structures that convey their syntactic-semantic meaning…

  17. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

  18. Lexical and Default Stress Assignment in Reading Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana; Alexandri, Stella

    2006-01-01

    Greek is a language with lexical stress that marks stress orthographically with a special diacritic. Thus, the orthography and the lexicon constitute potential sources of stress assignment information in addition to any possible general default metrical pattern. Here, we report two experiments with secondary education children reading aloud…

  19. CLEX: a cross-linguistic lexical norms database*.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard; Dale, Philip S; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

    2010-03-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early gestures and symbolic actions. These lexical norms have a wide range of uses in basic research, assessment and intervention. In addition, cross-linguistic comparisons of lexical development are greatly facilitated by the availability of norms from diverse languages. This report describes the development of CLEX, a new web-based cross-linguistic database for lexical data from adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. CLEX provides tools for a range of analyses within and across languages. It is designed to incorporate additional language datasets easily, and to permit users to define mappings between lexical items in pairs of languages for more specific cross-linguistic comparisons. PMID:19570318

  20. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  1. Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of Lexical Diversity Indices: Assessing Length Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Green, Samuel B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several novel techniques have been developed recently to assess the breadth of a speaker's vocabulary exhibited in a language sample. The specific aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the validity of the scores generated by different lexical diversity (LD) estimation techniques. Four techniques were explored: D, Maas,…

  3. The Relation between Teacher Input and Lexical Growth of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Edmond P.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the growth of receptive lexical skills in preschoolers over an academic year in relation to teacher speech. The participating students were English language learners and their monolingual English-speaking peers from the same classrooms. The measures of teacher input included indicators of the amount of speech (total…

  4. Parafoveal Lexical Activation Depends on Skilled Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…

  5. Appraising Lexical Bundles in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: Obligation and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David

    2010-01-01

    Working from a large corpus of transcripts from secondary mathematics classrooms, we identify patterns of speech that encode interpersonal positioning. We extend our analysis from a previous article (Herbel-Eisenmann, Wagner & Cortes, Educ Stud Math, 2010, in press), in which we introduced a concept from corpus linguistics--a "lexical bundle,"…

  6. Parafoveal Lexical Activation Depends on Skilled Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…

  7. Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

  8. Lexical Exploration for Advanced ESL Students in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakai, Helen K.

    This paper develops guidelines for instructional materials for advanced English as a second language students in which the objects of instruction would be: (1) the relationship between surface structures of lexical items and their underlying meanings; (2) the important aspects of structural forms; and (3) the special uses of words in the lexicon…

  9. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  10. The Effects of Bilateral Presentations on Lateralized Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco; Zaidel, Eran

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how lateralized lexical decision is affected by the presence of distractors in the visual hemifield contralateral to the target. The study had three goals: first, to determine how the presence of a distractor (either a word or a pseudoword) affects visual field differences in the processing of the target; second, to identify the…

  11. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  12. Lexical Specificity Training Effects in Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Caressa; Segers, Eliane; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Children who start formal education in a second language may experience slower vocabulary growth in that language and subsequently experience disadvantages in literacy acquisition. The current study asked whether lexical specificity training can stimulate bilingual children's phonological awareness, which is considered to be a precursor to…

  13. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  14. A theoretical investigation of the characteristics of hydrogen/halogen bonding interactions in dibromo-nitroaniline.

    PubMed

    Esrafili, Mehdi D

    2013-03-01

    In this work, computations of density functional theory (DFT) were carried out to investigate the nature of interactions in solid 2,6-dibromo-4-nitroaniline (DBNA). This system was selected to mimic the hydrogen/halogen bonding found within crystal structures as well as within biological molecules. DFT (M06-2X/6-311++G**) calculations indicated that the binding energies for different of interactions lie in the range between -1.66 and -9.77 kcal mol(-1). The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was applied to provide more insight into the nature of these interactions. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) analysis indicated that stability of the Br···Br halogen bonds is predicted to be attributable mainly to dispersion, while electrostatic forces, which have been widely believed to be responsible for these types of interactions, play a smaller role. Our results indicate that, for those nuclei participating in hydrogen/halogen bonding interactions, nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters exhibit considerable changes on going from the isolated molecule model to crystalline DBNA. PMID:23224836

  15. The Relationship between Marital Characteristics, Marital Interaction Processes, and Marital Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen-Grandon, Jane R.; Myers, Jane E.; Hattie, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to clarify the relationship between marital characteristics, marital processes, and the dependent variable--marital satisfaction--in a sample of 201 participants who were in 1st marriages. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) and the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues,…

  16. Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS),…

  17. Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS),…

  18. Left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions contribute to speed of lexical decision: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zude; Gold, Brian T; Chang, Chi-Fu; Wang, Suiping; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-02-01

    Activation of left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aLIFG) and left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) has been observed in some functional neuroimaging studies of lexical decision but not others. It is thus unclear whether these two regions are necessary for word recognition. By applying continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which temporally suppresses local brain function, we examined whether aLIFG and LMTG play causal roles in word recognition in a visual lexical decision task (LDT). Furthermore, we manipulated stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between prime and target to test whether these regions contribute to word recognition differently. In the LDT task, target words were preceded by semantically related primes (Related Condition; RC) or semantically unrelated words (Unrelated Condition; UC), under both short (150 ms) and long (600 ms) SOA conditions. TMS of aLIFG and LMTG significantly affected the word recognition speed compared to TMS of Vertex. Our results provide evidence that both aLIFG and LMTG contribute to word recognition speed. Furthermore, at short SOA, TMS of aLIFG or LMTG prolonged reaction time (RT). In contrast, at long SOA, there was a significant region by SOA by TMS interaction such that TMS of aLIFG prolonged RT, whereas TMS of LMTG speeded RT. These results suggest that aLIFG and LMTG may play different roles in word recognition. PMID:25463244

  19. AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF QUESTION TURNS IN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH USING LEXICAL AND PROSODIC EVIDENCE.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Sankaranarayanan; Ghosh, Prasanta; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2008-01-01

    The ability to identify speech acts reliably is desirable in any spoken language system that interacts with humans. Minimally, such a system should be capable of distinguishing between question-bearing turns and other types of utterances. However, this is a non-trivial task, since spontaneous speech tends to have incomplete syntactic, and even ungrammatical, structure and is characterized by disfluencies, repairs and other non-linguistic vocalizations that make simple rule based pattern learning difficult. In this paper, we present a system for identifying question-bearing turns in spontaneous multi-party speech (ICSI Meeting Corpus) using lexical and prosodic evidence. On a balanced test set, our system achieves an accuracy of 71.9% for the binary question vs. non-question classification task. Further, we investigate the robustness of our proposed technique to uncertainty in the lexical feature stream (e.g. caused by speech recognition errors). Our experiments indicate that classification accuracy of the proposed method is robust to errors in the text stream, dropping only about 0.8% for every 10% increase in word error rate (WER). PMID:19177175

  20. On the joint effects of stimulus quality, regularity, and lexicality when reading aloud: new challenges.

    PubMed

    Besner, Derek; O'Malley, Shannon; Robidoux, Serje

    2010-05-01

    A number of computational models have been developed over the last 2 decades that are remarkably successful at explaining the process of translating print into sound. Nevertheless, 2 of the most successful computational accounts on the table fail to simulate the results from factorial experiments reported in this article in which university students read aloud letter strings that varied in terms of spelling-sound regularity and lexicality (regular words vs. exception words vs. nonwords) and stimulus quality (bright vs. dim). Skilled readers yielded additive effects of regularity and stimulus quality and additive effects of lexicality and stimulus quality on both RT and errors when nonwords were mixed with words. When only words appeared in the list, there was an interaction in which exception words were less affected by low stimulus quality than regular words were; no existing account anticipates or explains these results. We advance a hypothesis that assumes a novel module that accommodates these data and provide an existence proof in the form of a simulation. PMID:20438270

  1. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaopeng Song, Kun

    2014-10-15

    Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  2. Do semantic sentence constraint and L2 proficiency influence language selectivity of lexical access in native language listening?

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether language nonselective lexical access in bilingual auditory word recognition when listening in the native language (L1) is modulated by (a) the semantic constraint of the sentence and (b) the second language (L2) proficiency level. We report 2 experiments in which Dutch-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels completed an L1 auditory lexical-decision task on the last word of low- and high-constraining sentences. The critical stimuli were interlingual homophones (e.g., lief [sweet] - leaf /li:f/). Participants recognized homophones significantly slower than matched control words. Importantly, neither the semantic constraint of the sentence, nor the proficiency level of the bilinguals interacted with this interlingual homophone effect. However, when we compared the slow and fast reaction times (RTs), we observed a reduction in the homophone interference effect when listening to high-constraining sentences in L1 for the slow RTs, but not for the fast RTs. Taken together, this provides strong evidence for a language-nonselective account of lexical access when listening in L1, and suggests that even when low-proficient bilinguals are listening to high-constraint sentences in L1, both languages of a bilingual are still activated. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460870

  3. Framing effects reveal discrete lexical-semantic and sublexical procedures in reading: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Danelli, Laura; Marelli, Marco; Berlingeri, Manuela; Tettamanti, Marco; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    According to the dual-route model, a printed string of letters can be processed by either a grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (GPC) route or a lexical-semantic route. Although meta-analyses of the imaging literature support the existence of distinct but interacting reading procedures, individual neuroimaging studies that explored neural correlates of reading yielded inconclusive results. We used a list-manipulation paradigm to provide a fresh empirical look at this issue and to isolate specific areas that underlie the two reading procedures. In a lexical condition, we embedded disyllabic Italian words (target stimuli) in lists of either loanwords or trisyllabic Italian words with unpredictable stress position. In a GPC condition, similar target stimuli were included within lists of pseudowords. The procedure was designed to induce participants to emphasize either the lexical-semantic or the GPC reading procedure, while controlling for possible linguistic confounds and keeping the reading task requirements stable across the two conditions. Thirty-three adults participated in the behavioral study, and 20 further adult participants were included in the fMRI study. At the behavioral level, we found sizeable effects of the framing manipulations that included slower voice onset times for stimuli in the pseudoword frames. At the functional anatomical level, the occipital and temporal regions, and the intraparietal sulcus were specifically activated when subjects were reading target words in a lexical frame. The inferior parietal and anterior fusiform cortex were specifically activated in the GPC condition. These patterns of activation represented a valid classifying model of fMRI images associated with target reading in both frames in the multi-voxel pattern analyses. Further activations were shared by the two procedures in the occipital and inferior parietal areas, in the premotor cortex, in the frontal regions and the left supplementary motor area. These regions are most likely involved in either early input or late output processes. PMID:26441712

  4. Framing effects reveal discrete lexical-semantic and sublexical procedures in reading: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Danelli, Laura; Marelli, Marco; Berlingeri, Manuela; Tettamanti, Marco; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    According to the dual-route model, a printed string of letters can be processed by either a grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (GPC) route or a lexical-semantic route. Although meta-analyses of the imaging literature support the existence of distinct but interacting reading procedures, individual neuroimaging studies that explored neural correlates of reading yielded inconclusive results. We used a list-manipulation paradigm to provide a fresh empirical look at this issue and to isolate specific areas that underlie the two reading procedures. In a lexical condition, we embedded disyllabic Italian words (target stimuli) in lists of either loanwords or trisyllabic Italian words with unpredictable stress position. In a GPC condition, similar target stimuli were included within lists of pseudowords. The procedure was designed to induce participants to emphasize either the lexical-semantic or the GPC reading procedure, while controlling for possible linguistic confounds and keeping the reading task requirements stable across the two conditions. Thirty-three adults participated in the behavioral study, and 20 further adult participants were included in the fMRI study. At the behavioral level, we found sizeable effects of the framing manipulations that included slower voice onset times for stimuli in the pseudoword frames. At the functional anatomical level, the occipital and temporal regions, and the intraparietal sulcus were specifically activated when subjects were reading target words in a lexical frame. The inferior parietal and anterior fusiform cortex were specifically activated in the GPC condition. These patterns of activation represented a valid classifying model of fMRI images associated with target reading in both frames in the multi-voxel pattern analyses. Further activations were shared by the two procedures in the occipital and inferior parietal areas, in the premotor cortex, in the frontal regions and the left supplementary motor area. These regions are most likely involved in either early input or late output processes. PMID:26441712

  5. Lexical and sub-lexical reading skills and their correlation to clinical symptoms in young Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiuju; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Zhichao; Liu, Jin; Quan, Wenxiang; Tian, Ju; Wydell, Taeko N; Dong, Wentian

    2015-12-30

    Patients with schizophrenia often experience severe reading deficits such as oral reading and reading comprehension deficits. However, it is not known whether different types of lexical or sub-lexical components in reading are also impaired. In order to address this issue, the present study had 22 young Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 22 young Chinese normal controls undergo a battery of reading tests, which specifically measures lexical and sub-lexical components of reading in Chinese. The schizophrenic group further underwent Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in order to ascertain the severity of patients' clinical symptoms. The results showed that compared to the controls, (1) the schizophrenic patients performed significantly poorly in orthographic processing, orthography-phonology mapping, and orthography-semantic mapping tests and further that (2) their performances in orthographic processing, and orthography-semantic mapping skill tests negatively correlated with the BPRS score. Note however that their ability to access their mental lexicon was intact. There is thus a clear need for studies with a larger sample-size and neurobiological measures which would lead to our better understanding of the behavioral as well as the neural relationships between schizophrenic patients, and their reading processing impairments, thus developing effective reading intervention programs for the schizophrenic patients. PMID:26611156

  6. The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

    2004-01-01

    Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

  7. Learner characteristics associated with responses to film and interactive video lessons on smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Levenson, P M; Morrow, J R

    1987-01-01

    To determine college students' cognitive and affective responses to alternative technologies for presenting a lesson on smokeless tobacco, and to learn if responses to experimental conditions were associated with gender, ethnicity, tobacco-use practices, and the practices of significant others, 162 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a control group (questionnaire only) or one of two experimental groups. Experimental subjects viewed a videotape or an interactive video version of the lesson and then completed a questionnaire to ascertain knowledge and attitude. Each main effect was significant for knowledge about smokeless tobacco [experimental condition (P less than 0.001); gender (P less than 0.024); and ethnicity (P less than 0.003)]. The interactive video group demonstrated the most accurate and comprehensive recall. Neither gender nor ethnicity interacted significantly with experimental condition, indicating that the effect of experimental condition is constant across gender and ethnicity. Attitudes to instructional formats did not vary significantly as a function of experimental condition or gender, but were associated with ethnicity (P less than 0.034). Again, neither gender nor ethnicity interacted significantly with experimental condition, suggesting that attitudes reflect a generalized view toward content irrespective of presentation mode. Responses to both experimental conditions were quite favorable. Items about present and past experiences with tobacco, with the exception of the "Do you smoke?" item, were not associated with total cognitive score or attitude. PMID:3547386

  8. An Examination of the Characteristics of Student Interaction in Computer-Based Communication Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan A.; Vician, Chelley

    Student interaction and computer-based communication tool appropriation patterns were examined in two different communication assignments requiring active use of computer-based communication tools. University students completed either: a set of communication assignments and activities with the instructor as sole audience; or a set of communication…

  9. Biological interactions in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles of different characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aula, Sangeetha; Lakkireddy, Samyuktha; AVN, Swamy; Kapley, Atya; Jamil, Kaiser; Rao Tata, Narasinga; Hembram, Kaliyan

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have recently received growing attention for various biomedical applications, including use as therapeutic or carrier for drug delivery and/or imaging. For the above applications, the NPs necessitate administration into the body leading to their systemic exposure. To better anticipate the safety, make risk assessment, and be able to interpret the future preclinical and clinical safety data, it is important to systematically understand the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences of such interaction, and the mechanisms associated with the toxicity induction, with the important components with which the NPs are expected to be in contact after systemic exposure. In this context, we report here a detailed study on the biological interactions in vitro of the ZnO NPs with healthy human primary lymphocytes as these are the important immune components and the first systemic immune contact, and with the whole human blood. Additionally, the influence, if any, of the NPs shape (spheres and rods) on the biological interaction has been evaluated. The ZnO NPs caused toxicity (30% at 12.5 ?g ml-1 spheres and 10.5 ?g ml-1 rods; 50% at 22 ?g ml-1 spheres and 19.5 ?g ml-1 rods) to the lymphocytes at molecular and genetic level in a dose-dependent and shape-dependent manner, while the interaction consequences with the blood and blood components such as RBC, platelets was only dose-dependent and not shape-dependent. This is evident from the decreased RBC count due to increased %Hemolysis (5.3% in both the spheres- and rods-treated blood) and decreased platelet count due to increased %platelet aggregation (28% in spheres-treated and 33% in rods-treated platelet-rich plasma). Such in-depth understanding of the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences, and the associated mechanisms in vitro could be expected to allow anticipating the NP safety for risk assessment and for interpretation of the preclinical and clinical safety data when available.

  10. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

  11. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

  12. Characteristic features of the interaction of ultrashort resonant laser radiation pulses with thin semiconductor films

    SciTech Connect

    Khadzhi, P I; Fedorov, L V

    1999-10-31

    The relationships governing nonlinear transient transmission and reflection of ultrashort resonant laser radiation pulses with rectangular and Gaussian profiles by a thin semiconductor film were investigated taking into account the exciton-photon interaction and the concentration enhancement of the dipole moment of the exciton transition. It is shown that the transmission of a Gaussian pulse is characterised by the formation of two subpulses with identical areas, which are separated in time and have different profiles. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  13. A Spatially-Explicit Modeling Approach to Examine the Interaction of Reproductive Traits and Landscape Characteristics on Arctic Shrub Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, A. T.; Cairns, D. M.; Feldman, R. M.; Grant, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    Shrub expansion is one of the most recognized components of terrestrial Arctic change. While experimental work has provided valuable insights into its fine-scale drivers and implications, the contribution of shrub reproductive characteristics to their spatial patterns is poorly understood at broader scales. Building upon our previous work in river valleys in northern Alaska, we developed a C#-based spatially-explicit model that simulates historic landscape-scale shrub establishment between the 1970s and the late 2000s on a yearly time-step while accounting for parameters relating to different reproduction modes (clonal development with and without the "mass effect" and short-distance dispersal), as well as the presence and absence of the interaction of hydrologic constraints using the topographic wetness index. We examined these treatments on floodplains, valley slopes, and interfluves in the Ayiyak, Colville, and Kurupa River valleys. After simulating 30 landscape realizations using each parameter combination, we quantified the spatial characteristics (patch density, edge density, patch size variability, area-weighted shape index, area-weighted fractal dimension index, and mean distance between patches) of the resulting shrub patches on the simulation end date using FRAGSTATS. We used Principal Components Analysis to determine which treatments produced spatial characteristics most similar to those observed in the late 2000s. Based upon our results, we hypothesize that historic shrub expansion in northern Alaska has been driven in part by clonal reproduction with the "mass effect" or short-distance dispersal (< 5 m). The interactive effect of hydrologic characteristics, however, is less clear. These hypotheses may then be tested in future work involving field observations. Given the potential that climate change may facilitate a shift from a clonal to a sexual reproductive strategy, this model may facilitate predictions regarding future Arctic vegetation patterns.

  14. ATM traffic experiments: A laboratory study of service interaction, loss fairness and loss characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helvik, B. E.; Stol, N.

    1995-04-01

    A reference measurement scenario is defined, where an ATM switch (OCTOPUS) is offered traffic from three source types representing the traffic resulting from typical services to be carried by an ATM network. These are high quality video (HQTV), high speed data (HSD) and constant bitrate transfer (CBR). In addition to be typical, these have widely different characteristics. Detailed definitions for these, and other actual source types, are made and entered into the Synthetic Traffic Generator (STG) database. Recommended traffic mixes of these sources are also made. Based on the above, laboratory measurements are carried out to study how the various kinds of traffic influence each other, how fairly the loss is distributed over services and connections, and what are the loss characteristics experienced. (Due to a software error detected in the measurement equipment after the work was concluded, the measurements are carried out with a HSD source with a load less 'aggressive' than intended.) The main findings are: Cell loss is very unfairly distributed among the various connections. During a loss burst, which occurs less frequently than the duration of a typical connection, affects mainly one or a few connections; Cell loss is unfairly distributed among the services. The ratios in the range from HSD: HQTV: CBR = 5 : 1 : 0.85 are observed, and unfairness increases with decreasing load burstiness; The loss characteristics vary during a loss burst, from one burst to the next and between services. Hence, it does not seem feasible to use 'typical-loss-statistics' to study the impairments on various services. In addition some supplementing work is reported.

  15. The Impact of Sonority on Onset-Rime and Peak-Coda Lexical Decision and Naming of Lexical Items by Children with Different Spelling Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the lexical decision (making YES/NO decision) and the vocalization (naming) paradigms in two reaction time experiments to examine the cohesiveness of onset-rime and peak-coda in the syllable structure of English lexical items. The aim was to study the effect of sonority hierarchy of liquids, nasals and obstruents on the…

  16. When orthography is not enough: The effect of lexical stress in lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Lucia; Sulpizio, Simone

    2015-07-01

    Three lexical decision experiments were carried out in Italian, in order to verify if stress dominance (the most frequent stress type) and consistency (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) had an effect on polysyllabic word recognition. Two factors were manipulated: whether the target word carried stress on the penultimate (dominant; "graNIta," "seNIle"-slush, senile) or on the antepenultimate (non-dominant) syllable ("MISsile," "BIbita"-missile, drink), and whether the stress neighborhood was consistent (graNIta, MISsile) or inconsistent (seNIle, BIbita) with the word's stress pattern. In Experiment 1, words were mixed with nonwords sharing the word endings, which made words and nonwords more similar to each other. In Experiment 2, words and nonwords were presented in lists blocked for stress pattern. In Experiment 3, we used a new set of nonwords, which included endings with (stress) ambiguous neighborhoods and/or with a low number of neighbors, and which were overall less similar to words. In all three experiments, there was an advantage for words with penultimate (dominant) stress and no main effect of stress neighborhood. However, the dominant stress advantage decreased in Experiments 2 and 3. Finally, in Experiment 4, the same materials used in Experiment 1 were also used in a reading-aloud task, showing a significant consistency effect but no dominant stress advantage. The influence of stress information in Italian word recognition is discussed. PMID:25669628

  17. The word frequency effect in first- and second-language word recognition: a lexical entrenchment account.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Kevin; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of differences in the word frequency effect between native speakers and second-language speakers. In a large-scale analysis of English word identification times we find that group-level differences are fully accounted for by the individual language proficiency scores. Furthermore, exactly the same quantitative relation between word frequency and proficiency is found for monolinguals and three different bilingual populations (Dutch-English, French-English, and German-English). We conclude that the larger frequency effects for second-language processing than for native-language processing can be explained by within-language characteristics and thus need not be the consequence of "being bilingual" (i.e., a qualitative difference). More specifically, we argue that language proficiency increases lexical entrenchment, which leads to a reduced frequency effect, irrespective of bilingualism, language dominance, and language similarity. PMID:23025801

  18. The interaction of ?2-macroglobulin with proteinases. Characteristics and specificity of the reaction, and a hypothesis concerning its molecular mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Alan J.; Starkey, Phyllis M.

    1973-01-01

    1. ?2-Macroglobulin is known to bind and inhibit a number of serine proteinases. We show that it binds thiol and carboxyl proteinases, and there is now reason to believe that ?2-macroglobulin can bind essentially all proteinases. 2. Radiochemically labelled trypsin, chymotrypsin, cathepsin B1 and papain are bound by ?2-macroglobulin in an approximately equimolar ratio. Equimolar binding was confirmed for trypsin by activesite titration. 3. Pretreatment of ?2-macroglobulin with a saturating amount of one proteinase prevented the subsequent binding of another. We conclude that each molecule of ?2-macroglobulin is able to react with one molecule of proteinase only. 4. ?2-Macroglobulin did not react with exopeptidases, non-proteolytic hydrolases or inactive forms of endopeptidases. 5. The literature on binding and inhibition of proteinases by ?2-macroglobulin is reviewed, and from consideration of this and our own work several general characteristics of the interaction can be discerned. 6. A model is proposed for the molecular mechanism of the interaction of ?2-macroglobulin with proteinases. It is suggested that the enzyme cleaves a peptide bond in a sensitive region of the macroglobulin, and that this results in a conformational change in the ?2-macroglobulin molecule that traps the enzyme irreversibly. Access of substrates to the active site of the enzyme becomes sterically hindered, causing inhibition that is most pronounced with large substrate molecules. 7. The possible physiological importance of the unique binding characteristics of ?2-macroglobulin is discussed. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4201304

  19. The role of visual representations during the lexical access of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gwyneth; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Do visual representations contribute to spoken word recognition? We examine, using MEG, the effects of sublexical and lexical variables at superior temporal (ST) areas and the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) compared with that of word imageability at visual cortices. Embodied accounts predict early modulation of visual areas by imageability - concurrently with or prior to modulation of pMTG by lexical variables. Participants responded to speech stimuli varying continuously in imageability during lexical decision with simultaneous MEG recording. We employed the linguistic variables in a new type of correlational time course analysis to assess trial-by-trial activation in occipital, ST, and pMTG regions of interest (ROIs). The linguistic variables modulated the ROIs during different time windows. Critically, visual regions reflected an imageability effect prior to effects of lexicality on pMTG. This surprising effect supports a view on which sensory aspects of a lexical item are not a consequence of lexical activation. PMID:24814579

  20. The influence of lexical statistics on temporal lobe cortical dynamics during spoken word listening.

    PubMed

    Cibelli, Emily S; Leonard, Matthew K; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2015-08-01

    Neural representations of words are thought to have a complex spatio-temporal cortical basis. It has been suggested that spoken word recognition is not a process of feed-forward computations from phonetic to lexical forms, but rather involves the online integration of bottom-up input with stored lexical knowledge. Using direct neural recordings from the temporal lobe, we examined cortical responses to words and pseudowords. We found that neural populations were not only sensitive to lexical status (real vs. pseudo), but also to cohort size (number of words matching the phonetic input at each time point) and cohort frequency (lexical frequency of those words). These lexical variables modulated neural activity from the posterior to anterior temporal lobe, and also dynamically as the stimuli unfolded on a millisecond time scale. Our findings indicate that word recognition is not purely modular, but relies on rapid and online integration of multiple sources of lexical knowledge. PMID:26072003

  1. Direct measurements of plasma characteristics in space-simulation beam-plasma interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    Recent laboratory investigations of space-simulated electron-beam-plasma interactions are discussed. The plasma has been characterized with respect to its spatial distributions in density, temperature, and density fluctuation power spectra. The latter results have been further classified in terms of amplitude and spectral distributions. The overall results include: (1) detailed radial profiles of plasma density as a function of beam parameters; (2) the association of low-frequency large amplitude fluctuations with ion acoustic, ion cyclotron, and drift-wave modes; (3) the identification and spatial mapping of suprathermal electrons in the beam core; and (4) the experimental definition of a density-dependent criterion for the ignition of the beam-plasma-discharge.

  2. Morphological characteristics of interactions between deserts and rivers in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ping; Li, XiaoMei; Ma, YuFeng; Wu, Wei; Qian, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Arid regions are affected by long-term interactions between various factors including water and wind. Recent research has concentrated on aeolian-fluvial interactions in dryland environments, including the important role of rivers in providing sand and spaces for deserts development, as well as the influences of aeolian activity upon river landforms. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive data at the large watershed scale to support such research. In this study, we analyzed statistically the morphological parameters related to twelve deserts and ten watersheds in dryland regions of northern China using remote sensing data, maps of desert and watershed distributions, and classification of aeolian landforms. Results indicate that, in view of the relationship between deserts and rivers, the geomorphic structures of drainage basins in northern China can be overall divided into five large drainage zones: northwestern drainage (ND), western drainage (WD), drainage of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (PD), middle drainage (MD) and eastern drainage (ED). In the terms of percent area of desert in drainages, it can be sequenced as WD > MD > ND > ED > PD. For percent area of shifting dunes in deserts, WD > PD > MD > ED > ND. Considering the classification of aeolian dunes, transverse dune dominates in all drainages, and its proportion can be sorted as PD > ED > MD > WD > ND. There is a significant difference in their morphological parameters between interior and exterior watersheds. In exterior watersheds, desert area, shifting dune or transverse dune areas are not significantly associated with drainage area respectively, but interior watersheds have good correlations between them. And in three rivers of Tarim Basin, along with increasing distance from the river bank, the types of aeolian dune (complexity) increased step-wisely, implying that sand dune extends along the river terrace. Those data and preliminary findings confirm that the rivers are indispensable to the development and evolution of deserts, performing as channels ('arteries') and platforms ('skeletons') in providing sand sources and spaces.

  3. Determiner primes as facilitators of lexical retrieval in English.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

    2012-12-01

    Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner plus noun phrase production. Few studies demonstrate gender priming effects in bare noun production (i.e., nouns in isolation). We investigated the effects of English determiner primes on bare mass and count noun production. In two experiments, participants named pictures after exposure to primes involving congruent, incongruent and neutral determiners. Facilitation of noun production by congruent and neutral determiner primes was found in both experiments. The results suggest that noun phrase syntax is activated in lexical retrieval, even when not explicitly required for production. Post hoc analysis of the relative frequency of congruent and incongruent prime-target pairs provides support for a frequency-based interpretation of the data. PMID:22411592

  4. Norwegian words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marianne; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2015-04-01

    All words have properties linked to form, meaning and usage patterns which influence how easily they are accessed from the mental lexicon in language production, perception and comprehension. Examples of such properties are imageability, phonological and morphological complexity, word class, argument structure, frequency of use and age of acquisition. Due to linguistic and cultural variation the properties and the values associated with them differ across languages. Hence, for research as well as clinical purposes, language specific information on lexical properties is needed. To meet this need, an electronically searchable lexical database with more than 1600 Norwegian words coded for more than 12 different properties has been established. This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching. PMID:25588015

  5. Concreteness and context availability in lexical decision tasks.

    PubMed

    Levy-Drori, Shelly; Henik, Avishai

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to elucidate the origins of the concreteness (C) effect in a lexical decision task. The first experiment was a replication of the work of Schwanenflugel et al. (1988) and Van Hell and De Groot (1998), who presented the context availability (CA) hypothesis. In this experiment CA seemed to be a dominant factor. Familiarity (FAM) was not incorporated in the ANOVA, but a regression analysis and negative correlation between C and FAM in the groups matched on CA showed that FAM could explain the disappearance of the C effect. Experiment 2 controlled FAM and revealed a C effect, although concrete and abstract words were matched on CA. Experiment 3 controlled C and FAM and revealed a CA effect. The current data emphasize the importance of controlling FAM and CA in examining the C effect in a lexical decision task and support a revised version of the dual-coding theory. PMID:16550855

  6. Perceived foreign accentedness: acoustic distances and lexical properties.

    PubMed

    Porretta, Vincent; Kyröläinen, Aki-Juhani; Tucker, Benjamin V

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined speaker-dependent (acoustic) and speaker-independent (lexical) linguistic influences on perceived foreign accentedness. Accentedness ratings assigned to Chinese-accented English words were analyzed, taking accentedness as a continuum. The speaker-dependent variables were included as acoustic distances, measured in relation to typical native-speaker values. The speaker-independent variable measures were related to the properties of individual words, not influenced by the speech signal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this represents the first attempt to examine speaker-dependent and speaker-independent variables simultaneously. The model indicated that the perception of accentedness is affected by both acoustic goodness of fit and lexical properties. The results are discussed in terms of matching variability in the input to multidimensional representations. PMID:25986966

  7. "M" to "Moonless": Lexical Databases in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Paul; Huntley, Frank

    This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…

  8. "M" to "Moonless": Lexical Databases in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Paul; Huntley, Frank

    This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…

  9. Interaction of parallel strike-slip faults and a characteristic distance in the spatial distribution of active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoyuki; Lei, Xinglin

    2001-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the activities of many parallel strike-slip faults is performed to explore the effect of the interaction of fault slip on the spatial distribution of active faults. In the model, a large number of faults with random strengths are embedded in an elastic layer (lithosphere) over a Maxwell-type viscoelastic half-space (asthenosphere) and shear loading of a constant strain rate is applied. When slip takes place on a model fault, shear stress is decreased around the fault and then recovered with time due to the viscoelastic response of the asthenosphere. The decrease in shear stress prohibits the occurrence of another earthquake around the slipped fault, resulting in the existence of a characteristic distance between active faults. This characteristic distance is found to be controlled by the thickness of the elastic layer, the strain rate and the viscoelastic relaxation time. The density of simulated active faults increases with the strain rate, consistent with observations of active faults in Japan. Furthermore, the present simulation result may explain the characteristic distance which breaks the fractal structure of the spatial distribution of active faults in Japan, which was discovered by Lei & Kusunose (1999).

  10. The Mnemonic Effect of Noticing Alliteration in Lexical Chunks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstromberg, Seth; Boers, Frank

    2008-01-01

    If good proficiency in L2 entails the acquisition not only of many single words but of many lexical chunks as well, it must then be asked how all this additional lexis is to be committed to long-term memory in the limited time available on non-intensive classroom-based language courses. If it is the case that a significant fraction of…

  11. Children's Overtensing Errors: Phonological and Lexical Effects on Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2007-01-01

    Overtensing (the use of an inflected form in place of a nonfinite form, e.g. *"didn't broke" for target "didn't break") is common in early syntax. In a ChiLDES-based study of 36 children acquiring English, I examine the effects of phonological and lexical factors. For irregulars, errors are more common with verbs of low frequency and when…

  12. The Mnemonic Effect of Noticing Alliteration in Lexical Chunks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstromberg, Seth; Boers, Frank

    2008-01-01

    If good proficiency in L2 entails the acquisition not only of many single words but of many lexical chunks as well, it must then be asked how all this additional lexis is to be committed to long-term memory in the limited time available on non-intensive classroom-based language courses. If it is the case that a significant fraction of…

  13. Lexical methods for managing variation in biomedical terminologies.

    PubMed Central

    McCray, A. T.; Srinivasan, S.; Browne, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Access to biomedical terminologies is hampered by the high degree of variability inherent in natural language terms and in the terminologies themselves. The lexicon, lexical programs, databases, and indexes included with the 1994 release of the UMLS Knowledge Sources are designed to help users manage this variability. We describe these resources and illustrate their flexibility and usefulness in providing enhanced access to data in the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:7949926

  14. Age of acquisition effects in picture naming: evidence for a lexical-semantic competition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Belke, Eva; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S; Ghyselinck, Mandy

    2005-06-01

    In many tasks the effects of frequency and age of acquisition (AoA) on reaction latencies are similar in size. However, in picture naming the AoA-effect is often significantly larger than expected on the basis of the frequency-effect. Previous explanations of this frequency-independent AoA-effect have attributed it to the organisation of the semantic system or to the way phonological word forms are stored in the mental lexicon. Using a semantic blocking paradigm, we show that semantic context effects on naming latencies are more pronounced for late-acquired than for early-acquired words. This interaction between AoA and naming context is likely to arise during lexical-semantic encoding, which we put forward as the locus for the frequency-independent AoA-effect. PMID:15925568

  15. Why do young women smoke? I. Direct and interactive effects of environment, psychological characteristics and nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, L; Kanyas, K; Karni, O; Merbl, Y; Olender, T; Horowitz, A; Yakir, A; Lancet, D; Ben-Asher, E; Lerer, B

    2006-03-01

    Despite the health hazards, cigarette smoking is disproportionately frequent among young women. A significant contribution of genetic factors to smoking phenotypes is well established. Efforts to identify susceptibility genes do not generally take into account possible interaction with environment, life experience and psychological characteristics. We recruited 501 female Israeli students aged 20-30 years, obtained comprehensive background data and details of cigarette smoking and administered a battery of psychological instruments. Smoking initiators (n=242) were divided into subgroups with high (n=127) and low (n=115) levels of nicotine dependence based on their scores on the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire and genotyped with noninitiators (n=142) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes. We found nominally significant (P<0.05) allelic and genotypic association with smoking initiation of SNP rs2072660 and multilocus haplotypes (P<0.007-0.05) in CHRNB2 and nominal (P<0.05) allelic or genotypic association of SNPs in CHRNA7 (rs1909884), CHRNA9 (rs4861065) and CHRNB3 (rs9298629) with nicotine dependence. Employing logistic regression and controlling for known risk factors, the best-fitting model for smoking initiation encompassed a 5 SNP haplotype in CHRNB2, neuroticism and novelty seeking (P=5.9 x 10(-14), Nagelkerke r(2)=0.30). For severity of nicotine dependence, two SNPs in CHRNA7 (rs1909884 and rs883473), one SNP in CHRNA5 (rs680244) and the interaction of a SNP in CHRNA7 (rs2337980) with neuroticism, were included in the model (P=2.24 x 10(-7), Nagelkerke r(2)=0.40). These findings indicate that background factors, psychological characteristics and genetic variation in nicotinic cholinergic receptors contribute independently or interactively to smoking initiation and to severity of nicotine dependence in young women. PMID:16314871

  16. Some surface characteristics and gas interactions of Apollo 14 fines and rock fragments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Wagner, N. J.; Jones, B. R.; Stetter, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Comprehensive survey of the physical surface characteristics of Apollo 14 fines, two fragments of a breccia (14321), and a crystalline rock (14310). The survey was carried out with optical and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy and by studying the adsorption of a variety of gases including nitrogen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Our objective in the optical microscope study was to relate the visible geological and petrological features to the surface properties. Electron microscopy particularly helped relate surface roughness and particle fusion to gas adsorption and pore structure. The fine sample (14163,111) had a surface area of 0.210 sq m/g and a helium density of 2.9 g/cc. Similar values have been observed with breccia fragments. Other observations include physical adsorption of molecular hydrogen at low temperatures and of water vapor at ambient temperatures. It is concluded that these particular lunar materials, while capable of adsorbing water vapor, do not retain it for any significant time at low pressures, nor, under lunar conditions, is there any indication of absorption or penetration.

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of Lexical Diversity Indices: Assessing Length Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Heather Harris; Green, Samuel B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Several novel techniques have been developed recently to assess the breadth of a speaker's vocabulary exhibited in a language sample. The specific aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the validity of the scores generated by different lexical diversity (LD) estimation techniques. Four techniques were explored: D, Maas, measure of textual lexical diversity, and moving-average type–token ratio. Method Four LD indices were estimated for language samples on 4 discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story retell, and recounts) from 442 adults who are neurologically intact. The resulting data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results The scores for measure of textual lexical diversity and moving-average type–token ratio were stronger indicators of the LD of the language samples. The results for the other 2 techniques were consistent with the presence of method factors representing construct-irrelevant sources. Conclusion These findings offer a deeper understanding of the relative validity of the 4 estimation techniques and should assist clinicians and researchers in the selection of LD measures of language samples that minimize construct-irrelevant sources. PMID:25766139

  18. Input and word learning: caregivers' sensitivity to lexical category distinctions.

    PubMed

    Hall, D Geoffrey; Burns, Tracey C; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2003-08-01

    Twenty-four caregivers and their two- to four-year-old children took part in a storybook reading task in which caregivers taught children novel labels ('DAXY') for familiar objects. One group (N = 12) received labels modelled syntactically as proper names ('This is named DAXY'), and another group (N = 12) received the same labels for the same objects modelled syntactically as adjectives ('This is very DAXY'). Caregivers took strikingly different approaches to teaching words from the two lexical categories. In teaching proper names, but not adjectives, caregivers flagged cases in which one word was paired with two objects; two words were paired with one object; and one word was paired with an inanimate object. In teaching adjectives, but not proper names, caregivers discussed meaning and offered translations. Caregivers' distinctive strategies for teaching proper names and adjectives are congruent with recent findings about children's word meaning assumptions, and with analyses of the semantics of these lexical categories. The findings indicate that parental speech could provide a rich source of information to children in learning how different lexical categories are expressed in their native language. PMID:14513475

  19. Cross-language lexical processes and inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Linck, Jared A; Hoshino, Noriko; Kroll, Judith F

    2008-01-01

    Many recent studies demonstrate that both languages are active when bilinguals and second language (L2) learners are reading, listening, or speaking one language only. The parallel activity of the two languages has been hypothesized to create competition that must be resolved. Models of bilingual lexical access have proposed an inhibitory control mechanism to effectively limit attention to the intended language (e.g., Green, 1998). Critically, other recent research suggests that a lifetime of experience as a bilingual negotiating the competition across the two languages confers a set of benefits to cognitive control processes more generally (e.g., Bialystok, Craik, Klein, & Viswanathan, 2004). However, few studies have examined the consequences of individual differences in inhibitory control for performance on language processing tasks. The goal of the present work was to determine whether there is a relation between enhanced executive function and performance for L2 learners and bilinguals on lexical comprehension and production tasks. Data were analyzed from two studies involving a range of language processing tasks, a working memory measure, and also the Simon task, a nonlinguistic measure of inhibitory control. The results demonstrate that greater working memory resources and enhanced inhibitory control are related to a reduction in cross-language activation in a sentence context word naming task and a picture naming task, respectively. Other factors that may be related to inhibitory control are identified. The implications of these results for models of bilingual lexical comprehension and production are discussed. PMID:19907674

  20. Cross-language lexical processes and inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Linck, Jared A.; Hoshino, Noriko; Kroll, Judith F.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent studies demonstrate that both languages are active when bilinguals and second language (L2) learners are reading, listening, or speaking one language only. The parallel activity of the two languages has been hypothesized to create competition that must be resolved. Models of bilingual lexical access have proposed an inhibitory control mechanism to effectively limit attention to the intended language (e.g., Green, 1998). Critically, other recent research suggests that a lifetime of experience as a bilingual negotiating the competition across the two languages confers a set of benefits to cognitive control processes more generally (e.g., Bialystok, Craik, Klein, & Viswanathan, 2004). However, few studies have examined the consequences of individual differences in inhibitory control for performance on language processing tasks. The goal of the present work was to determine whether there is a relation between enhanced executive function and performance for L2 learners and bilinguals on lexical comprehension and production tasks. Data were analyzed from two studies involving a range of language processing tasks, a working memory measure, and also the Simon task, a nonlinguistic measure of inhibitory control. The results demonstrate that greater working memory resources and enhanced inhibitory control are related to a reduction in cross-language activation in a sentence context word naming task and a picture naming task, respectively. Other factors that may be related to inhibitory control are identified. The implications of these results for models of bilingual lexical comprehension and production are discussed. PMID:19907674

  1. The role of semantic diversity in lexical organization.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael N; Johns, Brendan T; Recchia, Gabriel

    2012-06-01

    Recent research has challenged the notion that word frequency is the organizing principle underlying lexical access, pointing instead to the number of contexts that a word occurs in (Adelman, Brown, & Quesada, 2006). Counting contexts gives a better quantitative fit to human lexical decision and naming data than counting raw occurrences of words. However, this approach ignores the information redundancy of the contexts in which the word occurs, a factor we refer to as semantic diversity. Using both a corpus-based study and a controlled artificial language experiment, we demonstrate the importance of contextual redundancy in lexical access, suggesting that contextual repetitions in language only increase a word's memory strength if the repetitions are accompanied by a modulation in semantic context. We introduce a cognitive process mechanism to explain the pattern of behaviour by encoding the word's context relative to the information redundancy between the current context and the word's current memory representation. The model gives a better account of identification latency data than models based on either raw frequency or document count, and also produces a better-organized space to simulate semantic similarity. PMID:22686160

  2. Can Chunk Size Differences Explain Developmental Changes in Lexical Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Smalle, Eleonore H. M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Simonis, Morgane; Duyck, Wouter; Page, Michael P. A.; Edwards, Martin G.; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated Hebb repetition learning (HRL) differences between children and adults, as a function of the type of item (lexical vs. sub-lexical) and the level of item-overlap between sequences. In a first experiment, it was shown that when non-repeating and repeating (Hebb) sequences of words were all permutations of the same words, HRL was slower than when the sequences shared no words. This item-overlap effect was observed in both children and adults. In a second experiment, we used syllable sequences and we observed reduced HRL due to item-overlap only in children. The findings are explained within a chunking account of the HRL effect on the basis of which we hypothesize that children, compared with adults, chunk syllable sequences in smaller units. By hypothesis, small chunks are more prone to interference from anagram representations included in the filler sequences, potentially explaining the item-overlap effect in children. This hypothesis was tested in a third experiment with adults where we experimentally manipulated the chunk size by embedding pauses in the syllable sequences. Interestingly, we showed that imposing a small chunk size caused adults to show the same behavioral effects as those observed in children. Departing from the analogy between verbal HRL and lexical development, the results are discussed in light of the less-is-more hypothesis of age-related differences in language acquisition. PMID:26779065

  3. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-12-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals' eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first versus second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the low-constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition. PMID:25266052

  4. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  5. The effects of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine on life history characteristics of flat-headed mayflies (Heptageniidae) and aquatic resource interactions.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Amanda L; Bernot, Melody J; Bernot, Randall J

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical pollutants are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems around the world and have biological effects on aquatic organisms. However, current understanding of the influence this contaminant class has on freshwater communities and ecosystems is lacking. Recently the scientific community has called for research focusing on certain pharmaceuticals due to their ubiquity and potential toxicity. Carbamazepine is one of these pharmaceuticals. To better understand the effect carbamazepine has on life history characteristics of aquatic organisms and consumer-resource interactions, we quantified the influence of carbamazepine on the development, growth and behavior of mayfly nymphs (Stenonema sp.) and the alterations in food consumer-resource interactions between Stenonema and algae (Chaetophora). Microcosms were assembled in a factorial design containing algae and mayfly nymphs native to central Indiana and dosed with environmentally relevant concentrations of carbamazepine. From this ecotoxicological experiment we were able to infer that carbamazepine at 2,000 ng/L influenced the development and behavior of Stenonema nymphs and the body dimensions of adult individuals. However, it appears that carbamazepine does not influence consumer-resource interactions at concentrations found in surface waters. The pharmaceutical carbamazepine may influence the behavior, growth and development of mayflies, which could have significant consequences at the population, community and ecosystem level. PMID:25130701

  6. Simulation study on characteristics of long-range interaction in randomly asymmetric exclusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-Bo; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Yang, Lan-Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the dynamics of an asymmetric exclusion process on a one-dimensional lattice with long-range hopping and random update via Monte Carlo simulations theoretically. Particles in the model will firstly try to hop over successive unoccupied sites with a probability q, which is different from previous exclusion process models. The probability q may represent the random access of particles. Numerical simulations for stationary particle currents, density profiles, and phase diagrams are obtained. There are three possible stationary phases: the low density (LD) phase, high density (HD) phase, and maximal current (MC) in the system, respectively. Interestingly, bulk density in the LD phase tends to zero, while the MC phase is governed by α, β, and q. The HD phase is nearly the same as the normal TASEP, determined by exit rate β. Theoretical analysis is in good agreement with simulation results. The proposed model may provide a better understanding of random interaction dynamics in complex systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41274109 and 11104022), the Fund for Sichuan Youth Science and Technology Innovation Research Team (Grant No. 2011JTD0013), and the Creative Team Program of Chengdu University of Technology.

  7. Acoustic characteristics of tail rotors and the effects of empennage interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Eric W.; Fitzgerald, James M.; Shenoy, Rajarama K.

    Acoustic and aerodynamic measurements were performed on a four-bladed 0.597-m-diameter scale model tail rotor in the Acoustic Research Tunnel. Initial tests were performed with isolated pusher and tractor tail rotor configurations to determine the operational parameters significantly affecting tail rotor acoustic levels. Subsequent tests incorporated a pylon and stabilizer to investigate tail rotor-empennage interaction effects. The primary determinant of near field tail rotor OASPL and dBD levels was found to be the advancing blade tip Mach number (M sub 1,90). Multiple linear regression analyses of the isolated tail rotor acoustic data indicated that in-plane noise was dominated by thickness noise and scaled approximately as M super 12.5 sub 1,90 and that the out-of-plane (45 deg) noise was significantly affected by higher harmonic and/or broadband 'vortex' noise scaling approximately as M super 8.2 sub 1,90, with rotational blade passage harmonic noise scaling approximately as M super 6.7 sub 1,90.

  8. Study on the influences of interaction behaviors between multiple combustion-gas jets on expansion characteristics of Taylor cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate means of controlling the interior ballistic stability of a bulk-loaded propellant gun (BLPG). Experiments on the interaction of twin combustion gas jets and liquid medium in a cylindrical stepped-wall combustion chamber are conducted in detail to obtain time series processes of jet expansion, and a numerical simulation under the same working conditions is also conducted to verify the reliability of the numerical method by comparing numerical results and experimental results. From this, numerical simulations on mutual interference and expansion characteristics of multiple combustion gas jets (four, six, and eight jets) in liquid medium are carried out, and the distribution characteristic of pressure, velocity, temperature, and evolutionary processes of Taylor cavities and streamlines of jet flow field are obtained in detail. The results of numerical simulations show that when different numbers of combustion gas jets expand in liquid medium, there are two different types of vortices in the jet flow field, including corner vortices of liquid phase near the step and backflow vortices of gas phase within Taylor cavities. Because of these two types of vortices, the radial expansion characteristic of the jets is increased, while changing numbers of combustion gas jets can restrain Kelvin-Helmholtz instability to a certain degree in jet expansion processes, which can at last realize the goal of controlling the interior ballistic stability of a BLPG. The optimum method for both suppressing Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and promoting radial expansion of Taylor cavities can be determined by analyzing the change of characteristic parameters in a jet flow field.

  9. Characteristics of the interaction of calcium with casein submicelles as determined by analytical affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, H.D.; Swaisgood, H.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Interaction of calcium with casein submicelles was investigated in CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers and with synthetic milk salt solutions using the technique of analytical affinity chromatography. Micelles that had been prepared by size exclusion chromatography with glycerolpropyl controlled-pore glass from fresh raw skim milk that had never been cooled, were dialyzed at room temperature against calcium-free imidazole buffer, pH 6.7. Resulting submicelles were covalently immobilized on succinamidopropyl controlled-pore glass (300-nm pore size). Using 45Ca to monitor the elution retardation, the affinity of free Ca2+ and calcium salt species was determined at temperatures of 20 to 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 to 7.5. Increasing the pH in this range or increasing the temperature strengthened the binding of calcium to submicelles, similar to previous observations with individual caseins. However, the enthalpy change obtained from the temperature dependence was considerably greater than that reported for alpha s1- and beta-caseins. Furthermore, the elution profiles for 45Ca in milk salt solutions were decidedly different from those in CaCl2 or calcium phosphate buffers and the affinities were also greater. For example, at pH 6.7 and 30 degrees C the average dissociation constant for the submicelle-calcium complex is 0.074 mM for CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers, vs 0.016 mM for the milk salt solution. The asymmetric frontal boundaries and higher average affinities observed with milk salts may be due to binding of calcium salts with greater affinity in addition to the binding of free Ca2+ in these solutions.

  10. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  11. Liquid lithium divertor characteristics and plasma-material interactions in NSTX high-performance plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Abrams, T.; Allain, J. P.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Menard, J.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stotler, D. P.; the NSTX Team

    2013-08-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. The LLD consisted of a copper-backed structure with a porous molybdenum front face. Nominal Li filling levels by the end of the run campaign exceeded the porosity void fraction by 150%. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. In addition, no substrate line emission was observed after achieving lithium-melt temperatures indicating the lithium wicks and provides a protective coating on the molybdenum porous layer. Impurity emission from the divertor suggests that the plasma is interacting with oxygen-contaminated lithium whether diverted on the LLD or not. A database of LLD discharges is analysed to consider whether there is a net effect on the discharges over the range of total deposited lithium in the machine. Examination of H-97L indicates that performance was constant throughout the run, consistent with the hypothesis that it is the quality of the surface layers of the lithium that impact performance. The accumulation of impurities suggests a fully flowing liquid lithium system to obtain a steady-state PFC on timescales relevant to NSTX.

  12. Characteristics of the Dust-Plasma Interaction Near Enceladus' South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Wahlund, J.-E.; Morooka, M. W; Kurth, W. S.; Farrell, W. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present RPWS Langmuir probe data from the third Enceladus flyby (E3) showing (he presence of dusty plasma near Enceladus' South Pole. There is a sharp rise in both the electron and ion number densities when the spacecraft traverses through Enceladus plume. The ion density near Enceladus is found to increase abruptly from about 10(exp 2) cm (exp -3) before the closest approach to 10(exp 5) cm (exp -3) just 30 s after the closest approach, an amount two orders of magnitude higher than the electron density. Assuming that the inconsistency between the electron and ion number densities is due to the presence of dust particles that are collecting the missing electron charges, we present dusty plasma characteristics down to sub-micron particle sizes. By assuming a differential dust number density for a range in dust sizes and by making use of Langmuir probe data, the dust densities for certain lower limits in dust size distribution were estimated. In order to achieve the dust densities of micrometer and larger sized grains comparable to the ones reported in the literature. we show that the power law size distribution must hold down to at least 0.03 micron such that the total differential number density is dominated by the smallest sub-micron sized grains. The total dust number density in Enceladus' plume is of the order of l0(exp 2) cm(exp -3) reducing to 1 cm(exp -3) in the E- ring. The dust density for micrometer and larger sized grains is estimated to be about 10(exp -4) cm(exp -3) in the plume while it is about 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -7) cm(exp -3) in the E-ring. Dust charge for micron sized grains is estimated to be about eight thousand electron charges reducing to below one hundred electron charges for 0.03 micron sized grains. The effective dusty plasma Debye length is estimated and compared with intergrain distance as well as the electron Debye length. The maximum dust charging time of 1.4 h is found for 0.03 11mmicron sized grains just 1 min before the closest approach. The charging time decreases substantially in the plume where it is only a fraction of a second for 1 micron sized grains, 1 s for 0.l micron sized grains and about 10 s for 0.03 micron sized grains.

  13. Surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash particles after interaction with seawater under natural deep sea conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brami, Y.; Shemesh, A.; Cohen, H.; Herut, B.

    1999-01-15

    The surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash (CFA) before and after interaction with Mediterranean deep seawater was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Significantly lower values of Si, Ca, and S and higher values of Mg and Cl were found in the retrieved CFA as compared to fresh CFA. It is suggested that hydrolysis of the oxide matrixes results in an alkaline environment which rapidly leads to several chemical reactions. The two most important are (a) dissolution of the amorphous silicate and the calcium phases and (b) precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2}-brucite. A depth profile of the retrieved CFA was measured by both line-shape analysis of the XPS spectra and by consecutive cycle of sputtering. The thickness of the brucite layer is estimated to be 1.3 nm.

  14. The Effect of Pressure Ratio on Unsteady Fluid-Structure Interaction Characteristics of Ball Type Control Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yang; Tu, Shan; Wang, Hongjuan

    Two-way sequential fluid-structure interaction method was used to analyze and discuss the characteristics of unsteady fluid-structure interaction of the complex flow channel of a steam turbine ball type control valve. Research indicates that when the pressure ratio changes as a sine wave, its flow rate occurs a sine wave change, and the maximum flow rate value of 57.46kg•s-1 occurs in the minimum pressure ratio condition. The longitudinal force of the structure domain decreases with the reduction of the pressure ratio, and points to the opposite direction of the flow. The lateral force increases with the decrease of the pressure ratio, and points to the opposite direction of the flow. The maximum value of deformation and force of the structure domain changes consistently with the pressure ratio fluctuation. The maximum value of the structure domain stress is 28.67MPa, which is far less than the yield strength of the structure material, and the maximum deformation value is 3.25um.

  15. Experimental study of needle-tissue interaction forces: effect of needle geometries, insertion methods and tissue characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Li, Pan; Yu, Yan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-10-17

    A thorough understanding of needle-tissue interaction mechanics is necessary to optimize needle design, achieve robotically needle steering, and establish surgical simulation system. It is obvious that the interaction is influenced by numerous variable parameters, which are divided into three categories: needle geometries, insertion methods, and tissue characteristics. A series of experiments are performed to explore the effect of influence factors (material samples n=5 for each factor) on the insertion force. Data were collected from different biological tissues and a special tissue-equivalent phantom with similar mechanical properties, using a 1-DOF mechanical testing system instrumented with a 6-DOF force/torque (F/T) sensor. The experimental results indicate that three basic phases (deformation, insertion, and extraction phase) are existent during needle penetration. Needle diameter (0.7-3.2mm), needle tip (blunt, diamond, conical, and beveled) and bevel angle (10-85°) are turned out to have a great influence on insertion force, so do the insertion velocity (0.5-10mm/s), drive mode (robot-assisted and hand-held), and the insertion process (interrupted and continuous). Different tissues such as skin, muscle, fat, liver capsule and vessel are proved to generate various force cures, which can contribute to the judgement of the needle position and provide efficient insertion strategy. PMID:25169657

  16. A network of specific minor-groove contacts is a common characteristic of paired-domain-DNA interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzari, L; Fabbro, D; Lonigro, R; Di Lauro, R; Damante, G

    1996-01-01

    Pax proteins are a family of transcription factors conserved during evolution and able to bind specific DNA sequences through a domain called a "paired domain'. The DNA-binding specificity of the Pax-8 paired domain was investigated. Site-selection experiments indicate that Pax-8 binds to a consensus sequence similar to those bound by Pax-2 and Pax-5. When consensus sequences of various paired domains are observed in light of recent structural studies describing paired-domain-DNA interaction [Xu, Rould, Jun, Desplan and Pabo (1995) Cell 80, 639-650], it appears that base-pairs contacted in the minor groove are conserved, while most of the base-pairs contacted in the major groove are not. Therefore a network of specific minor groove contacts is a common characteristic of paired-domain-DNA interactions. The functional importance of such a network was successfully tested by analysing the effect of consensus-based mutations on the Pax-8 binding site of the thyroglobulin promoter. PMID:8615801

  17. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Jason E.; Martin, Randi C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle was negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production. PMID:24478675

  18. Language Differences in the Brain Network for Reading in Naturalistic Story Reading and Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W. Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension. PMID:26017384

  19. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension. PMID:26017384

  20. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed. PMID:19530560

  1. Comparing the Lexical Features of EAP Students' Essays by Prompt and Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallée, Maxime; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that high frequency lexical items, such as AWL words and formulaic expressions, may differentiate between texts written by expert and novice writers (Chen & Baker, 2010; Hancioglu, 2009), and that lexical features related to breadth, depth, and accessibility differentiate among texts from L2 writers of different…

  2. Brief Report: An Exploratory Study of Lexical Skills in Bilingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jill M.; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Mirenda, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Studying lexical diversity in bilingual children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can contribute important information to our understanding of language development in this diverse population. In this exploratory study, lexical comprehension and production and overall language skills were investigated in 14 English-Chinese bilingual and 14…

  3. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  4. Nonword Repetition Priming in Lexical Decision Reverses as a Function of Study Task and Speed Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors argue that nonword repetition priming in lexical decision is the net result of 2 opposing processes. First, repeating nonwords in the lexical decision task results in the storage of a memory trace containing the interpretation that the letter string is a nonword; retrieval of this trace leads to an increase in performance for repeated…

  5. Depth versus Breadth of Lexical Repertoire: Assessing Their Roles in EFL Students' Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehsanzadeh, Seyed Jafar

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the roles of depth and breadth of lexical repertoire in L2 lexical inferencing success and incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Students read a graded reader containing 13 pseudo-words and attempted to infer the meanings of underlined target words. The Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) and the Vocabulary…

  6. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  7. How to Say "No" to a Nonword: A Leaky Competing Accumulator Model of Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model of the lexical decision task that can be used as a response/decision module for any computational model of word recognition. The LCA model uses evidence for a word, operationalized as some measure of lexical activity, as input to the "YES" decision node. Input to the "NO" decision node is…

  8. Responding to Nonwords in the Lexical Decision Task: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Balota, David A.; Ratcliff, Roger; Rueckl, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, because a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide…

  9. English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

  10. Roots, Stems, and the Universality of Lexical Representations: Evidence from Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Vaknin, Vered; Marcus, Gary F.

    2007-01-01

    Is the structure of lexical representations universal, or do languages vary in the fundamental ways in which they represent lexical information? Here, we consider a touchstone case: whether Semitic languages require a special morpheme, the consonantal root. In so doing, we explore a well-known constraint on the location of identical consonants…

  11. "The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

  12. Lexical Bundles in the Academic Writing of Advanced Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Yaoyu; Lei, Lei

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of lexical bundles in the academic writing of advanced Chinese EFL learners. A corpus of doctoral dissertations by the learners and a corpus of published journal articles by professional writers were collected for the study. Four-word lexical bundles in the two corpora were identified and analysed. Results…

  13. "If you look at" ...: Lexical Bundles in University Teaching and Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Conrad, Susan; Cortes, Viviana

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of multi-word sequences in two important university registers: classroom teaching and textbooks. Following Biber et al. (1999), we take a frequency driven approach to the identification of multi-word sequences, referred to as "lexical bundles". We compare the lexical bundles in classroom teaching and textbooks to…

  14. Lexical Bundle Analysis in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: The Significance of Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David; Cortes, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the lexical bundle, defined by corpus linguists as a group of three or more words that frequently recur together, in a single group, in a particular register (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, & Finegan, 2006; Cortes, "English for Specific Purposes" 23:397-423, 2004). Attention to lexical bundles helps to explore…

  15. Lexical Diffusion as a Factor of Phonetic Change: The Case of Modern French Nasal Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Anita Berit

    2001-01-01

    Explores the notion of lexical diffusion in relation to an ongoing change in modern French nasal vowels. Data are interviews with 42 Parisians. Reveals an independent lexical and grammatical conditioning, one not entirely explicable in terms of stress or phonetics. (Author/VWL)

  16. Distinguishing the Time Course of Lexical and Discourse Processes through Context, Coreference, and Quantified Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Gordon, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    How does prior context influence lexical and discourse-level processing during real-time language comprehension? Experiment 1 examined whether the referential ambiguity introduced by a repeated, anaphoric expression had an immediate or delayed effect on lexical and discourse processing, using an eye-tracking-while-reading task. Eye movements…

  17. Rater Sensitivity to Lexical Accuracy, Sophistication and Range when Assessing Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Erik; Ruegg, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Although raters can be trained to evaluate the lexical qualities of student essays, the question remains as to what extent raters follow the "lexis" scale descriptors in the rating scale when evaluating or rate according to their own criteria. The current study examines the extent to which 27 trained university EFL raters take various lexical…

  18. Children's Eye-Movements during Reading Reflect the Quality of Lexical Representations: An Individual Differences Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Steven G.; Henderson, John M.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    The lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002) suggests that skilled reading requires high-quality lexical representations. In children, these representations are still developing, and it has been suggested that this development leads to more adult-like eye-movement behavior during the reading of connected text. To test this idea, a…

  19. How to Say "No" to a Nonword: A Leaky Competing Accumulator Model of Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model of the lexical decision task that can be used as a response/decision module for any computational model of word recognition. The LCA model uses evidence for a word, operationalized as some measure of lexical activity, as input to the "YES" decision node. Input to the "NO" decision node is…

  20. Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csomay, Eniko

    2013-01-01

    The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…