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1

Interaction Chain Patterns of Online Text Construction with Lexical Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at arousing college students' metacognition in detecting lexical cohesion during online text construction as WordNet served as a lexical resource. A total of 83 students were requested to construct texts through sequences of actions identified as interaction chains in this study. Interaction chains are grouped and categorized as a…

Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong

2010-01-01

2

Evaluating lexical characteristics of verbal fluency output in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Standardized lexical analysis of verbal output has not been applied to verbal fluency tasks in schizophrenia. Performance of individuals with schizophrenia on both a letter (n=139) and semantic (n=137) fluency task was investigated. The lexical characteristics (word frequency, age-of-acquisition, word length, and semantic typicality) of words produced were evaluated and compared to those produced by a healthy control group matched on age, gender, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) vocabulary scores (n=20). Overall, individuals with schizophrenia produced fewer words than healthy controls, replicating past research (see Bokat and Goldberg, 2003). Words produced in the semantic fluency task by individuals with schizophrenia were, on average, earlier acquired and more typical of the category. In contrast, no differences in lexical characteristics emerged in the letter fluency task. The results are informative regarding how individuals with schizophrenia access their mental lexicons during the verbal fluency task. PMID:22809852

Juhasz, Barbara J; Chambers, Destinee; Shesler, Leah W; Haber, Alix; Kurtz, Matthew M

2012-12-30

3

Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

2010-01-01

4

Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

2014-01-01

5

Gloss: interactive navigation of lexical space  

E-print Network

Purchase,H.C. Kennish,J.M. Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific conference on Human Computer Interaction, Yong, L.K., Herman, L., Leung, Y.K. and Moyes, J. (eds), Information Technology Institute, National Computer Board of Singapore

Purchase, H.C.

6

An interactive Hebbian account of lexically guided tuning of speech perception  

PubMed Central

We describe an account of lexically guided tuning of speech perception based on interactive processing and Hebbian learning. Interactive feedback provides lexical information to prelexical levels, and Hebbian learning uses that information to retune the mapping from auditory input to prelexical representations of speech. Simulations of an extension of the TRACE model of speech perception are presented that demonstrate the efficacy of this mechanism. Further simulations show that acoustic similarity can account for the patterns of speaker generalization. This account addresses the role of lexical information in guiding both perception and learning with a single set of principles of information propagation. PMID:17484419

MIRMAN, DANIEL; McCLELLAND, JAMES L.; HOLT, LORI L.

2008-01-01

7

Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

8

Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

Ardila, Alfredo

2012-06-01

9

Early lexical characteristics of toddlers with cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

Objective : To examine development of early expressive lexicons in toddlers with cleft palate to determine whether they differ from those of noncleft toddlers in terms of size and lexical selectivity. Design : Retrospective. Patients : A total of 37 toddlers with cleft palate and 22 noncleft toddlers. Main Outcome Measures : The groups were compared for size of expressive lexicon reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory and the percentage of words beginning with obstruents and sonorants produced in a language sample. Differences between groups in the percentage of word initial consonants correct on the language sample were also examined. Results : Although expressive vocabulary was comparable at 13 months of age for both groups, size of the lexicon for the cleft group was significantly smaller than that for the noncleft group at 21 and 27 months of age. Toddlers with cleft palate produced significantly more words beginning with sonorants and fewer words beginning with obstruents in their spontaneous speech samples. They were also less accurate when producing word initial obstruents compared with the noncleft group. Conclusions : Toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate a slower rate of lexical development compared with their noncleft peers. The preference that toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate for words beginning with sonorants could suggest they are selecting words that begin with consonants that are easier for them to produce. An alternative explanation might be that because these children are less accurate in the production of obstruent consonants, listeners may not always identify obstruents when they occur. PMID:24295442

Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L

2014-11-01

10

Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

2013-01-01

11

Identifying nonwords: effects of lexical neighborhoods, phonotactic probability, and listener characteristics.  

PubMed

Listeners find it relatively difficult to recognize words that are similar-sounding to other known words. In contrast, when asked to identify spoken nonwords, listeners perform better when the nonwords are similar to many words in their language. These effects of sound similarity have been assessed in multiple ways, and both sublexical (phonotactic probability) and lexical (neighborhood) effects have been reported, leading to models that incorporate multiple stages of processing. One prediction that can be derived from these models is that there may be differences among individuals in the size of these similarity effects as a function of working memory abilities. This study investigates how item-individual characteristics of nonwords (both phonotactic probability and neighborhood density) interact with listener-individual characteristics (such as cognitive abilities and hearing sensitivity) in the perceptual identification of nonwords. A set of nonwords was used in which neighborhood density and phonotactic probability were not correlated. In our data, neighborhood density affected identification more reliably than did phonotactic probability. The first study, with young adults, showed that higher neighborhood density particularly benefits nonword identification for those with poorer attention-switching control. This suggests that it may be easier to focus attention on a novel item if it activates and receives support from more similar-sounding neighbors. A similar study on nonword identification with older adults showed increased neighborhood density effects for those with poorer hearing, suggesting that activation of long-term linguistic knowledge is particularly important to back up auditory representations that are degraded as a result of hearing loss. PMID:24597272

Janse, Esther; Newman, Rochelle S

2013-12-01

12

Modulation of additive and interactive effects in lexical decision by trial history.  

PubMed

Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model analyses applied to 2 lexical decision experiments indicating that apparent additive effects can be the product of aggregating over- and underadditive interaction effects that are modulated by recent trial history, particularly the lexical status and stimulus quality of the previous trial's target. Even a simple practice effect expressed as improved response speed across trials was powerfully modulated by the nature of the previous target item. These results suggest that additivity and interaction between factors may reflect trial-to-trial variation in stimulus representations and decision processes rather than fundamental differences in processing architecture. PMID:22774856

Masson, Michael E J; Kliegl, Reinhold

2013-05-01

13

Attentional Modulation of Lexical Effects in an Interactive Model of Speech Perception Daniel Mirman, James L. McClelland, and Lori L. Holt  

E-print Network

). Word advantage is modulated by secondary tasks and stimulus list composition (Eimas et al., 1990; Eimas in lexical effects on phoneme processing. Predictions 1. Conditions that reduce lexical effects should alsoAttentional Modulation of Lexical Effects in an Interactive Model of Speech Perception Daniel

Holt, Lori L.

14

Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

2011-01-01

15

Parent–child interaction and the acquisition of lexical information during play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined individual play interactions of 14 pairs of parents with their preschool-aged boys and girls (2.6–4.11 yrs old) to determine the ways mothers and fathers provided and elicited lexical information about the names and functions of the parts of a complex toy car. Parents' and children's speech was analyzed for utterances that provided or requested the name (label) or purpose

Elise F. Masur; Jean B. Gleason

1980-01-01

16

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

17

Observer Bias: An Interaction of Temperament Traits with Biases in the Semantic Perception of Lexical Material  

PubMed Central

The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of “background emotionality” and a “projection through capacities” were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study of stable individual differences. PMID:24475048

Trofimova, Ira

2014-01-01

18

A dual-route perspective on brain activation in response to visual words: evidence for a length by lexicality interaction in the visual word form area (VWFA).  

PubMed

Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does xxx sound like an existing word?") presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. PMID:19896538

Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-02-01

19

Temporal characteristics of the speech of typical and lexically precocious two-year-old children: preliminary observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the extent to which temporal properties of speech might be affected by children's lexical knowledge as opposed to their age and general development, productions by a group of two-year-olds with average-sized vocabularies were compared with those of a group of age-matched, lexically precocious children. It was hypothesized that because of their additional lexical knowledge and experience, the lexically precocious children would manifest shorter durations and/or less temporal variability in their speech. Multiple repetitions of several different target words were obtained from children with vocabularies at about the 50th percentile (ca. 300 words) versus the 90th percentile (ca. 600 words) on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. In general, acoustic measurements indicated that there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of their segmental durations or temporal variability. Thus, the additional linguistic knowledge and experience the precocious talkers had gained from having learned to produce many more words did not appear to have influenced temporal properties of their speech. This suggests that the children's age and/or other aspects of their development had a greater impact on temporal aspects of their speech than did their level of lexical knowledge and experience.

Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.

2002-05-01

20

Lexical Characteristics of Words Used in Emotional Stroop Experiments Randy J. Larsen, Kimberly A. Mercer, and David A. Balota  

E-print Network

with color naming or to grab attention, causing the person to be slower to name the colors of those words and hence are likely to contribute to delayed latencies in color naming. The often-replicated slowdown in color naming of emotion words may be due, in part, to lexical differences between the emotion

21

Ambiguity and synonymy effects in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks: interactions between orthography, phonology, and semantics.  

PubMed

In this article, ambiguity and synonymy effects were examined in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks. Whereas the typical ambiguity advantage was observed in lexical decision and naming, an ambiguity disadvantage was observed in semantic categorization. In addition, a synonymy effect (slower latencies for words with many synonyms than for words with few synonyms) was observed in lexical decision and naming but not in semantic categorization. These results suggest that (a) an ambiguity disadvantage arises only when a task requires semantic processing, (b) the ambiguity advantage and the synonymy disadvantage in lexical decision and naming are due to semantic feedback, and (c) these effects are determined by the nature of the feedback relationships from semantics to orthography and phonology. PMID:12109762

Hino, Yasushi; Lupker, Stephen J; Pexman, Penny M

2002-07-01

22

Interaction, Modality, and Word Engagement as Factors in Lexical Learning in a Chinese Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the roles of collaborative output, the modality of output, and word engagement in vocabulary learning and retention by Chinese-speaking undergraduate EFL learners. The two treatment groups reconstructed a passage that they had read in one of two ways: (1) dyadic oral interaction while producing a written report (Written…

Niu, Ruiying; Helms-Park, Rena

2014-01-01

23

The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2011-01-01

24

Bootstrapping Lexical and Syntactic Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on how phrasal prosody and function words may interact during early language acquisition. Experimental results show that infants have access to intermediate prosodic phrases (phonological phrases) during the first year of life, and use these to constrain lexical segmentation. These same intermediate prosodic phrases are used by…

Christophe, Anne; Millotte, Severine; Bernal, Savita; Lidz, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

25

Lexical analysis tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an algorithm for constructing a lexical analysis tool, by different means than the UNIX Lex tool. The input is a keywords table, describing the target language's keywords, keysymbols, and their semantics, instead of using regular expressions to do so.The output is a lexical analyzer for the specific programming language. The tool can also be used as a

Isaiah Pinchas Kantorovitz

2004-01-01

26

Lexical neighborhood effects in pseudoword spelling  

PubMed Central

The general aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes that underpin skilled adult spelling. More specifically, it investigates the influence of lexical neighbors on pseudo-word spelling with the goal of providing a more detailed account of the interaction between lexical and sublexical sources of knowledge in spelling. In prior research examining this topic, adult participants typically heard lists composed of both words and pseudo-words and had to make a lexical decision to each stimulus before writing the pseudo-words. However, these priming paradigms are susceptible to strategic influence and may therefore not give a clear picture of the processes normally engaged in spelling unfamiliar words. In our two Experiments involving 71 French-speaking literate adults, only pseudo-words were presented which participants were simply requested to write to dictation using the first spelling that came to mind. Unbeknownst to participants, pseudo-words varied according to whether they did or did not have a phonological word neighbor. Results revealed that low-probability phoneme/grapheme mappings (e.g., /o/ -> aud in French) were used significantly more often in spelling pseudo-words with a close phonological lexical neighbor with that spelling (e.g., /krepo/ derived from “crapaud,” /krapo/) than in spelling pseudo-words with no close neighbors (e.g., /frøpo/). In addition, the strength of this lexical influence increased with the lexical frequency of the word neighbors as well as with their degree of phonetic overlap with the pseudo-word targets. These results indicate that information from lexical and sublexical processes is integrated in the course of spelling, and a specific theoretical account as to how such integration may occur is introduced. PMID:24348436

Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Bosse, Marie-Line; Roberts, Daniel J.; Valdois, Sylviane; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

27

Lexical FreeNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finite relation expression networks, or FreeNets, allow users to search for lexical and conceptual relationships between words or phrases. Lexical FreeNet is a network that combines semantic relations derived from WordNet (discussed in the January 30, 1998 Scout Report) with relations derived from other linguistic data. To operate Lexical FreeNet, users type in a source concept and a target concept, select the linguistic relations they would like to explore, and then choose a query option. Every query returns a mapped binary connection, showing the path of relations between the source and the target. Users will be fascinated by how ostensibly unrelated words or concepts can be connected.

28

Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection  

PubMed Central

Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

2010-01-01

29

V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

2013-01-01

30

Semantic and Lexical Coherence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students understand coherence in terms of the lexical ties and semantic relations possible between clauses and sentences formalizes an area of writing instruction that has been somewhat vague before and makes the process of creating a coherent paragraph less mysterious. Many students do not have the intuitive knowledge base for absorbing…

Fahnestock, Jeanne

31

Meaningful Physical Changes Mediate Lexical-Semantic Integration: Top-Down and Form-Based Bottom-Up Information Sources Interact in the N400  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into…

Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

2011-01-01

32

On the Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency in Lexical Decision: Evidence for Opposing Interactive Influences Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency in lexical decision were examined in 4 experiments as a function of nonword type (legal nonwords, e.g., BRONE, vs. pseudohomophones, e.g., BRANE). When familiarity was a viable dimension for word-nonword discrimination, as when legal nonwords were used, additive effects of stimulus quality…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Besner, Derek

2008-01-01

33

Lexical ambiguity and information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical ambiguity is a pervasive problem in natural language processing. However, little quantitative information is available about the extent of the problem or about the impact that it has on information retrieval systems. We report on an analysis of lexical ambiguity in information retrieval test collections and on experiments to determine the utility of word meanings for separating relevant from

Robert Krovetz; W. Bruce Croft

1992-01-01

34

Lexical Resources and Their Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses computer-based resources for lexical data and their uses. First, the kinds of lexical data available are described, including those related to form (spelling, pronunciation, inflection, word class), meaning (definition/equivalent, synonyms/antonyms/hyperonyms, thesaurus classification), context (grammatical collocations,…

Gellerstam, Martin

35

Lexical Source-Code Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to syntactic matching on a program's abstract syntax tree, we explore the use of lexical matching on a program's source-code. Lexical techniques have been shown to be effective for the approximation of an abstract syntax tree, thus permitting tools that use regular expres- sions to effectively specify rewrite targets. In this paper, the features needed to support

Anthony Cox; Tony Abou-Assaleh; Wei Ai; Vlado Keselj

36

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

37

Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories  

PubMed Central

Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

2014-01-01

38

Word frequency and the lateralization of lexical processes.  

PubMed

Despite the extensive clinical and neuropsychological evidence for major differences in language function between the left and right hemispheres, it has proven difficult to demonstrate reliable differences in lexical processing. It is particularly surprising that frequency has been found to have no differential effects upon word recognition in the hemispheres, in view of the evidence that this variable has significant effects upon lexical processing. It is possible, however, that any interaction between word frequency and hemispheric processes is too subtle or too complex to be revealed by the simple dichotomous studies previously attempted. This study manipulated word frequency across seven levels in an effort to provide a fine-grained insight into the relationship between word frequency and lexical processing in the hemispheres. The results revealed a clear additivity between visual field and word frequency across all levels of frequency, for both RT and errors. Such findings create difficulties for the interpretation of studies of lateralized lexical access in general, and are particularly hard to reconcile with lateral asymmetries revealed in other aspects of lexical processing. It is proposed that a resolution of this problem may depend upon the development of theories that emphasise the notion of laterally distributed word representations, rather than discrete lexical structures on each side of the brain. PMID:15488913

Coney, Jeffrey

2005-01-01

39

The Influence of Lexical Status and Neighborhood Density on Children's Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical status and neighborhood density of constituent syllables on children's nonword repetition and interactions with nonword length. Lexical status of the target syllable impacted repetition accuracy for the longest nonwords. In addition, children made more errors that changed a nonword syllable to a word syllable…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Chisholm, Gina M.

2010-01-01

40

Context effects on lexical choice and lexical activation.  

PubMed

Speakers are regularly confronted with the choice among lexical alternatives when referring to objects, including basic-level names (e.g., car) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Beetle). Which of these names is eventually selected often depends on contextual factors. The present article reports a series of picture-word interference experiments that explored how the designated target name (basic level vs. subordinate level) and contextual constraints rendering the name alternative either appropriate or inappropriate affect lexical activation and lexical choice. The experimental data demonstrate clear context effects on the eventual lexical choice. However, they also show that alternative nonselected object names are phonologically activated, even if a constraining context makes these alternative names currently inappropriate. PMID:16248741

Jescheniak, Jörg D; Hantsch, Ansgar; Schriefers, Herbert

2005-09-01

41

An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition on access to the lexical-semantic network  

PubMed Central

The current study explored how factors of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition affect access to the lexical-semantic network during spoken word recognition. An auditory semantic priming lexical decision task was presented to subjects while in the MR scanner. Prime-target pairs consisted of prime words with the initial voiceless stop consonants /p/, /t/, and /k/ followed by word and nonword targets. To examine the neural consequences of lexical and sound structure competition, primes either had voiced minimal pair competitors or they did not, and they were either acoustically modified to be poorer exemplars of the voiceless phonetic category or not. Neural activation associated with semantic priming (Unrelated–Related conditions) revealed a bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal network. Within this network, clusters in the left insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left superior temporal gyrus (STG), and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) showed sensitivity to lexical competition. The pMTG also demonstrated sensitivity to acoustic modification, and the insula/IFG showed an interaction between lexical competition and acoustic modification. These findings suggest the posterior lexical-semantic network is modulated by both acoustic-phonetic and lexical structure, and that the resolution of these two sources of competition recruits frontal structures. PMID:23816958

Minicucci, Domenic; Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2013-01-01

42

Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

Blanchette, Judith

2012-01-01

43

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

44

Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals.  

PubMed

Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production. PMID:25071614

Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

2014-01-01

45

Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

2011-01-01

46

Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

2013-01-01

47

LEXER: A tool for lexical analysis of program input  

SciTech Connect

LEXER is a useful tool for lexical analysis. It is designed to give an application programmer the ability to write code that will quickly parse commands to an interactive program. It is also useful in parsing character data stored in a file. This is done by lexically analyzing the input character string and placing its components and related information into arrays stored in common blocks. The code is written in FORTRAN which conforms to the ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 in all but a few carefully documented areas. 2 refs.

Kephart, E.M.; Selleck, C.B.

1989-08-01

48

Lexical Expertise and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing of Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lexical quality hypothesis assumes that skilled readers rely on high quality lexical representations that afford autonomous lexical retrieval and reduce the need to rely on top-down context. This experiment investigated this hypothesis by comparing the performance of adults classified on reading comprehension and spelling performance. "Lexical

Andrews, Sally; Bond, Rachel

2009-01-01

49

Lexical Entrainment and Lexical Differentiation in Reference Phrase Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers reuse prior references to objects when choosing reference phrases, a phenomenon known as lexical entrainment. One explanation is that speakers want to maintain a set of previously established referential precedents. Speakers may also contrast any new referents against this previously established set, thereby avoiding applying the same…

Van Der Wege, Mija M.

2009-01-01

50

Characteristics of Interactive Learning Environments in Business Management Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to develop theoretical propositions for the institutional, course, instructor, and student characteristics of the learning environment where interactive learning techniques are used in college-level business courses. Using an interpretive case study method with examination of documents, observations of instructors and students,…

Nicastro, Mary L.

51

ON THE PARAMETER SPACE OF GENERATIVE LEXICALIZED STATISTICAL PARSING MODELS  

E-print Network

ON THE PARAMETER SPACE OF GENERATIVE LEXICALIZED STATISTICAL PARSING MODELS Daniel M. Bikel OF GENERATIVE LEXICALIZED STATISTICAL PARSING MODELS Daniel M. Bikel Supervisor: Mitchell P. Marcus systems that are lexicalized statistical parsing models. The primary idea is that of trea

Plotkin, Joshua B.

52

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia.  

PubMed

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E; Hogan, Tiffany P

2014-01-01

53

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

2014-01-01

54

Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical

Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

2009-01-01

55

Lexical Restructuring in the Absence of Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary growth was suggested to prompt the implementation of increasingly finer-grained lexical representations of spoken words in children (e.g., [Metsala, J. L., & Walley, A. C. (1998). "Spoken vocabulary growth and the segmental restructuring of lexical representations: precursors to phonemic awareness and early reading ability." In J. L.…

Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Fernandes, Sandra; Querido, Luis; Morais, Jose

2007-01-01

56

Lexical Choice: Towards Writing Problematic Word Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of lexical choice errors made by native Arabic-speaking learners of English in written compositions indicated that first-language interference is a major variable in lexical choice. Results lend support to the development of problematic word lists to help learners adopt practical strategies for improving…

Zughoul, Muhammad Raji

1991-01-01

57

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

58

Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

2014-01-01

59

Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

2012-01-01

60

Recognition memory for foreign language lexical stress.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether English speakers retained the lexical stress patterns of newly learned Spanish words. Participants studied spoken Spanish words (e.g., DUcha [shower], ciuDAD [city]; stressed syllables in capital letters) and subsequently performed a recognition task, in which studied words were presented with the same lexical stress pattern (DUcha) or the opposite lexical stress pattern (CIUdad). Participants were able to discriminate same- from opposite-stress words, indicating that lexical stress was encoded and used in the recognition process. Word-form similarity to English also influenced outcomes, with Spanish cognate words and words with trochaic stress (MANgo) being recognized more often and more quickly than Spanish cognate words with iambic stress (soLAR) and noncognates. The results suggest that while segmental and suprasegmental features of the native language influence foreign word recognition, foreign lexical stress patterns are encoded and not discarded in memory. PMID:23468133

Suárez, Lidia; Goh, Winston D

2013-08-01

61

Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Dysarthria in Greek with a Focus on Lexical Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of motor speech disorders in Greek is substantially underresearched. Additionally, acoustic studies on lexical stress in dysarthria are generally very rare (Kim et al. 2010). This dissertation examined the acoustic and perceptual effects of Greek dysarthria focusing on lexical stress. Additional possibly deviant speech characteristics were acoustically analyzed. Data from three dysarthric participants and matched controls was analyzed using a case study design. The analysis of lexical stress was based on data drawn from a single word repetition task that included pairs of disyllabic words differentiated by stress location. This data was acoustically analyzed in terms of the use of the acoustic cues for Greek stress. The ability of the dysarthric participants to signal stress in single words was further assessed in a stress identification task carried out by 14 naive Greek listeners. Overall, the acoustic and perceptual data indicated that, although all three dysarthric speakers presented with some difficulty in the patterning of stressed and unstressed syllables, each had different underlying problems that gave rise to quite distinct patterns of deviant speech characteristics. The atypical use of lexical stress cues in Anna's data obscured the prominence relations of stressed and unstressed syllables to the extent that the position of lexical stress was usually not perceptually transparent. Chris and Maria on the other hand, did not have marked difficulties signaling lexical stress location, although listeners were not 100% successful in the stress identification task. For the most part, Chris' atypical phonation patterns and Maria's very slow rate of speech did not interfere with lexical stress signaling. The acoustic analysis of the lexical stress cues was generally in agreement with the participants' performance in the stress identification task. Interestingly, in all three dysarthric participants, but more so in Anna, targets stressed on the 1st syllable were more impervious to error judgments of lexical stress location than targets stressed on the 2nd syllable, although the acoustic metrics did not always suggest a more appropriate use of lexical stress cues in 1st syllable position. The findings contribute to our limited knowledge of the speech characteristics of dysarthria across different languages.

Papakyritsis, Ioannis

62

Lexical knowledge without a lexicon?  

PubMed Central

Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words — with primary interest on rules — this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon. PMID:22069438

Elman, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

63

Unfolding visual lexical decision in time.  

PubMed

Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called "lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as "lexical" or "non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

2012-01-01

64

Individual Differences in the Joint Effects of Semantic Priming and Word Frequency Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses: The Role of Lexical Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the…

Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

2009-01-01

65

A lexical analysis of environmental sound categories.  

PubMed

In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second experimental study, 30 participants classified and described 56 sounds exclusively made by solid objects. The participants were required to concentrate on the actions causing the sounds independent of the sound source. The classifications were analyzed with a specific hierarchical cluster technique that accounted for possible cross-classifications, and the verbalizations were submitted to statistical lexical analyses. The results of the first study highlighted 4 main categories of sounds: solids, liquids, gases, and machines. The results of the second study indicated a distinction between discrete interactions (e.g., impacts) and continuous interactions (e.g., tearing) and suggested that actions and objects were not independent organizational principles. We propose a general structure of environmental sound categorization based on the sounds' temporal patterning, which has practical implications for the automatic classification of environmental sounds. PMID:22122114

Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

2012-03-01

66

Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments.  

PubMed

Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

Nation, Kate

2014-01-01

67

Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing  

PubMed Central

Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

2014-01-01

68

Presupposition in Lexical Analysis and Discourse  

E-print Network

Recent research in linguistic analysis of presuppositions has provided numerous indications of the role of presupposition in lexical analysis. Still others have argued there is no distinction between meaning and the ...

Bullwinkle, Candace L.

69

Design of a Lexical Database for Sanskrit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the architectural design rationale of a Sanskrit computational linguistics plat- form, where the lexical database has a cen- tral role. We explain the structuring require- ments issued from the interlinking of grammat- ical tools through its hypertext rendition.

Gerard Huet

70

An integrated neural model of semantic memory, lexical retrieval and category formation, based on a distributed feature representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a connectionist model of the semantic-lexical system. Model assumes that the lexical and semantic aspects\\u000a of language are memorized in two distinct stores, and are then linked together on the basis of previous experience, using\\u000a physiological learning mechanisms. Particular characteristics of the model are: (1) the semantic aspects of an object are\\u000a described by a collection of

Mauro Ursino; Cristiano Cuppini; Elisa Magosso

2011-01-01

71

Lexical Rules in Constraint-based Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical rules have been used to cover a very diverse range of phenomena in constraint-based grammars. Examination of the full range of rules proposed shows that Carpenter's (1991) postulated upper bound on the length of list-valued attributes such as SUBCAT in the lexicon cannot be maintained, leading to unrestricted generative capacity in constraint-based formalisms utilizing HPSG-style lexical rules. We argue

Ted Briscoe; Ann A. Copestake

1999-01-01

72

Lexical cltoice in context: generating procedural texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how lexical choice during text generation depemls on linguistic context. We argue that muking c(Irrect lexieal choice in rite textual context requires distinguishing properties of concepts, which are ntme or less independent of file language, from language-specific representations of text where lexemes and their semantic and symantic relations are represented. In particular, l.exical Fnnctions are well-suited to

Richard Kitu-edge

1992-01-01

73

Age of acquisition and lexical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a brief history of age of acquisition (AoA) research and consideration of measures of AoA, this review examines AoA effects in lexical processing tasks (such as object naming, word reading, and word recognition in the lexical decision task), and in object recognition and semantic processing tasks. It also considers AoA effects in: Memory tasks; face processing tasks; multiple-task studies;

Robert A. Johnston; Christopher Barry

2006-01-01

74

Exploring the role of lexical stress in lexical recognition.  

PubMed

Three cross-modal priming experiments examined the role of suprasegmental information in the processing of spoken words. All primes consisted of truncated spoken Dutch words. Recognition of visually presented word targets was facilitated by prior auditory presentation of the first two syllables of the same words as primes, but only if they were appropriately stressed (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by okTO-); inappropriate stress, compatible with another word (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by OCto-, the beginning of octopus), produced inhibition. Monosyllabic fragments (e.g., OC-) also produced facilitation when appropriately stressed; if inappropriately stressed, they produced neither facilitation nor inhibition. The bisyllabic fragments that were compatible with only one word produced facilitation to semantically associated words, but inappropriate stress caused no inhibition of associates. The results are explained within a model of spoken-word recognition involving competition between simultaneously activated phonological representations followed by activation of separate conceptual representations for strongly supported lexical candidates; at the level of the phonological representations, activation is modulated by both segmental and suprasegmental information. PMID:15903117

van Donselaar, Wilma; Koster, Mariëtte; Cutler, Anne

2005-02-01

75

A Study of Technical Signs in Science: Implications for Lexical Database Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both classroom instruction and lexical database development stand to benefit from applied research on sign language, which takes into consideration American Sign Language rules, pedagogical issues, and teacher characteristics. In this study of technical science signs, teachers' experience with signing and, especially, knowledge of content, were…

Lang, Harry G.; Hupper, Mary LaPorta; Monte, Denise A.; Brown, Scott W.; Babb, Ivar; Scheifele, Pete M.

2007-01-01

76

Developmental Differences in the Effects of Phonological, Lexical and Semantic Variables on Word Learning by Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of phonological (i.e. individual sounds), lexical (i.e. whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e. meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e. positional segment average, biphone average), two…

Storkel, Holly L.

2009-01-01

77

Studying the Grammatical Aspects of Word Recognition: Lexical Priming, Parsing,  

E-print Network

Studying the Grammatical Aspects of Word Recognition: Lexical Priming, Parsing, and Syntactic similar conclusions about the lexical nature of parsing in spoken language comprehension. They also priming; word recognition; syntactic processing; parsing. INTRODUCTION As part of the process

Kim, Albert.

78

Lexicalized Hidden Markov Models for Part-of-Speech Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since most previous works for HMM-based tagging consider only part-of-speech information in contexts, their models cannot utilize lexical information which is crucial for resolving some morphological ambiguity. In this paper we introduce uniformly lexicalized HMMs for part-of-speech tagging in both English and Korean. The lexicalized models use a simplified back-off smoothing technique to overcome data sparseness. In experiments, lexicalized models

Sang-Zoo Lee; Jun-ichi Tsujii; Hae-Chang Rim

2000-01-01

79

Attacks on Lexical Natural Language Steganography Systems Cuneyt M. Taskirana  

E-print Network

Attacks on Lexical Natural Language Steganography Systems Cuneyt M. Taskirana , Umut Topkarab. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method

Topkara, Mercan

80

Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

Koprowski, Mark

2005-01-01

81

Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle

2009-01-01

82

Consequences of Lexical Stress on Learning an Artificial Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined effects of lexical stress on lexical access for recently learned words. Participants learned artificial lexicons (48 words) containing phonologically similar items and were tested on their knowledge in a 4-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) referent-selection task. Lexical stress differences did not reduce confusions…

Creel, Sarah C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2006-01-01

83

Does Horse Activate Mother? Processing Lexical Tone in Form Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical tone languages make up the majority of all known languages of the world, but the role of tone in lexical processing remains unclear. In the present study, four form priming experiments examined the role of Mandarin tones in constraining lexical activation and the time course of the activation. When a prime and a target were related…

Lee, Chao-Yang

2007-01-01

84

WordNet An Electronic Lexical Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

WordNet, an electronic lexical database, is considered to be the most\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009important resource available to researchers in computational linguistics,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009text analysis, and many related areas. Its design is inspired by\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009current psycholinguistic and computational theories of human lexical\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are organized\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009into synonym sets, each representing one underlying lexicalized concept.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Different relations link the

Christiane Fellbaum

1998-01-01

85

Relationships between lexical and phonological development: a look at bilingual children--a commentary on Stoel-Gammon's 'Relationships between lexical and phonological development in young children'.  

PubMed

Stoel-Gammon (this issue) highlights the close and symbiotic association that exists between the lexical and phonological domains in early linguistic development. Her comprehensive review considers two bodies of literature: (1) child-centred studies; and (2) studies based on adult psycholinguistic research. Within the child-centred studies, both prelinguistic and early meaningful speech is examined. Stoel-Gammon organizes her review of child-centred studies around a series of postulates that capture the associations between lexical and phonological development and here she focuses primarily on normally developing children acquiring American English. My intention is not to question these postulates, which are based on established research findings, but to extend them beyond the limits of her review. In my commentary, I would like to explore the application of some of the stated postulates of the early meaningful speech period in children acquiring two or more languages. In so doing, I add a cross-linguistic dimension to the discussion; a dimension that Stoel-Gammon would like to see pursued in future research on this topic. I also expand our understanding of lexical-phonological relationships by considering the potential for interaction in multiple lexical-phonological relationships. PMID:20950499

Kehoe, Margaret

2011-01-01

86

Young Children's Sibling Relationship Interactional Types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examines patterns of sibling relationship qualities or interactional types and their association with family characteristics, parenting, and the characteristics of 1 of those children. Participants were 65 children (34 boys; Time 1 mean age = 51 months), their mothers, fathers, and Head Start teachers. Approximately…

Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin

2014-01-01

87

Characteristics of quercetin interactions with liposomal and vacuolar membranes.  

PubMed

Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is claimed to exert many beneficial health effects. With application of (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) techniques, quercetin interaction with liposomes formed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was analyzed. Patch-clamp technique was employed to study quercetin effects at single channel level of vacuolar membranes in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Light and electron microscopy were applied to study quercetin effects on human negroid cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). Enzymatic measurements along with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) bioassay were performed to investigate the influence of quercetin on antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inclusion of quercetin to the membrane exerted pronounced ordering effect on the motional freedom of lipids in the head group region as manifested by broadening of the (1)H NMR spectral line representing the choline groups. FTIR analysis revealed quercetin incorporation into DPPC liposomes via hydrogen bonding between its own hydroxyl groups and lipid polar head groups in the C-O-P-O-C segment. Both, FTIR and NMR techniques indicated also quercetin spectral effects in the region corresponding to alkyl chains. Patch-clamp experiments showed that quercetin stabilizes tonoplast and promotes a close state of SV channels. Microscopic observations of HeLa cells revealed characteristic changes in ultrastructure and morphology of the examined cells in comparison to control cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cells with quercetin alleviated H2O2-induced cell injury by improving redox balance as indicated by the increase in glutathione content and SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels as well as by the decrease in ROS level. \\In conclusion, the incorporation, distribution and the changes of biophysical properties of the membranes are very important for the effectiveness of phenolic compounds as antioxidant and anticancer factors. PMID:24001508

Pawlikowska-Pawl?ga, Bo?ena; Dziubi?ska, Halina; Król, El?bieta; Tr?bacz, Kazimierz; Jarosz-Wilko?azka, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Gawron, Antoni; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

2014-01-01

88

Spectro-temporal correlates of lexical access during auditory lexical decision.  

PubMed

Lexical access during speech comprehension comprises numerous computations, including activation, competition, and selection. The spatio-temporal profile of these processes involves neural activity in peri-auditory cortices at least as early as 200 ms after stimulation. Their oscillatory dynamics are less well understood, although reports link alpha band de-synchronization with lexical processing. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether these alpha-related oscillations reflect the speed of lexical access, as would be predicted if they index lexical activation. In an auditory semantic priming protocol, monosyllabic nouns were presented while participants performed a lexical decision task. Spatially-localizing beamforming was used to examine spectro-temporal effects in left and right auditory cortex time-locked to target word onset. Alpha and beta de-synchronization (10-20 Hz ERD) was attenuated for words following a related prime compared to an unrelated prime beginning about 270 ms after stimulus onset. This timing is consistent with how information about word identity unfolds incrementally in speech, quantified in information-theoretic terms. These findings suggest that alpha de-synchronization during auditory word processing is associated with early stages of lexical access. PMID:24769280

Brennan, Jonathan; Lignos, Constantine; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P L

2014-06-01

89

Computational Lexical Semantics LING 7800-006  

E-print Network

7/11/2011 1 1 Computational Lexical Semantics LING 7800-006 Christiane Fellbaum & Martha Palmer 7 tree? · Search through a state space representation of all possible parse trees · Each "path" in the search space corresponds to a sequence of grammar rules that represent one specific parse tree · Each

Palmer, Martha

90

Lexical Frequency Profiles and Zipf's Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laufer and Nation (1995) proposed that the Lexical Frequency Profile (LFP) can estimate the size of a second-language writer's productive vocabulary. Meara (2005) questioned the sensitivity and the reliability of LFPs for estimating vocabulary sizes, based on the results obtained from probabilistic simulations of LFPs. However, the underlying…

Edwards, Roderick; Collins, Laura

2011-01-01

91

Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

92

Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

2004-01-01

93

Overnight Lexical Consolidation Revealed by Speech Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of…

Dumay, Nicolas; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

94

Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

Jarvis, Scott

2013-01-01

95

Lexical Frequency Profiles: A Monte Carlo Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a set of Monte Carlo simulations designed to evaluate the main claims made by Laufer and Nation about the Lexical Frequency Profile (LFP). Laufer and Nation claim that the LFP is a sensitive and reliable tool for assessing productive vocabulary in L2 speakers, and they suggest it might have a serious role to play in diagnostic…

Meara, Paul

2005-01-01

96

Processing Facilitation in a Lexical Decision Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cost-benefit and speed-accuracy analysis of semantic priming in a lexical decision task provided information relevant to the automatic-conscious distinction as well as to the operation of discriminability, criterion bias, and response bias in the facilitation. (Author/MH)

Antos, Stephen J.

1979-01-01

97

Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody, but atypical lexical prosody production. Method 16 children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers participated in three experiments: 1. Perception of affective prosody, 2. Lexical stress perception, 3. Lexical stress production. In Experiment 1, participants labeled sad, happy, and neutral spoken sentences that were low-pass filtered, to eliminate verbal content. In Experiment 2 participants disambiguated word meanings based on lexical stress (HOTdog, vs. hotDOG). In Experiment 3 participants produced these words in a sentence completion task. Productions were analyzed using acoustic measures. Results Accuracy levels showed no group differences. Participants with HFA could determine affect from filtered sentences and disambiguate words based on lexical stress. They produced appropriately differentiated lexical stress patterns but demonstrated atypically long productions indicating reduced ability in natural prosody production. Conclusions Children with HFA were as capable as their TD peers in receptive tasks of lexical stress and affective prosody. Prosody productions were atypically long, despite accurate differentiation of lexical stress patterns. Future research should use larger samples and spontaneous vs. elicited productions. PMID:20530388

Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

2012-01-01

98

Characteristics of Interactional Management Functions in Group Oral by Japanese Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to investigate the characteristics of interaction dynamics in a group oral interaction carried out by Japanese learners of English. The relationship between the participants' language development and interactional management functions (IMFs) was also explored. Oral performance tests in a paired or a small group have recently…

Negishi, Junko

2010-01-01

99

Anorexia Nervosa: Family Characteristics and Family Interaction Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review examines research issues in anorexia nervosa, including conceptual issues and methodological considerations. Research on the family's contribution to the disorder is reviewed. The demographic characteristics of social class, birth order, history of sexual abuse, and biological and genetic factors are examined. Individual…

Geer, Susan Fellerman

100

Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment  

PubMed Central

HIGHLIGHTS The redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific processes and various levels of word processing. PMID:23818879

Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

2013-01-01

101

Predicting User Psychological Characteristics from Interactions with Empathetic Virtual Agents  

E-print Network

such as their personality could support a broad range of applications in education, training, and entertainment are induced from the interactions to accurately infer different aspects of a user's personality. Further information could be obtained by requiring users to fill out lengthy questionnaires or to be extensively

Young, R. Michael

102

Parent--Child Interactions in Autism: Characteristics of Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the literature on parent-child interactions in young children with autism has examined dyadic style, synchrony, and sustained engagement, the examination of parental skill in sustaining and developing play skills themselves has not been targeted. This study examined the extent to which parents of young children with autism match and…

Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie

2013-01-01

103

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning. PMID:20100042

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

104

The time course of automatic lexical access and aging*1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the issue of cognitive slowing in the elderly by examining the time course of automatic lexical access. College-aged subjects typically show a brief rise time (300-500 msec) for lexical access. In the present study, we examine whether there are changes in rapid, automatized access routines with age. Elderly and college-aged subjects performed a lexical decision task wherein

CATHERINE STERN; PENNY PRATHER; DAVID SWINNEY; EDGAR ZURIF

1991-01-01

105

Lexical-Grammatical Pragmatic Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the interlanguage pragmatics of learners of Hebrew and English (L2s) focuses on pragmatic indicators used in requests and apologies (situations in Appendix). Deviations from native-speaker norms in the speech of non-native speakers are discussed. Results suggest L2s' misuse of pragmatic indicators can have serious interactional

Blum-Kulka, Shoshana; Levenston, Edward A.

1987-01-01

106

Impairments of lexical-semantic processing in aphasia: evidence from the processing of lexical ambiguities.  

PubMed

Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics performed speeded lexical decisions on the third member of auditorily presented triplets consisting of two word primes followed by either a word or a nonword. In three of the four priming conditions, the second prime was a homonym with two unrelated meanings. The relation of the first prime and the target with the two meanings of the homonym was manipulated in the different priming conditions. The two readings of the ambiguous words either shared their grammatical form class (noun-noun ambiguities) or not (noun-verb ambiguities). The silent intervals between the members of the triplets were varied between 100, 500, and 1250 msec. Priming at the shortest interval is mainly attributed to automatic lexical processing, and priming at the longest interval is mainly due to forms of controlled lexical processing. For both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics overall priming effects were obtained at ISIs of 100 and 500 msec, but not at an ISI of 1250 msec. This pattern of results is consistent with the view that both types of aphasics can automatically access the semantic lexicon, but might be impaired in integrating lexical-semantic information into the context. Broca's aphasics showed a specific impairment in selecting the contextually appropriate reading of noun-verb ambiguities, which is suggested to result from a failure either in the on-line morphological parsing of complex word forms into a stem and an inflection or in the on-line exploitation of the syntactic implications of the inflectional suffix. In a final experiment patients were asked to explicitly judge the semantic relations between a subset of the primes that were used in the lexical decision study. Wernicke's aphasics performed worse than both Broca's aphasics and normal controls, indicating a specific impairment for these patients in consciously operating on automatically accessed lexical-semantic information. PMID:8358597

Hagoort, P

1993-08-01

107

Evidence for hemispheric specialization of lexical distinctions in bilingual Chinese-Mandarin speakers.  

PubMed

Lexical decision vocal reaction times of a group of English-proficient, Chinese-Mandarin speakers and group of monolingual, English speakers were measured to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract English words. Results of an ANOVA showed a significant group x visual field x stimulus type interaction. Post-hoc analysis showed a significant right visual field advantage for the Chinese subjects. For the English speaking subjects, right visual field stimulations yielded significantly faster vocal reaction times to the abstract words than to the concrete ones, while the opposite occurred for left visual-field inputs. Also, a correlation between the two lateral conditions was significant for the Chinese subjects but not for the English speakers. These findings suggest that the English speakers evidenced dissociated left and right hemispheric linguistic processing while the Chinese subjects left hemisphere was responsible for the final phonological stages of linguistic analysis. Such findings support a phonological "monitor-user" hypothesis for cerebral dominance characteristics in bilingual Chinese speakers. PMID:2249442

Rastatter, M P; Scukanec, G

1990-09-01

108

Manipulation of length and lexicality localizes the functional neuroanatomy of phonological processing in adult readers.  

PubMed

In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. A developmental fMRI study of reading and repetition reveals changes in phonological and visual mechanisms over age. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2054-2065, 2008]. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus. PMID:20433237

Church, Jessica A; Balota, David A; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2011-06-01

109

Lexical Training through Modeling and Elicitation Procedures with Late Talkers Who Have Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and…

Kouri, Theresa A.

2005-01-01

110

The Interaction Between Learner Characteristics and Two Methods of College Instruction: Conventional and Mastery Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether conventional instruction and mastery-based auto-tutorial instruction interacted with learning characteristics that were found to be instruction-interactive in previous research. Conventional instruction consisted of lecture with discussion and laboratory periods. The mastery-based auto-tutorial…

Root, Jon R.; Gall, Meredith D.

111

Characteristics of the Two Frontier Orbital Interactions in the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition  

E-print Network

Characteristics of the Two Frontier Orbital Interactions in the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Claude to give, in some cases, the corresponding Diels-Alder adducts. Clear differences in the roles played by the two frontier orbital interactions emerged. It was demonstrated that in the case of normal Diels-Alder

Spino, Claude

112

Exploring dyslexics' phonological deficit I: lexical vs sub-lexical and input vs output processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a series of experiments designed to explore the locus of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Phonological processing of dyslexic adults is compared to that of age- and IQ-matched controls. Dyslexics' impaired performance on tasks involving nonwords suggests that sub-lexical phonological representations are deficient. Contrasting nonword repetition vs auditory nonword discrimination suggests that dyslexics are specifically impaired in input

Gayaneh Szenkovits; Franck Ramus

2005-01-01

113

Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

2013-01-01

114

Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

2008-01-01

115

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

2010-01-01

116

Lexical Inhibition and Sublexical Facilitation Are Surprisingly Long Lasting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a listener hears a word (beef), current theories of spoken word recognition posit the activation of both lexical (beef) and sublexical (/b/, /i/, /f/) representations. No lexical representation can be settled on for an unfamiliar utterance (peef). The authors examined the perception of nonwords (peef) as a function of words or nonwords heard…

Sumner, Meghan; Samuel, Arthur G.

2007-01-01

117

Lexically scoped distribution: what you see is what you get  

Microsoft Academic Search

We dene a lexically scoped, asynchronous and distributed -calculus, with local communication and process migration. This calculus adopts the network-awareness principle for distributed programming and follows a simple model of distribution for mobile calculi: a lexical scope discipline combines static scoping with dynamic linking, associating channels to a xed site throughout computation. This discipline provides for both remote invocation and

António Ravara; Ana Gualdina Almeida Matos; Vasco Thudichum Vasconcelos; Luís M. B. Lopes

2003-01-01

118

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

119

Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

120

Deriving Verbal and Compositional Lexical Aspect for NLP Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal and compositional lexical aspect provide the underlying temporal structure of events. Knowledge of lexical aspect, e.g., (a)telicity, is therefore required for interpreting event sequences in discourse (Dowty, 1986; Moens and Steedman, 1988; Passoneau, 1988), interfacing to temporal databases (Androutsopoulos, 1996), processing temporal modifiers (Antonisse, 1994), describing allowable alternations and their semantic effects (Resnik, 1996; Tenny, 1994), and selecting tense

Bonnie J. Dorr; Mari Broman Olsen

1997-01-01

121

Lexical Resource Reconciliation in the Xerox Linguistic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper motivates and describes those aspects of the Xerox Linguistic Environ- ment (XLE) that facilitate the construction of broad-coverage Lexical Functional gram- mars by incorporating morphological and lexical material from external resources. Because that material can be incorrect, in- complete, or otherwise incompatible with the grammar, mechanisms are provided to correct and augment the external material to suit the

Ronald M. Kaplan; Paula S. Newman

1997-01-01

122

Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

2012-01-01

123

Is There a Lexical Bias Effect in Comprehension Monitoring?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related potentials were used to investigate if there is a lexical bias effect in comprehension monitoring. The lexical bias effect in language production (the tendency of phonological errors to result in existing words rather than nonwords) has been attributed to an internal self-monitoring system, which uses the comprehension system, and…

Severens, Els; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2009-01-01

124

The Processing of Lexical Tones by Young Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined five- and seven-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's processing of lexical tones in relation to speech segments by varying onset and rime in an oddity task (onset±rime±). Results showed that children experienced more difficulty in lexical tone oddity judgment when rimes differed across monosyllables (e.g.…

Lin, Candise Y.; Wang, Min; Shu, Hua

2013-01-01

125

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

126

Combining Supertagging and Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar Parsing  

E-print Network

Combining Supertagging and Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar Parsing Anoop Sarkar School-Adjoining Grammar (LTAG) parsing. Because of the highly lexicalized nature of the LTAG formalism, we ex- perimentally show that notions other than sentence length play a factor in observed parse times. In particular

Sarkar, Anoop

127

Lexical Viability Constraints on Speech Segmentation by Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Possible Word Constraint limits the number of lexical candidates considered in speech recognition by stipulating that input should be parsed into a string of lexically viable chunks. For instance, an isolated single consonant is not a feasible word candidate. Any segmentation containing such a chunk is disfavored. Five experiments using the…

Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Jusczyk, Peter W.; Cutler, Anne; Norris, Dennis

2003-01-01

128

Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

Acharya, Jayaraj

1990-01-01

129

Lexical Patterns in the Eyes of Intermediate EFL Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hoey (1991) claims that lexical patterns, which are a network of repetitious and synonymous words of a text, can be identified even by elementary foreign language readers. The present study investigates whether intermediate Japanese EFL readers can actually find elements of lexical patterns of a text Hoey uses in his book to demonstrate the…

Yamada, Kyoko

2005-01-01

130

Segregation of Lexical and Sub-Lexical Reading Processes in the Left Perisylvian Cortex  

PubMed Central

A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is the existence of two major, sub-lexical and lexical, reading processes and their possible segregation in the left posterior perisylvian cortex. Using cortical electrostimulation mapping, we identified the cortical areas involved on reading either orthographically irregular words (lexical, “direct” process) or pronounceable pseudowords (sublexical, “indirect” process) in 14 right-handed neurosurgical patients while video-recording behavioral effects. Intraoperative neuronavigation system and Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates were used to identify the localization of stimulation sites. Fifty-one reading interference areas were found that affected either words (14 areas), or pseudo-words (11 areas), or both (26 areas). Forty-one (80%) corresponded to the impairment of the phonological level of reading processes. Reading processes involved discrete, highly localized perisylvian cortical areas with individual variability. MNI coordinates throughout the group exhibited a clear segregation according to the tested reading route; specific pseudo-word reading interferences were concentrated in a restricted inferior and anterior subpart of the left supramarginal gyrus (barycentre x?=??68.1; y?=??25.9; z?=?30.2; Brodmann’s area 40) while specific word reading areas were located almost exclusively alongside the left superior temporal gyrus. Although half of the reading interferences found were nonspecific, the finding of specific lexical or sublexical interferences is new evidence that lexical and sublexical processes of reading could be partially supported by distinct cortical sub-regions despite their anatomical proximity. These data are in line with many brain activation studies that showed that left superior temporal and inferior parietal regions had a crucial role respectively in word and pseudoword reading and were core regions for dyslexia. PMID:23226349

Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Jucla, Melanie; Rehault, Emilie; Reddy, Marion; Demonet, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

131

Structure and Function in the Lexical System: Insights from Distributed Models of Word Reading and Lexical Decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view of the lexical system stipulates word-speciéc representations and separate pathways for regular and exception words. An alternative approach views lexical knowledge as developing from general learning principles applied to mappings among distributed representations of written and spoken words and their meanings. On this distributed account, distinctions among words, and between words and nonwords, are not reié ed

David C. Plaut

1997-01-01

132

RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mah?bh?rata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mah?bh?rata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devan?gar? Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

Mani, Diwakar

133

Code-Switching as Indexical of Native Language Lexical Deficiency in Mauritania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between French instruction and the phenomena of discontinued lexical development, lexical attrition, and lexical deficiency in the speech of Mauritanians. Findings indicate native-language lexical deficiency was reflected in code switching, and subjects (Ss) with low native-language fluency code switched more than Ss…

Sounkalo, Jiddou

1995-01-01

134

Lexical-perceptual integration influences sensorimotor adaptation in speech  

PubMed Central

A combination of lexical bias and altered auditory feedback was used to investigate the influence of higher-order linguistic knowledge on the perceptual aspects of speech motor control. Subjects produced monosyllabic real words or pseudo-words containing the vowel [?] (as in “head”) under conditions of altered auditory feedback involving a decrease in vowel first formant (F1) frequency. This manipulation had the effect of making the vowel sound more similar to [I] (as in “hid”), affecting the lexical status of produced words in two Lexical-Change (LC) groups (either changing them from real words to pseudo-words: e.g., less—liss, or pseudo-words to real words: e.g., kess—kiss). Two Non-Lexical-Change (NLC) control groups underwent the same auditory feedback manipulation during the production of [?] real- or pseudo-words, only without any resulting change in lexical status (real words to real words: e.g., mess—miss, or pseudo-words to pseudo-words: e.g., ness—niss). The results from the LC groups indicate that auditory-feedback-based speech motor learning is sensitive to the lexical status of the stimuli being produced, in that speakers tend to keep their acoustic speech outcomes within the auditory-perceptual space corresponding to the task-related side of the word/non-word boundary (real words or pseudo-words). For the NLC groups, however, no such effect of lexical status is observed. PMID:24860460

Bourguignon, Nicolas J.; Baum, Shari R.; Shiller, Douglas M.

2014-01-01

135

The effects of familiarization on intelligibility and lexical segmentation in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is the third in a series that has explored the source of intelligibility decrement in dysarthria by jointly considering signal characteristics and the cognitive-perceptual processes employed by listeners. A paradigm of lexical boundary error analysis was used to examine this interface by manipulating listener constraints with a brief familiarization procedure. If familiarization allows listeners to extract relevant segmental and suprasegmental information from dysarthric speech, they should obtain higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized listeners, and their lexical boundary error patterns should approximate those obtained in misperceptions of normal speech. Listeners transcribed phrases produced by speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria after being familiarized with other phrases produced by these speakers. Data were compared to those of nonfamiliarized listeners [Liss et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 3415-3424 (2000)]. The familiarized groups obtained higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized groups, and the effects were greater when the dysarthria type of the familiarization procedure matched the dysarthria type of the transcription task. Remarkably, no differences in lexical boundary error patterns were discovered between the familiarized and nonfamiliarized groups. Transcribers of the ataxic speech appeared to have difficulty distinguishing strong and weak syllables in spite of the familiarization. Results suggest that intelligibility decrements arise from the perceptual challenges posed by the degraded segmental and suprasegmental aspects of the signal, but that this type of familiarization process may differentially facilitate mapping segmental information onto existing phonological categories.

Liss, Julie M.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles

2002-12-01

136

[Q:] When would you prefer a SOSSAGE to a SAUSAGE? [A:] At about 100 msec. ERP correlates of orthographic typicality and lexicality in written word recognition.  

PubMed

Using a speeded lexical decision task, event-related potentials (ERPs), and minimum norm current source estimates, we investigated early spatiotemporal aspects of cortical activation elicited by words and pseudo-words that varied in their orthographic typicality, that is, in the frequency of their component letter pairs (bi-grams) and triplets (tri-grams). At around 100 msec after stimulus onset, the ERP pattern revealed a significant typicality effect, where words and pseudo-words with atypical orthography (e.g., yacht, cacht) elicited stronger brain activation than items characterized by typical spelling patterns (cart, yart). At approximately 200 msec, the ERP pattern revealed a significant lexicality effect, with pseudo-words eliciting stronger brain activity than words. The two main factors interacted significantly at around 160 msec, where words showed a typicality effect but pseudo-words did not. The principal cortical sources of the effects of both typicality and lexicality were localized in the inferior temporal cortex. Around 160 msec, atypical words elicited the stronger source currents in the left anterior inferior temporal cortex, whereas the left perisylvian cortex was the site of greater activation to typical words. Our data support distinct but interactive processing stages in word recognition, with surface features of the stimulus being processed before the word as a meaningful lexical entry. The interaction of typicality and lexicality can be explained by integration of information from the early form-based system and lexicosemantic processes. PMID:16768380

Hauk, O; Patterson, K; Woollams, A; Watling, L; Pulvermüller, F; Rogers, T T

2006-05-01

137

WordNet: A Lexical Database for English  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WordNet is a powerful lexical reference system that combines aspects of dictionaries and thesauri with current psycholinguistic theories of human lexical memory. It is produced by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University, under the direction of Professor George Miller. In WordNet, words are defined and grouped into various related sets of synonyms. Not only is the system valuable to the casual user as a powerful thesaurus and dictionary, but also to the researcher as one of the few freely available, lexical databases. WordNet is available via an on-line interface and also as easy-to-compile C source code for Unix.

138

Fully transparent orthography, yet lexical reading aloud: The lexicality effect in Italian  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. Contrary to the claim that in such orthography

Giovanni Pagliuca; Lisa S. Arduino; Laura Barca; Cristina Burani

2008-01-01

139

Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: the frequency-lag hypothesis.  

PubMed

To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraint contexts, and were reduced by high-constraint contexts only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production but a frequency-driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production. PMID:21219080

Gollan, Tamar H; Slattery, Timothy J; Goldenberg, Diane; Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith

2011-05-01

140

Influence of intermolecular interactions on spectroscopic characteristics of metal nanoparticles and their composites.  

PubMed

In this paper we investigate the possibility to apply the concepts of non-specific intermolecular interactions and dispersive local field effect approach for study of the influence of interactions of metal nanoparticles with matrix molecules on the spectral characteristics of composites. The effect of intermolecular (interparticle) interactions and the influence of the dielectric environment on the peak position of the plasmon resonance band of colloidal solutions and thin films formed from noble metal nanostructures is determined. Simulated and experimental absorption spectra obtained for a colloidal solution of silver and gold nanoparticles, of various shapes and sizes in water and glycerol, are in good agreement. PMID:25310112

Shaganov, Igor I; Perova, Tatiana S; Mukhina, Maria V; Martynenko, Irina V; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gerard, Valerie; Gun'ko, Yuri K

2014-10-21

141

Lexical Concept Distribution Reflects Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

It is not known whether narrative medical text directly reflects clinical reality. We have tested the hypothesis that the pattern of distribution of lexical concept of medication intensification in narrative provider notes correlates with clinical practice as reflected in electronic medication records. Over 29,000 medication intensifications identified in narrative provider notes and 444,000 electronic medication records for 82 anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic medications were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the fraction of dose increases among all medication intensifications and therapeutic range calculated from EMR medication records was 0.39 (p = 0.0003). Correlations with therapeutic ranges obtained from two medication dictionaries, used as a negative control, were not significant. These findings provide evidence that narrative medical documents directly reflect clinical practice and constitute a valid source of medical data. PMID:23304273

Breydo, Eugene; Shubina, Maria; Shalaby, James W.; Einbinder, Jonathan S.; Turchin, Alexander

2012-01-01

142

Phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection.  

PubMed

Speakers produce words to convey meaning, but does meaning alone determine which words they say? We report three experiments that show independent semantic and phonological influences converging to determine word selection. Speakers named pictures (e.g., of a priest) following visually presented cloze sentences that primed either semantic competitors of the target object name ("The woman went to the convent to become a..."), homophones of the competitors ("I thought that there would still be some cookies left, but there were..."), or matched unrelated control object names. Primed semantic competitors (nun) were produced instead of picture names more often than primed unrelated control object names, showing the well-documented influence of semantic similarity on lexical selection. Surprisingly, primed homophone competitors (none) also substituted for picture names more often than control object names even though they only sounded like competitors. Thus, independent semantic and phonological influences can converge to affect word selection. PMID:12564760

Ferreira, Victor S; Griffin, Zenzi M

2003-01-01

143

Interactive effect of ractopamine and dietary fat source on quality characteristics of fresh pork bellies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the interaction, if any, of ractopamine (RAC) and dietary fat source on the characteristics of fresh pork bellies. Pigs were blocked by BW (77.6 ± 6.5 kg) and allotted randomly to pens (6 pigs\\/pen). After receiving a common diet devoid of RAC for 2 wk, pens within blocks were assigned randomly

J. K. Apple; C. V. Maxwell; J. T. Sawyer; B. R. Kutz; L. K. Rakes; M. E. Davis; Z. B. Johnson; S. N. Carr; T. A. Armstrong

2007-01-01

144

Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

2005-01-01

145

Social Interaction and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A Case Study in Authentic Enterprise Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper is an empirical study which aims to investigate the development of social interaction and their impacts on developing learners' entrepreneurial characteristics throughout their participation in an authentic enterprise activity. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of this study was drawn from the participants of an…

Yu, Christina W. M.; Man, Thomas W. Y.

2009-01-01

146

Child Characteristics, Home Social-Contextual Factors, and Children's Academic Peer Interaction Behaviors in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addressed questions about the relations between personal characteristics and aspects of home environments and young children's subsequent academically relevant peer interaction behaviors in kindergarten in a sample of 108 preschool-age children (57 males, 51 females) from 2 Midwest cities and neighboring communities. A year prior to the…

Neitzel, Carin

2009-01-01

147

The Arabic Lexical Contributions to the English Language  

E-print Network

book is the largest, most up-to-date collection of English words and multiword lexical units borrowed from Arabic, directly or sometimes through a mediating language such as Hindi or Urdu, Persian, or Turkish. All general English dictionaries were...

Cannon, Garland; Kaye, Alan S.

2007-03-05

148

Lexical semantics and knowledge representation in multilingual sentence generation  

E-print Network

for lexical semantics in this fashion is a formalization of a number of verb alternations, for which or stylistic features of the utterance. These dimensions are integrated into the system, and it can thus

Toronto, University of

149

Interaction of Optaflexx® and terminal implant window on growth performance and carcass characteristics in heifers fed to harvest.  

E-print Network

??Objectives were to evaluate the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (OPT) and timing of terminal implant administration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, serum metabolites… (more)

Jennings, Aaron

2012-01-01

150

Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the introduction of lexical innovations into a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e. new term added to people's vocabulary, plays an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, information is spread through a variety of networks, including, among others, online and offline social networks and the World Wide Web. The entire system, comprising networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, lexical innovations diffusion occurs in a peculiar fashion. In particular, a lexical innovation can undergo three different processes: its original meaning is accepted; its meaning can be changed or misunderstood (e.g. when not properly explained), hence more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Lastly, in the case of a loan word, it can be translated into the population language (i.e. defining a new lexical innovation or using a synonym) or into a dialect spoken by part of the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered simply as information. We develop a model for analyzing this scenario using a multi-layer network comprising a social network and a media network. The latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g. television, the World Wide Web and radio. Furthermore, we identify temporal directed edges between the nodes of these two networks. In particular, at each time-step, nodes of the media network can be connected to randomly chosen nodes of the social network and vice versa. In doing so, information spreads through the whole system and people can share a lexical innovation with their neighbors or, in the event they work as reporters, by using media nodes. Lastly, we use the concept of "linguistic sign" to model lexical innovations, showing its fundamental role in the study of these dynamics. Many numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the proposed model and its outcomes.

Javarone, Marco Alberto

2014-04-01

151

Hospital physicians' assessments of their interaction with GPs: the role of physician and community characteristics.  

PubMed

The way in which hospital physicians and general practitioners (GPs) interact has important implications for any health care system, particularly in systems relying on gatekeeping through the GPs for moderating access to hospital and specialist services. Several individual, organisational and contextual factors may serve as potential barriers or facilitators of the interaction between specialists and GPs. Using a survey among 1229 Norwegian hospital physicians the paper tests the role of physician and community factors for hospital physicians' satisfaction with their interaction with GPs, while also controlling for relevant hospital characteristics. The results indicate that the hospital physicians are only moderately satisfied with their interaction with GPs, and that there is certainly room for improvement. The multivariate analysis shows that the more satisfied the GPs are with their interaction with the hospital, the more satisfied are also the hospital physicians with their corresponding interaction with the GPs. Furthermore, a high GP coverage in the municipalities in the hospital catchment area is associated with a higher satisfaction among the hospital physicians. The results also suggest that meeting GPs face-to-face in meetings is associated with a more positive evaluation of the interaction with GPs. PMID:23182128

Martinussen, Pål E

2013-04-01

152

Understanding interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and reductive decolorization using Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air–cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically

Bor-Yann Chen; Yu-Min Wang; I-Son Ng

2011-01-01

153

The cognitive chronometric architecture of reading aloud: semantic and lexical effects on naming onset and duration  

PubMed Central

We examined onset reaction time (RT) in a word naming task using an additive factors method (AFM). The pattern of additive and over-additive joint effects on RT among Instructions (INST: name all, name words), Word Frequency (WF: log10 HAL), Semantic Neighborhood Density (SND: Inverse Ncount), and Word Type (WT: regular, exception) supported a cognitive chronometric architecture consisting of at least two cascaded stages of processing, with the orthographic lexical system as the locus of the INST × WF and the INST × SND interactions, and the phonological output system as the locus of the WF × WT and the SND × WT interactions. Additivity between INST and WT supports the notion that these variables affect separable systems, and a WF × SND interaction supports a common locus of their effects. These results support stage-like/cascaded processing models over parallel processing models of basic reading. We also examined response duration (RD) in these data by recording and hand-marking vocal responses, which provides evidence that basic reading processes are ongoing even after the initiation of a vocal response, and supports the notion that the more lexically a word is read, the shorter the RD. As such, the effects of WT and INST on RD were opposite to their effects on RT however the effects of WF and SND on RD were in the same direction as their effects on RT. Given the combination of consistent and dissociating effects between RT and RD, these results provide new challenges to all models of basic reading processes. PMID:23125825

Gould, Layla; Cummine, Jacqueline; Borowsky, Ron

2012-01-01

154

Comparing the Effect of Teacher Codeswitching with English-Only Explanations on the Vocabulary Acquisition of Chinese University Students: A Lexical Focus-on-Form Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of teacher codeswitching on second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition during listening comprehension activities in a lexical Focus-on-Form context. To date there has been research on teacher beliefs about first language (L1) use, its functions and its distribution in the interaction, but little on its effect on…

Tian, Lili; Macaro, Ernesto

2012-01-01

155

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

156

The impact of material characteristics on tire pavement interaction noise for flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise pollution has recently been one of the growing problems all over the world. While there are many sources of the noise, traffic noise is the main contributor to the total environmental noise. Although there are different sources for traffic noise, the tire pavement interaction noise is the most dominant component within most city and highway limits. One of the ways to reduce the tire pavement noise is to improve the material characteristics of the pavements such that they produce less noise. In this study, the relationship between basic material characteristics (e.g., Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) volumetrics) and sound generation and absorption characteristics of flexible pavements was investigated. In addition, the effect of linear visco-elastic properties (e.g., dynamic modulus (|E*|) and phase angle (delta)) on sound absorption was studied. In order to focus only on impact of material characteristics and overshadow the effect of surface texture, a novel laboratory tire pavement noise measurement simulator (TIPANOS) was developed. The statistical analysis results showed that although the individual material characteristics do not have appreciable influence on sound absorption, there is a significant correlation between sound pressure levels (SPL) and combination of several material and linear visco-elastic parameters.

Kocak, Salih

157

Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

2010-01-01

158

Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change  

E-print Network

Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change English. Finally, the effect of bound morphemes on the diffusion of a sound change is ex- amined. The data. Lexical diffusion refers to the way that a sound change affects the lexicon. If sound change is lexically

Port, Robert

159

Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

2013-01-01

160

Lexical Stress Modeling for Improved Speech Recognition of Spontaneous Telephone Speech in the JUPITER Domain1  

E-print Network

Lexical Stress Modeling for Improved Speech Recognition of Spontaneous Telephone Speech an approach of using lexical stress mod- els to improve the speech recognition performance on sponta- neous with lexical stress on a large corpus of spontaneous utterances, and identified the most informative features

161

A Pretopological Framework for the Automatic Construction of Lexical-Semantic Structures from Texts  

E-print Network

into a lexical-semantic structure may enrich the rea- soning capabilities of Information Retrieval and NaturalA Pretopological Framework for the Automatic Construction of Lexical-Semantic Structures from Texts for the automatic generation of lexical-semantic structures from texts. In par- ticular, we propose a pretopological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Multilingual generation: The role of telicity in lexical choice and syntactic realization  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Multilingual generation in machine translation (MT) requires a knowledgeorganization that facilitates the task of lexical choice, i.e., selection of lexicalunits to be used in the generation of a target-language sentence. This paper investigatesthe extent to which lexicalization patterns involving the lexical aspect feature[+telic] (`having an inherent end\\

Bonnie J. Dorr; Mari Broman Olsen

1996-01-01

163

How Involved Are American L2 Learners of Spanish in Lexical Input Processing Tasks during Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the nature of the involvement load (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) in second language (L2) lexical input processing through reading by considering the effects of the reader-based factors of L2 reading proficiency and background knowledge. The lexical input processing aspects investigated were lexical inferencing (search), attentional…

Pulido, Diana

2009-01-01

164

Effects of Training on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Using Lexically Hard Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined how repeated presentations of lexically difficult words within a background noise affect a listener's ability to understand both trained (lexically difficult) and untrained (lexically easy) words in isolation and within sentences. Method: In the 1st experiment, 9 young listeners with normal hearing completed a…

Burk, Matthew H.; Humes, Larry E.

2007-01-01

165

Phi-square Lexical Competition Database (Phi-Lex): an online tool for quantifying auditory and visual lexical competition.  

PubMed

A widely agreed-upon feature of spoken word recognition is that multiple lexical candidates in memory are simultaneously activated in parallel when a listener hears a word, and that those candidates compete for recognition (Luce, Goldinger, Auer, & Vitevitch, Perception 62:615-625, 2000; Luce & Pisoni, Ear and Hearing 19:1-36, 1998; McClelland & Elman, Cognitive Psychology 18:1-86, 1986). Because the presence of those competitors influences word recognition, much research has sought to quantify the processes of lexical competition. Metrics that quantify lexical competition continuously are more effective predictors of auditory and visual (lipread) spoken word recognition than are the categorical metrics traditionally used (Feld & Sommers, Speech Communication 53:220-228, 2011; Strand & Sommers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130:1663-1672, 2011). A limitation of the continuous metrics is that they are somewhat computationally cumbersome and require access to existing speech databases. This article describes the Phi-square Lexical Competition Database (Phi-Lex): an online, searchable database that provides access to multiple metrics of auditory and visual (lipread) lexical competition for English words, available at www.juliastrand.com/phi-lex . PMID:23754576

Strand, Julia F

2014-03-01

166

Aligning Representations of Anatomy using Lexical and Structural Methods  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this experiment is to develop methods for aligning two representations of anatomy (the Foundational Model of Anatomy and GALEN) at the lexical and structural level. Methods The alignment consists of the following four steps: 1) acquiring terms, 2) identifying anchors (i.e., shared concepts) lexically, 3) acquiring explicit and implicit semantic relations, and 4) identifying anchors structurally. Results 2,353 anchors were identified by lexical methods, of which 91% were supported by structural evidence. No evidence was found for 7.5% of the anchors and 1.5% received negative evidence. Discussion The importance of taking advantage of implicit domain knowledge acquired through complementation, augmentation, and inference is discussed. PMID:14728274

Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier

2003-01-01

167

Electrophysiological evidence that inhibition supports lexical selection in picture naming.  

PubMed

We investigated the neural basis of inhibitory control during lexical selection. Participants overtly named pictures while response times (RTs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The difficulty of lexical selection was manipulated by using object and action pictures with high name agreement (few response candidates) versus low name agreement (many response candidates). To assess the involvement of inhibition, we conducted delta plot analyses of naming RTs and examined the N2 component of the ERP. We found longer mean naming RTs and a larger N2 amplitude in the low relative to the high name agreement condition. For action naming we found a negative correlation between the slopes of the slowest delta segment and the difference in N2 amplitude between the low and high name agreement conditions. The converging behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggests that selective inhibition is engaged to reduce competition during lexical selection in picture naming. PMID:25219485

Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Acheson, Daniel J; Meyer, Antje S

2014-10-24

168

Effects of emotional state on lexical decision performance.  

PubMed

The effect of emotional state on lexical processing was investigated. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a happy or sad mood condition. Emotional state was then induced by listening to 8 min of classical music previously rated to induce happy or sad moods. Response times and error rates were analyzed in a lexical decision task involving sad words, happy words, and pseudowords. Results suggest that emotion aided the participants in responding to emotion-congruent stimuli. The sad group responded faster than the happy group to sad words and the happy group responded faster than the sad group to happy words. Results are discussed with regard to information processing and emotion. PMID:11161359

Olafson, K M; Ferraro, F R

2001-02-01

169

A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood: An Event-Related Potential Study of Lexical Relationships and Prediction in Context  

PubMed Central

Two related questions critical to understanding the predictive processes that come online during sentence comprehension are 1) what information is included in the representation created through prediction and 2) at what functional stage does top-down, predicted information begin to affect bottom-up word processing? We investigated these questions by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants read sentences that ended with expected words or with unexpected items (words, pseudowords, or illegal strings) that were either orthographically unrelated to the expected word or were one of its orthographic neighbors. The data show that, regardless of lexical status, attempts at semantic access (N400) for orthographic neighbors of expected words is facilitated relative to the processing of orthographically unrelated items. Our findings support a view of sentence processing wherein orthographically organized information is brought online by prediction and interacts with input prior to any filter on lexical status. PMID:20161064

Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

2009-01-01

170

Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

1984-01-01

171

The effect of computer-mediated communication (CMC) interaction on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparison study of CMC interaction and face-to-face interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the differential effects of CMC interaction (both text-chat and voice-chat) and face-to-face interactions on university level of ESL students' vocabulary acquisition. More specifically, this study examines (a) whether learners engage in negotiated interaction when they encounter new lexical items, (b) whether CMC interaction help learners acquire new lexical items productively, (c) whether there are any special features

Ju-young Lee

2009-01-01

172

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims The study aims were (a) to explore the differences between the oral language samples of PWA and NIA in terms of LD as measured by dedicated computer software (voc-D), (b) to determine whether PWA are sensitive to discourse elicitation task in terms of LD, and (c) to identify whether differences between PWA and NIA vary in magnitude as a function of discourse task. Method & Procedures Oral language samples from 25 PWA and 27 NIA were analysed. Participants completed three commonly used discourse elicitation tasks (single pictures, sequential pictures, story telling) and voc-D was used to obtain estimates of their LD. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA revealed a significant group task interaction that was followed by an investigation of simple main effects and tetrad×comparisons. Different patterns of LD were uncovered for each group. For the NIA group results were consistent with previous findings in the literature according to which LD varies as a function of elicitation technique. However, for PWA sequential pictures and story telling elicited comparable estimates of LD. Conclusions Results indicated that LD is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by elicitation task and the presence of aphasia. These findings have important implications for modelling lexical diversity and selecting and interpreting results from different discourse elicitation tasks. PMID:23125474

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris

2012-01-01

173

Interactions between Language and Attention Systems: Early Automatic Lexical Processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing debate is whether and to what extent access to cortical representations is automatic or dependent on attentional processes. To address this, we modulated the level of attention on auditory input and recorded ERPs elicited by syllables completing acoustically matched words and pseudowords. Under nonattend conditions, the word-elicited response (peaking at ?120 msec) was larger than that to pseudowords,

Yury Shtyrov; Teija Kujala; Friedemann Pulvermüller

2010-01-01

174

Interactions between Language and Attention Systems: Early Automatic Lexical Processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing debate is whether and to what extent access to cortical representations is automatic or dependent on attentional processes. To address this, we modulated the level of attention on auditory input and recorded ERPs elicited by syllables completing acoustically matched words and pseudowords. Under nonattend conditions, the word-elicited response (peaking at ?120 msec) was larger than that to pseudowords,

Yury Shtyrov; Teija Kujala; Friedemann Pulvermüller

2009-01-01

175

Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: An event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. PMID:25218952

Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

2014-10-01

176

Perceptual similarity co-existing with lexical dissimilarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme case of perceptual similarity is indiscriminability, as when two second-language phonemes map to a single native category. An example is the English had-head vowel contrast for Dutch listeners; Dutch has just one such central vowel, transcribed [E]. We examine whether the failure to discriminate in phonetic categorization implies indiscriminability in other-e.g., lexical-processing. Eyetracking experiments show that Dutch-native listeners instructed in English to ``click on the panda'' look (significantly more than native listeners) at a pictured pencil, suggesting that pan- activates their lexical representation of pencil. The reverse, however, is not the case: ``click on the pencil'' does not induce looks to a panda, suggesting that pen- does not activate panda in the lexicon. Thus prelexically undiscriminated second-language distinctions can nevertheless be maintained in stored lexical representations. The problem of mapping a resulting unitary input to two distinct categories in lexical representations is solved by allowing input to activate only one second-language category. For Dutch listeners to English, this is English [E], as a result of which no vowels in the signal ever map to words containing [ae]. We suggest that the choice of category is here motivated by a more abstract, phonemic, metric of similarity.

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2003-10-01

177

The Effects of Prohibiting Gestures on Children's Lexical Retrieval Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two alternative accounts have been proposed to explain the role of gestures in thinking and speaking. The Information Packaging Hypothesis (Kita, 2000) claims that gestures are important for the conceptual packaging of information before it is coded into a linguistic form for speech. The Lexical Retrieval Hypothesis (Rauscher, Krauss & Chen, 1996)…

Pine, Karen J.; Bird, Hannah; Kirk, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

178

Lexical Errors in Second Language Scientific Writing: Some Conceptual Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, scientific writers are required not only a thorough knowledge of their subject field, but also a sound command of English as a lingua franca. In this paper, the lexical errors produced in scientific texts written in English by non-native researchers are identified to propose a classification of the categories they contain. This study…

Carrió Pastor, María Luisa; Mestre-Mestre, Eva María

2014-01-01

179

Agraphia in Alzheimer's Disease: An Independent Lexical Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to delineate the pattern of the writing impairments in 12 patients with Alzheimer type dementia. The patients performed writing tasks involving regular and irregular words and nonwords given by dictation as well as a decision test composed of printed words and pictures requiring phonologic, lexical, and semantic processing. Writing from dictation demonstrated a predominant, but nonisolated,

Jany Lambert; Francis Eustache; Fausto Viader; Martine Dary; Patrice Rioux; Bernard Lechevalier; Jean M. Travere

1996-01-01

180

Efficient Implementation of Semantic Relations in Lexical Databases  

E-print Network

a formalization of semantic relations that facilitates efficient implementations of relations in lexical databases of hierarchical relations in Formal Concept Analysis. Further, relations are analysed according to Relational we define a formalization of semantic relations that occur in lex- ical databases. In semantic

Priss, Uta

181

Stylistic and Lexical Co-training for Web Block Classification  

E-print Network

shows that the co-training process results in a reduction of 28.5% in error rate over a single scheme. Many algorithms benefit from using fine-grained blocks rather than uniformly processingStylistic and Lexical Co-training for Web Block Classification Chee How Lee National University

Kan, Min-Yen

182

Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

1997-01-01

183

Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

184

Creative Discovery in Lexical Ontologies Dept. of Computer Science  

E-print Network

Broad-coverage lexical knowledge-bases like WordNet (Miller et al., 1990) generally contain a large number of compound terms, many of which are literal in composition. These compounds are undoubtedly included for a reason, yet the idea that literal compounds might actually be essential to Word

Veale, Tony

185

Automatic Processes in Lexical Access and Spreading Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semantic priming effect can be reduced or eliminated depending on how the prime word is processed. The experiments reported here investigate this prime task effect. Two experiments used identity and semantic priming tasks to determine whether the prime word is encoded at a lexical level under letter-search conditions. When the prime task was naming, both identity and semantic priming

Frances J. Friedrich; Avishai Henik; Joseph Tzelgov

1991-01-01

186

Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

2012-01-01

187

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

188

Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2004-01-01

189

Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

2014-01-01

190

Lexical Exploration for Advanced ESL Students in Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper develops guidelines for instructional materials for advanced English as a second language students in which the objects of instruction would be: (1) the relationship between surface structures of lexical items and their underlying meanings; (2) the important aspects of structural forms; and (3) the special uses of words in the lexicon…

Wakai, Helen K.

191

Lexical and semantic priming deficits in patients with alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments utilizing priming procedures examined the status of semantic memory in demented and amnesic patients. In the first investigation, lexical priming was assessed in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), Huntington's Disease (HD), alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), and in intact control subjects. Subjects were first exposed to a list of words in a rating task and then

David P. Salmon; Arthur P. Shimamura; Nelson Butters; Stan Smith

1988-01-01

192

A Corpus-Based Assessment of French CEFR Lexical Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French CEFR vocabulary profiles as presented in the "Référentiels"--while a valuable resource for a wide range of applications focused on lexical content--result from introspection, intuition-based judgements, and unquantifiable experience. The result is a specification of vocabulary that has been largely untested from a…

Kusseling, Françoise; Lonsdale, Deryle

2013-01-01

193

Priming Effects in Lexical Decisions on Sex-Stereotypical Adjectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the semantic memory organization of gender concepts, we used gender words to prime lexical decisions on stereotypically feminine and masculine adjectives (e.g., emotional and aggressive, respectively) in two experiments. Under certain conditions, gender primes facilitated performance on both stereotypically appropriate and inappropriate adjectives. Female subjects were facilitated when either the word woman or man primed stereotypically feminine adjectives.

Laurie Stroupe; Hedy White

1986-01-01

194

Lexical Creativity from Word Associations Oskar Gross, Hannu Toivonen,  

E-print Network

Lexical Creativity from Word Associations Oskar Gross, Hannu Toivonen, Jukka M Toivanen an important factor of creativity, especially in problem solving. We are interested in providing computational support for dis- covering such creative associations. In this paper we design minimally supervised methods

Toivonen, Hannu

195

Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-01-01

196

Single-Word Shadowing and the Study of Lexical Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An auditory technique for studying semantic priming and lexical access, single-word shadowing, was applied in three separate experiments: priming in word pairs; priming in sentence context; and comparison of priming in children aged 7-11 and elderly adults. Results indicate that, because shadowing works across ages and does not require reading, it…

Liu, Hua; And Others

1997-01-01

197

Phonological Parsing and Lexical Retrieval Kenneth W. Church  

E-print Network

of representation including allophonic variation, phonotactics, syllable structure, stress domains, morphology in order to retrieve the correct lexical entry. In this way, syllable structure and stress domains'' will almost certainly be released and aspirated unlike the /t/s in ``cat'', ``butter'', ``atlas'', etc

Church, Kenneth W.

198

Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of language group was different for each type of task: Monolinguals and

Ellen Bialystok; Fergus Craik; Gigi Luk

2008-01-01

199

Does bilingualism hamper lexical access in speech production?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that bilingualism may cause a linguistic disadvantage in lexical access even for bilinguals’ first and dominant language. To this purpose, we conducted a picture naming experiment comparing the performance of monolinguals and highly-proficient, L1-dominant bilinguals. The results revealed that monolinguals name pictures faster than bilinguals, both when bilinguals perform picture naming in

Iva Ivanova; Albert Costa

2008-01-01

200

Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

2008-01-01

201

A lexical database tool for quantitative phonological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lexical database tool tailored for phonological res- earch is described. Database fields include transcrip- tions, glosses and hyperlinks to speech files. Database queries are expressed using HTML forms, and these permit regular expression search on any combination of fields. Regular expressions are passed directly to a Perl CGI program, enabling the full flexibility of Perl extended regular expressions. The

Steven Bird

1997-01-01

202

Tailoring Lexical Choice to the User's Vocabulary in  

E-print Network

Tailoring Lexical Choice to the User's Vocabulary in Multimedia Explanation Generation Kathleen Mc) for selecting words with which the user is familiar. When pictures can not be used to disambiguate a word or phrase, COMET has four strategies for avoiding unknown words. We give examples for each

203

Automatic query wefinement using lexical affinities with maximal information gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes an automatic query refinement technique, which focuses on improving precision of the top ranked documents. The terms used for refinement are lexical affinities (LAs), pairs of closely related words which contain exactly one of the original query terms. Adding these terms to the query is equivalent to re-ranking search results, thus, precision is improved while recall is

David Carmel; Eitan Farchi; Yael Petruschka; Aya Soffer

2002-01-01

204

Linguistic, Cognitive, and Social Constraints on Lexical Entrenchment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do new words become established in a speech community? This dissertation documents linguistic, cognitive, and social factors that are hypothesized to affect "lexical entrenchment," the extent to which a new word becomes part of the lexicon of a speech community. First, in a longitudinal corpus study, I find that linguistic properties such as…

Chesley, Paula

2011-01-01

205

The Impact of Lexical Simplification by Verbal Paraphrases for  

E-print Network

The Impact of Lexical Simplification by Verbal Paraphrases for People with and without Dyslexia Luz simplification are people with dyslexia. One of the alterna- tives for text simplification is the use of verbal im- pact the readability and the comprehension of people with and without dyslexia dyslexia

206

Improving Natural Language Parsing Through Machine Learning and Lexical Resources  

E-print Network

Improving Natural Language Parsing Through Machine Learning and Lexical Resources Conor Cafferkey@computing.dcu.ie Natural language parsing Parsing is the process of deducing the syntactic structure of a string such as Information Extraction (IE), Machine translation (MT) and Text Summarisation. Types of parsing: Shallow

Narasayya, Vivek

207

Morphological Constraints on Lexical Access: Gender Priming in German  

E-print Network

significant differences between zero-gender and gender-incongruent contexts, suggesting that grammaticalMorphological Constraints on Lexical Access: Gender Priming in German Dieter Hillert and Elizabeth, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. #12;Gender in German 2 Abstract To investigate how morphological

208

A characteristic destabilization profile in parent-child interactions associated with treatment efficacy for aggressive children.  

PubMed

This study examined profiles of change in repeated mother-child interactions over the course of a 12 week treatment period for childhood aggression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to detect the characteristic profile of change, typical for phase transitions, over the course of treatment, and whether this profile was associated with positive treatment outcomes. Entropy values were computed for six repeated real-time observations of each mother-child dyad, using a novel application of recurrence quantification analysis for categorical time series. Subsequent latent class growth curve analysis on the sequences of entropy values revealed two distinct classes of dyads, with one class showing a clear peak in entropy over the six measurement points. The latent class membership variables showed a significant systematic relationship with observed dyad improvement (as rated by clinicians). The class with the peak in entropy over the sessions consisted largely of treatment improvers. Further analysis revealed that improvers and non-improvers could not be distinguished based on content-specific changes (e.g. more positivity or less negativity during the interaction). The present study revealed a treatment-related destabilization pattern in real-time behaviors that was related to better treatment outcomes, and underlines the value of dynamic nonlinear time-series analysis (especially RQA) in the study of dyadic interactions in clinical contexts. PMID:22695153

Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Hasselman, Fred; Cox, Ralf; Pepler, Debra; Granic, Isabela

2012-07-01

209

Radiological characteristics of charged particle interactions in the first clay-nanoparticle dichromate gel dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incorporation of clay nanoparticles into gel dosimeters shows promise for significant diffusion reduction - but to what extent does the presence of the nano-clay influence charged particle interactions and, in particular, what is the impact on water equivalence? In this work, we quantify the radiological characteristics of electron, proton and carbon ion interactions in the RIKEN dichromate nanoclay gel and specifically evaluate the water equivalence over a broad energy range. Results indicate that the radiological properties are sufficiently representative of tissues that this low-diffusion gel could readily be used for validation of complex dose distributions. Electron and proton ranges are within 1 % of those in water. Mean effective atomic numbers for electron interactions in the range 10 keV - 10 GeV are within 1 % of those of water which, coupled with the similar mass density, ultimately means the overall impact on dose distributions is not great. The range of C6+ ions in the nanoclay gel is closer to that of water (< 4 %) than a common polymer gel dosimeter (< 7 %), though experimentally measured R1 values indicate an over-response at low doses.

Taylor, M. L.; Maeyama, T.; Fukunishi, N.; Ishikawa, K. L.; Fukasaku, K.; Furuta, T.; Takagi, S.; Noda, S.; Himeno, R.; Fukuda, S.

2013-06-01

210

Developmental Changes in Mismatch Responses to Mandarin Consonants and Lexical Tones from Early to Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use mismatch responses (MMRs) to explore the dynamic changes of Mandarin speech perception abilities from early to middle childhood. Twenty preschoolers, 18 school-aged children, and 26 adults participated in this study. Two sets of synthesized speech stimuli varying in Mandarin consonant (alveolo-palatal affricate vs. fricative) and lexical tone features (rising vs. contour tone) were used to examine the developmental course of speech perception abilities. The results indicated that only the adult group demonstrated typical early mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, suggesting that the ability to discriminate specific speech cues in Mandarin consonant and lexical tone is a continuing process in preschool- and school-aged children. Additionally, distinct MMR patterns provided evidence indicating diverse developmental courses to different speech characteristics. By incorporating data from the two speech conditions, we propose using MMR profiles consisting of mismatch negativity (MMN), positive mismatch response (p-MMR), and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as possible brain indices to investigate speech perception development. PMID:24755999

Liu, Huei-Mei; Chen, Yuchun; Tsao, Feng-Ming

2014-01-01

211

Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context  

PubMed Central

Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

Biggio, Gianluca

2013-01-01

212

Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context.  

PubMed

Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

Biggio, Gianluca; Cortese, Claudio G

2013-01-01

213

Early object labels: the case for a developmental lexical principles framework.  

PubMed

Universally, object names make up the largest proportion of any word type found in children's early lexicons. Here we present and critically evaluate a set of six lexical principles (some previously proposed and some new) for making object label learning a manageable task. Overall, the principles have the effect of reducing the amount of information that language-learning children must consider for what a new word might mean. These principles are constructed by children in a two-tiered developmental sequence, as a function of their sensitivity to linguistic input, contextual information, and social-interactional cues. Thus, the process of lexical acquisition changes as a result of the particular principles a given child has at his or her disposal. For children who have only the principles of the first tier (reference, extendibility, and object scope), word learning has a deliberate and laborious look. The principles of the second tier (categorical scope, novel name-nameless category' or N3C, and conventionality) enable the child to acquire many new labels rapidly. The present unified account is argued to have a number of advantages over treating such principles separately and non-developmentally. Further, the explicit recognition that the acquisition and operation of these principles is influenced by the child's interpretation of both linguistic and non-linguistic input is seen as an advance. PMID:8006089

Golinkoff, R M; Mervis, C B; Hirsh-Pasek, K

1994-02-01

214

Word informativity influences acoustic duration: effects of contextual predictability on lexical representation.  

PubMed

Language-users reduce words in predictable contexts. Previous research indicates that reduction may be stored in lexical representation if a word is often reduced. Because representation influences production regardless of context, production should be biased by how often each word has been reduced in the speaker's prior experience. This study investigates whether speakers have a context-independent bias to reduce low-informativity words, which are usually predictable and therefore usually reduced. Content word durations were extracted from the Buckeye and Switchboard speech corpora, and analyzed for probabilistic reduction effects using a language model based on spontaneous speech in the Fisher corpus. The analysis supported the hypothesis: low-informativity words have shorter durations, even when the effects of local contextual predictability, frequency, speech rate, and several other variables are controlled for. Additional models that compared word types against only other words of the same segmental length further supported this conclusion. Words that usually appear in predictable contexts are reduced in all contexts, even those in which they are unpredictable. The result supports representational models in which reduction is stored, and where sufficiently frequent reduction biases later production. The finding provides new evidence that probabilistic reduction interacts with lexical representation. PMID:25019178

Seyfarth, Scott

2014-10-01

215

Interaction of silver nanoparticles with proteins: a characteristic protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are finding increasing applications in biological systems, for example as antimicrobial agents and potential candidates for control drug release systems. In all such applications, silver nanoparticles interact with proteins and other biomolecules. Hence, the study of such interactions is of considerable importance. While BSA has been extensively used as a model protein for the study of interaction with the silver nanoparticles, studies using other proteins are rather limited. The interaction of silver nanoparticles with light leads to collective oscillation of the conducting electrons giving rise to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Here, we have studied the protein concentration dependence of the SPR band profiles for a number of proteins. We found that for all the proteins, with increase in concentration, the SPR band intensity initially decreased, reaching minima and then increased again leading to a characteristic "dip and rise" pattern. Minimum point of the pattern appeared to be related to the isoelectric point of the proteins. Detailed dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the consistency of SPR profile was dependent on the average particle size and state of association of the silver nanoparticles with the change in the protein concentration. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed the binding constants of the proteins with the silver nanoparticles were in the nano molar range with more than one nanoparticle binding to protein molecule. Structural studies demonstrate that protein retains its native-like structure on the nanoparticle surface unless the molar ratio of silver nanoparticles to protein exceeds 10. Our study reveals that nature of the protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal is a general phenomena and mostly independent of the size and structure of the proteins. PMID:23792543

Banerjee, Victor; Das, K P

2013-11-01

216

The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

2004-01-01

217

Lexical-semantic variables affecting picture and word naming in Chinese: a mixed logit model study in aphasia.  

PubMed

Lexical-semantic variables (such as word frequency, imageability and age of acquisition) have been studied extensively in neuropsychology to address the structure of the word production system. The evidence available on this issue is still rather controversial, mainly because of the very complex interrelations between lexical-semantic variables. Moreover, it is not clear whether the results obtained in Indo-European languages also hold in languages with a completely different structure and script, such as Chinese. The objective of the present study is to investigate this specific issue by studying the effect of word frequency, imageability, age of acquisition, visual complexity of the stimuli, grammatical class and morphological structure in word and picture naming in Chinese. The effect of these variables on naming and reading accuracy of healthy and brain-damaged individuals is evaluated using mixed-effect models, a statistical technique that allows to model both fixed and random effects; this feature substantially enhances the statistical power of the technique, so that several variables - and their complex interrelations - can be handled effectively in a unique analysis. We found that grammatical class interacts consistently across tasks with morphological structure: all participants, both healthy and brain-damaged, found simple nouns significantly easier to read and name than complex nouns, whereas simple and complex verbs were of comparable difficulty. We also found that imageability was a strong predictor in picture naming, but not in word naming, whereas the contrary held true for age of acquisition. These results are taken to indicate the existence of a morphological level of processing in the Chinese word production system, and that reading aloud may occur along a non-semantic route (either lexical or sub-lexical) in this language. PMID:22713389

Crepaldi, Davide; Che, Wei-Chun; Su, I-Fan; Luzzatti, Claudio

2012-01-01

218

Understanding interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and reductive decolorization using Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactive characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30 days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically active anodic biofilm played a crucial role to enhance the performance of SBP&CR in MFCs. Gradually increased supplementations of C.I. reactive blue 160 resulted in progressively decreased decay rate of bioelectricity generation. That is, a dye decolorized in a faster rate would result in a lower capability for bioelectricity generation and vice versa. In addition, a reduced dye with less toxicity potency (e.g., 2-aminophenol) might work as a redox mediator of electron transport to anodic biofilm for bioelectricity generation in MFCs. PMID:20932743

Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son

2011-01-01

219

Interaction between socio-demographic characteristics: Traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers.  

PubMed

Young drivers' high traffic violation involvement rate and significant contribution to traffic crashes compared to older drivers creates the need for detailed analyses of factors affecting young drivers' behaviors. This study is based on survey data collected from 2,057 18-29 year old young adults. Data were collected via face-to-face questionnaire surveys in four different cities in Turkey. The main objective of this study is to identify the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violations, and traffic crashes among young drivers. Four main traffic rule violations are examined: red light violations, seat belt violations, speeding, and driving under the influence of alcohol, which are decisive in determining driving behavior and traffic crashes. The survey investigates the socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violation behavior and traffic crash histories of young adults. Four hypothetical scenarios were prepared for each traffic rule violation and data from the scenarios were modeled using the ordered probit model. Significant variables affecting each traffic rule violation are stated. Finally, significant variables that interact with crash involvements were investigated with binary logit models. According to the data analysis, 23.9% of drivers stated that they were involved in at least one traffic crash within the last three years. This crash rate increases to 38.3% for those who received at least one traffic citation/violation in last three years and peaks to 47.4% for those who were fined for seat belt violations in last three years. PMID:25019690

Alver, Y; Demirel, M C; Mutlu, M M

2014-11-01

220

Dependence of delivered energy on power conditioner electrical characteristics for utility-interactive PV systems  

SciTech Connect

In a utility-interactive photovoltaic system, the electrical characteristics of the dc-to-ac power-conditioning unit (inverter) influence the quantity of electrical energy delivered by the system, and therefore, affect the user worth of the system. An analysis of the effect of relevant inverter electrical characteristics on the quantity of system-delivered energy is undertaken using computer simulations of system behavior. Significant conclusions are that: (1) the annual system performance advantage of maximum-power-point voltage tracking is small compared with fixed-dc-input voltage operation; (2) low levels of inverter ac-power consumption during times of zero insolation can significantly degrade system performance; (3) the effect of small changes in the array-to-inverter size ratio on the user worth of the system is small; and (4) most of the system energy is delivered at power levels greater than one-half of the nominal array rating, and consequently, the inverter low-power efficiency is less important than is its full-power efficiency. A formula that approximates the inverter annual throughput efficiency with only four laboratory measurements on the inverter is presented.

Rasmussen, N. E.; Branz, H. M.

1981-01-01

221

The Impact of Sonority on Onset-Rime and Peak-Coda Lexical Decision and Naming of Lexical Items by Children with Different Spelling Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used the lexical decision (making YES/NO decision) and the vocalization (naming) paradigms in two reaction time experiments to examine the cohesiveness of onset-rime and peak-coda in the syllable structure of English lexical items. The aim was to study the effect of sonority hierarchy of liquids, nasals and obstruents on the…

Leong, Che Kan

2008-01-01

222

Assessing the effect of lexical variables in backward recall.  

PubMed

In a recent study, Bireta et al. (2010) suggested that when participants are required to recall lists of items in the reverse order, more attention is devoted to the recall of order at the expense of item information, leading to the abolition of item-based phenomena (the item and order trade-off hypothesis). In order to test the item and order trade-off hypothesis, we manipulated 4 lexical factors that are well known to influence item retention. The effects of word frequency, of lexicality, of semantic similarity, and of imageability were tested in forward and backward recall. All 4 phenomena were maintained in backward recall, which contradicts the item and order trade-off hypothesis. Instead, we suggest that backward recall might rely on semantic retrieval strategies. PMID:21928932

Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean

2012-03-01

223

Novel second-language words and asymmetric lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lexical and phonetic mapping of auditorily confusable L2 nonwords was examined by teaching L2 learners novel words and by later examining their word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. During word learning, two groups of highly proficient Dutch learners of English learned 20 English nonwords, of which 10 contained the English contrast \\/e\\/-æ\\/ (a confusable contrast for native Dutch speakers).

Paola Escudero; Rachel Hayes-Harb; Holger Mitterer

224

A Scalable Distributed Syntactic, Semantic, and Lexical Language Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an attempt at building a large scale distributed composite language model that is formed by seamlessly integrating an n-gram model, a structured language model, and probabilistic latent semantic analysis under a directed Markov random field paradigm to simultaneously account for local word lexical information, mid-range sentence syntactic structure, and long-span document semantic content. The composite language model

Ming Tan; Wenli Zhou; Lei Zheng; Shaojun Wang

2012-01-01

225

A Scalable Distributed Syntactic, Semantic and Lexical Language Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an attempt at building a large scale distributed composite language model that is formed by seamlessly integrating n-gram, structured language model and probabilistic latent semantic analysis under a directed Markov random field paradigm to simultaneously account for local word lexical information, mid-range sentence syntactic structure, and long-span document semantic content. The composite language model has been trained

Ming Tan; Wenli Zhou; Lei Zheng; Shaojun Wang

2011-01-01

226

Lexical but Not Semantic Priming in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have a disturbance in semantic processing was tested using a new lexical-priming task, threshold oral reading. Healthy elderly controls showed significant effects of priming for word pairs that are associatively related (words that reliably co-occur in word association tests) and for word pairs that are semantically related (high-frequency exemplars that belong to

Guila Glosser; Rhonda B. Friedman

1991-01-01

227

Parsing strategies with 'lexicalized' grammars: application to Tree Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a general parsing strategy that arose from the development of an Earley-type parsing algorithm for TAGs (Schabes and Joshi 1988) and from recent linguistic work in TAGs (Abeille 1988).In our approach elementary structures are associated with their lexical heads. These structures specify extended domains of locality (as compared to a context-free grammar) over which constraints

Yves Schabes; Anne Abeillé; Aravind K. Joshi

1988-01-01

228

Lexical semantic and associative priming in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic memory impairment was investigated in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a threshold oral word reading task to assess priming of different lexical relationships. Healthy elderly controls showed significant priming for associatively related nouns (tempest-teapot) and also for nouns semantically related either because both designate basic-level exemplars of a common superordinate category (cousin-nephew) or because the target names

Guila Glosser; Rhonda B. Friedman; Patrick K. Grugan; Jefferson H. Lee; Murray Grossman

1998-01-01

229

Impaired semantic inhibition during lexical ambiguity repetition in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Impairments of semantic processing and inhibition have been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), however, the consequences of faulty meaning selection and suppression have not been considered in terms of subsequent lexical processing. The present study employed a lexical ambiguity repetition paradigm where the first presentation of an ambiguity paired with a target biasing its dominant or subordinate meaning (e.g., bank - money or bank - river) was followed after several intervening trials by a presentation of the same ambiguity paired with a different target that biases the same (congruent) or a different (incongruent) meaning to that biased on the first presentation. Meaning dominance (dominant or subordinate weaker meanings) and interstimulus interval (ISI) were manipulated. Analyses conducted on the second presentation indicated priming of congruent meanings and no priming for the incongruent meanings at both short and long ISIs in the healthy controls, consistent with suppression of meanings competing with the representation biased in the first presentation. In contrast, the PD group failed to dampen activation for the incongruent meaning at the long ISI when the first presentation was subordinate. This pattern is consistent with an impairment of meaning suppression which is observed under controlled processing conditions and varies as a function of meaning dominance of the first presentation. These findings further refine our understanding of lexical-semantic impairments in PD and suggest a mechanism that may contribute to discourse comprehension impairments in this population. PMID:19393992

Copland, David A; Sefe, Gameli; Ashley, Jane; Hudson, Carrie; Chenery, Helen J

2009-09-01

230

Perceptual and lexical knowledge of vegetables in preadolescent children.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the visual and lexical knowledge of vegetables in children. The purpose of this was to identify both liked and disliked familiar vegetables which will be used in a further study. We explored children's lexical knowledge with a free listing test and their visual knowledge with a picture's sorting test. 145 children between the ages of 8 and 11 years from various living environments of the Rhône-Alpes Region, France, completed both tests. Overall, 54 vegetables were cited, 16 of which were cited by more than 9% of the sample. Carrots, tomatoes and lettuce were the most named vegetables and the best visually recognized by children. Lexical knowledge increased gradually with age. Children from rural areas named significantly more vegetables than those from urban areas. However, visual recognition of vegetables did not change as a function of age or living environment. This suggests that visual categorization allows easier accessing to semantic knowledge than verbal questioning. Finally, the data showed a relation between visual familiarity and liking: the majority of raw vegetables recognized visually were also classified as "liked vegetables". In addition, children declared that they did not want to try most of the unknown vegetables. PMID:21540067

Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Masse, Pierre; Combris, Pierre; Giboreau, Agnès

2011-08-01

231

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

232

Speech perception and lexical effects in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6–9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CV/t/sets [word–word (WW), nonword–nonword (NN), word–nonword (WN) and nonword–word (NW)] were edited to create four 12-step continua. Both groups used duration as an identification cue but it was a weaker cue for children with SLI. For NN, WN and NW continua, children with SLI demonstrated certainty at shorter vowel durations than their TLD peers. Except for the WN continuum, children with SLI demonstrated category boundaries at shorter vowel durations. Both groups exhibited lexical effects, but they were stronger in the SLI group. Performance on the WW continuum indicated adequate perception of fine-grained duration differences. Strong lexical effects indicated reliance on familiar words in speech perception. PMID:23635335

Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

2014-01-01

233

"M" to "Moonless": Lexical Databases in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…

Beam, Paul; Huntley, Frank

234

Low Front Vowel Tensing in Lexical Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined a vowel alternation occurring in Philadelphia English and some dialects of New York State. The alternation is of [E] and [ae], and the study investigated the application of the [ae] Tensing Rule, more specifically in the interaction of [ae] Tensing with several principles of syllabification and grammatical organization. Issues…

Dunlap, Elaine R.

235

Facies characteristics and magma-water interaction of the White Trachytic Tuffs (Roccamonfina Volcano, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quaternary White Trachytic Tuffs Formation from Roccamonfina Volcano (southern Italy) comprises four non-welded, trachytic, pyroclastic sequences bounded by paleosols, each of which corresponds to small- to intermediate-volume explosive eruptions from central vents. From oldest to youngest they are: White Trachytic Tuff (WTT) Cupa, WTT Aulpi, WTT S. Clemente, and WTT Galluccio. The WTT Galluccio eruption was the largest and emplaced 4km3 of magma. The internal stratigraphy of all four WTT eruptive units is a complex association of fallout, surge, and pyroclastic flow deposits. Each eruptive unit is organized into two facies associations, Facies Association A below Facies Association B. The emplacement of the two facies associations may have been separated by short time breaks allowing for limited reworking and erosion. Facies Association A consists of interbedded fallout deposits, surge deposits, and subordinate ignimbrites. This facies association involved the eruption of the most evolved trachytic magma, and pumice clasts are white and well vesiculated. The grain size coarsens upward in Facies Association A, with upward increases of dune bedform wavelengths and a decrease in the proportion of fine ash. These trends could reflect an increase in eruption column height from the onset of the eruption and possibly also in mass eruption rate. Facies Association B comprises massive ignimbrites that are progressively richer in lithic clast content. This association involved the eruption of more mafic magma, and pumice clasts are gray and poorly vesiculated. Facies Association B is interpreted to record the climax of the eruption. Phreatomagmatic deposits occur at different stratigraphic levels in the four WTT and have different facies characteristics. The deposits reflect the style and degree of magma-water interaction and the local hydrogeology. Very fine-grained, lithic-poor phreatomagmatic surge deposits found at the base of WTT Cupa and WTT Galluccio could record the interaction of the erupting magma with a lake that occupied the Roccamonfina summit depression. Renewed magma-water interaction later in the WTT Galluccio eruption is indicated by fine grained, lithic-bearing phreatomagmatic fall and surge deposits occurring at the top of Facies Association A. They could be interpreted to reflect shifts of the magma fragmentation level to highly transmissive, regional aquifers located beneath the Roccamonfina edifice, possibly heralding a caldera collapse event.

Giordano, Guido

236

Switching of electrochemical characteristics of redox protein upon specific biomolecular interactions.  

PubMed

Detection of specific protein analytes is a technique widely used in disease diagnosis. Central to this approach is the fabrication of a sensing platform displaying a functional recognition element specific for the analyte targeted for detection. The most commonly utilised type of recognition element used for this purpose are antibodies. However direct generation of surfaces with high functional binding activity when using antibodies frequently presents a challenge, due to the conformational changes undergone by these molecules when physisorbed on a solid surface and/or variable activity when immobilized by covalent coupling techniques. Here, we present a novel label-free protein sensing platform based on a simplified and standardized immobilization process. The platform consists of self-assembled redox protein; Azurin (Az), that acts as scaffold, while sensing specificity is achieved through receptors that are coupled with chemical groups available on the surface of the Az protein. The redox activity of the Az within the sensing surface enables a label-free electrochemical detection method that can be readily miniaturized. We have observed a significant change in the electrochemical characteristics of the assay, upon a specific molecular interaction. A corresponding new model is also developed that can aid the future development of redox based bio-sensing techniques. PMID:25315284

Ho, Man Yi; Goodchild, Sarah A; Estrela, Pedro; Chu, Daping; Migliorato, Piero

2014-10-27

237

Why do young women smoke? I. Direct and interactive effects of environment, psychological characteristics and nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the health hazards, cigarette smoking is disproportionately frequent among young women. A significant contribution of genetic factors to smoking phenotypes is well established. Efforts to identify susceptibility genes do not generally take into account possible interaction with environment, life experience and psychological characteristics. We recruited 501 female Israeli students aged 20–30 years, obtained comprehensive background data and details of

L Greenbaum; K Kanyas; O Karni; Y Merbl; T Olender; A Horowitz; A Yakir; D Lancet; E Ben-Asher; B Lerer

2006-01-01

238

Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

2011-01-01

239

Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

2011-01-01

240

Exploring medical diagnostic performance using interactive, multi-parameter sourced receiver operating characteristic scatter plots.  

PubMed

Determining diagnostic criteria for specific disorders is often a tedious task that involves determining optimal diagnostic thresholds for symptoms and biomarkers using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. To help this endeavor, we developed softROC, a user-friendly graphic-based tool that lets users visually explore possible ROC tradeoffs. The software requires MATLAB installation and an Excel file containing threshold symptoms/biological measures, with corresponding gold standard diagnoses for a set of patients. The software scans the input file for diagnostic and symptom/biomarkers columns, and populates the graphical-user-interface (GUI). Users select symptoms/biomarkers of interest using Boolean algebra as potential inputs to create diagnostic criteria outputs. The software evaluates subtests across the user-established range of cut-points and compares them to a gold standard in order to generate ROC and quality ROC scatter plots. These plots can be examined interactively to find optimal cut-points of interest for a given application (e.g. sensitivity versus specificity needs). Split-set validation can also be used to set up criteria and validate these in independent samples. Bootstrapping is used to produce confidence intervals. Additional statistics and measures are provided, such as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). As a testing set, softROC is used to investigate nocturnal polysomnogram measures as diagnostic features for narcolepsy. All measures can be outputted to a text file for offline analysis. The softROC toolbox, with clinical training data and tutorial instruction manual, is provided as supplementary material and can be obtained online at http://www.stanford.edu/~hyatt4/software/softroc or from the open source repository at http://www.github.com/informaton/softroc. PMID:24561350

Moore, Hyatt E; Andlauer, Olivier; Simon, Noah; Mignot, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

241

Application of receiver operating characteristic analysis to refine the prediction of potential digoxin drug interactions.  

PubMed

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC?? ([I?]/IC??) is ?0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC?? ([I?]/IC??) is ?10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC?? values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC?? values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I?]/IC?? ? 0.03 and [I?]/IC?? ? 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC?? values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC?? values, translating into a range of [I?]/IC?? and [I?]/IC?? values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC?? values. PMID:23620486

Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, Joann; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O'Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M; Li, Libin; Pak, Anne Y; Perloff, Elke S; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Xia, Cindy Q; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Lee, Caroline A

2013-07-01

242

Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis to Refine the Prediction of Potential Digoxin Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC50 ([I1]/IC50) is ?0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC50 ([I2]/IC50) is ?10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC50 values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC50 values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I1]/IC50 ? 0.03 and [I2]/IC50 ? 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC50 values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC50 values, translating into a range of [I1]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50 values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC50 values. PMID:23620486

Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, JoAnn; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E.; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P.; Heredi-Szabo, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O'Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M.; Li, LiBin; Pak, Anne Y.; Perloff, Elke S.; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

243

Interaction between Shiga Toxin and Monoclonal Antibodies: Binding Characteristics and in Vitro Neutralizing Abilities  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been employed either for diagnosis or treatment of infections caused by different pathogens. Specifically for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), numerous immunoassays have been developed for STEC diagnosis, showing variability in sensitivity and specificity when evaluated by reference laboratories, and no therapy or vaccines are currently approved. Thus, the aim of this work was the characterization of the interaction between MAbs against Stx1 and Stx2 toxins and their neutralizing abilities to enable their use as tools for diagnosis and therapy. The selected clones designated 3E2 (anti-Stx1) and 2E11 (anti-Stx2) were classified as IgG1. 3E2 recognized the B subunit of Stx1 with an affinity constant of 2.5 × 10?10 M, detected as little as 6.2 ng of Stx1 and was stable up to 50 ºC. In contrast, 2E11 recognized the A subunit of Stx2, was stable up to 70 ºC, had a high dissociation constant of 6.1 × 10?10 M, and detected as little as 12.5 ng of Stx2. Neutralization tests showed that 160 ng of 3E2 MAb inhibited 80% of Stx1 activity and 500 µg 2E11 MAb were required for 60% inhibition of Stx2 activity. These MAb amounts reversed 25 to 80% of the cytotoxicity triggered by different STEC isolates. In conclusion, these MAbs show suitable characteristics for their use in STEC diagnosis and encourage future studies to investigate their protective efficacy. PMID:23105978

Rocha, Leticia B.; Luz, Daniela E.; Moraes, Claudia T. P.; Caravelli, Andressa; Fernandes, Irene; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

2012-01-01

244

Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning  

PubMed Central

Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle was negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production. PMID:24478675

Crowther, Jason E.; Martin, Randi C.

2014-01-01

245

Lexical Enrichment of a Human Anatomy Ontology using WordNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with lexical enrichment of ontolo- gies, i.e. how to enrich a given ontology with lexical entries derived from a semantic lexicon. We present an approach towards the integration of both types of resources, in particular for the human anatomy domain as represented by the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). The paper describes our approach on combining

Nils Reiter; Paul Buitelaar

246

Lexical Richness in the Advanced Learner's Oral Production of French and Italian L2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates Swedish learners' lexical richness in French and Italian L2. A frequency-based measure was used to compare the lexical richness of learners at different proficiency levels to that of native speakers. Frequency bands based on oral L1 data were created for both languages to serve as a benchmark. For French, the results show…

Lindqvist, Christina; Bardel, Camilla; Gudmundson, Anna

2011-01-01

247

Social Media is NOT that Bad! The Lexical Quality of Social Media  

E-print Network

are considered. 2 Related Work The quality of the Web can be related to its contents (highly current, accuracy content quality. Using our lexical quality measure, based in a small corpus of spelling errors, we present and complete analysis of the lexical quality of Social Media written in English and Spanish, in- cluding how

248

Lexical Bundle Analysis in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: The Significance of Stance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we introduce the lexical bundle, defined by corpus linguists as a group of three or more words that frequently recur together, in a single group, in a particular register (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, & Finegan, 2006; Cortes, "English for Specific Purposes" 23:397-423, 2004). Attention to lexical bundles helps to explore…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David; Cortes, Viviana

2010-01-01

249

The role of subsyllabic structure in lexical access to printed words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lexical-decision experiments investigated whether the subsyllabic structure of words is processed in the course of lexical access to printed words. Experiment 1 contrasted Italian words with same orthographic structure, but different subsyllabic structures. Latencies were shorter and error rates lower for words with a syllabic structure composed of fewer subsyllabic constituents. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the

Cristina Burani; Rosaria Cafiero

1991-01-01

250

Inter- and Intralingual Lexical Influences in Advanced Learners' French L3 Oral Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates lexical inter- and intralingual influences in the oral production of 14 very advanced learners of French L3. Lexical deviances are divided into two main categories: formal influence and meaning-based influence. The results show that, as predicted with respect to advanced learners, meaning-based influence is the most…

Lindqvist, Christina

2010-01-01

251

Lexical Plasticity in Early Bilinguals Does Not Alter Phoneme Categories: II. Experimental Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

When listening to modified speech, either naturally or artificially altered, the human perceptual system rapidly adapts to it. There is some debate about the nature of the mecha- nisms underlying this adaptation. Although some authors propose that listeners modify their prelexical representations, others assume changes at the lexical level. Recently, Larsson, Vera, Sebastian-Galles, and Deco (Lexical plasticity in early bi-

Núria Sebastián-Gallés; Fátima Vera Constán; Johan P. Larsson; Albert Costa; Gustavo Deco

2009-01-01

252

Effects of Lexical Cohesion and Macrorules on EFL Students' Main Idea Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of an instructional procedure which incorporated lexical cohesion and macrorules to promote main idea comprehension of Thai EFL students. One hundred and six undergraduate students taking a reading module were randomly assigned to one of three teaching conditions: the combined use of lexical cohesion and…

Wilawan, Sujunya

2011-01-01

253

Assessing the Presence of Lexical Competition across Languages: Evidence from the Stroop Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do the lexical representations of the non-response language enter into lexical competition during speech production? This issue has been studied by means of the picture-word interference paradigm in which two paradoxical effects have been observed. The so-called CROSS-LANGUAGE IDENTITY EFFECT (Costa, Miozzo and Caramazza, 1999) has been taken as…

Costa, Albert; Albareda, Barbara; Santesteban, Mikel

2008-01-01

254

Is lexical access autonomous? Evidence from combining overlapping tasks with recording event-related brain potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the frequent assumption that lexical access in visual word recognition would proceed independent of central attention, the overlapping task paradigm has recently been employed with somewhat contradictory results. Here we combined overlapping tasks with the recording of event-related brain potentials to assess task load dependent modulations of lexical access in more detail. The study was carried

Milena Rabovsky; Carlos J. Álvarez; Annette Hohlfeld; Werner Sommer

2008-01-01

255

Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

2013-01-01

256

Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

2011-01-01

257

Lexical Bundles in the Academic Writing of Advanced Chinese EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the use of lexical bundles in the academic writing of advanced Chinese EFL learners. A corpus of doctoral dissertations by the learners and a corpus of published journal articles by professional writers were collected for the study. Four-word lexical bundles in the two corpora were identified and analysed. Results…

Wei, Yaoyu; Lei, Lei

2011-01-01

258

The Acquisition of Lexical Phrases in Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical phrases are both numerous and functionally important in written texts. Despite this, L2 learners often find their use problematic, typically overusing a limited number of well-known phrases, while at the same time lacking a diverse enough phrasal repertoire to employ lexical phrases in a native-like manner. While a number of studies have…

Li, Jie; Schmitt, Norbert

2009-01-01

259

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

260

Lexical activation during sentence comprehension in adolescents with history of Specific Language Impairment  

E-print Network

-Related, Action-Related, and Unrelated). Adolescents with SLI were as fast as their TD peers to fixate group. The findings indicate that adolescents with SLI integrate lexical information across wordsLexical activation during sentence comprehension in adolescents with history of Specific Language

Elman, Jeff

261

Balancing Generalization and Lexical Conservatism: An Artificial Language Study with Child Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful language acquisition involves generalization, but learners must balance this against the acquisition of lexical constraints. Such learning has been considered problematic for theories of acquisition: if learners generalize abstract patterns to new words, how do they learn lexically-based exceptions? One approach claims that learners use…

Wonnacott, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

262

Acoustic Cues to Lexical Stress in Spastic Dysarthria Heejin Kim1  

E-print Network

.g., cerebral palsy), degenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease), or traumatic brain injuries (TBIAcoustic Cues to Lexical Stress in Spastic Dysarthria Heejin Kim1 , Mark Hasegawa-Johnson2 to lexical stress produced by speakers with spastic dysarthria and healthy control speakers. Of particular

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

263

Effects of Perceptual Learning Style Preferences on L2 Lexical Inferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of perceptual learning style preferences on L2 lexical inferencing and whether learners with certain perceptual learning styles benefited more from an explicitly instructional program. Joy Reid's (1995) Perceptual Learning Style Preferences (PLSP) Inventory and a lexical inferencing test…

Shen, Ming-yueh

2010-01-01

264

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims: The

Gerasimos Fergadiotis; Heather Harris Wright

2011-01-01

265

The Prosodic Property of Lexical Stress Affects Eye Movements during Silent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined lexical stress in the context of silent reading by measuring eye movements. We asked whether lexical stress registers in the eye movement record and, if so, why. The study also tested the implicit prosody hypothesis, or the idea that readers construct a prosodic contour during silent reading. Participants read high and…

Ashby, J.; Clifton Jr., C.

2005-01-01

266

A case study of lexical development of writing and speaking in identical twins  

E-print Network

A case study of lexical development of writing and speaking in identical twins Hui-Ping CHAN between writing and speaking. We analyzed 100 writing and 100 speaking samples of two identical twins lexical dimen- sions in writing and speaking do not show the same tendencies amongst the identical twins

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Proceedings of the Third Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2014)  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Third Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2014) August 23-24, 2014 Dublin, Ireland #12;c 2014 The *SEM 2014 Organizing Committee. All papers c 2014-1-941643-25-9 ii #12;SEM 2014: Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics Building on the success

268

The Role of Low-Spatial Frequencies in Lexical Decision and Masked Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial frequency filtering was used to test the hypotheses that low-spatial frequency information in printed text can: (1) lead to a rapid lexical decision or (2) facilitate word recognition. Adult proficient readers made lexical decisions in unprimed and masked repetition priming experiments with unfiltered, low-pass, high-pass and notch…

Boden, C.; Giaschi, D.

2009-01-01

269

Acquiring Collocations for Lexical Choice between NearSynonyms Diana Zaiu Inkpen and Graeme Hirst  

E-print Network

word choices for the sentence. I­Saurus does not include such knowledge. The focus of the work weAcquiring Collocations for Lexical Choice between Near­Synonyms Diana Zaiu Inkpen and Graeme Hirst of knowledge is useful in the process of lexical choice between near­synonyms. We acquire collocations

Inkpen, Diana

270

Acquiring Collocations for Lexical Choice between Near-Synonyms Diana Zaiu Inkpen and Graeme Hirst  

E-print Network

word choices for the sentence. I-Saurus does not include such knowledge. The focus of the work weAcquiring Collocations for Lexical Choice between Near-Synonyms Diana Zaiu Inkpen and Graeme Hirst behaviour. This type of knowledge is useful in the process of lexical choice between near-synonyms. We

Inkpen, Diana

271

Rater Sensitivity to Lexical Accuracy, Sophistication and Range when Assessing Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although raters can be trained to evaluate the lexical qualities of student essays, the question remains as to what extent raters follow the "lexis" scale descriptors in the rating scale when evaluating or rate according to their own criteria. The current study examines the extent to which 27 trained university EFL raters take various lexical

Fritz, Erik; Ruegg, Rachael

2013-01-01

272

The Role of Lexical Frequency in Syntactic Variability: Variable Subject Personal Pronoun Expression in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much recent work argues that lexical frequency plays a central explanatory role in linguistic theory, but the status, predicted effects, and methodological treatment of frequency are controversial, especially so in the less-investigated area of syntactic variation. This article addresses these issues in a case study of lexical frequency effects on…

Erker, Daniel; Guy, Gregory R.

2012-01-01

273

BALANCING BILINGUALS: LEXICAL-SEMANTIC PRODUCTION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN CHILDREN  

E-print Network

BALANCING BILINGUALS: LEXICAL-SEMANTIC PRODUCTION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN CHILDREN LEARNING Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92092-0526 or via electronic mail at: kkohnert@crl.ucsd.edu. #12;2 BALANCING BILINGUALS: LEXICAL-SEMANTIC PRODUCTION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN CHILDREN LEARNING SPANISH AND ENGLISH

274

Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

2013-01-01

275

Building Synsets for Indonesian WordNet with Monolingual Lexical Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to build synsets for Indonesian Word Net semi-automatically using monolingual lexical resources available freely in Bahasa Indonesia. Monolingual lexical resources refer to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indoensia or KBBI (monolingual dictionary of Bahasa Indonesia) and Tesaurus Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian thesaurus). We assume that monolingual resources will play an important role in synsets building, because it will

G. Gunawan; Andy Saputra

2010-01-01

276

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

277

"Heating up" or "Cooling up" the Brain? MEG Evidence that Phrasal Verbs Are Lexical Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a considerable linguistic debate on whether phrasal verbs (e.g., "turn up," "break down") are processed as two separate words connected by a syntactic rule or whether they form a single lexical unit. Moreover, views differ on whether meaning (transparency vs. opacity) plays a role in determining their syntactically-connected or lexical

Cappelle, Bert; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

2010-01-01

278

The use of lexical and syntactic information in language production: Evidence from the priming of noun-phrase structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of lexical representation in production provide sophisticated accounts of the way in which information is activated during lexical access (e.g., Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999), but there has been little attempt to account for the way in which the structure of the lexical entry affects the formulation processes that underlie the production of complex expressions. This paper first outlines

Alexandra A. Cleland; Martin J. Pickering

2003-01-01

279

Training Production of Lexical Stress in Typically Developing Children Using Orthographically Biased Stimuli and Principles of Motor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Impaired lexical stress production characterizes multiple pediatric speech disorders. Effective remediation strategies are not available, and little is known about the normal process of learning to assign and produce lexical stress. This study examined whether typically developing (TD) children can be trained to produce lexical stress on…

van Rees, Lauren J.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; McCabe, Patricia; Macdonald-D'Silva, Anita G.; Arciuli, Joanne

2012-01-01

280

No lexical–prelexical feedback during speech perception or: Is it time to stop playing those Christmas tapes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of Christma? should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous demonstrations can be explained without invoking lexical feedback. In particular, we show that one

James M. McQueen; Alexandra Jesse; Dennis Norris

2009-01-01

281

Program in C for studying characteristic properties of two-body interactions in the framework of spectral distribution theory  

E-print Network

We present a program in C that employs spectral distribution theory for studies of characteristic properties of a many-particle quantum-mechanical system and the underlying few-body interaction. In particular, the program focuses on two-body nuclear interactions given in a JT-coupled harmonic oscillator basis and calculates correlation coefficients, a measure of similarity of any two interactions, as well as Hilbert-Schmidt norms specifying interaction strengths. An important feature of the program is its ability to identify the monopole part (centroid) of a 2-body interaction, as well as its 'density-dependent' one-body and two-body part, thereby providing key information on the evolution of shell gaps and binding energies for larger nuclear systems. As additional features, we provide statistical measures for 'density-dependent' interactions, as well as a mechanism to express an interaction in terms of two other interactions. This, in turn, allows one to identify, e.g., established features of the nuclear in...

Launey, K D; Dytrych, T; Draayer, J P

2014-01-01

282

Lexical orthography acquisition: Is handwriting better than spelling aloud?  

PubMed Central

Lexical orthography acquisition is currently described as the building of links between the visual forms and the auditory forms of whole words. However, a growing body of data suggests that a motor component could further be involved in orthographic acquisition. A few studies support the idea that reading plus handwriting is a better lexical orthographic learning situation than reading alone. However, these studies did not explore which of the cognitive processes involved in handwriting enhanced lexical orthographic acquisition. Some findings suggest that the specific movements memorized when learning to write may participate in the establishment of orthographic representations in memory. The aim of the present study was to assess this hypothesis using handwriting and spelling aloud as two learning conditions. In two experiments, fifth graders were asked to read complex pseudo-words embedded in short sentences. Immediately after reading, participants had to recall the pseudo-words' spellings either by spelling them aloud or by handwriting them down. One week later, orthographic acquisition was tested using two post-tests: a pseudo-word production task (spelling by hand in Experiment 1 or spelling aloud in Experiment 2) and a pseudo-word recognition task. Results showed no significant difference in pseudo-word recognition between the two learning conditions. In the pseudo-word production task, orthography learning improved when the learning and post-test conditions were similar, thus showing a massive encoding-retrieval match effect in the two experiments. However, a mixed model analysis of the pseudo-word production results revealed a significant learning condition effect which remained after control of the encoding-retrieval match effect. This later finding suggests that orthography learning is more efficient when mediated by handwriting than by spelling aloud, whatever the post-test production task. PMID:24575058

Bosse, Marie-Line; Chaves, Nathalie; Valdois, Sylviane

2014-01-01

283

When variability matters more than meaning: the effect of lexical forms on use of phonemic contrasts.  

PubMed

During the first half of the 2nd year of life, infants struggle to use phonemic distinctions in label-object association tasks. Prior experiments have demonstrated that exposure to the phonemes in distinct lexical forms (e.g., /d/ and /t/ in daddy and tiger, respectively) facilitates infants' use of phonemic contrasts but also that they struggle to generalize the use of phonemic contrasts to novel syllabic contexts (Thiessen, 2007; Thiessen & Yee, 2010). Further, in prior research, infants have been provided only with experience in lexical forms that refer to novel objects, while many lexical forms in the natural environment do not have easily identified visual referents. The experiments in this article show that even lexical forms without referents can facilitate use of phonemic contrasts. Additionally, the results indicate that when lexical forms provide infants with enough variability (for example, a consonant followed by multiple different vowels), infants are able to generalize to novel contexts. PMID:21744949

Thiessen, Erik D

2011-09-01

284

Hemispheric processing strategies for lexical decisions among elderly persons.  

PubMed

Lexical decision vocal reaction times were obtained in 1990 for 30 young adult and 18 elderly subjects to tachistoscopically presented concrete and abstract words by Rastatter and McGuire. The young adults' data suggested differential right-hemispheric processing, while the elderly subjects' data were interpreted as suggesting that the right hemisphere loses its processing function. Here we reinterpret the elderly subjects' data based on visual information-processing theory and suggest that variations in processing strategy account more completely for their data. PMID:1484798

Rastatter, M P; McGuire, R A

1992-12-01

285

Performance of a Lexical and POS Tagger for Sanskrit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the phonetic, morphological, and lexical complexity of Sanskrit, the automatic analysis of this language is a real challenge in the area of natural language processing. The paper describes a series of tests that were performed to assess the accuracy of the tagging program SanskritTagger. To our knowlegde, it offers the first reliable benchmark data for evaluating the quality of taggers for Sanskrit using an unrestricted dictionary and texts from different domains. Based on a detailed analysis of the test results, the paper points out possible directions for future improvements of statistical tagging procedures for Sanskrit.

Hellwig, Oliver

286

An fMRI study of visual lexical decision in patients with schizophrenia and clinical high-risk individuals.  

PubMed

Disturbances in semantic and phonological aspects of language processing are indicated in patients with schizophrenia, and in high-risk individuals for schizophrenia. To uncover neural correlates of the disturbances, a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a visual lexical decision task in block design reported less leftward lateralization in the inferior frontal cortices, in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with high genetic risk for psychosis compared with normal control subjects. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has investigated contrasts between word and non-word processing that allow dissociation between semantic and phonological processing using event-related design visual lexical decision fMRI tasks in subjects with ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) and patients with schizophrenia. In the current study, 20 patients with schizophrenia, 11 UHR, and 20 demographically matched controls underwent lexical decision fMRI tasks. Compared with controls, both schizophrenia and UHR groups showed significantly decreased activity in response to non-words compared with words in the inferior frontal regions. Additionally, decreased leftward lateralization in the non-word compared with word activity contrast was found in subjects with UHR compared with controls, which was not evident in patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest neural correlates of difficulty in phonological aspects of language processing during non-word processing in contrast to word, which at least partially commonly underlies the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and UHR. Together with a previous study in genetic high-risk subjects, the current results also suggest that reduced functional lateralization in the language-related frontal cortex may be a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia. Furthermore, the current result may suggest that the genetic basis of psychosis is presumed to be related to the evolution of the language capacity characteristic of humans. PMID:24893907

Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Yahata, Noriaki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Koike, Shinsuke; Gonoi, Wataru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

2014-08-01

287

[Characteristics of interactions between mentally ill parents and their young children].  

PubMed

Disturbed parent infant interactions are frequently seen in cases of parental mental illness. They are indicating possible risks of the infant's development. Regular and illness-specific patterns are not found. Therefore the interaction has to be observed and classified in each individual case to recognize the relevance of the parental illness to the child. Different interaction patterns and their impact on the child's development are described and illustrated by case vignettes. The importance of preventive intervention is highlighted. PMID:12693353

Deneke, Christiane; Lüders, Bettina

2003-03-01

288

The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

2012-01-01

289

Spoken word recognition and lexical representation in very young children.  

PubMed

Although children's knowledge of the sound patterns of words has been a focus of debate for many years, little is known about the lexical representations very young children use in word recognition. In particular, researchers have questioned the degree of specificity encoded in early lexical representations. The current study addressed this issue by presenting 18-23-month-olds with object labels that were either correctly pronounced, or mispronounced. Mispronunciations involved replacement of one segment with a similar segment, as in 'baby-vaby'. Children heard sentences containing these words while viewing two pictures, one of which was the referent of the sentence. Analyses of children's eye movements showed that children recognized the spoken words in both conditions, but that recognition was significantly poorer when words were mispronounced. The effects of mispronunciation on recognition were unrelated to age or to spoken vocabulary size. The results suggest that children's representations of familiar words are phonetically well-specified, and that this specification may not be a consequence of the need to differentiate similar words in production. PMID:10856741

Swingley, D; Aslin, R N

2000-08-14

290

Lexical availability and grammatical encoding scope during spoken sentence production.  

PubMed

Three sentence production experiments investigate the relationship between lexical and structural processing scope. Speakers generated sentences with varying phrase structures in response to visual displays (e.g., The dog and the hat move above the fork and the tree/The dog moves above the hat and the fork and the tree). On half of the trials, one of the pictures in the arrays was previewed. Filler sentences varied preview position and sentence structure from trial to trial. When speakers could not anticipate the position of the previewed picture in the upcoming sentence (Experiment 1), preview benefit for pictures corresponding to the second noun to be produced was limited to pictures that fell within the sentence-initial phrase. When the linear position of the previewed picture was predictable, preview benefits were observed for the second noun to be produced, irrespective of phrase position (Experiment 2). However, no preview benefits were observed for the third noun to be produced (Experiment 3). In contrast, significant effects of initial phrase structure were observed in all experiments, with latencies increasing with initial phrase length. The results are consistent with speakers operating a phrasal scope for structural planning within which the scope of lexical access can vary. PMID:23286440

Wheeldon, Linda; Ohlson, Natalie; Ashby, Aimee; Gator, Sophie

2013-08-01

291

Lexical access in sign language: a computational model  

PubMed Central

Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition. PMID:24860539

Caselli, Naomi K.; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

2014-01-01

292

Bilingual vocabulary size and lexical reading in Italian.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated how the vocabulary size of English-Italian bilinguals affects reading aloud in Italian (L2) modulating the reader's sensitivity to lexical aspects of the language. We divided adult bilinguals in two groups according to their vocabulary size (Larger - LV, and smaller - SV), and compared their naming performance to that of native Italian (NI) readers. In Experiment 1 we investigated the lexicality and word frequency effects in reading aloud. Similarly to NI, both groups of bilinguals showed these effects. In Experiment 2 we investigated stress assignment - which is not predictable by rule - to Italian words. The SV group made more stress errors in reading words with a non-dominant stress pattern compared to the LV group. The results suggest that the size of the reader's L2 lexicon affects the probability of correct reading aloud. Overall, the results indicate that proficient adult bilinguals show a similar sensibility to the statistical and distributional properties of the language as compared to Italian monolinguals. PMID:24140823

Primativo, Silvia; Rinaldi, Pasquale; O'Brien, Shaunna; Paizi, Despina; Arduino, Lisa S; Burani, Cristina

2013-11-01

293

Characteristics of Interactive Oral and Computer-Mediated Peer Group Talk and Its Influence on Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a functional and qualitative study of interactive oral and computer-mediated communication (CMC)-generated (Norton "Connect") peer response group talk and its influence on revision. Finds the interactive peer groups in both environments talked primarily about their writing; however, the talk had different qualities when students used…

Hewett, Beth L.

2000-01-01

294

Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

1949-01-01

295

Sensitivity analysis of window characteristics and their interactions on thermal performance in residential buildings  

E-print Network

This thesis studies the effects of different window characteristics such as area, conductance and shading on annual energy performance in residential buildings. A single parameter analysis is used to quantify the effect on annual energy due to a...

George, Julie N

2012-06-07

296

Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis  

E-print Network

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics...

Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

297

Radiation characteristics and turbulence–radiation interactions in sooting turbulent jet flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive modeling strategy including detailed chemistry, soot and radiation models coupled with state-of-the-art closures for turbulence–chemistry interactions and turbulence–radiation interactions is applied to various luminous turbulent jet flames. Six turbulent jet flames are simulated with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15,000, two fuel types (pure ethylene, 90% methane–10% ethylene blend) and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream

R. S. Mehta; M. F. Modest; D. C. Haworth

2010-01-01

298

A database of psycholinguistic and lexical properties for French adjectives referring to human and/or nonhuman attributes.  

PubMed

The processing of human and nonhuman concepts (e.g., agreeable vs. edible) during basic comprehension and reasoning tasks has become a major topic of scientific inquiry. To ensure that the experimental effects obtained from such studies reflect the hypothesised semantic distinction, potential confounds such as psycholinguistic and/or lexical properties of the exact stimuli chosen need to be addressed. In the current study, normative data of such properties were obtained for a series of 875 French adjectives by asking 8 groups of 20 participants to each rate all words on one dimension of theoretical interest. The collected ratings indicate the extent to which each adjective evokes a sensory experience (concreteness), captures an enduring attribute (temporal stability), refers to a visible characteristic (visibility), denotes a neutral or an affectively laden concept (valence), signifies an attribute of low or high intensity, is familiar to the reader and can be used to describe people and/or inanimate entities such as objects. In addition, for each item its exact grammatical class (adjective vs. past participle adjective), length (i.e., number of letters, number of syllables), and word frequency was retrieved from the lexique3 corpus. The resulting database enables researchers to consider pivotal psycholinguistic and lexical properties when selecting human and nonhuman stimuli for future research. PMID:24001094

Quadflieg, Susanne; Michel, Caroline; Bukowski, Henryk; Samson, Dana

2014-03-01

299

Spanish norms for age of acquisition, concept familiarity, lexical frequency, manipulability, typicality, and other variables for 820 words from 14 living/nonliving concepts.  

PubMed

This article presents a new corpus of 820 words pertaining to 14 semantic categories, 7 natural (animals, body parts, insects, flowers, fruits, trees, and vegetables) and 7 man-made (buildings, clothing, furniture, kitchen utensils, musical instruments, tools, and vehicles); each word in the database was collected empirically in a previous exemplar generation study. In the present study, 152 Spanish speakers provided data for four psycholinguistic variables known to affect lexical-semantic processing in both neurologically intact and brain-damaged participants: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, and typicality. Furthermore, we collected lexical frequency data derived from Internet search hits, plus three additional Spanish lexical frequency indexes. Word length, number of syllables, and the proportion of respondents citing the exemplar as a category member-which can be useful as an additional measure of typicality-are also provided. Reliability and validity indexes showed that our items display characteristics similar to those of other corpora. Overall, this new corpus of words provides a useful tool for scientists engaged in cognitive- and neuroscience-based research focused on examining language, memory, and object processing. The full set of norms can be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive . PMID:24415408

Moreno-Martínez, F Javier; Montoro, Pedro R; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C

2014-12-01

300

Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self-esteem than adolescents from the other two regions. PMID:23172992

Klarin, Mira; Pororokovi?, Ana; Šaši?, Slavica Šimi?; Arnaudova, Violeta

2012-01-01

301

Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

Zhao, Xiaopeng; Song, Kun

2014-10-01

302

Hiring Discrimination Against Arab Minorities: Interactions Between Prejudice and Job Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of Arab descent have increasingly experienced prejudice and employment discrimination. This study used the social identity paradigm to investigate whether greater Arab identification of applicants led to hiring discrimination and whether job characteristics and raters' prejudice moderated this effect. One hundred forty-one American and 153 Dutch participants rated résumés on job suitability. Résumés with Arab name and affiliations negatively

Eva Derous; Hannah-Hanh Nguyen; Ann Marie Ryan

2009-01-01

303

Parental characteristics and interactional dysfunction in families with child behavior problems: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six families with a preteenage behavior problem child were assessed on measures of marital discord, parental psychopathology, and three parental cognitive factors: knowledge of behavioral principles, tolerance for child deviancy, and expectations regarding their child's behavior. Nine nonproblem families with demographic characteristics similar to the problem families were also assessed. Correlational analyses across all families revealed a strong association between

Andrew Christensen; Susan Phillips; Russell E. Glasgow; Steven M. Johnson

1983-01-01

304

Task Characteristics and the Experience of Optimal Flow in Human—Computer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article builds on job characteristics and optimal flow theory to describe the experience of individuals using computers in the workplace. A model was developed and tested with linear structural relationship modeling (LISREL) with data from 149 professionals employed in a variety of organizations. Flow, which is characterized by intense concentration and enjoyment, was found to be significantly linked with

Jawaid A. Ghani; Satish P. Deshpande

1994-01-01

305

Lexical, Syntactic, and Stress-Pattern Cues for Speech Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Many sources of segmentation information are available in speech. Previous research has shown that one or another segmentation cue is used by listeners under certain circumstances. However, it has also been shown that none of the cues are absolutely reliable. Therefore, it is likely that people use a combination of segmentation cues when listening to normal speech. This study addresses the issue of how young adults use multiple segmentation cues (lexical, syntactic, and stress-pattern) in combination to break up continuous speech. Evidence that people use more than one cue at a time was found. Furthermore, the results suggest that people can use segmentation cues flexibly such that remaining cues are relied upon more heavily when other information is missing. PMID:11193954

Sanders, Lisa D.; Neville, Helen J.

2008-01-01

306

Interpreting Chicken-Scratch: Lexical Access for Handwritten Words  

PubMed Central

Handwritten word recognition is a field of study that has largely been neglected in the psychological literature, despite its prevalence in society. Whereas studies of spoken word recognition almost exclusively employ natural, human voices as stimuli, studies of visual word recognition use synthetic typefaces, thus simplifying the process of word recognition. The current study examined the effects of handwriting on a series of lexical variables thought to influence bottom-up and top-down processing, including word frequency, regularity, bidirectional consistency, and imageability. The results suggest that the natural physical ambiguity of handwritten stimuli forces a greater reliance on top-down processes, because almost all effects were magnified, relative to conditions with computer print. These findings suggest that processes of word perception naturally adapt to handwriting, compensating for physical ambiguity by increasing top-down feedback. PMID:20695708

Barnhart, Anthony S.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

307

Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually-irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern. PMID:21175671

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2010-01-01

308

ADAPTING ACOUSTIC AND LEXICAL MODELS TO DYSARTHRIC SPEECH  

E-print Network

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological damage to the part of the brain that controls the physical production of speech and is, in part, characterized by pronunciation errors that include deletions, substitutions, insertions, and distortions of phonemes. These errors follow consistent intra-speaker patterns that we exploit through acoustic and lexical model adaptation to improve automatic speech recognition (ASR) on dysarthric speech. We show that acoustic model adaptation yields an average relative word error rate (WER) reduction of 36.99 % and that pronunciation lexicon adaptation (PLA) further reduces the WER by an average of 8.29 % relative on a large vocabulary task of over 1500 words for 6 speakers with severe to moderate dysarthria. PLA also shows an average relative WER reduction of 7.11% on speaker-dependent models evaluated using 5-fold crossvalidation. Index Terms — dysarthria, dysarthric speech, pronunciation lexicon adaptation, speech recognition 1.

Kinfe Tadesse Mengistu; Frank Rudzicz

309

Assessing L2 lexical versus inflectional accuracy across skill levels.  

PubMed

This study measures whether number and type of morphemes in an elicited imitation string results in a greater number of modifications with L2 experience. Rationale is drawn from L2 working memory processing limitations at distinct levels of proficiency. 38 subjects (L2 Spanish university students) comprise three proficiency groups: beginning, undergraduate majors and graduate students. Number of morphemes was varied within each syllable count; and responses were either correct or modified (lexemically/inflectionally as deletions or substitutions). Two way ANOVAs determined significance between mean proportions for each group. Findings indicate that increases in number of morphemes yielded significant differences; and that while the lowest proficiency group produced higher proportions of lexical deletions, the more advanced groups' modifications were inflectional substitutions. PMID:24030773

West, Donna E

2014-10-01

310

Lexical category influences in Persian children who stutter.  

PubMed

This article explores the effect that words from different lexical categories have on disfluency in 12 Persian children, ten boys and two girls, who stutter. They were aged 7 years 5 months to 10 years 6 months. Words from the participants' narrative and reading samples (sub-tests of the Reading and Dyslexia Test validated for Persian school-aged children) were categorized as content, function, or content-function, and stuttering-like disfluencies were coded in each speech sample. Content and content-function words were significantly more likely to show stuttering-like disfluencies than function words. The distribution of symptom types over content and content-function words was similar, and differed from the distribution seen in function words. The symptom type analysis also supported the view that whole-word repetitions should not be grouped with other stuttering-like disfluencies. PMID:23941107

Vahab, Maryam; Zandiyan, Azadeh; Falahi, Mohammad Hadi; Howell, Peter

2013-12-01

311

Aralex: a lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic.  

PubMed

In this article, we present a new lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic: Aralex. Based on a contemporary text corpus of 40 million words, Aralex provides information about (1) the token frequencies of roots and word patterns, (2) the type frequency, or family size, of roots and word patterns, and (3) the frequency of bigrams, trigrams in orthographic forms, roots, and word patterns. Aralex will be a useful tool for studying the cognitive processing of Arabic through the selection of stimuli on the basis of precise frequency counts. Researchers can use it as a source of information on natural language processing, and it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists. Aralex is distributed under a GNU-like license, allowing people to interrogate it freely online or to download it from www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk:8081/aralex.online/login.jsp. PMID:20479179

Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

2010-05-01

312

Lexical evolution rates derived from automated stability measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from the matrix which contains the distances between all pairs of languages in a family. Recently, we proposed a new method which uses normalized Levenshtein distances among words with the same meaning and averages over all the items of a given list. Decisions about the number of items in the input lists for language comparison have been debated since the beginning of glottochronology. The point is that words associated with some of the meanings have a rapid lexical evolution. Therefore, a large vocabulary comparison is only apparently more accurate than a smaller one, since many of the words do not carry any useful information. In principle, one should find the optimal length of the input lists, studying the stability of the different items. In this paper we tackle the problem with an automated methodology based only on our normalized Levenshtein distance. With this approach, the program of an automated reconstruction of language relationships is completed.

Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

2010-03-01

313

Exploring the competitive potential of magnetic fusion energy: The interaction of economics with safety and environmental characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM) summarizes its recent assessment of magnetic fusion energy's (MFE's) prospects for providing energy with economic, environmental, and safety characteristics that would be attractive compared with other energy sources (mainly fission) available in the time frame of the year 2015 and beyond. Accordingly, ESECOM has given particular attention to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics of a variety of magnetic fusion reactors, and compared those fusion cases with a variety of fission cases. Eight fusion cases, two fusion-fission hybrid cases, and four fission cases are examined, using consistent economic and safety models, to permit exploration of the environmental, safety, and economic potential of fusion concepts using a wide range of possible materials choices, power densities, power conversion schemes, and fuel cycles.

Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.; Crocker, J.G.; Delene, J.G.; Endicott, R.D.; Kazimi, M.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Logan, B.G.; Schultz, K.R.

1988-01-01

314

Biological interactions in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles of different characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have recently received growing attention for various biomedical applications, including use as therapeutic or carrier for drug delivery and/or imaging. For the above applications, the NPs necessitate administration into the body leading to their systemic exposure. To better anticipate the safety, make risk assessment, and be able to interpret the future preclinical and clinical safety data, it is important to systematically understand the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences of such interaction, and the mechanisms associated with the toxicity induction, with the important components with which the NPs are expected to be in contact after systemic exposure. In this context, we report here a detailed study on the biological interactions in vitro of the ZnO NPs with healthy human primary lymphocytes as these are the important immune components and the first systemic immune contact, and with the whole human blood. Additionally, the influence, if any, of the NPs shape (spheres and rods) on the biological interaction has been evaluated. The ZnO NPs caused toxicity (30% at 12.5 ?g ml-1 spheres and 10.5 ?g ml-1 rods; 50% at 22 ?g ml-1 spheres and 19.5 ?g ml-1 rods) to the lymphocytes at molecular and genetic level in a dose-dependent and shape-dependent manner, while the interaction consequences with the blood and blood components such as RBC, platelets was only dose-dependent and not shape-dependent. This is evident from the decreased RBC count due to increased %Hemolysis (5.3% in both the spheres- and rods-treated blood) and decreased platelet count due to increased %platelet aggregation (28% in spheres-treated and 33% in rods-treated platelet-rich plasma). Such in-depth understanding of the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences, and the associated mechanisms in vitro could be expected to allow anticipating the NP safety for risk assessment and for interpretation of the preclinical and clinical safety data when available.

Aula, Sangeetha; Lakkireddy, Samyuktha; AVN, Swamy; Kapley, Atya; Jamil, Kaiser; Rao Tata, Narasinga; Hembram, Kaliyan

2014-09-01

315

Acquisition of Lexical Resources from SNOMED for Medical Language Processing ? Pierre Zweigenbaum, Patrick Courtois  

E-print Network

? To appear in Cesnik B, Safran C, and Degoulet P, eds, Proceedings of the 9 th World Congress on Medical of lexical resources: syntactic information and semantic fea­ tures which are generally useful for mlp

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

316

Heat transfer characteristics of three interacting methane\\/air flame jets impinging on a flat surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been conducted for three interacting methane\\/air flame jets (arranged in a triangular configuration) impinging normally on a flat surface. Surface heat flux distributions have been determined for various dimensionless inter-jet spacings (S\\/d=3, 4, 6 and 7.58) and separation distances between the exit plane of the burners and the target plate (H\\/d=2, 2.6, 5 and 7). All

Subhash Chander; Anjan Ray

2007-01-01

317

Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.  

PubMed

Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

2010-01-01

318

Characteristic features of the interaction of ultrashort resonant laser radiation pulses with thin semiconductor films  

SciTech Connect

The relationships governing nonlinear transient transmission and reflection of ultrashort resonant laser radiation pulses with rectangular and Gaussian profiles by a thin semiconductor film were investigated taking into account the exciton-photon interaction and the concentration enhancement of the dipole moment of the exciton transition. It is shown that the transmission of a Gaussian pulse is characterised by the formation of two subpulses with identical areas, which are separated in time and have different profiles. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Khadzhi, P I; Fedorov, L V [Department of Physics and Mathematics, T.G. Shevchenko Pridnestrie State University (Moldova, Republic of)

1999-10-31

319

Peer-related social interactions of developmentally delayed young children: Development and characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted a short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddler and preschool age children. Initial analyses centered on 2 groups: one composed of younger and more severely delayed children (aged 1.8–6.6 yrs) and the other consisting of older and more mildly delayed children (aged 2.4–6.8 yrs). Observers coded a wide range of social and play

Michael J. Guralnick; Ellen Weinhouse

1984-01-01

320

Attentional strategic control over nonlexical and lexical processing in written spelling to dictation in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted four experiments to investigate whether adults can exert attentional strategic control over non lexical and lexical\\u000a processing in written spelling to dictation. In Experiment 1, regular and irregular words were produced either in a non word\\u000a context (regular and irregular non words) or in a word context (high-frequency regular and irregular words), whereas in Experiment\\u000a 2, the same

Patrick Bonin; Sandra Collay; Michel Payola; Alain Méot

2005-01-01

321

Study of opto-mechanical characteristics of interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with polymer materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The opto-mechanical characteristics, such as the specific mechanical recoil momentum, the specific impulse, and the energy efficiency, of the laser ablation of flat polymer targets ((C2F4) n , (CH2O) n ) have been determined experimentally for the first time for the case of excitation with femtosecond pulses (? ˜ 45-70 fs) of UV-IR (? ˜ 266, 400, 800 nm) laser radiation ( I 0 up to 1015 W/cm2) under normal atmospheric and vacuum ( p ˜ 10-4 mbar) conditions. The efficiency of mechanical recoil momentum generation is analyzed for various regimes of the laser irradiation.

Loktionov, E. Yu.; Ovchinnikov, A. V.; Protasov, Yu. S.; Protasov, Yu. Yu.; Sitnikov, D. S.

2012-04-01

322

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review  

PubMed Central

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons.

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O.

2014-01-01

323

Spectra of hadrons and muons in the atmosphere: primary spectra, characteristics of hadron-air interactions  

E-print Network

Self-consistency of interaction models QGSJET 01, SIBYLL 2.1, NEXUS 3.97 and QGSJET II is checked in terms of their ability to reproduce simultaneously experimental data on fluxes of muons and hadrons. From this point of view SIBYLL 2.1 gives the most acceptable, though not quite satisfactory, results. Analysis of the situation for muons supports our previous conclusions, that high-energy muon deficit is due both to underestimation of primary light nuclei fluxes in direct emulsion chamber experiments and to softness of $p+A\\to\\pi^\\pm,K^\\pm+X$ inclusive spectra in fragmentation region, especially prominent in case of QGSJET 01 model.

A. V. Yushkov; A. A. Lagutin

2006-12-01

324

Flocculating characteristic of activated sludge flocs: interaction between Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances.  

PubMed

Aluminum flocculant can enhance the flocculating performance of activated sludge. However, the binding mechanism of aluminum ion (Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge is unclear due to the complexity of EPS. In this work, three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM), fluorescence quenching titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to explore the binding behavior and mechanism between Al(3+) and EPS. The results showed that two fluorescence peaks of tyrosine- and tryptophan-like substances were identified in the loosely bound-extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), and three peaks of tyrosine-, tryptophan- and humic-like substances were identified in the tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS). It was found that these fluorescence peaks could be quenched with Al(3+) at the dosage of 3.0 mg/L, which demonstrated that strong interactions took place between the EPS and Al(3+). The conditional stability constants for Al(3+) and EPS were determined by the Stern-Volmer equation. As to the binding mechanism, the -OH, N-H, C=O, C-N groups and the sulfur- and phosphorus-containing groups showed complexation action, although the groups in the LB-EPS and TB-EPS showed different behavior. The TB-EPS have stronger binding ability to Al(3+) than the LB-EPS, and TB-EPS play an important role in the interaction with Al(3+). PMID:24218821

Ruan, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

2013-05-01

325

Distinctive characteristics of transcriptional profiles from two epithelial cell lines upon interaction with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed

Transcriptional profiling and gene ontology analyses were performed to investigate the unique responses of two different epithelial cell lines to an Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans challenge. A total of 2867 genes were differentially regulated among all experimental conditions. The analysis of these 2867 genes revealed that the predominant specific response to infection in HeLa cells was associated with the regulation of enzyme activity, RNA metabolism, nucleoside and nucleic acid transport and protein modification. The predominant specific response in immortalized human gingival keratinocytes (IHGK) was associated with the regulation of angiogenesis, chemotaxis, transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling, cell differentiation, apoptosis and response to stress. Of particular interest, stress response genes were significantly - yet differently - affected in both cell lines. In HeLa cells, only three regulated genes impacted the response to stress, and the response to unfolded protein was the only term that passed the ontology filters. This strikingly contrasted with the profiles obtained for IHGK, in which 61 regulated genes impacted the response to stress and constituted an extensive network of cell responses to A. actinomycetemcomitans interaction (response to pathogens, oxidative stress, unfolded proteins, DNA damage, starvation and wounding). Hence, while extensive similarities were found in the transcriptional profiles of these two epithelial cell lines, significant differences were highlighted. These differences were predominantly found in pathways that are associated with host-pathogen interactions. PMID:16842512

Mans, J J; Baker, H V; Oda, D; Lamont, R J; Handfield, M

2006-08-01

326

The scope of boundary lengthening as a function of lexical stress and pitch accent.  

PubMed

Although the phenomenon of boundary lengthening is well established, the scope of the effect and its interaction with prominence is not well understood. It is known that phrase-final prominence is a determining factor. However, it is unclear whether it is lexical stress or pitch accent that drives the effect, and whether the affected domain is continuous or discontinuous. An electromagnetic articulometer (EMA) study of five speakers of Greek was conducted to examine the effect of (1) boundary (word and IP), (2) stress (ultima, penult, or antepenult), and (3) prominence (accented and de-accented) on the duration of phrase-final word articulatory events. In both accented and de-accented conditions, lengthening affected events that immediately preceded the boundary in stress-final words, but was initiated earlier in words with non-final stress. The affected domain was continuous. The stress effect could also be observed in pausing behavior: pauses following phrase-final words were realized with specific vocal tract configurations, and the articulatory movements forming them were longer when stress was final than when non-final. Based on these results, a theoretical account of boundaries is proposed within the Articulatory Phonology framework, with implications for a cross-linguistic model of prosody. [Work supported by NIH.]. PMID:25235212

Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapi?, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

2014-04-01

327

Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

2014-05-01

328

Lexical access and the brain: anatomical constraints on cognitive models of word recognition.  

PubMed

Recent studies in the cognitive psychology of reading and many other skilled performances have been dominated by models inspired by neural connectivity (e.g., McClelland & Rumelhart, 1986). Such models have not yet begun to consider the accumulating evidence of considerable anatomical localization of component cognitive operations in the human brain (e.g., Posner, Petersen, Fox, & Raichle, 1988). In this article we apply anatomical findings to the job of building computational models of visual word recognition. Brain imaging studies already provide important constraints on how lexical access should be defined in terms of isolable encoding operations that compute the visual form, phonology, and semantics of words. Brain imaging studies also speak to issues of modularity versus interaction between these encoding operations, distribution versus localization of processing within the operations, and orchestration of operations to accomplish different word processing tasks. We conclude that a combined cognitive and anatomical analysis may be of considerable benefit in developing more adequate models of human information processing. PMID:1605322

Posner, M I; Carr, T H

1992-01-01

329

Rotor wake characteristics relevant to rotor-stator interaction noise generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mean and turbulent wake properties at three axial locations behind the rotor of an aerodynamically loaded 1.2 pressure ratio fan were measured using a stationary cross film anemometer in an anechoic wind tunnel. Wake characteristics at four radial immersions across the duct at four different fan speeds were determined utilizing a signal enhancement technique. The shapes of the waveforms of the mean rotor relative and mean upwash velocities were shown to change significantly across the span of the blades. In addition, an increase in fan rotational speed caused an increase in the maximum wake turbulence intensity levels near the hub and tip. Spectral analysis was used to described the complex nature of the rotor wake.

Shaw, L. M.; Balombin, J. R.

1981-01-01

330

Physical and biophysical characteristics of nanoscale tungsten oxide particles and their interaction with human genomic DNA.  

PubMed

Nanoscale tungsten oxide (WO3) particles were synthesized via a user-friendly solvothermal cum reduction route using sodium tungstanate (Na2WO4) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (C19H42NBr) as reactants. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed monoclinic phase of WO3 with an average crystallite size of 40 nm and competitive crystallographic orientation along (002), (020), (200) planes. After extracting human genomic DNA from human blood by a standard protocol (Qiagen-Kit method), they were conjugated with nanoscale WO3 particles in varying molar concentrations. The biophysical interaction of DNA bound nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, agarose gel-electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. Understanding physical and biophysical aspects of unconjugated and DNA conjugated WO3 would provide scope for biosensing applications. PMID:21770090

Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Sawian, Clara Ermine; Mohanta, Dambarudhar; Baruah, Shashi; Islam, Nashreen S

2011-06-01

331

The effects of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine on life history characteristics of flat-headed mayflies (Heptageniidae) and aquatic resource interactions.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical pollutants are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems around the world and have biological effects on aquatic organisms. However, current understanding of the influence this contaminant class has on freshwater communities and ecosystems is lacking. Recently the scientific community has called for research focusing on certain pharmaceuticals due to their ubiquity and potential toxicity. Carbamazepine is one of these pharmaceuticals. To better understand the effect carbamazepine has on life history characteristics of aquatic organisms and consumer-resource interactions, we quantified the influence of carbamazepine on the development, growth and behavior of mayfly nymphs (Stenonema sp.) and the alterations in food consumer-resource interactions between Stenonema and algae (Chaetophora). Microcosms were assembled in a factorial design containing algae and mayfly nymphs native to central Indiana and dosed with environmentally relevant concentrations of carbamazepine. From this ecotoxicological experiment we were able to infer that carbamazepine at 2,000 ng/L influenced the development and behavior of Stenonema nymphs and the body dimensions of adult individuals. However, it appears that carbamazepine does not influence consumer-resource interactions at concentrations found in surface waters. The pharmaceutical carbamazepine may influence the behavior, growth and development of mayflies, which could have significant consequences at the population, community and ecosystem level. PMID:25130701

Jarvis, Amanda L; Bernot, Melody J; Bernot, Randall J

2014-11-01

332

Comparison of the receptor binding characteristics of opiate agonists interacting with mu- or kappa-receptors.  

PubMed Central

1 The receptor binding characteristics of various morphine-like and ketazocine-like opiate agonists were measured by inhibition of [3H]-naloxone binding in homogenates of brain and of ileal myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig. No differences were found for the two tissues. 2 The depressant effect of Na+ on the inhibition of [3H]-naloxone binding by opiate agonists varies widely, giving sodium shifts between 5 and 140. The relationship between Na+ concentration and inhibition of binding is non-linear, the magnitude of the sodium shift varying directly with the slope of the regression of log IC50 on log [NaCl]. 3 The sodium shift of ketazocine-like agonists is lower than that of morphine-like agonists but higher than that of opiates with dual agonist and antagonist action. A working hypothesis is proposed which suggests that the kappa-receptors for the ketazocine-like drugs are less susceptible to the Na+ effect than the mu-receptors for the morphine-like drugs. 4 For most of the morphine-like but not the ketazocine-like agonists, a good correlation has been found for the pharmacological activity in the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation and the inhibition of binding of [3H]-naloxone at 12 mM Na+. An exception is fentanyl which has a much greater pharmacological potency than may be expected from its potency in inhibiting [3H]-naloxone binding. PMID:215262

Kosterlitz, H W; Leslie, F M

1978-01-01

333

Investigation of interactions between limb-manipulator dynamics and effective vehicle roll control characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed-base simulation was performed to identify and quantify interactions between the pilot's hand/arm neuromuscular subsystem and such features of typical modern fighter aircraft roll rate command control system mechanization as: (1) force sensing side-stick type manipulator; (2) vehicle effective role time constant; and (3) flight control system effective time delay. The simulation results provide insight to high frequency pilot induced oscillations (PIO) (roll ratchet), low frequency PIO, and roll-to-right control and handling problems previously observed in experimental and production fly-by-wire control systems. The simulation configurations encompass and/or duplicate actual flight situations, reproduce control problems observed in flight, and validate the concept that the high frequency nuisance mode known as roll ratchet derives primarily from the pilot's neuromuscular subsystem. The simulations show that force-sensing side-stick manipulator force/displacement/command gradients, command prefilters, and flight control system time delays need to be carefully adjusted to minimize neuromuscular mode amplitude peaking (roll ratchet tendency) without restricting roll control bandwidth (with resulting sluggish or PIO prone control).

Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

1986-01-01

334

Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development: A Look at Bilingual Children--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoel-Gammon (this issue) highlights the close and symbiotic association that exists between the lexical and phonological domains in early linguistic development. Her comprehensive review considers two bodies of literature: (1) child-centred studies; and (2) studies based on adult psycholinguistic research. Within the child-centred studies, both…

Kehoe, Margaret

2011-01-01

335

Liquid lithium divertor characteristics and plasma-material interactions in NSTX high-performance plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. The LLD consisted of a copper-backed structure with a porous molybdenum front face. Nominal Li filling levels by the end of the run campaign exceeded the porosity void fraction by 150%. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. In addition, no substrate line emission was observed after achieving lithium-melt temperatures indicating the lithium wicks and provides a protective coating on the molybdenum porous layer. Impurity emission from the divertor suggests that the plasma is interacting with oxygen-contaminated lithium whether diverted on the LLD or not. A database of LLD discharges is analysed to consider whether there is a net effect on the discharges over the range of total deposited lithium in the machine. Examination of H-97L indicates that performance was constant throughout the run, consistent with the hypothesis that it is the quality of the surface layers of the lithium that impact performance. The accumulation of impurities suggests a fully flowing liquid lithium system to obtain a steady-state PFC on timescales relevant to NSTX.

Jaworski, M. A.; Abrams, T.; Allain, J. P.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Menard, J.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stotler, D. P.; the NSTX Team

2013-08-01

336

Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, D.B.

2002-01-01

337

Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effects of lexical frequency on the durational reduction of morphologically complex words in spoken Dutch. The hypothesis that high-frequency words are more reduced than low-frequency words was tested by comparing the durations of affixes occurring in different carrier words. Four Dutch affixes were investigated, each occurring in a large number of words with different frequencies. The materials came from a large database of face-to-face conversations. For each word containing a target affix, one token was randomly selected for acoustic analysis. Measurements were made of the duration of the affix as a whole and the durations of the individual segments in the affix. For three of the four affixes, a higher frequency of the carrier word led to shorter realizations of the affix as a whole, individual segments in the affix, or both. Other relevant factors were the sex and age of the speaker, segmental context, and speech rate. To accommodate for these findings, models of speech production should allow word frequency to affect the acoustic realizations of lower-level units, such as individual speech sounds occurring in affixes.

Pluymaekers, Mark; Ernestus, Mirjam; Baayen, R. Harald

2005-10-01

338

From gr8 to great: Lexical Access to SMS Shortcuts  

PubMed Central

Many contemporary texts include shortcuts, such as cu or phones4u. The aim of this study was to investigate how the meanings of shortcuts are retrieved. A primed lexical decision paradigm was used with shortcuts and the corresponding words as primes. The target word was associatively related to the meaning of the whole prime (cu/see you – goodbye), to a component of the prime (cu/see you – look), or unrelated to the prime. In Experiment 1, primes were presented for 57?ms. For both word and shortcut primes, responses were faster to targets preceded by whole-related than by unrelated primes. No priming from component-related primes was found. In Experiment 2, the prime duration was 1000?ms. The priming effect seen in Experiment 1 was replicated. Additionally, there was priming from component-related word primes, but not from component-related shortcut primes. These results indicate that the meanings of shortcuts can be retrieved without translating them first into corresponding words. PMID:22654775

Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Krott, Andrea; Meyer, Antje S.

2012-01-01

339

Matching is not Naming: A direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks  

PubMed Central

The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of “automatic activation” of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a non-reading task for studying “reading effects” by directly comparing BOLD activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in “reading-related” regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs naming) by string type (word vs pseudoword vs nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type by timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions, and is thus non-automatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. PMID:22711620

Vogel, Alecia C.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2014-01-01

340

ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency  

PubMed Central

The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2013-01-01

341

Lexical richness in maternal input and vocabulary development of Turkish preschoolers in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

The present study examined lexical richness in maternal input to Turkish preschool children in the Netherlands and the relationship with their vocabulary. Fifteen Turkish mother-child dyads were videotaped at the age of 3 and 4 in three settings: book reading, picture description and block building. Children's vocabulary in Turkish was measured at the age of 3 and 4 and in Dutch at the age of 5;10. The lexical richness of the input was analysed both quantitatively (tokens) and qualitatively on diversity, density, and sophistication. The results indicate that lexical richness varied largely among mothers, which could partially be attributed to their SES levels and literacy practices. Furthermore, lexical richness differed between the settings, with the highest richness in the book setting. More importantly, lexical richness in maternal input related to the vocabulary of children in L1 (Turkish) and in the longer run also to L2 (Dutch). Quality of the input (diversity, density and sophistication) turned out to be more influential than quantity. PMID:23504557

Demir-Vegter, Serpil; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, Jeanne

2014-04-01

342

An eye movement based reading intervention in lexical and segmental readers with acquired dyslexia.  

PubMed

Due to their brain damage, aphasic patients with acquired dyslexia often rely to a greater extent on lexical or segmental reading procedures. Thus, therapy intervention is mostly targeted on the more impaired reading strategy. In the present work we introduce a novel therapy approach based on real-time measurement of patients' eye movements as they attempt to read words. More specifically, an eye movement contingent technique of stepwise letter de-masking was used to support sequential reading, whereas fixation-dependent initial masking of non-central letters stimulated a lexical (parallel) reading strategy. Four lexical and four segmental readers with acquired central dyslexia received our intensive reading intervention. All participants showed remarkable improvements as evident in reduced total reading time, a reduced number of fixations per word and improved reading accuracy. Both types of intervention led to item-specific training effects in all subjects. A generalisation to untrained items was only found in segmental readers after the lexical training. Eye movement analyses were also used to compare word processing before and after therapy, indicating that all patients, with one exclusion, maintained their preferred reading strategy. However, in several cases the balance between sequential and lexical processing became less extreme, indicating a more effective individual interplay of both word processing routes. PMID:24813563

Ablinger, Irene; von Heyden, Kerstin; Vorstius, Christian; Halm, Katja; Huber, Walter; Radach, Ralph

2014-12-01

343

Effects of 5d electrons and spin-orbit interaction on the characteristics of bulk plasmons in lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ab initio study of the dynamical dielectric response of bulk lead is presented. The influence of the 5d semicore states on the characteristics of the bulk plasmon is analyzed by means of first-principles pseudopotential calculations. The effects of spin-orbit interactions and local-fields are also studied in detail. The inclusion of the 5d semicore states in the valence configuration completely changes the high-energy-transfer dielectric properties of bulk Pb. In particular, it lowers the computed bulk plasmon energy by about 3.5 eV, bringing its frequency to good agreement with experimental data. In general, the high-energy-transfer dielectric response of bulk Pb is found to be shaped mostly by the interplay between the interband transitions involving the semicore 5d states and the spin-orbit coupling interaction. Local-field effects are found to affect the relative spectral weight of the high-energy excitations, while leaving their dispersion mostly unaffected.

Zubizarreta, X.; Silkin, V. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

2014-10-01

344

Experimental study of needle-tissue interaction forces: Effect of needle geometries, insertion methods and tissue characteristics.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of needle-tissue interaction mechanics is necessary to optimize needle design, achieve robotically needle steering, and establish surgical simulation system. It is obvious that the interaction is influenced by numerous variable parameters, which are divided into three categories: needle geometries, insertion methods, and tissue characteristics. A series of experiments are performed to explore the effect of influence factors (material samples n=5 for each factor) on the insertion force. Data were collected from different biological tissues and a special tissue-equivalent phantom with similar mechanical properties, using a 1-DOF mechanical testing system instrumented with a 6-DOF force/torque (F/T) sensor. The experimental results indicate that three basic phases (deformation, insertion, and extraction phase) are existent during needle penetration. Needle diameter (0.7-3.2mm), needle tip (blunt, diamond, conical, and beveled) and bevel angle (10-85°) are turned out to have a great influence on insertion force, so do the insertion velocity (0.5-10mm/s), drive mode (robot-assisted and hand-held), and the insertion process (interrupted and continuous). Different tissues such as skin, muscle, fat, liver capsule and vessel are proved to generate various force cures, which can contribute to the judgement of the needle position and provide efficient insertion strategy. PMID:25169657

Jiang, Shan; Li, Pan; Yu, Yan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

2014-10-17

345

Lexical learning in bilingual adults: The relative importance of short-term memory for serial order and phonological knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses simultaneously in participants with variable levels of English–French bilingual proficiency. A

Steve Majerus; Martine Poncelet; Martial Van der Linden; Brendan S. Weekes

2008-01-01

346

Effects of the Strategy Therapy "Lexicon Pirate" on Lexical Deficits in Preschool Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most common interventions for children with lexical disorders are forms and combinations of interventions focusing on phonological and semantic elaboration and retrieval. Systematic reviews of intervention studies on children with lexical disorders show that a significant generalization of therapeutic effects to untrained vocabulary was rarely…

Motsch, Hans-Joachim; Ulrich, Tanja

2012-01-01

347

An fMRI Study of Sentence-Embedded Lexical-Semantic Decision in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical-semantic knowledge is a core language component that undergoes prolonged development throughout childhood and is therefore highly amenable to developmental studies. Most previous lexical-semantic functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been limited to single-word or word-pair tasks, outside a sentence context. Our objective was to investigate…

Moore-Parks, Erin Nicole; Burns, Erin L.; Bazzill, Rebecca; Levy, Sarah; Posada, Valerie; Muller, Ralph-Axel

2010-01-01

348

No Lexical-Prelexical Feedback during Speech Perception or: Is It Time to Stop Playing Those Christmas Tapes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of "Christma?" should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous…

McQueen, James M.; Jesse, Alexandra; Norris, Dennis

2009-01-01

349

Lexical and Syntactic Representations in the Brain: An fMRI Investigation with Multi-Voxel Pattern Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work in theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics suggests that human linguistic knowledge forms a continuum between individual lexical items and abstract syntactic representations, with most linguistic representations falling between the two extremes and taking the form of lexical items stored together with the syntactic/semantic contexts in…

Fedorenko, Evelina; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Kanwisher, Nancy

2012-01-01

350

Building Specialized Multilingual Lexical Graphs Using Community Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are describing methods for compiling domain-dedicated multilingual terminological data from various resources. We focus on collecting data from online community users as a main source, therefore, our approach depends on acquiring contributions from volunteers (explicit approach), and it depends on analyzing users' behaviors to extract interesting patterns and facts (implicit approach). As a generic repository that can handle the collected multilingual terminological data, we are describing the concept of dedicated Multilingual Preterminological Graphs MPGs, and some automatic approaches for constructing them by analyzing the behavior of online community users. A Multilingual Preterminological Graph is a special lexical resource that contains massive amount of terms related to a special domain. We call it preterminological, because it is a raw material that can be used to build a standardized terminological repository. Building such a graph is difficult using traditional approaches, as it needs huge efforts by domain specialists and terminologists. In our approach, we build such a graph by analyzing the access log files of the website of the community, and by finding the important terms that have been used to search in that website, and their association with each other. We aim at making this graph as a seed repository so multilingual volunteers can contribute. We are experimenting this approach with the Digital Silk Road Project. We have used its access log files since its beginning in 2003, and obtained an initial graph of around 116000 terms. As an application, we used this graph to obtain a preterminological multilingual database that is serving a CLIR system for the DSR project.

Daoud, Mohammad; Boitet, Christian; Kageura, Kyo; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Mangeot, Mathieu; Daoud, Daoud

351

A Diffusion Model Account of Criterion Shifts in the Lexical Decision Task  

PubMed Central

Performance in the lexical decision task is highly dependent on decision criteria. These criteria can be influenced by speed versus accuracy instructions and word/nonword proportions. Experiment 1 showed that error responses speed up relative to correct responses under instructions to respond quickly. Experiment 2 showed that that responses to less probable stimuli are slower and less accurate than responses to more probable stimuli. The data from both experiments support the diffusion model for lexical decision (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004). At the same time, the data provide evidence against the popular deadline model for lexical decision. The deadline model assumes that “nonword” responses are given only after the “word” response has timed out – consequently, the deadline model cannot account for the data from experimental conditions in which “nonword” responses are systematically faster than “word” responses. PMID:19122740

Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Ratcliff, Roger; Gomez, Pablo; McKoon, Gail

2008-01-01

352

Interactive effects of dietary ractopamine HCl and L-carnitine on finishing pigs: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.  

PubMed

Three experiments using 1,356 pigs (C22 × 336 PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Experiments were arranged as factorials with main effects of L-carnitine and RAC; L-carnitine levels were 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 and 0 or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 3, and RAC levels of 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 0 or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 2 and 3. Dietary L-carnitine was fed from 38 kg to slaughter (109 and 118 kg in Exp. 1 and 3, respectively) or for 4 wk before slaughter (109 kg in Exp. 2). Ractopamine HCl was fed for 4 wk in all experiments. Exp. 1 and 2 were conducted at university research facilities (2 pigs per pen), and Exp. 3 was conducted in a commercial research barn (23 pigs per pen). In Exp. 1, an L-carnitine × RAC interaction (P < 0.02) was observed for LM visual color, L*, and a*/b*. In pigs fed RAC, increasing L-carnitine decreased L* and increased visual color scores and a*/b* compared with pigs not fed RAC. Ultimate pH tended to increase (linear, P < 0.07) with increasing L-carnitine. Drip loss decreased (linear, P < 0.04) in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine. In Exp. 2, firmness scores decreased in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine when not fed RAC, but firmness scores increased and drip losses decreased with increasing L-carnitine when RAC was added to the diet (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.04). Percentage lean was greater (P < 0.01) for pigs fed RAC in Exp. 2. In Exp. 3, fat thickness decreased and lean percentage increased in pigs fed L-carnitine or RAC, but the responses were not additive (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.03). Furthermore, pigs fed L-carnitine tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased LM drip loss percentage whereas pigs fed RAC had decreased (P < 0.05) 10th rib and average backfat and decreased drip loss than pigs fed diets without RAC. These results suggest that dietary RAC increased carcass leanness and supplemental L-carnitine reduced LM drip loss when fed in combination with RAC. PMID:23422010

James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

2013-07-01

353

Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

354

When a Stone Tries to Climb up a Slope: The Interplay between Lexical and Perceptual Animacy in Referential Choices  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that referential choices are influenced by animacy. On the one hand, animate referents are more likely to be mentioned as subjects than inanimate referents. On the other hand, animate referents are more frequently pronominalized than inanimate referents. These effects have been analyzed as effects of conceptual accessibility. In this paper, we raise the question whether these effects are driven only by lexical concepts, such that referents described by animate lexical items (e.g., “toddler”) are more accessible than referents described by inanimate lexical items (e.g., “shoe”), or can also be influenced by context-derived conceptualizations, such that referents that are perceived as animate in a particular context are more accessible than referents that are not. In two animation-retelling experiments, conducted in Dutch, we investigated the influence of lexical and perceptual animacy on the choice of referent and the choice of referring expression. If the effects of animacy are context-dependent, entities that are perceived as animate should yield more subject references and more pronouns than entities that are perceived as inanimate, irrespective of their lexical animacy. If the effects are tied to lexical concepts, entities described with animate lexical items should be mentioned as the subject and pronominalized more frequently than entities described with inanimate lexical items, irrespective of their perceptual animacy. The results show that while only lexical animacy appears to affect the choice of subject referent, perceptual animacy may overrule lexical animacy in the choice of referring expression. These findings suggest that referential choices can be influenced by conceptualizations based on the perceptual context. PMID:23554600

Vogels, Jorrig; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons

2013-01-01

355

Early use of phonetic information in spoken word recognition: lexical stress drives eye movements immediately.  

PubMed

For optimal word recognition listeners should use all relevant acoustic information as soon as it comes available. Using printed-word eye tracking we investigated when during word processing Dutch listeners use suprasegmental lexical stress information to recognize words. Fixations on targets such as "OCtopus" (capitals indicate stress) were more frequent than fixations on segmentally overlapping but differently stressed competitors ("okTOber") before segmental information could disambiguate the words. Furthermore, prior to segmental disambiguation, initially stressed words were stronger lexical competitors than noninitially stressed words. Listeners recognize words by immediately using all relevant information in the speech signal. PMID:19691004

Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M

2010-04-01

356

Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms  

PubMed Central

Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA) named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls) in both Chinese and English. Participants’ response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005). For English, bilinguals’ names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals’ language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English) native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals’ L2 picture naming responses. PMID:25386149

Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Ameel, Eef; Li, Ping

2014-01-01

357

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid  

PubMed Central

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

358

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid.  

PubMed

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

359

[Analysis of characteristics of alpha electroencephalogram during the interaction between emotion and cognition based on Granger causality].  

PubMed

Studying the functional network during the interaction between emotion and cognition is an important way to reveal the underlying neural connections in the brain and nowadays, it has become a hot topic in cognitive neuroscience. Granger causality (GC), based on multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) model, and being able to be used to analyse causal characteristic of brain regions has been widely used in electroencephalography (EEG) in event-related paradigms research. In this study, we recorded the EEGs from 13 normal subjects (6 males and 7 females) during emotional face search task. We utilized Granger causality to establish a causal model of different brain areas under different rhythms at specific stages of cognition, and then convinced the brain dynamic network topological properties in the process of emotion and cognition. Therefore, we concluded that in the alpha band, (1) negative emotion face induced larger causal effects than positive ones; (2) 100-200ms emotional signal was the most prominent ones while 300-400ms and 700-800ms would take the second place; (3) The rear brain region modulated the front in the process of causal modulation; (4) The frontal and pillow area involved in the brain causal modulation as a key brain area; and (5) Negative partiality existed in the information processing, especially during 0-100ms after the negative expression stimulation. PMID:23469524

Wang, Ning; Wei, Ling; Li, Yingjie

2012-12-01

360

1987JOURNALOF GEOPHYSICALRESEARCH,VOL. 92 NO. A8, PAGES8545-8557, AUGUST1 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MARSLIKE LIMIT OF THE VENUS-SOLAR WIND INTERACTION  

E-print Network

OF THE MARSLIKE LIMIT OF THE VENUS-SOLAR WIND INTERACTION 1 1 2 J. G. Luhmann, C.3T. Russell, F. L.4Scarf, L. H by the availability of the extensive data obtained at Venus. These data allow one to examine in detail the plasma but negligible intrinsic field. However, compari- sons of the characteristics of the Venus data with the limited

California at Berkeley, University of

361

Child Characteristics by Science Instruction Interactions in Second and Third Grade and Their Relation to Students' Content-Area Knowledge, Vocabulary, and Reading Skill Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics x instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second graders (n…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Rice, Diana C.; Canto, Angela I.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Underwood, Phyllis; Kaya, Sibel; Fishman, Barry; Morrison, Frederick J.

2012-01-01

362

Interaction of adolescent anthropometric characteristics and family history on breast cancer risk in a Historical Cohort Study of 426 families (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether the association of adolescent anthropometric characteristics with breast cancer is modified by a family history of the disease. Methods: These interactions were evaluated in a historical cohort of 426 families of breast cancer probands diagnosed between 1944 and 1952 at the University of Minnesota. The occurrence of breast cancer and the measurement of risk factors in

James R. Cerhan; Dawn M. Grabrick; Robert A. Vierkant; Carol A. Janney; Celine M. Vachon; Janet E. Olson; Larry H. Kushi; Thomas A. Sellers

2004-01-01

363

Fluid-structure interaction analysis on the effects of vessel material properties on blood flow characteristics in stenosed arteries under axial rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted blood flow analysis, using the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) method, to examine how changes in the material properties of blood vessels affect blood flow characteristics, using the carotid artery as the model vessel. The geometry of the blood vessel included 50% stenosis at the center, and blood was modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid. In order to investigate the effects

Seong Wook Cho; Seung Wook Kim; Moon Hyun Sung; Kyoung Chul Ro; Hong Sun Ryou

2011-01-01

364

Body Schematics: On the Role of the Body Schema in Embodied Lexical-Semantic Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words denoting manipulable objects activate sensorimotor brain areas, likely reflecting action experience with the denoted objects. In particular, these sensorimotor lexical representations have been found to reflect the way in which an object is used. In the current paper we present data from two experiments (one behavioral and one neuroimaging)…

Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Pfeiffer, Christian; Bekkering, Harold

2010-01-01

365

Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity  

E-print Network

Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity Lee Osterhout*, Mark Allen Abstract Many studies have shown that open- and closed-class words elicit different patterns of brain. Introduction Is the brain response to words determined primarily by their linguistic functions

Coulson, Seana

366

On the Role of Regular Phonological Variation in Lexical Access: Evidence from Voice Assimilation in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether lexical access is affected by a regular phonological variation in connected speech: voice assimilation in French. Two associative priming experiments were conducted to determine whether strongly assimilated, potentially ambiguous word forms activate the conceptual representation of the underlying word. Would…

Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

2008-01-01

367

Object naming and later lexical development: From baby bottle to beer bottle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite arguments for the relative ease of learning common noun meanings, semantic development continues well past the early years of language acquisition even for names of concrete objects. We studied evolution of the use of common nouns during later lexical development. Children aged 5–14 years and adults named common household objects and their naming patterns were compared. Children showed a

Eef Ameel; Barbara Malt; Gert Storms

2008-01-01

368

Breadth and Depth of Lexical Acquisition with Hands-on Concordancing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how Omani college students studying English for Academic Purposes used concordance and database software to create their own dictionaries of words to learn. A control group used a word list and dictionary. The experimental method combined the benefits of list coverage with some of the benefits of lexical acquisition through natural…

Cobb, Tom

1999-01-01

369

A Lexical Basis for N400 Context Effects: Evidence from MEG  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrophysiological response to words during the "N400" time window (approximately 300-500 ms post-onset) is affected by the context in which the word is presented, but whether this effect reflects the impact of context on "access" of the stored lexical information itself or, alternatively, post-access "integration" processes is still an open…

Lau, Ellen; Almeida, Diogo; Hines, Paul C.; Poeppel, David

2009-01-01

370

An application of relation algebra to lexical databases Uta Priss, L. John Old  

E-print Network

an application of relation algebra to lexical data- bases. The semantics of knowledge representation formalisms. With respect to formalisms based on n-ary relations (such as relational databases or power context families), a variety of algebras is applicable. In stan- dard relational databases and in formal concept analysis (FCA

Old, L. John

371

Effects of Text Length on Lexical Diversity Measures: Using Short Texts with Less than 200 Tokens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of lexical diversity (LD) in L2 speaking and writing performance, LD assessment measures are known to be affected by the number of words analyzed in the text. This study aims to identify LD measures that are least affected by text length and can be used for the analysis of short L2 texts (50-200 tokens). We compared the…

Koizumi, Rie; In'nami, Yo

2012-01-01

372

Multilingual Lexical Network from the Archives of the Digital Mohammad Daoud  

E-print Network

Multilingual Lexical Network from the Archives of the Digital Silk Road Mohammad Daoud LIG, GETALP Road DSR. The DSR project creates digital archives of cultural heritage along the historical Silk Road; more than 116 of basic references on Silk Road have been digitized and made available online

Boyer, Edmond

373

Phonetic Realization and Perception of Prominence among Lexical Tones in Mandarin Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic prominence is defined as words or syllables perceived auditorily as standing out from their environment. It is explored through changes in pitch, duration and loudness. In this study, phonetic realization and perception of prominence among lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese was investigated in two experiments. Experiment 1 explored…

Bao, Mingzhen

2008-01-01

374

Sequence Encoders Enable Large-Scale Lexical Modeling: Reply to Bowers and Davis (2009)  

E-print Network

. This has often been attributed to the alignment and dispersion problems (Davis, 1999; Plaut, McSequence Encoders Enable Large-Scale Lexical Modeling: Reply to Bowers and Davis (2009) Daragh E and recognition to processing only monosyllabic words. Bowers and Davis (2009) recently claimed that the sequence

Plaut, David C.

375

Effects of Prosodic and Lexical Constraints on Parsing in Young Children (and Adults)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing [Trueswell, J.C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N.M., & Logrip, M.L, (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: Studying on-line sentence processing in young children.…

Snedeker, Jesse; Yuan, Sylvia

2008-01-01

376

Putting Lexical Constraints in Context into the Visual-World Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior eye-tracking studies of spoken sentence comprehension have found that the presence of two potential referents, e.g., two frogs, can guide listeners toward a Modifier interpretation of "Put the frog on the napkin..." despite strong lexical biases associated with "Put" that support a Goal interpretation of the temporary ambiguity (Tanenhaus,…

Novick, Jared M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Trueswell, John C.

2008-01-01

377

How Bad Do You Spell?: The Lexical Quality of Social Media  

E-print Network

for future work are considered. 2 Related Work The quality of the Web can be related to its contents (highly broadly related to contents issues (Castillo et al. 2007; Fogg et al. 2001) than to its representation Barcelona, Spain Abstract In this study we present an analysis of the lexical quality of social media

378

Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived…

Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

2007-01-01

379

Lexical Diversity and Productivity in French Preschoolers: Developmental, Gender and Sociocultural Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of child gender and sociocultural (SCL) factors in language production. Subjects were French Parisian children in nine age groups (24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45 and 48 months). A total of 316 language samples were recorded during a 20-min standardized play session. Measures of grammatical and lexical

Le Normand, Marie-Therese; Parisse, Christophe; Cohen, Henri

2008-01-01

380

Creative Discovery in the Lexical "Validation Jer Hayes and Nuno Seco and Tony Veale  

E-print Network

innovative concepts in their own right. Key words: Concept Discovery, MWE Evaluation, Creativity 1 Introduction Broad-coverage lexical knowledge-bases like WordNet (Miller et al, 1990) gen- erally contain are literal in composition. These compounds are undoubtedly included for a reason, yet the idea that literal

Veale, Tony

381

Understanding and Quantifying Creativity in Lexical Composition Polina Kuznetsova Jianfu Chen Yejin Choi  

E-print Network

significant effort in choosing the per- fect words in completing their compositions, as a well of brain processing when compared against the effect of conventional metaphors or literal expressions (eUnderstanding and Quantifying Creativity in Lexical Composition Polina Kuznetsova Jianfu Chen Yejin

Anderson, Richard

382

Acoustic/Prosodic and Lexical Correlates of Charismatic Speech Andrew Rosenberg, Julia Hirschberg  

E-print Network

Acoustic/Prosodic and Lexical Correlates of Charismatic Speech Andrew Rosenberg, Julia Hirschberg than to identify. How do charismatic leaders such as Fidel Castro or Pope John Paul II attract and retain their followers? We present results of an analysis of subjective ratings of charisma from a corpus

Hirschberg, Julia

383

Traditional vs. Virtual Learning: Does It Make a Difference? ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexical Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents survey data from English Philology students (University of Granada) on a virtual course entitled ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexis--which was carried out in 2007-08 to enhance vocabulary acquisition. In the first part of this paper, we briefly offer a description of this second generation virtual course to enhance lexical

Jaen, Maria Moreno

2009-01-01

384

An Analysis of the Multiword Lexical Units in Contemporary ELT Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, the importance of multiword lexical units has been receiving an extraordinary amount of attention, and is now almost a must-have component in the practice of English language teaching. The field of English for Business Purposes was among the first to recognize the uniqueness of multiword units, establishing the initial…

Hsu, Jeng-yih

2006-01-01

385

Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

2014-01-01

386

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

387

Increased Lexical Activation and Reduced Competition in Second-Language Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how inaccurate phoneme processing affects recognition of partially onset-overlapping pairs like "DAFFOdil-DEFIcit" and of minimal pairs like "flash-flesh" in second-language listening. Two cross-modal priming experiments examined differences between native (L1) and second-language (L2) listeners at two stages of lexical

Broersma, Mirjam

2012-01-01

388

Automatic Presentation of Sense-Specific Lexical Information in an Intelligent Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning vocabulary and understanding texts present difficulty for language learners due to, among other things, the high degree of lexical ambiguity. By developing an intelligent tutoring system, this dissertation examines whether automatically providing enriched sense-specific information is effective for vocabulary learning and reading…

Eom, Soojeong

2012-01-01

389

Temporal relation between top-down and bottom-up processing in lexical tone perception  

PubMed Central

Speech perception entails both top-down processing that relies primarily on language experience and bottom-up processing that depends mainly on instant auditory input. Previous models of speech perception often claim that bottom-up processing occurs in an early time window, whereas top-down processing takes place in a late time window after stimulus onset. In this paper, we evaluated the temporal relation of both types of processing in lexical tone perception. We conducted a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments that recruited Mandarin participants and adopted three experimental paradigms, namely dichotic listening, lexical decision with phonological priming, and semantic violation. By systematically analyzing the lateralization patterns of the early and late ERP components that are observed in these experiments, we discovered that: auditory processing of pitch variations in tones, as a bottom-up effect, elicited greater right hemisphere activation; in contrast, linguistic processing of lexical tones, as a top-down effect, elicited greater left hemisphere activation. We also found that both types of processing co-occurred in both the early (around 200 ms) and late (around 300–500 ms) time windows, which supported a parallel model of lexical tone perception. Unlike the previous view that language processing is special and performed by dedicated neural circuitry, our study have elucidated that language processing can be decomposed into general cognitive functions (e.g., sensory and memory) and share neural resources with these functions. PMID:24723863

Shuai, Lan; Gong, Tao

2013-01-01

390

Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the extent to which lexical bundles (LBs; i.e., frequently recurring strings of words that often span traditional syntactic boundaries) are stored and processed holistically. Three self-paced reading experiments compared sentences containing LBs (e.g., "in the middle of the") and matched control sentence fragments (e.g., "in…

Tremblay, Antoine; Derwing, Bruce; Libben, Gary; Westbury, Chris

2011-01-01

391

Input Frequency and Word Truncation in Child Japanese: Structural and Lexical Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that the statistical properties of the input have an impact on the prosodic shape of young children's word production. However, it is still not clear whether the effects of input statistics emerge from the frequency of prosodic structures or the frequency of individual lexical items. This issue is investigated in this study by analyzing cases of word

Mitsuhiko Ota

2006-01-01

392

Lexical and Clause-Linkage Properties of the Converbal Constructions in Sakha (Yakut)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis is a comprehensive study of lexical and clause-linkage properties of converbs in an underdescribed language, Sakha (aka Yakut). Following Haspelmath (1995b) a converb is defined as a non-finite verb form which mainly indicates an adverbial subordination. Converbs are attested in diverse languages of the world, but are used extensively…

Petrova, Nyurguyana

2011-01-01

393

Scope of Lexical Access in Spoken Sentence Production: Implications for the Conceptual-Syntactic Interface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on P. H. Allum and L. Wheeldon (2007), the authors conducted 5 experiments to investigate the scope of lexical access during spoken sentence production in Japanese and English. Speakers described pairs of pictured objects, and on critical trials, 1 object was previewed. In Japanese, sentence onset is speeded by the preview of each of the…

Allum, Paul H.; Wheeldon, L.

2009-01-01

394

The Generative Power of Categorial Grammars and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammars with Lexical Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it is shown that the addition of simple and linguistically motivated forms of lexical rules to grammatical theories based on subcategorization lists, such as categorial grammars (CG) or head-driven phrase structure grammars (HPSG), results in a system that can generate all and only the recursively enumerable languages. The proof of this result is carried out by means

Bob Carpenter

1991-01-01

395

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2013-01-01

396

Lexical and Segmental Influences on Child and Adult Learners' Production of Second Language Vowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how two segmental or sound-related factors (cross- language perceptual similarity, syllabic context) as well as two lexical or word- related factors (word frequency, subjective word familiarity) influenced the production of eight English vowels by 40 Korean children and adults exposed to English in the U.S. for an average of 1 and 7 years. Results of two experiments

Wendy Baker; Pavel Trofimovich

2008-01-01

397

Chunk-it-up: Building lexical awareness through a TV series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students often memorize hundreds of words but still struggle to use common everyday phrases. Participants will see how the presenter used a lexical approach and followed the entire season of an American sitcom. Students were engaged, had fun, improved their speaking accuracy and listening skills. Sample materials provided.

Jeff Puccini

2009-01-01

398

Lexical Modernization and Its Socio-Linguistic Effects: A Case from Indian Urdu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the linguistic processes involved in the lexical modernization of Urdu and the extent to which the changes affect the efficiency of communication, the Urdu-speaking community, and the language itself. Data were drawn from the language used in popular Urdu daily papers and periodicals covering the complete range of activities in…

Abbi, Anvita; Hasnain, S. Imtiaz

399

Lexical Quality and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Contributions to Sentence Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated whether spelling ability, an index of precise lexical representations, predicts the balance between bottom-up and top-down processing in online sentence processing among skilled readers, over and above contributions of reading ability, vocabulary, and working memory. The results showed that the combination of superior reading and spelling was associated with more accurate report of rapidly presented sentences and

Jolyn Hersch; Sally Andrews

2011-01-01

400

Lexical Quality and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Contributions to Sentence Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated whether spelling ability, an index of precise lexical representations, predicts the balance between bottom-up and top-down processing in online sentence processing among skilled readers, over and above contributions of reading ability, vocabulary, and working memory. The results showed that the combination of superior reading and spelling was associated with more accurate report of rapidly presented sentences and

Jolyn Hersch; Sally Andrews

2012-01-01

401

Lexical cohesion and specialized knowledge in science and popular science texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific journal articles written for specialist audiences and popularized accounts of the same research differ in their cohesive patterns. This difference can be related to different uses of readers’ knowledge in the two kinds of texts. In general, readers of scientific texts must have a knowledge of lexical relations to see the implicit cohesion of the text, while readers of

Greg Myers

1991-01-01

402

Is the Tanzanian Ngoni Language Threatened? A Survey of Lexical Borrowing from Swahili  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tanzania's post-independence language policy has promoted Swahili as a means of achieving national and linguistic unity. This policy has affected the Ngoni language in south-western Tanzania. Today, Swahili has permeated communication all over Tanzania, even in rural and remote areas. This paper discusses lexical borrowing and especially…

Rosendal, Tove; Mapunda, Gastor

2014-01-01

403

A Comparison of Word Lexicality in the Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research programme was to evaluate the role of word lexicality in effecting phonological change in children's sound systems. Four children with functional speech sound disorders (SSDs) were enrolled in an across-subjects multiple baseline single-subject design; two were treated using high-frequency real words (RWs) and two were…

Cummings, Alycia E.; Barlow, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

404

Lexical Processing and the "Language Module." CLCS Occasional Paper No. 53.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major theoretical issue in the study of language processing and language acquisition is whether language development is independent of other aspects of cognitive development, encapsulated in a "language module." This issue is discussed as it relates to lexical processing. The paper begins with a historical contextualization of the modular view…

Singleton, David

405

Optical Phonetics and Visual Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of optical cues to the visual perception of stress, three American English talkers spoke words that differed in lexical stress and sentences that differed in phrasal stress, while video and movements of the face were recorded. The production of stressed and unstressed syllables from these utterances was analyzed along many measures of…

Scarborough, Rebecca; Keating, Patricia; Mattys, Sven L.; Cho, Taehong; Alwan, Abeer

2009-01-01

406

Sensitivity to Lexical Stress in Dyslexia: A Case of Cognitive Not Perceptual Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensitivity to lexical stress in adult German-speaking students with reading difficulty was investigated using minimal pair prepositional verbs whose meaning and syntax depend on the location of the stressed syllable. Two tests of stress perception were used: (i) a stress location task, where listeners indicated the location of the perceptually…

Barry, Johanna G.; Harbodt, Silke; Cantiani, Chiara; Sabisch, Beate; Zobay, Oliver

2012-01-01

407

Cross-Linguistic Perception and Learning of Japanese Lexical Prosody by English Listeners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this dissertation is on how language experience shapes perception of a non-native prosodic contrast. In Tokyo Japanese, fundamental frequency (F0) peak and fall are acoustic cues to lexically contrastive pitch patterns, in which a word may be accented on a particular syllable or unaccented (e.g., "tsuru" "a crane", "tsuru" "a vine",…

Shport, Irina A.

2011-01-01

408

Phonology, Decoding, and Lexical Compensation in Vowel Spelling Errors Made by Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive study of vowel spelling errors made by children first diagnosed with dyslexia (n = 79) revealed that phonological errors, such as "bet" for "bat", outnumbered orthographic errors, such as "bate" for "bait". These errors were more frequent in nonwords than words, suggesting that lexical context helps with vowel spelling. In a second…

Bernstein, Stuart E.

2009-01-01

409

Testing the Lexical Recognition Task with Spanish/English Bilinguals in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation intends to assess the effectiveness of a lexical recognition test (Meara & Buxton, 1987) as a placement tool that distinguishes among levels of two groups of students: Spanish heritage language learners (HLL) and second language learners (SLL). Three hundred and thirty university students from four different levels completed a…

Fairclough, Marta

2011-01-01

410

Differentiating Cantonese-Speaking Preschool Children with and without SLI Using MLU and Lexical Diversity (D)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of a composite clinical assessment measure based on mean length of utterance (MLU), lexical diversity (D), and age (Klee, Stokes, Wong, Fletcher, & Gavin, 2004) in a second, independent sample of 4-year-old Cantonese-speaking children with and without specific language impairment…

Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Leonard, Laurence B.

2010-01-01

411

Mismatch Responses to Lexical Tone, Initial Consonant, and Vowel in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball…

Lee, Chia-Ying; Yen, Huei-ling; Yeh, Pei-wen; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Cheng, Ying-Ying; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Chi

2012-01-01

412

From melody to lexical tone: Musical ability enhances specific aspects of foreign language perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research shows that music ability provides positive effects on language processing. This study aims at better clarifying the involvement of different linguistic subdomains in this cross-domain link, assessing whether or not musicality and music expertise enhance phonological and lexical tone processing of Mandarin Chinese. In two experiments different groups of adults and children with no previous experience in tonal

Franco Delogu; Giulia Lampis; Marta Olivetti Belardinelli

2010-01-01

413

Toddlers Activate Lexical Semantic Knowledge in the Absence of Visual Referents: Evidence from Auditory Priming  

PubMed Central

Language learners rapidly acquire extensive semantic knowledge, but the development of this knowledge is difficult to study, in part because it is difficult to assess young children’s lexical semantic representations. In our studies, we solved this problem by investigating lexical semantic knowledge in 24-month-olds using the Head-turn Preference Procedure. In Experiment 1, looking times to a repeating spoken word stimulus (e.g., kitty-kitty-kitty) were shorter for trials preceded by a semantically related word (e.g., dog-dog-dog) than trials preceded by an unrelated word (e.g., juice-juice-juice). Experiment 2 yielded similar results using a method in which pairs of words were presented on the same trial. The studies provide evidence that young children activate of lexical semantic knowledge, and critically, that they do so in the absence of visual referents or sentence contexts. Auditory lexical priming is a promising technique for studying the development and structure of semantic knowledge in young children. PMID:24409090

Willits, Jon A.; Wojcik, Erica H.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2013-01-01

414

Explicit and Implicit Lexical Knowledge: Acquisition of Collocations under Different Input Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, there has been little empirical research exploring the relationship between implicit and explicit lexical knowledge (of collocations). As a first step in addressing this gap, two laboratory experiments were conducted that evaluate different conditions (enriched, enhanced, and decontextualized) under which both adult native speakers…

Sonbul, Suhad; Schmitt, Norbert

2013-01-01

415

Lexical Collocation and Topic Occurrence in Well-Written Editorials: A Study in Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the concept of lexical collocation, or relationships between words, a study was conducted based on three assumptions: (1) that a text structure for a unit of discourse was analogous to that existing at the level of the sentence, (2) that such a text form could be discovered if a large enough sample of generically similar texts was…

Addison, James C., Jr.

416

LIFG-Based Attentional Control and the Resolution of Lexical Ambiguities in Sentence Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively…

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2011-01-01

417

A Data-Oriented Parsing Model for Lexical-Functional Grammar  

E-print Network

1 A Data-Oriented Parsing Model for Lexical-Functional Grammar Rens Bod and Ronald Kaplan rens that 1 For examples of work within this framework, see Bender and Riehemann (2000), Bod (1993, 1998), Bod and Kaplan (1997, 1998), Bod et al. (2002), Bonnema et al. (1997), Carroll and Weir (2001), Charniak (1996

Amsterdam, University of

418

Length Effect in Reading and Lexical Decision: Evidence from Skilled Readers and a Developmental Dyslexic Participant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of experimental data have shown that naming latency increases with length for pseudo-words but not for frequent real words. Different interpretations have been proposed by current models of reading to account for such a length effect. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of lexicality on length effect in both the reading…

Juphard, Alexandra; Carbonnel, Serge; Valdois, Sylviane

2004-01-01

419

Leading Up the Lexical Garden Path: Segmentation and Ambiguity in Spoken Word Recognition  

E-print Network

Leading Up the Lexical Garden Path: Segmentation and Ambiguity in Spoken Word Recognition Matthew H Gaskell University of York Two gating studies, a forced-choice identification study and 2 series of cross-modal repetition priming experiments, traced the time course of recognition of words with onset embeddings (captain

Davis, Matt

420

Lexical Entrainment in Written Discourse: Is Experts' Word Use Adapted to the Addressee?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlaps with one's interlocutor in the choice of words are called lexical entrainment. This article looks at accounts for these overlaps in word use. The question addressed is the extent to which the word use of the addressee, as opposed to available words from other sources, has a special impact on experts' choice of words. A laboratory experiment was conducted

Regina Jucks; Bettina-Maria Becker; Rainer Bromme

2008-01-01

421

Lexical access for low- and high-frequency words in Hebrew  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that phonological mediation is involved to a greater extent in the recognition of low- than in the recognition of high-frequency words was examined using Hebrew. Hebrew has two forms of spelling, pointed and unpointed, which differ greatly in the extent of phonologi- cal ambiguity, with the unpointed spelling lacking almost all vowel information. A lexical deci- sion task

ASHER KORIAT

1985-01-01

422

An Approach to Polarity Sensitivity and Negative Concord by Lexical Underspecification  

E-print Network

An Approach to Polarity Sensitivity and Negative Concord by Lexical Underspecification Judith of Polarity Sensitive Items (PSIs) and n­words of Negative Concord. We propose that PSIs are unified semantic licensing. 1 Introduction The natural language phenomenon Polarity Sensitivity (PS) has been much

Kuhn, Jonas

423

Auditory-Phonetic Projection and Lexical Structure in the Recognition of Sine-Wave Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, although signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances…

Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

2011-01-01

424

A Lexical Grammatical Implementation of Affect Matthijs Mulder1,2  

E-print Network

towards affect in language. We have chosen to define affect in language as text having a positive or negative orientation, an intensity, and a direction towards an object. This definition of affect is basedA Lexical Grammatical Implementation of Affect Matthijs Mulder1,2 , Anton Nijholt1 , Marten den Uyl

Nijholt, Anton

425

Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

426

Bigram Frequency, Number of Syllables and Morphemes and Their Effects on Lexical Decision and Word Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increasing volume of evidence supporting the role of the syllable in word processing tasks. Recently it has also been shown that orthographic redundancy, related to the pattern of bigram frequencies, could not explain the syllable number effect on lexical decision times. This was demonstrated on a large sample of words taken from…

Muncer, Steven J.; Knight, David; Adams, John W.

2014-01-01

427

Does Foreign Language Writing Benefit from Increased Lexical Fluency? Evidence from a Classroom Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text production, such as idea generation, selection and…

van Gelderen, Amos; Oostdam, Ron; van Schooten, Erik

2011-01-01

428

Parsing the Wall Street Journal using a Lexical-Functional Grammar and Discriminative Estimation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a stochastic parsing system consisting of a Lexical - Functional Gram - mar (LFG), a constraint - based parser and a stochastic disambiguation model We re - port on the results of applying this sys - tem to parsing the UPenn Wall Street Journal (WSJ) treebank The model com - bines full and partial parsing techniques to

Stefan Riezler; Tracy H. King; Ronald M. Kaplan; Richard S. Crouch; John T. Maxwell III; Mark Johnson

2002-01-01

429

AN EFFORT TO DEVELOP A TAGGED LEXICAL RESOURCE FOR S. Varakhedi  

E-print Network

AN EFFORT TO DEVELOP A TAGGED LEXICAL RESOURCE FOR SANSKRIT S. Varakhedi V.Jaddipal V. Sheeba Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha Deemed University Tirupati {shrivara,v.jaddipal,v.sheeba}@gmail.com 1. ABSTRACT In this paper we present our efforts the first time of its kind in the history of Sanskrit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

SanskritTagger, a stochastic lexical and POS tagger for Sanskrit Oliver Hellwig  

E-print Network

SanskritTagger, a stochastic lexical and POS tagger for Sanskrit Oliver Hellwig Abstract SanskritTagger is a stochastic tagger for unpreprocessed Sanskrit text. The tag- ger tokenises text with a Markov model process, reports the results of tag- ging a few short passages of Sanskrit text and describes further

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

431

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ensembles of Decision Trees in Disambiguating Senseval Lexical Samples  

E-print Network

function words as features. For example, if the target word is water and the training example is I water is an ensemble approach that assigns a sense to an instance of an ambiguous word by taking a vote among three with the target word. Each view of the training examples is based on one of the fol­ lowing three types of lexical

Pedersen, Ted

432

Shifting Interests: Changes in the Lexical Semantics of ED-MEDIA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large research networks naturally form complex communities with overlapping but not identical expertise. To map the distribution of professional competence in field of "technology-enhanced learning", the lexical semantics expressed in research articles published in a representative, large-scale conference (ED-MEDIA) can be investigated and changes…

Wild, Fridolin; Valentine, Chris; Scott, Peter

2010-01-01

433

Effects of Perceptual and Conceptual Similarity in Lexical Priming of Young Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conceptual and perceptual properties of words on the speed and accuracy of lexical retrieval of children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during a picture-naming task. Participants consisted of 13 3-5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS. All participants had speech, language,…

Hartfield, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.

2006-01-01

434

The Independent Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Acquisition by Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research was to disentangle effects of phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, and neighbourhood density, the number of phonologically similar words, in lexical acquisition. Two-word learning experiments were conducted with 4-year-old children. Experiment 1 manipulated phonotactic probability…

Storkel, Holly L.; Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

435

Distinguishing lexical- versus discourse-level processing using event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Two experiments examine the links between neural patterns in EEG (e.g., N400s, P600s) and their corresponding cognitive processes (e.g., lexical access, discourse integration) by varying the lexical and syntactic contexts of co-referential expressions. Experiment 1 examined coreferring expressions when they occurred within the same clause as their antecedents (John/Bill warmly dressed John). Experiment 2 examined between-clause co-referencing with expressions that also varied in lexical frequency (John/Weston went to the store so that John/Weston could buy milk). Evidence of facilitated lexical processing occurred after repeated names, which elicited smaller N400s, as compared with new names. N400s were also attenuated to a greater degree for low-frequency expressions than for high-frequency ones. Repeated names also triggered evidence of postlexical processing, but this emerged as larger P600s for within-clause co-referencing and delayed N400s for between-clause co-referencing. Together, these results suggest that linguistic processes can be distinguished through distinct ERP components or distinct temporal patterns. PMID:24122362

Huang, Yi Ting; Hopfinger, Joseph; Gordon, Peter C

2014-02-01

436

Neurophysiological Evidence for Underspecified Lexical Representations: Asymmetries with Word Initial Variations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the mental lexicon cope with phonetic variants in recognition of spoken words? Using a lexical decision task with and without fragment priming, the authors compared the processing of German words and pseudowords that differed only in the place of articulation of the initial consonant (place). Across both experiments, event-related brain…

Friedrich, Claudia K.; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

2008-01-01

437

Modeling of Word Translation: Activation Flow from Concepts to Lexical Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas most theoretical and computational models assume a continuous flow of activation from concepts to lexical items in spoken word production, one prominent model assumes that the mapping of concepts onto words happens in a discrete fashion (Bloem & La Heij, 2003). Semantic facilitation of context pictures on word translation has been taken to…

Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Gerakaki, Svetlana

2013-01-01

438

Cues for Lexical Tone Perception in Children: Acoustic Correlates and Phonetic Context Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors investigated the effects of acoustic cues (i.e., pitch height, pitch contour, and pitch onset and offset) and phonetic context cues (i.e., syllable onsets and rimes) on lexical tone perception in Cantonese-speaking children. Method: Eight minimum pairs of tonal contrasts were presented in either an identical phonetic context…

Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine; Burnham, Denis

2014-01-01

439

Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu  

E-print Network

Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu National Taiwan, the authors examined the acoustic modifications of infant-directed speech (IDS) at the syllable level to test and addressing an adult. The results indicate that IDS does not distort the acoustic cues that are essential

440

Lexical and Grammatical Development in a Child with Cochlear Implant and Attention Deficit: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study to explore lexical and grammatical development in a deaf child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive sub-type (ADHDI). The child, whose family language was Spanish, was fitted with a cochlear implant (CI) when she was 18 months old. ADHDI, for which she was prescribed medication, was diagnosed…

Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Torres, Santiago; Santana, Rafael

2010-01-01

441

Children's Auditory Lexical Decisions: A Limited Processing Capacity Account of Language Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-three children (ages 10 to 12) with language impairment and 46 typically achieving adults participated in two auditory lexical-decision tasks evaluating effects of phonological opacity on word recognition. Findings indicated that the language-impaired children were less able than controls to identify phonologically opaque…

Windsor, Jennifer; Hwang, Mina

1999-01-01

442

Phonological and lexical encoding processes in beginning readers: Effects of age and word characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was two-fold. First to find out whether the prelexical phonological route develops prior to the visual route or whether the direct visual route develops first in the process of learning to read Greek. Second, to see whether the subjects' chronological age deviation affects decisively the overall reading accuracy and the processes employed in word reading.

C. D. Porpodas; S. N. Pantelis; E. Hantziou

1990-01-01

443

Interaction of non-meat ingredients on sensory characteristics and chemical characteristics of pork loin chops during vacuum-packaged refrigerated storage  

E-print Network

(0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%), potassium lactate (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) and sodium diacetate (0, .05, .10, .15 and .20%) on the color, sensory characteristics, package purge, water holding capacity, and pH of pork chops stored in vacuum-packaging for 0, 7, 14, 21...

Ford, Tara K.

2005-11-01

444

Interactions between rootstock, inter-stem and scion xylem vessel characteristics of peach trees growing on rootstocks with contrasting size-controlling characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The primary physiological mechanism influencing tree vigour in size-controlling rootstocks of peach has been related to the hydraulic conductance of the rootstock. Differences in rootstock hydraulic conductance are a function of rootstock xylem vessel characteristics. The present research examined whether the vigour and xylem vessel characteristics of the rootstock influence the xylem characteristics of the scion. We tested whether using a size-controlling rootstock genotype as an inter-stem influences the xylem vessel characteristics of either the rootstock below the inter-stem or the scion above it and vice versa. Methodology Anatomical measurements (diameter and frequency) of xylem vessels were determined above and below the graft unions of the trunks of peach trees with differing scion/rootstock combinations. The three peach rootstocks were ‘Nemaguard’ (vigorous), ‘P30-135’ (intermediate vigour) and ‘K146-43’ (dwarfing). The vigorous scion cultivar was ‘O'Henry’. The inter-stem experiment involved trees with ‘Nemaguard’ (vigorous) as the rootstock, ‘K146-43’ (dwarfing) as the inter-stem and ‘O'Henry’ as the scion. Based on anatomical measurements, we calculated the theoretical axial xylem conductance of each stem piece and rootstock genotype with the Hagen–Poiseuille law. Principal results Xylem vessel dimensions of rootstocks varied in conjunction with tree vigour. Scion xylem vessel dimensions of different scion/rootstock combinations were only marginally affected by rootstock genotype. The inter-stem sections from the dwarfing genotype (‘K146-43’) had narrower vessels and a lower calculated hydraulic conductance than the xylem from either the vigorous rootstock below (‘Nemaguard’) or the scion above (‘O'Henry’). Conclusions Rootstock genotype only marginally affected scion xylem vessel characteristics. Thus the xylem vessel characteristics of the dwarfing rootstock genotypes appear to influence tree growth directly rather than through an effect on the xylem characteristics of the scion. A dwarfing rootstock genotype used as an inter-stem appeared to work as a physical restriction to water movement, reducing potential xylem flow and conductance of the whole tree. PMID:22476071

Tombesi, Sergio; Johnson, R. Scott; Day, Kevin R.; DeJong, Theodore M.

2010-01-01

445

Putting lexical constraints in context into the visual-world paradigm  

PubMed Central

Prior eye-tracking studies of spoken sentence comprehension (Tanenhaus et al., 1995; Trueswell et al., 1999) have found that the presence of two potential referents, e.g., two frogs, could guide listeners toward a Modifier interpretation of Put the frog on the napkin… despite strong lexical biases associated with Put that support a Goal interpretation of the temporary ambiguity. This pattern is not expected under constraint-based parsing theories: cue conflict between the lexical evidence (which supports the Goal analysis) and the visuo-contextual evidence (which supports the Modifier analysis) should result in uncertainty about the intended analysis and partial consideration of the Goal analysis. We reexamined these put studies (Experiment 1) by introducing a response time-constraint and a spatial contrast between competing referents (a frog on a napkin vs. a frog in a bowl). If listeners immediately interpret on the… as the start of a restrictive modifier, then their eye movements should rapidly converge on the intended referent (the frog on something). However, listeners showed this pattern only when the phrase was unambiguously a modifier (Put the frog that's on the…). Syntactically ambiguous trials resulted in transient consideration of the Competitor animal (the frog in something). A reading study was also run on the same individuals (Experiment 2) and performance was compared between the two experiments. Those individuals who relied heavily on lexical biases to resolve a complement ambiguity in reading (The man heard/realized the story had been…) showed increased sensitivity to both lexical and contextual constraints in the put-task; i.e., increased consideration of the Goal analysis in 1-Referent scenes, but also adeptness at using spatial constraints of prepositions (in vs. on) to restrict referential alternatives in 2-Referent scenes. These findings cross-validate visual world and reading methods and support multiple-constraint theories of sentence processing in which individuals differ in their sensitivity to lexical contingencies. PMID:18279848

Novick, Jared M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Trueswell, John C.

2013-01-01

446

Lexical processing while deciding what task to perform: reading aloud in the context of the task set paradigm.  

PubMed

The results of two experiments provide the first direct demonstration that subjects can process a word lexically despite concurrently being engaged in decoding a task cue telling them which of two tasks to perform. These results, taken together with others, point to qualitative differences between the mind's ability to engage in lexical versus sublexical processing during the time they are engaged with other tasks. The emerging picture is one in which some form of resource(s) plays little role during lexical processing whereas the need for some form of resource(s) during sublexical processing serves to bottleneck performance. PMID:21911302

O'Malley, Shannon; Besner, Derek

2011-12-01

447

Analysis and Clustering of Navy Ratings Based on Social Interaction Characteristics: A Literature Review and Conceptual Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current job analysis methods do not produce results that adequately reflect the social interaction content of jobs. The objective of this research was to discover what is known about social interaction in work related and organizational contexts that can ...

E. K. Weil, L. Hakel, M. D. Hakel

1988-01-01

448

The dark side of incremental learning: A model of cumulative semantic interference during lexical access in speech production  

PubMed Central

Naming a picture of a dog primes the subsequent naming of a picture of a dog (repetition priming) and interferes with the subsequent naming of a picture of a cat (semantic interference). Behavioral studies suggest that these effects derive from persistent changes in the way that words are activated and selected for production, and some have claimed that the findings are only understandable by positing a competitive mechanism for lexical selection. We present a simple model of lexical retrieval in speech production that applies error-driven learning to its lexical activation network. This model naturally produces repetition priming and semantic interference effects. It predicts the major findings from several published experiments, demonstrating that these effects may arise from incremental learning. Furthermore, analysis of the model suggests that competition during lexical selection is not necessary for semantic interference if the learning process is itself competitive. PMID:19854436

Oppenheim, Gary M.; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2010-01-01

449

Lexical plasticity in early bilinguals does not alter phoneme categories: I. Neurodynamical modeling.  

PubMed

Abstract Sebastián-Gallés et al. [The influence of initial exposure on lexical representation: Comparing early and simultaneous bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 240-255, 2005] contrasted highly proficient early Spanish-Catalan and Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, using Catalan materials in a lexical decision task (LDT). They constructed two types of experimental pseudowords, substituting Catalan phoneme /e/ for Catalan /epsilon/, or vice versa. Catalan-dominant bilinguals showed a performance asymmetry across experimental conditions, making more mistakes for /epsilon/-->/e/ changes, than for /e/-->/epsilon/ ones. This was considered evidence of a developed acceptance of mispronounced Catalan /epsilon/-words, caused by exposure to a bilingual environment where mispronunciations by Spanish-dominant bilinguals using their /e/-category abound. Although this indicated modified or added lexical representations, an open issue is whether such lexical information also modifies phoneme categories. We address this using a biophysically realistic neurodynamic model, describing neural activity at the synaptic and spiking levels. We construct a network of pools of neurons, representing phonemic and lexical processing. Carefully analyzing the dependency of network dynamics on connection strengths, by first exploring parameter space under steady-state assumptions (mean-field scans), then running spiking simulations, we investigate the neural substrate role in a representative LDT. We also simulate a phoneme discrimination task to address whether lexical changes affect the phonemic level. We find that the same network configuration which displays asymmetry in the LDT shows equal performance discriminating the two modeled phonemes. Thus, we predicted that the Catalan-dominant bilinguals do not alter their phoneme categories, although showing signs of having stored a new word variation in the lexicon. To explore this prediction, a syllable discrimination task involving the /e/-/epsilon/ contrast was set up, using Catalan-dominants displaying performance asymmetry in a repetition of the original LDT. Discrimination task results support the prediction, showing that these subjects discriminate both categories equally well. We conclude that subjects often exposed to dialectal word variations can store these in their lexicons, without altering their phoneme representations. PMID:17919078

Larsson, J P; Constán, Fátima Vera; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo

2008-01-01

450

Effects of Native Language and Training on Speaker Normalization on Lexical Tone Perception: A Behavioral and ERP Study  

E-print Network

. In the current study, in addition to attentive behavioral investigation, the pre-attentive discrimination of lexical tones and the effect of language background and training was investigated using Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs). ERPs can be recorded...-language difference in tone perception: A multidimensional scaling investigation. Lang Speech 21: 1-33. Kaan, Edith, Chris Barkley, Ratree Wayland and Mingzhen Bao (2007). Effects of Native Language and Training on Lexical Tone Perception: An ERP study. Brain Res...

Wayland, Ratree; Kaan, Edith; Bao, Mingzhen; Barkley, Christopher

2008-01-01

451

The impact of affect and frequency on lexical decision: The role of the amygdala and inferior frontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study used event-related fMRI to examine BOLD responses associated with two factors that behaviorally determine speed of lexical decision: frequency and emotion. Thirteen healthy adults performed a visual lexical decision task, discriminating between words and orthographically and phonologically legal nonwords. The study involved a 2 (Frequency: high and low) × 3 (Emotional arousal: highly negative, mildly negative, and neutral words)

Marina Nakic; Bruce W. Smith; Sarah Busis; Meena Vythilingam; R. James R. Blair

2006-01-01

452

The 5Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT): Relationships With Two Lexically Based Instruments and the Validation of the Absorption Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although intended to assess vulnerability factors associated with psychopathology, the 5-Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT) shows at least a superficial similarity to instruments that adhere to the lexical tradition in personality psychology. To investigate to which extent this similarity goes, this article compares the 5DPT with 2 lexically based measures, the NEO–Five Factor Inventory and the HEXACO–Personality Inventory–Revised. Moreover, as the

Dirk van Kampen

2012-01-01

453

Production of lexical stress in non-native speakers of American English: Kinematic correlates of stress and transfer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the influence of L2 proficiency on production characteristics of rhythmic sequences in L1 (Bengali) and L2 (English), with emphasis on linguistic transfer. One goal was to examine, using kinematic evidence, how L2- proficiency influences the production of iambic and trochaic words, focusing on temporal and spatial aspects of prosody. A second goal was to assess whether prosodic structure influences judgment of foreign accent. Method Twenty Bengali-English bilinguals, 10 with low proficiency and 10 with high proficiency in English, and 10 monolingual English speakers participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded while the bilinguals produced Bengali and English words embedded in sentences. Lower lip movement amplitude and duration were measured in trochaic and iambic words. Six native English listeners judged the nativeness of the bilingual speakers. Results Evidence of L1 to L2 transfer was observed through duration but not amplitude cues. More proficient L2 speakers varied duration to mark iambic stress. Perceptually, the high proficiency group received relatively higher native-like accent ratings. Trochees were judged as more native than iambs. Interpretation Even in the face of L1-L2 lexical stress transfer, non-native speakers demonstrated knowledge of prosodic contrasts. Movement duration appears to be more amenable to modifications than amplitude. PMID:21106699

Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa

2013-01-01

454

Fluid-structure interaction analysis on the effects of vessel material properties on blood flow characteristics in stenosed arteries under axial rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted blood flow analysis, using the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) method, to examine how changes in the material\\u000a properties of blood vessels affect blood flow characteristics, using the carotid artery as the model vessel. The geometry\\u000a of the blood vessel included 50% stenosis at the center, and blood was modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid. In order to investigate\\u000a the effects

Seong Wook Cho; Seung Wook Kim; Moon Hyun Sung; Kyoung Chul Ro; Hong Sun Ryou

2011-01-01

455

Enhancing lexical ambiguity resolution by brain polarization of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported a hemispheric asymmetry in processing dominant (e.g., paper) and subordinate (e.g., farmer) associations of ambiguous words (pen). Here we applied sham and anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over Wernicke's area and its right homologue to test whether we can modulate the selective hemispheric expertise in processing lexical ambiguity. Ambiguous prime words were presented followed by target words that could be associated to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the prime in a semantic relatedness task. Anodal stimulation of the right Wernicke's area significantly decreased response time (RTs) to subordinate but not dominant associations compared to sham stimulation. There was also a complementary trend of faster responses to dominant associations following anodal stimulation of Wernicke's area. The results support brain asymmetry in processing lexical ambiguity and show that tDCS can enhance complex language processing even in a sample of highly literate individuals. PMID:22513342

Peretz, Yael; Lavidor, Michal

2013-04-01

456

Combining Video, Audio and Lexical Indicators of Affect in Spontaneous Conversation via Particle Filtering  

PubMed Central

We present experiments on fusing facial video, audio and lexical indicators for affect estimation during dyadic conversations. We use temporal statistics of texture descriptors extracted from facial video, a combination of various acoustic features, and lexical features to create regression based affect estimators for each modality. The single modality regressors are then combined using particle filtering, by treating these independent regression outputs as measurements of the affect states in a Bayesian filtering framework, where previous observations provide prediction about the current state by means of learned affect dynamics. Tested on the Audio-visual Emotion Recognition Challenge dataset, our single modality estimators achieve substantially higher scores than the official baseline method for every dimension of affect. Our filtering-based multi-modality fusion achieves correlation performance of 0.344 (baseline: 0.136) and 0.280 (baseline: 0.096) for the fully continuous and word level sub challenges, respectively.

Savran, Arman; Cao, Houwei; Shah, Miraj; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

2013-01-01

457

Perceptual and acoustic analysis of lexical stress in Greek speakers with dysarthria.  

PubMed

The study reported in this paper investigated the abilities of Greek speakers with dysarthria to signal lexical stress at the single word level. Three speakers with dysarthria and two unimpaired control participants were recorded completing a repetition task of a list of words consisting of minimal pairs of Greek disyllabic words contrasted by lexical stress location only. Fourteen listeners were asked to determine the attempted stress location for each word pair. Acoustic analyses of duration and intensity ratios, both within and across words, were undertaken to identify possible acoustic correlates of the listeners' judgments concerning stress location. Acoustic and perceptual data indicate that while each participant with dysarthria in this study had some difficulty in signaling stress unambiguously, the pattern of difficulty was different for each speaker. Further, it was found that the relationship between the listeners' judgments of stress location and the acoustic data was not conclusive. PMID:25000378

Papakyritsis, Ioannis; Müller, Nicole

2014-01-01

458

Developmental dissociations between lexical reading and comprehension: evidence from two cases of hyperlexia.  

PubMed

We report two cases of developmental hyperlexia - JY and AD - who performed at normal levels or above in converting print into speech, but who were very impaired in spoken and written word comprehension. Our investigations focussed on whether these cases displayed evidence for normal acquisition of lexical reading skills, as indexed by unimpaired performance for age in reading aloud a set of irregular words, despite poor acquisition of semantic knowledge of the same words. In both cases, this dissociation was evident. The pattern of results was also demonstrated at an item level: the two cases showed no significant differences in reading accuracy for irregular words which they could define than for those which they could not. The results provide further evidence for the existence of a direct-lexical route from orthography to phonology, which is not necessarily mediated by semantic knowledge. PMID:20678759

Castles, Anne; Crichton, Alison; Prior, Margot

2010-01-01

459

Keeping it simple: studying grammatical encoding with lexically reduced item sets.  

PubMed

Compared to the large body of work on lexical access, little research has been done on grammatical encoding in language production. An exception is the generation of subject-verb agreement. Here, two key findings have been reported: (1) speakers make more agreement errors when the head and local noun of a phrase mismatch in number than when they match [e.g., the key to the cabinet(s)]; and (2) this attraction effect is asymmetric, with stronger attraction for singular than for plural head nouns. Although these findings are robust, the cognitive processes leading to agreement errors and their significance for the generation of correct agreement are not fully understood. We propose that future studies of agreement, and grammatical encoding in general, may benefit from using paradigms that tightly control the variability of the lexical content of the material. We report two experiments illustrating this approach. In both of them, the experimental items featured combinations of four nouns, four color adjectives, and two prepositions. In Experiment 1, native speakers of Dutch described pictures in sentences such as the circle next to the stars is blue. In Experiment 2, they carried out a forced-choice task, where they read subject noun phrases (e.g., the circle next to the stars) and selected the correct verb-phrase (is blue or are blue) with a button press. Both experiments showed an attraction effect, with more errors after subject phrases with mismatching, compared to matching head and local nouns. This effect was stronger for singular than plural heads, replicating the attraction asymmetry. In contrast, the response times recorded in Experiment 2 showed similar attraction effects for singular and plural head nouns. These results demonstrate that critical agreement phenomena can be elicited reliably in lexically reduced contexts. We discuss the theoretical implications of the findings and the potential and limitations of studies using lexically simple materials. PMID:25101039

Veenstra, Alma; Acheson, Daniel J; Meyer, Antje S

2014-01-01

460

Phonological memory and lexical, narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of phonological memory (PM) in second language (L2) speech production by English-speaking adults who were learning Spanish. PM, operationalized as serial nonword recognition, and L2 lexical, narrative, and grammatical abilities from speech samples were assessed 13 weeks apart. After controlling for the amount of speech output, PM contributed significantly to the development of L2 narrative

IRENA O'BRIEN; NORMAN SEGALOWITZ; JOE COLLENTINE; BARBARA FREED

2006-01-01

461

The Effect of Voice Onset Time Differences on Lexical Access in Dutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects on spoken-word recognition of prevoicing differences in Dutch initial voiced plosives were examined. In 2 cross-modal identity-priming experiments, participants heard prime words and nonwords beginning with voiced plosives with 12, 6, or 0 periods of prevoicing or matched items beginning with voiceless plosives and made lexical decisions to visual tokens of those items. Six-period primes had the same effect

Petra M. van Alphen; James M. McQueen

2006-01-01

462

Diagnostics of phonological lexical processing: Pseudohomophone naming advantages, disadvantages, and base-word frequency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological lexical access has been investigated by examining both a pseudohomophone (e.g.,brane) base-word frequency effect and a pseudohomophone advantage over pronounceable nonwords (e.g.,frane) in a single mixed block of naming trials. With a new set of pseudohomophones and nonwords presented in a mixed block, we\\u000a replicated the standard finding in the naming literature: no reliable base-word frequency effect, and a

Ron Borowsky; William J. Owen; Michael E. J. Masson

2002-01-01

463

Contextual Diversity, Not Word Frequency, Determines Word-Naming and Lexical Decision Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Word frequency is an important predictor of word-naming and lexical decision times. It is, however, confounded with contextual diversity, the number of con- texts in which a word has been seen. In a study using a normative, corpus-based measure of contextual diversity, word-frequency effects were eliminated when effects of contextual diversity were taken into account (but not vice versa) across

James S. Adelman; Gordon D. A. Brown; Jose F. Quesada

2006-01-01

464

The role of lexical tone in spoken word recognition of Chinese  

E-print Network

. Wang, Jongman and Sereno (2001) used a dichotic-listening task to examine Mandarin tones by native speakers of Chinese and native speakers of American English. Sixteen monosyllabic Mandarin words, in which four different syllables, combined with four... tone processing, similar to language processing in other tonal languages. Wang, Behne, Jongman, and Sereno (2004) used a dichotic listening task to investigate whether linguistic experience influences the hemispheric processing of lexical tone. Wang...

Lee, Yu Ju

2008-03-17

465

A Probabilistic Corpus-Driven Model for Lexical-Functional Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) model based on the syntactic representations of Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG). We start by summarizing the original DOP model for tree representations and then show how it can be extended with corresponding functional structures. The resulting LFG-DOP model triggers a new, corpus-based notion of grammaticality, and its probability models exhibit interesting behavior with respect to

Rens Bod; Ronald M. Kaplan

1998-01-01

466

Hybrid Language Models Using Mixed Types of Sub-lexical Units for Open Vocabulary German LVCSR  

E-print Network

-lexical language modeling is the proper choice of the sub-word type. A non-careful choice of the sub-word type,desoky,schlueter,ney}@cs.rwth-aachen.de Abstract German is a highly inflected language with a large number of words derived from the same root. It makes use of a high de- gree of word compounding leading to high Out-of-vocabulary (OOV) rates

Ney, Hermann

467

Lexical competition for production in a case of nonfluent aphasia: Converging evidence from four different tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an individual with Broca's aphasia (J.H.M.), who exhibited powerful lexical context effects in word production tasks. In an adjective–noun production task (Experiment 1), J.H.M.'s production accuracy decreased as the number of adjectives in the phrase increased (e.g., curly hair vs. long curly hair). In a picture pair naming task (Experiment 2), J.H.M.'s naming accuracy was high, but her

Rebecca M. Scott; Carolyn E. Wilshire

2010-01-01

468

Effect of grammatical gender on visual word recognition: Evidence from lexical decision and eye movement experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical decision times and eye movements were recorded to determine whether grammatical gender can influence the visual recognition\\u000a of isolated French nouns. This issue was investigated by assessing the use of two types of regularities between a noun’s form\\u000a and its gender—namely ending-to-gender regularities (e.g., the final letter sequence -at appears only in masculine nouns and, thus, is predictive of

Pascale Colé; Joël Pynte; Pascale Andriamamonjy

2003-01-01

469

Effect of Acute Exposure to a Complex Fragrance on Lexical Decision Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the effect of acute exposure to a commercial air freshener, derived from fragrant botanical extracts, at an average concentration of 3.16 mg\\/m3 total volatile organic compounds on the lexical decision performance of 28 naive participants. Participants attended two 18-min sessions on separate days and were continuously exposed to the fragrance in either the first (F\\/NF) or second

Daniel E. Gaygen; Alan Hedge

2009-01-01

470

Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young AAE-speaking children’s understanding and awareness of MAE. Methods 83 4- to 8-year-old African American English-speaking children participated in two experimental tasks. One task evaluated their awareness of differences between Mainstream American English (MAE) and African American English (AAE), while the other evaluated their lexical comprehension of MAE in contexts that were ambiguous in AAE but unambiguous in MAE. Receptive and expressive vocabulary, receptive syntax, and dialect density were also assessed. Results The results of a series of mixed-effect models showed that children with larger expressive vocabularies performed better on both experimental tasks, relative to children with smaller expressive vocabularies. Dialect density was a significant predictor only of MAE lexical comprehension; children with higher levels of dialect density were less accurate on this task. Conclusions Both vocabulary size and dialect density independently influenced MAE lexical comprehension. The results suggest that children with high levels of non-mainstream dialect use have more difficulty understanding words in MAE, at least in challenging contexts and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24949596

Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

2014-01-01

471

Left posterior superior temporal gyrus participates specifically in accessing lexical phonology  

PubMed Central

Impairments in phonological processing have been associated with damage to the region of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but the extent to which this area supports phonological processing, independent of semantic processing, is less clear. We used repetition priming and neural repetition suppression during fMRI in an auditory pseudoword repetition task as a semantics-free model of lexical (whole-word) phonological access. Across six repetitions, we observed repetition priming in terms of decreased reaction time and repetition suppression in terms of reduced neural activity. An additional analysis aimed at sublexical phonology did not show significant effects in the areas where repetition suppression was observed. To test if these areas were relevant to real word production, we performed a conjunction analysis with data from a separate fMRI experiment which manipulated word frequency (a putative index of lexical phonological access) in picture naming. The left pSTG demonstrated significant effects independently in both experiments, suggesting that this area participates specifically in accessing lexical phonology. PMID:18345989

Graves, William W.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Mehta, Sonya; Gupta, Prahlad

2008-01-01

472

Perception of pitch height in lexical and musical tones by English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the music-speech relationship by examining pitch height perception in lexical and musical tones. English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians identified multispeaker Taiwanese level tones without typical cues for speaker normalization. The musicians also identified note names of piano, viola, and pure tones without a reference pitch. In the Taiwanese task, both the musicians and nonmusicians were able to identify tone height above chance, but only for tones at the extremes of the speakers' overall vocal range. The musicians only had a slight advantage over the nonmusicians. In the music task, none of the musicians met the criterion for absolute pitch. Timbre did not affect how accurately the musical tones were identified. No correlations were found between performance in the Taiwanese task and that in the music task. It was concluded that musicians' advantage in lexical tone perception arose from the ability to track F0 contours. The ability to identify pitch height in lexical tones appears to involve calibrating acoustic input according to gender-specific, internally stored pitch templates. PMID:24606295

Lee, Chao-Yang; Lekich, Allison; Zhang, Yu

2014-03-01

473

Lexical, syntactic, and semantic-geometric factors in the acquisition of motion predicates.  

PubMed

We report a study that explored the mechanisms used in hypothesizing meanings for novel motion predicates (verbs and prepositions) cross-linguistically. Motion stimuli were presented to English- and Greek-speaking adults and preschoolers accompanied by (a) a novel intransitive verb, (b) a novel transitive verb, (c) a novel transitive preposition, or (d) no novel predicate. Our study provides evidence that both language-specific (lexical) and universal (syntactic and semantic-geometric) factors shape the acquisition of motion predicates cross-linguistically. Lexical biases lead to distinct interpretations (more or less manner- vs. path-oriented) for novel intransitive verbs in English and Greek; however, syntactic (transitivity) cues overcome lexical biases and lead to uniformly path interpretations for novel transitive verbs in both languages. Syntactic (transitivity) cues also lead to path interpretations of novel motion prepositions. Finally, semantic-geometric constraints lead learners in both languages to assume that path interpretations abstract away from visual details of the motion path. PMID:24866288

Skordos, Dimitrios; Papafragou, Anna

2014-07-01

474

Feature overlap slows lexical selection: Evidence from the picture-word interference paradigm.  

PubMed

How does the presence of a categorically related word influence picture naming latencies? In order to test competitive and noncompetitive accounts of lexical selection in spoken word production, we employed the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm to investigate how conceptual feature overlap influences naming latencies when distractors are category coordinates of the target picture. Mahon et al. (2007. Lexical selection is not by competition: A reinterpretation of semantic interference and facilitation effects in the picture-word interference paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(3), 503-535. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.33.3.503 ) reported that semantically close distractors (e.g., zebra) facilitated target picture naming latencies (e.g., HORSE) compared to far distractors (e.g., whale). We failed to replicate a facilitation effect for within-category close versus far target-distractor pairings using near-identical materials based on feature production norms, instead obtaining reliably larger interference effects (Experiments 1 and 2). The interference effect did not show a monotonic increase across multiple levels of within-category semantic distance, although there was evidence of a linear trend when unrelated distractors were included in analyses (Experiment 2). Our results show that semantic interference in PWI is greater for semantically close than for far category coordinate relations, reflecting the extent of conceptual feature overlap between target and distractor. These findings are consistent with the assumptions of prominent competitive lexical selection models of speech production. PMID:24830335

Vieth, H E; McMahon, K L; de Zubicaray, G I

2014-12-01

475

Structural correlates for lexical efficiency and number of languages in non-native speakers of English  

PubMed Central

We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers. We dissociate two different correlates for non-native language processing. Firstly, multilinguals who spoke 2 or more non-native languages had higher grey matter density in the right posterior supramarginal gyrus compared to bilinguals who only spoke one non-native language. This is interpreted in relation to previous studies that have shown that grey matter density in this region is related to the number of words learnt in bilinguals relative to monolinguals and in monolingual adolescents with high versus low vocabulary. Our second result was that, in bilinguals, grey matter density in the left pars opercularis was positively related to lexical efficiency in second language use, as measured by the speed and accuracy of lexical decisions and the number of words produced in a timed verbal fluency task. Grey matter in the same region was also negatively related to the age at which the second language was acquired. This is interpreted in terms of previous findings that associated the left pars opercularis with phonetic expertise in the native language. PMID:22401989

Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, 'O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M.L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D.W.; Price, C.J.

2012-01-01

476

Lexical selection is competitive: evidence from indirectly activated semantic associates during picture naming.  

PubMed

In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm, distractor word pairs were simultaneously presented with the target picture. The distractor words were orthographically related directly to the target picture name (distractors: camera bagel; target: camel), indirectly related to the name of a semantic associate of the target (distractors: camera bagel; target: pyramid, an associate of camel), or unrelated. In a first experiment, which included only indirect relations, we failed to find interference from indirectly activated associates. However, in 2 subsequent experiments that included the associates as naming trials within the experiment, we demonstrated that indirect, orthographically mediated activation of associates produces reliable interference effects. The results indicate that semantic interference is not restricted to members of the same category and are problematic for models of lexical selection that do not include lexical competition. PMID:22732034

Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

2013-03-01

477

Structural correlates for lexical efficiency and number of languages in non-native speakers of English.  

PubMed

We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers. We dissociate two different correlates for non-native language processing. Firstly, multilinguals who spoke 2 or more non-native languages had higher grey matter density in the right posterior supramarginal gyrus compared to bilinguals who only spoke one non-native language. This is interpreted in relation to previous studies that have shown that grey matter density in this region is related to the number of words learnt in bilinguals relative to monolinguals and in monolingual adolescents with high versus low vocabulary. Our second result was that, in bilinguals, grey matter density in the left pars opercularis was positively related to lexical efficiency in second language use, as measured by the speed and accuracy of lexical decisions and the number of words produced in a timed verbal fluency task. Grey matter in the same region was also negatively related to the age at which the second language was acquired. This is interpreted in terms of previous findings that associated the left pars opercularis with phonetic expertise in the native language. PMID:22401989

Grogan, A; Parker Jones, O; Ali, N; Crinion, J; Orabona, S; Mechias, M L; Ramsden, S; Green, D W; Price, C J

2012-06-01

478

White Matter Disease Correlates with Lexical Retrieval Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To relate fractional anisotropy (FA) changes associated with the semantic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) to measures of lexical retrieval. Methods: We collected neuropsychological testing, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging on semantic variant PPA (svPPA) (n?=?11) and logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA) (n?=?13) patients diagnosed using published criteria. We also acquired neuroimaging data on a group of demographically comparable healthy seniors (n?=?34). FA was calculated and analyzed using a white matter (WM) tract-specific analysis approach. This approach utilizes anatomically guided data reduction to increase sensitivity and localizes results within canonically defined tracts. We used non-parametric, cluster-based statistical analysis to relate language performance to FA and determine regions of reduced FA in patients. Results: We found widespread FA reductions in WM for both variants of PPA. FA was related to both confrontation naming and category naming fluency performance in left uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum in svPPA and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi in lvPPA. Conclusion: SvPPA and lvPPA are associated with distinct disruptions of a large-scale network implicated in lexical retrieval, and the WM disease in each phenotype may contribute to language impairments including lexical retrieval. PMID:24409166

Powers, John P.; McMillan, Corey T.; Brun, Caroline C.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C.; Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

479

Aligning Representations of Anatomy using Lexical and Structural Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: INTRODUCTIONAlthough various medical knowledge representationsystems claim to support reasoning, there is littlework done on investigating their respective reasoningcapabilities. In this regard, the objective of this studyis to analyze the shared characteristics and differencesof multiple representations of a given domain. Withthe emergence of the Semantic Web, agents relyingon different ontologies needed to communicate andexchange reliable information and techniques forcomparing...

Songmao Zhang; Olivier Bodenreider

2003-01-01

480

Proficiency Level and the Interaction of Lexical and Morphosyntactic Information during L2 Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how second language (L2) German speakers at different proficiency levels use case-marking information when processing subject-object ambiguities in German. Results indicate that advanced L2 German speakers rapidly integrated case-marking information during online processing, exhibiting a…

Jackson, Carrie

2008-01-01

481

On the Interaction of Selective Attention and Lexical Knowledge: A Connectionist Account of Neglect Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neglect dyslexia, a reading impairment acquired as a consequence of brain injury, is traditionally interpreted as a disturbance of selective attention. Patients with neglect dyslexia may ignore the left side of an open book, the beginning words of a line of text, or the beginning letters of a single word. These patients provide a rich but sometimes contradictory source of

Michael C. Mozer; Marlene Behrmann

1990-01-01

482

Perception of linear horizontal self-motion induced by peripheral vision (linearvection) basic characteristics and visual-vestibular interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic characteristics of the sensation of linear horizontal motion have been studied. Objective linear motion was induced by means of a moving cart. Visually induced linear motion perception (linearvection) was obtained by projection of moving images at the periphery of the visual field. Image velocity and luminance thresholds for the appearance of linearvection have been measured and are in

A. Berthoz; B. Pavard; L. R. Young

1975-01-01

483

The Effectiveness of Social Stories[TM] to Develop Social Interactions with Adults with Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research into the effectiveness of Social Stories has focused on children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examines the use of Social Stories with four adults with learning disabilities and social communication impairments characteristic of ASD. This study employed an N = 1 multiple-baseline, across-participant, AB design with…

Samuels, Rachel; Stansfield, Jois

2012-01-01

484

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

485