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1

A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

Hogan, Tiffany P.

2010-01-01

2

Interaction Chain Patterns of Online Text Construction with Lexical Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at arousing college students' metacognition in detecting lexical cohesion during online text construction as WordNet served as a lexical resource. A total of 83 students were requested to construct texts through sequences of actions identified as interaction chains in this study. Interaction chains are grouped and categorized as a…

Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong

2010-01-01

3

Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

2010-01-01

4

Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2014-01-01

5

Gloss: interactive navigation of lexical space  

E-print Network

Purchase,H.C. Kennish,J.M. Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific conference on Human Computer Interaction, Yong, L.K., Herman, L., Leung, Y.K. and Moyes, J. (eds), Information Technology Institute, National Computer Board of Singapore

Purchase, H.C.

6

Children's syntactic-priming magnitude: lexical factors and participant characteristics.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. the yellow cup) or relative clause (RC; e.g. the cup that is yellow) structures with or without lexical overlap and performed additional tests of productive syntactic skills and WM capacity. Results revealed a reliable syntactic-priming effect without lexical boost in both groups: SLI and TD children produced more RCs following RC primes than following prenominal primes. Grammaticality requirements influenced RC productions in that SLI children produced fewer grammatical RCs than TD children. Of the additional measures, WM positively affected how frequently children produced dispreferred RC structures, but productive syntactic skills had no effect. The results support an implicit-learning account of syntactic priming and emphasize the importance of WM in syntactic priming tasks. PMID:25159048

Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

2014-08-27

7

Lexical and Articulatory Interactions in Children's Language Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e. a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in…

Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara

2010-01-01

8

Lexical and articulatory interactions in children's language production.  

PubMed

Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e. a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI). A word learning paradigm was developed so that we could compare children's production with and without lexical representation. The variability and accuracy of productions were examined using speech kinematics as well as traditional phonetic accuracy measures. Results showed that phonetic forms with lexical representation were produced with more articulatory stability than phonetic forms without lexical representation. Using more traditional transcription measures, a paired lexical referent generally did not influence segmental accuracy (percent consonant correct and type token ratio). These results suggest that lexical and articulatory levels of representation are not completely independent. Implications for models of language production are discussed. PMID:20712738

Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara

2010-09-01

9

Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

10

The interaction of lexical and phrasal prosody in whispered speech.  

PubMed

The production and perception of Dutch whispered boundary tones, i.e., phrasal prosody, was investigated as a function of characteristics of the tone-bearing word, i.e., lexical prosody. More specifically, the disyllabic tone-bearing word also carried a pitch accent, either on the same syllable as the boundary tone (clash condition), or on the directly adjacent syllable (no clash condition). In a statement/question classification task listeners showed moderate, but above-chance performance for both conditions in whisper, which, however, was much worse as well as slower than in normal speech. The syllabic rhymes of speakers' productions were investigated for acoustic correlates of boundary tones. Results showed mainly secondary cues to intonation, that is, cues that are present in whisper as in normal speech, but minimal compensatory cues, which would reflect speakers' efforts to enhance their whispered speech signal in some way. This suggests that multiple prosodic events in close proximity are challenging to perceive and produce in whispered speech. A moderate increase in classification performance was found when that acoustic cue was enhanced that whispering speakers seemed to employ in a compensatory way: changing the spectral tilt of the utterance-final syllable improved perception of especially the poorer speakers and of intonation on stressed syllables. PMID:25480073

Heeren, W F L; van Heuven, V J

2014-12-01

11

Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

Ardila, Alfredo

2012-06-01

12

Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

2013-01-01

13

Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

Hamilton, Stephen T; Freed, Erin M; Long, Debra L

2013-01-01

14

Testing the interactive two-step model of lexical access: Part I. picture naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight-decay (WD) and semantic-phonological (SP) models offer competing accounts of how brain damage disrupts processing within an interactive 2-step lexical-access framework. A few studies have compared these deficit models for how well they fit individual naming profiles on the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT) (Dell, Lawler, Harris, & Gordon, 2004; Foygel & Dell, 2000; Ruml, Caramazza, Shelton, & Chialant, 2000).

Myrna F. Schwartz; Gary S. Dell; Nadine Martinc

2004-01-01

15

Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

2011-01-01

16

The interaction of lexical and sublexical information in spelling: What's the point?  

PubMed

Most theories of spelling propose two major processes for translating between orthography and phonology: a lexical process for retrieving the spellings of familiar words and a sublexical process for assembling the spellings of unfamiliar letter strings based on knowledge of the systematic correspondences between phonemes and graphemes. We investigated how the lexical and sublexical processes function and interact in spelling by selectively interfering with the sublexical process in a dysgraphic individual. By comparing spelling performance under normal conditions and under conditions of sublexical disruption we were able to gain insight into the functioning and the unique contributions of the sublexical process. The results support the hypothesis that the sublexical process serves to strengthen a target word and provide it with a competitive advantage over orthographically and phonologically similar word neighbours that are in competition with the target for selection. PMID:20957558

Folk, Jocelyn R; Rapp, Brenda; Goldrick, Matthew

2002-10-01

17

Word recognition during reading: the interaction between lexical repetition and frequency.  

PubMed

Memory studies utilizing long-term repetition priming have generally demonstrated that priming is greater for low-frequency than for high-frequency words and that this effect persists if words intervene between the prime and the target. In contrast, word-recognition studies utilizing masked short-term repetition priming have typically shown that the magnitude of repetition priming does not differ as a function of word frequency and does not persist across intervening words. We conducted an eyetracking-while-reading experiment to determine which of these patterns more closely resembles the relationship between frequency and repetition during the natural reading of a text. Frequency was manipulated using proper names that were either high-frequency (e.g., Stephen) or low-frequency (e.g., Dominic). The critical name was later repeated in the sentence, or a new name was introduced. First-pass reading times and skipping rates on the critical name revealed robust repetition-by-frequency interactions, such that the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect was greater for low-frequency than for high-frequency names. In contrast, measures of later processing showed effects of repetition that did not depend on lexical frequency. These results are interpreted within a framework that conceptualizes eye-movement control as being influenced in different ways by lexical- and discourse-level factors. PMID:23283808

Lowder, Matthew W; Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C

2013-07-01

18

Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of Web multimodality plus dialogical interactions in the acquisition and retention of novel lexical items among EFL students under a social constructionist framework. The lexical acquisition of 107 1st-year English majors at the University of Costa Rica was analyzed through…

Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

2013-01-01

19

Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers  

PubMed Central

Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of lexical stress contrasts by 10 Mandarin and 10 native English speakers. Results showed that Mandarin speakers produced significantly less native-like stress patterns, although they did use all four acoustic correlates to distinguish stressed from unstressed syllables. Mandarin and English speakers’ use of amplitude and duration were comparable for both stressed and unstressed syllables, but Mandarin speakers produced stressed syllables with a higher F0 than English speakers. There were also significant differences in formant patterns across groups, such that Mandarin speakers produced English-like vowel reduction in certain unstressed syllables, but not in others. Results suggest that Mandarin speakers’ production of lexical stress contrasts in English is influenced partly by native-language experience with Mandarin lexical tones, and partly by similarities and differences between Mandarin and English vowel inventories. PMID:18537399

Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L.; Francis, Alexander L.

2008-01-01

20

Lexical configuration and lexical engagement: when adults learn new words.  

PubMed

People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However, it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement--the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement. PMID:17367775

Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G

2007-12-01

21

Lexical effects on speech production and intelligibility in Parkinson's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have speech deficits that lead to reduced speech intelligibility. Previous research provides a rich database regarding the articulatory deficits associated with PD including restricted vowel space (Skodda, Visser, & Schlegel, 2011) and flatter formant transitions (Tjaden & Wilding, 2004; Walsh & Smith, 2012). However, few studies consider the effect of higher level structural variables of word usage frequency and the number of similar sounding words (i.e. neighborhood density) on lower level articulation or on listeners' perception of dysarthric speech. The purpose of the study is to examine the interaction of lexical properties and speech articulation as measured acoustically in speakers with PD and healthy controls (HC) and the effect of lexical properties on the perception of their speech. Individuals diagnosed with PD and age-matched healthy controls read sentences with words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Acoustic analysis was performed to compare second formant transitions in diphthongs, an indicator of the dynamics of tongue movement during speech production, across different lexical characteristics. Young listeners transcribed the spoken sentences and the transcription accuracy was compared across lexical conditions. The acoustic results indicate that both PD and HC speakers adjusted their articulation based on lexical properties but the PD group had significant reductions in second formant transitions compared to HC. Both groups of speakers increased second formant transitions for words with low frequency and low density, but the lexical effect is diphthong dependent. The change in second formant slope was limited in the PD group when the required formant movement for the diphthong is small. The data from listeners' perception of the speech by PD and HC show that listeners identified high frequency words with greater accuracy suggesting the use of lexical knowledge during the recognition process. The relationship between acoustic results and perceptual accuracy is limited in this study suggesting that listeners incorporate acoustic and non-acoustic information to maximize speech intelligibility.

Chiu, Yi-Fang

22

Lexical Morphology: Structure, Process, and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent work has demonstrated the importance of derivational morphology to later language development and has led to a consensus that derivation is a lexical process. In this review, derivational morphology is discussed in terms of lexical representation models from both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Input characteristics, including…

Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

2013-01-01

23

Interaction, Modality, and Word Engagement as Factors in Lexical Learning in a Chinese Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the roles of collaborative output, the modality of output, and word engagement in vocabulary learning and retention by Chinese-speaking undergraduate EFL learners. The two treatment groups reconstructed a passage that they had read in one of two ways: (1) dyadic oral interaction while producing a written report (Written…

Niu, Ruiying; Helms-Park, Rena

2014-01-01

24

Lexical and Post-Lexical Complexity Effects on Eye Movements in Reading  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated how a post-lexical complexity manipulation followed by a lexical complexity manipulation affects eye movements during reading. Both manipulations caused disruption in all measures on the manipulated words, but the patterns of spill-over differed. Critically, the effects of the two kinds of manipulations did not interact, and there was no evidence that post-lexical processing difficulty delayed lexical processing on the next word (c.f. Henderson & Ferreira, 1990). This suggests that post-lexical processing of one word and lexical processing of the next can proceed independently and likely in parallel. This finding is consistent with the assumptions of the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control in reading (Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009). PMID:21603125

Warren, Tessa; Reichle, Erik D.; Patson, Nikole D.

2011-01-01

25

The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2011-01-01

26

Bootstrapping Lexical and Syntactic Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on how phrasal prosody and function words may interact during early language acquisition. Experimental results show that infants have access to intermediate prosodic phrases (phonological phrases) during the first year of life, and use these to constrain lexical segmentation. These same intermediate prosodic phrases are used by…

Christophe, Anne; Millotte, Severine; Bernal, Savita; Lidz, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

27

Lexical cohesion in multiparty conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the publication of Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) seminal work on cohesion, many scholars have sought to explain different aspects of this textual relation in discourse. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to add to the study of the interaction between lexical cohesion and coherence (Hellman, 1995; Hoey, 1991b; Sanders and Pander Maat, 2006); and second, to

2011-01-01

28

Large system interaction characteristics of superconducting generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to 'set the agenda' with respect to system interaction characteristics of superconducting generators. It identifies and highlights differences between these and conventional machines and shows ways in which superconducting machines will offer both advantages and problems. Superconducting generators, which are under development in several countries, including U.S., Germany, and Japan, will have system interaction characteristics somewhat different from those of their conventional counterparts. In general, the low reactances and long time constants of superconducting machines will improve transient stability and voltage regulation, but these will also produce large fault currents and torques. If care is not taken, these machines may produce destructive resonant effects on shaft lines. In this paper we build simple models that make it possible to discuss and understand several important system integration characteristics of synchronous machines, including the differences between conventional and superconducting machines. These include reactive power capability, transient stability, damping, voltage control, fault currents, and torques.

Kirtley, James L., Jr.

1993-03-01

29

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

E-print Network

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Perspectives from Psycholinguistics, Neuropsychology, and Artificial throughout the short history of psycholinguistics. In what follows, we organize old and present new evidence

30

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

31

Lexical FreeNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finite relation expression networks, or FreeNets, allow users to search for lexical and conceptual relationships between words or phrases. Lexical FreeNet is a network that combines semantic relations derived from WordNet (discussed in the January 30, 1998 Scout Report) with relations derived from other linguistic data. To operate Lexical FreeNet, users type in a source concept and a target concept, select the linguistic relations they would like to explore, and then choose a query option. Every query returns a mapped binary connection, showing the path of relations between the source and the target. Users will be fascinated by how ostensibly unrelated words or concepts can be connected.

32

Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection  

PubMed Central

Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

2010-01-01

33

V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

2013-01-01

34

Lexical and Metrical Stress in Word Recognition: Lexical or Pre-Lexical Influences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of lexical stress and/or metrical stress on spoken word recognition was examined. Two experiments were designed to determine whether response times in lexical decision or shadowing tasks are influenced when primes and targets share lexical stress patterns (JUVenile-BIBlical [Syllables printed in capital letters indicate those…

Slowiaczek, Louisa M.; Soltano, Emily G.; Bernstein, Hilary L.

2006-01-01

35

Meaningful Physical Changes Mediate Lexical-Semantic Integration: Top-Down and Form-Based Bottom-Up Information Sources Interact in the N400  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into…

Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

2011-01-01

36

Lexical and Robert Mailhammer  

E-print Network

histories 1 Robert Mailhammer Towards a framework of contact etymology 9 Harold Koch and Luise HercusLexical and Structural Etymology Edited by Robert Mailhammer #12;Table of contents Contact details and affiliations of contributors v Abbreviations vii Robert Mailhammer Introduction: Etymology beyond word

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Star formation enhancement characteristics in interacting galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed 12 interacting galaxies using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GH?FaS (Galaxy H? Fabry-Perot system) on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma). We have extracted the physical properties (sizes, H? luminosity and velocity dispersion) of 236 HII regions for the full sample of interacting galaxies. We have derived the physical properties of 664 HII regions for a sample of 28 isolated galaxies observed with the same instrument in order to compare both populations of HII regions, finding that there are brighter and denser star forming regions in the interacting galaxies compared with the isolated galaxies sample.

Zaragoza-Cardiel, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Font, J.; Camps-Fariña, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.

2015-02-01

38

Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

Blanchette, Judith

2012-01-01

39

Nonspecific Electrostatic Binding Characteristics of the Heparin-Antithrombin Interaction  

E-print Network

Nonspecific Electrostatic Binding Characteristics of the Heparin-Antithrombin Interaction Emek in the interaction of antithrombin (AT) with heparin (Hp), a paradigmatic protein-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) system kDa) Hp and partially degraded (5 kDa) low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) exhibited this same

Dubin, Paul D.

40

Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories  

PubMed Central

Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2014-01-01

41

Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.  

PubMed

Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2014-05-01

42

Conversational Implicature and Lexical Pragmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical Pragmatics is a research field that tries to give a systematic and explanatory account of a number of pragmatic phenomena that are connected with the semantic underspecification of lexical items. The approach combines a constraint-based semantics with a Gricean mechanism of pragmatics. The basic pragmatic mechanism rests on conditions of updating the common ground and allows to give a

Rob van der Sandt

43

Lexical ambiguity and information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical ambiguity is a pervasive problem in natural language processing. However, little quantitative information is available about the extent of the problem or about the impact that it has on information retrieval systems. We report on an analysis of lexical ambiguity in information retrieval test collections and on experiments to determine the utility of word meanings for separating relevant from

Robert Krovetz; W. Bruce Croft

1992-01-01

44

Lexical activation produces potent phonemic percepts.  

PubMed

Theorists disagree about whether auditory word recognition is a fully bottom-up, autonomous process, or whether there is top-down processing within a more interactive architecture. The current study provides evidence for top-down lexical to phonemic activation. In several experiments, listeners labeled members of a /bI/-/dI/ test series, before and after listening to repeated presentations of various adapting sounds. Real English words (containing either a /b/ or a /d/) produced reliable adaptation shifts in labeling of the /bI/-/dI/ syllables. Critically, so did words in which the /b/ or /d/ was perceptually restored (when noise replaced the /b/ or /d/). Several control conditions demonstrated that no adaptation occurred when no phonemic restoration occurred. Similarly, no independent role in adaptation was found for lexical representations themselves. Thus, the results indicate that lexical activation can cause the perceptual process to synthesize a highly functional phonemic code. This result provides strong evidence for interactive models of word recognition. PMID:9095679

Samuel, A G

1997-03-01

45

The Influence of Lexical Status and Neighborhood Density on Children's Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical status and neighborhood density of constituent syllables on children's nonword repetition and interactions with nonword length. Lexical status of the target syllable impacted repetition accuracy for the longest nonwords. In addition, children made more errors that changed a nonword syllable to a word syllable…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Chisholm, Gina M.

2010-01-01

46

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

47

Little Frog and Toad: Interaction of Orthography and Phonology in Polish Spelling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the interaction of lexical and non-lexical processes in spelling through lexical priming of non-lexical spelling in Polish. Explains that orthographic choice for nonwords was assessed under free and primed spelling conditions for both adults and children using direct and associative priming. Finds that lexical orthography influences…

Kaminska, Zofia

2003-01-01

48

Virtual Reality Interaction: the Characteristic Pattern Approach* A. Celentano1  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality Interaction: the Characteristic Pattern Approach* A. Celentano1 , D. Fogli2 , P spaces as a step toward the definition of a rational methodology for the design of Virtual Reality] as a step toward the definition of a rational methodology for the de- sign of Virtual Reality (VR

Celentano, Augusto

49

Exploring Surface Characteristics with Interactive Gaussian Images (A Case Study)  

E-print Network

Exploring Surface Characteristics with Interactive Gaussian Images (A Case Study) Bradley Lowekamp on a surface to a congruent parallel vector at the origin. Consider a polygonal surface with face normals. Each point on the plane of a polygon will be mapped to the same point in the Gaussian image bec

Rheingans, Penny

50

Modeling lexical decision and word naming as a retrieval process.  

PubMed

We argue that rule-like phenomena in naming and lexical decision reflect the collapsing of information that occurs during retrieval from the lexicon, and that complex patterns in performance reflect the pattern of correlation that exists in the reader's lexicon rather than mapping rules wired into, or learned by, the processing apparatus. By using a lexicon built to scale, we show that simple retrieval operations applied to a large corpus of words correctly predict an interaction of word frequency by spelling-to-sound regularity in naming, a frequency main effect in lexical decision, sensitivity to orthographically defined syllable-like structures in lexical decision, and an interaction of number of syllables with word frequency in naming. PMID:10646202

Kwantes, P J; Mewhort, D J

1999-12-01

51

Lexical ambiguity resolution  

SciTech Connect

This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

1987-01-01

52

Automatic summarization of voicemail messages using lexical and prosodic features  

E-print Network

of lexical and prosodic features. We use an ROC­based algorithm, Parcel, to select input features (and classifiers). We have performed a series of objective and subjective evaluations using unseen data from two subset selection, receiver operating characteristic, short message service, wireless application protocol

Edinburgh, University of

53

Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals  

PubMed Central

Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production. PMID:25071614

Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

2014-01-01

54

Lexical Development and Retrieval in Treating Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the role of lexical acquisition in stuttering by examining the research on word learning and interactions between semantics and syntax in typically developing children and children who stutter. The potential effects of linguistic mismatches, or dysynchronies in language skills, on the possible onset and development of…

Hall, Nancy E.

2004-01-01

55

Novel word lexicalization and the prime lexicality effect.  

PubMed

This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in which less priming is obtained due to form similarity when the prime is a word. In the first experiment, subjects were taught the meanings of novel words that were neighbors of real words, but no PLE was observed; that is, equally strong form priming was obtained for both trained and untrained novel primes. In the second experiment, 4 training sessions were spread over 4 weeks, and under these conditions, a clear PLE was obtained in the final session. It is concluded that lexicalization requires multiple training sessions. Possible explanations of the PLE are discussed. PMID:23088548

Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I

2013-07-01

56

Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2013-01-01

57

Context Effects on Lexical Choice and Lexical Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers are regularly confronted with the choice among lexical alternatives when referring to objects, including basic-level names (e.g., car) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Beetle). Which of these names is eventually selected often depends on contextual factors. The present article reports a series of picture-word interference experiments…

Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Hantsch, Ansgar; Schriefers, Herbert

2005-01-01

58

The perception of lexical tone in Mambila.  

PubMed

The issue of the perception of lexical tone has been addressed mainly through studies of Southeast Asian languages which feature phonological contour tones as well as level tones. Little attention has been paid to African languages which have, almost exclusively, only level tones. This paper examines tone perception in Mambila, a Benue-Congo language with four level lexical tones. A categorization experiment was run to determine some of the salient aspects of the perceptual nature of these tones. Since the four tones are well defined with respect to production, we sought to determine whether this characteristic carried over into perception, the expectation being that experimental stimuli, on the basis of pitch height alone, would fall into four reasonably well defined categories. Results showed interesting differences across the four tones, with indications that the two Mid tones, T2 and T3, are perceptually different than the High (T1) and Low (T4) tones. The experiment was run a second time, using a group of native English listeners, to assess to what extent results for the Mambila listeners were determined by the perceptual structure of the Mambila tone system. A Signal Detection analysis was used, which revealed important differences between the two groups of listeners. Results are discussed in light of what is known about universal tendencies of tone systems and the historical development of the Mambila system. PMID:11064955

Connell, B

2000-01-01

59

Traversing the Lexical Cohesion Minefield  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain aspects…

McGee, Iain

2009-01-01

60

On the characteristics of tidal structures of interacting galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of our analysis of the geometrical tidal tail characteristics for nearby and distant interacting galaxies. The sample includes more than two hundred nearby galaxies and about seven hundred distant ones. The distant galaxies have been selected in several deep fields of the Hubble Space Telescope (HDF-N, HDF-S, HUDF, GOODS, GEMS) and they are at mean redshift < z> = 0.65. We analyze the distributions of lengths and thicknesses for the tidal structures and show that the tails in distant galaxies appear shorter than those in nearby ones. This effect can be partly attributed to observational selection, but, on the other hand, it may result from the general evolution of the sizes of spiral galaxies with z. The positions of interacting galaxies on the galaxy luminosity ( L)-tidal tail length ( l) plane are shown to be explained by a simple geometrical model, with the upper envelope of the observed distribution being l ? sqrt L. We have solved the problem on the relationship between the observed distribution of tail flatting and the tail length in angular measure by assuming the tidal tails to be arcs of circumferences visible at arbitrary angles to the line of sight. We conclude that the angular length of the tidal tails visually distinguished in nearby and distant galaxies, on average, exceeds 180°.

Mohamed, Y. H.; Reshetnikov, V. P.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.

2011-10-01

61

Evaluation of Polymer-Filler Interaction Characteristics by Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Silicone polymers are frequently used as cushions and inserts between load bearing parts. In this capacity, they must act to position their associated parts and distribute mechanical force as appropriate. One type of failure is specific to silicones that are filled with high surface area particulates for purposes of tailoring the polymer compressive properties. Additives such as fumed silicon oxide are presumed to have a high degree of surface interaction with the polymer matrix, thus causing the polymer to stiffen and to display greater dimensional stability as a function of temperature. However, it has been observed that the compressive behavior of these materials is not always invariant over long times. There is evidence that suggests changes in humidity and temperature can irreversibly alter the silicone-filler interaction, thereby changing the overall characteristics of parts made from such materials. As before, changes in compressive or shear stability can have serious effects on the ability of these materials to effectively position precision parts or distribute high mechanical loads. We approach the analysis of the filled systems by creating controlled layers of silicone polymers attached to silicon oxide substrates. Straight chain vinyl-silicone polymers identical to those used in the formulation of pads for stockpile systems are chemically appended to a substrate surface, and cross-linked to form a three dimensional network. This type of structure serves as a model of silicone polymer coating a silicon oxide filler particle. We study these model systems first by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to image the samples with nanometer resolution, and then by measuring the forces of interactions between single model silica filler particles and polymer-coated surfaces. We use normal longitudinal force AFM to measure adhesion, and a relatively newly developed technique, lateral force AFM, to determine the frictional forces between the silica particles and the polymer films. Lateral force AFM is a sophisticated technique that involves observing the torsional deflections of a cantilever that is scanned across a surface perpendicular to the normal mode deflection. For a carefully calibrated system, this gives information on the dynamic frictional component of the particle/polymer interaction. Both force-measuring techniques utilize colloidal silicon oxide probes ranging from 0.6 {micro}m to 2.0 {micro}m in diameter. These probes replace the standard sharp AFM tip on the cantilever with a spherical bead (Figure 1) and are used to examine interactions between the bead material and the sample surface.

Ratto, T; Saab, A

2007-04-23

62

Sensitivity to the acoustic correlates of lexical stress and their relationship to reading in skilled readers  

PubMed Central

The role of suprasegmental information in reading processes is a growing area of interest, and sensitivity to lexical stress has been shown to explain unique variance in reading development. However, less is known about its role in skilled reading. This study aimed to investigate the acoustic features of suprasegmental information using a same/different cross-modal matching task. Sixty-four adult participants completed standardized measures of reading accuracy, reading speed, and comprehension and performed an experimental task. The experimental task required the participants to identify whether non-speech acoustic sequences matched the characteristics of written words. The findings indicated differences in responses depending on where the lexical stress was required for the word. Moreover, evidence was found to support the view that amplitude information is part of the word knowledge retrieval process in skilled reading. The findings are discussed relative to models of reading and the role of lexical stress in lexical access. PMID:23704860

Williams, Gareth J.; Wood, Clare

2012-01-01

63

Discovering Lexical Generalisations (Semi-)Automatic Construction of Lexical  

E-print Network

Discovering Lexical Generalisation 3 #12;Example: List Representation shake pos:verb, subcat:trans, pst-prt:+en, orth:shake rise pos:verb, subcat:intr, pst-prt:+en, orth:rise compose pos:verb, subcat:trans, pst-prt:+ed, orth:compose elapse pos:verb, subcat:intr, pst-prt:+ed, orth:elapse contains a lot of redundancy

Sporleder, Caroline

64

Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language  

E-print Network

, Code mixing, and Social content strategies. The progression of learners' interactions along the different phases of the co-construction model provided evidence of meaning creation and accounted for the development of a semantic framework...

Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

2013-05-31

65

Impairment of inflectional morphology and lexical storage.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the repetition, comprehension, and production abilities of three French-speaking agrammatic aphasics on stimuli that require attention to the inflectional markers of number, gender, and tense. Two sets of experiments were conducted within a Strong Lexicalist framework. The results suggest that morphological deficits can manifest themselves at distinct levels of grammar, the lexical and the postlexical. The internal morphological structure and idiosyncracies of lexical items were found to have an effect on aphasic performance. A proposal of a differentially organized lexical storage reflecting the particularities of the French verbal system is put forth. The storage hypothesis suggested for verbs is extended to other lexical items. PMID:1483189

Jarema, G; Kehayia, E

1992-11-01

66

The interaction of population characteristics and environmental quality.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationhip between population and environment, especially problems in the definition of the environment and its characteristics and how effectively to isolate man's environment from man himself. The discussion on the conceptual and operational environment, which varies with societal feelings, expectations, reactions and activities, is carried out in the framework of environmental pollution, population growth in general, economic development, and consumption demands. These phenomena precipitate and exacerbate degradation in environmental quality. This deterioration has reached grave proportions in some regions of the world. The example of the interaction of automobiles and air pollution in Los Angeles is detailed. A model is suggested to measure environmental status using an inconvenience threshold, hazard and extinction threshold. Nigeria is charted using this model for range of environmental quality. To improve environmental quality the author recommends involvement of positive attitudes and measures aimed at rational population control. Another realistic option for developing countries is institutionalization of preventive and corrective legislation and educational activities. PMID:12264825

Igbozurike, M U

1976-09-01

67

Characteristics of quercetin interactions with liposomal and vacuolar membranes.  

PubMed

Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is claimed to exert many beneficial health effects. With application of (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) techniques, quercetin interaction with liposomes formed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was analyzed. Patch-clamp technique was employed to study quercetin effects at single channel level of vacuolar membranes in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Light and electron microscopy were applied to study quercetin effects on human negroid cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). Enzymatic measurements along with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) bioassay were performed to investigate the influence of quercetin on antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inclusion of quercetin to the membrane exerted pronounced ordering effect on the motional freedom of lipids in the head group region as manifested by broadening of the (1)H NMR spectral line representing the choline groups. FTIR analysis revealed quercetin incorporation into DPPC liposomes via hydrogen bonding between its own hydroxyl groups and lipid polar head groups in the C-O-P-O-C segment. Both, FTIR and NMR techniques indicated also quercetin spectral effects in the region corresponding to alkyl chains. Patch-clamp experiments showed that quercetin stabilizes tonoplast and promotes a close state of SV channels. Microscopic observations of HeLa cells revealed characteristic changes in ultrastructure and morphology of the examined cells in comparison to control cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cells with quercetin alleviated H2O2-induced cell injury by improving redox balance as indicated by the increase in glutathione content and SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels as well as by the decrease in ROS level. \\In conclusion, the incorporation, distribution and the changes of biophysical properties of the membranes are very important for the effectiveness of phenolic compounds as antioxidant and anticancer factors. PMID:24001508

Pawlikowska-Pawl?ga, Bo?ena; Dziubi?ska, Halina; Król, El?bieta; Tr?bacz, Kazimierz; Jarosz-Wilko?azka, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Gawron, Antoni; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

2014-01-01

68

Effects of prosodic and lexical constraints on parsing in young children (and adults)  

PubMed Central

Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing (Trueswell, Sekerina, Hill & Logrip, 1999; Snedeker & Trueswell, 2004). This pattern is consistent with either a modular parsing system driven by stored lexical information or an interactive system which has yet to acquire low-validity referential constraints. In two experiments we explored whether children could use a third constraint—prosody—to resolve globally ambiguous prepositional-phrase attachments (“You can feel the frog with the feather”). Four to six years olds and adults were tested using the visual world paradigm. In both groups the fixation patterns were influenced by lexical cues by around 200ms after the onset of the critical PP-object noun (“feather”). In adults the prosody manipulation had an effect in this early time window. In children the effect of prosody was delayed by approximately 500 ms. The effects of lexical and prosodic cues were roughly additive: prosody influenced the interpretation of utterances with strong lexical cues and lexical information had an effect on utterances with strong prosodic cues. We conclude that young children, like adults, can rapidly use both of these information sources to resolve structural ambiguities. PMID:19190721

Snedeker, Jesse

2008-01-01

69

Comparing Resources for Spanish Lexical Simplification  

E-print Network

strategies to perform word sense disambiguation. Section 4 explains the evaluation framework and presents University Pompeu Fabra, Departament of Information and Communication Technologies C/Tanger 122, 08018 the effect of different lexical resources and strategies for selecting synonyms in a lexical simplification

70

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

71

Individual Differences in the Joint Effects of Semantic Priming and Word Frequency Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses: The Role of Lexical Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the…

Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

2009-01-01

72

Lexical Gap-Filling Mechanisms in Foreign Language Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper intends to investigate the lexical gap-filling behaviour of primary and secondary Spanish learners of English. When there is a mismatch between the learners lexical knowledge and their communicative needs, then a lexical gap arises. Learners resort to different mechanisms to compensate for that lack of lexical knowledge.…

Llach, M[a]. Pilar Agustin

2010-01-01

73

Research on Teachers' Characteristics in Relation to a Cognitive-Learning Based Interactive Videodisc System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study explored teacher characteristics as they influenced the use of "Exploring Nepal," a cognitive learning-based interactive video system for middle school students. Specifically, the study sought to narrow down a variety of teacher characteristics that may influence the quality of their interaction with the videodisk. The initial…

Grant, Martha B.; Cambre, Marjorie A.

74

The representation of lexical-syntactic information: evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study explored lexical-syntactic information - syntactic information that is stored in the lexicon - and its relation to syntactic and lexical impairments in aphasia. We focused on two types of lexical-syntactic information: predicate argument structure (PAS) of verbs (the number and types of arguments the verb selects) and grammatical gender of nouns. The participants were 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with aphasia who had a syntactic deficit (agrammatism) or a lexical retrieval deficit (anomia) located at the semantic lexicon, the phonological output lexicon, or the phonological output buffer. After testing the participants' syntactic and lexical retrieval abilities and establishing the functional loci of their deficits, we assessed their PAS and grammatical gender knowledge. This assessment included sentence completion, sentence production, sentence repetition, and grammaticality judgment tasks. The participants' performance on these tests yielded several important dissociations. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired PAS knowledge. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired grammatical gender knowledge. This indicates that lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from syntax, and can be spared even when syntax at the sentence level, such as embedding and movement are impaired. All 5 individuals with phonological output buffer impairment and all 3 individuals with phonological output lexicon impairment had preserved lexical-syntactic knowledge. These selective impairments indicate that lexical-syntactic information is represented at a lexical stage prior to the phonological lexicon and the phonological buffer. Three participants with impaired PAS (aPASia) and impaired grammatical gender who showed intact lexical-semantic knowledge indicate that the lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from the semantic lexicon. This led us to conclude that lexical-syntactic information is stored in a separate syntactic lexicon. A double dissociation between PAS and grammatical gender impairments indicated that different types of lexical-syntactic information are represented separately in this syntactic lexicon. PMID:21798529

Biran, Michal; Friedmann, Naama

2012-10-01

75

His Lips Are Moving: Pinocchio Effect and Other Lexical Indicators of Political Deceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the software program LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count), this study used political statements classified as truths and lies by website Politifact.com and examined lexical differences between statement type (lie or truth) and the setting (interactive or scripted) in which the statement was given. In interactive settings (where…

Braun, Michael T.; Van Swol, Lyn M.; Vang, Lisa

2015-01-01

76

Unfolding visual lexical decision in time.  

PubMed

Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called "lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as "lexical" or "non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

2012-01-01

77

Unfolding Visual Lexical Decision in Time  

PubMed Central

Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called “lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as “lexical" or “non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

2012-01-01

78

Sub- and Supralexical Information in Early Phases of Lexical Access  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated sub- and supralexical effects in morphological processing for inflected and pseudo complex words and pseudo words in lexical decision with masked and cross-modal priming. The results showed that the early stage of morphological processing is not only sensitive to whether the orthographic string can be segmented into an existing stem and affix, but also whether the full form is an existing word the meaning of which differs from the meaning of the segmented stem. It is thus likely that from early on morphological processing is probably not governed by morpho-orthographic processes alone, but is most likely sensitive to top-down information, perhaps originating from supralexical semantic connections between the words morphological family members. In addition, whereas semantic interpretability has a clear advantage later in processing, this stage seems to be sensitive to bottom-up form information as well. In a detailed theoretical discussion we show how these findings, along with earlier findings, are explained by a model that assumes that morphological information is represented at two interactive levels, corresponding to sublexical form (orthographic) and supralexical (semantic) information mediated by a lexical level. This allows supralexical (semantic) effects to feed top-down, predicting differences between regular inflected and pseudo complex words at the lexical level, affecting the early phases of processing for these words. PMID:22046167

Järvikivi, Juhani; Pyykkönen, Pirita

2011-01-01

79

Acoustic and Lexical Representations for Affect Prediction in Spontaneous Conversations  

PubMed Central

In this article we investigate what representations of acoustics and word usage are most suitable for predicting dimensions of affect|AROUSAL, VALANCE, POWER and EXPECTANCY|in spontaneous interactions. Our experiments are based on the AVEC 2012 challenge dataset. For lexical representations, we compare corpus-independent features based on psychological word norms of emotional dimensions, as well as corpus-dependent representations. We find that corpus-dependent bag of words approach with mutual information between word and emotion dimensions is by far the best representation. For the analysis of acoustics, we zero in on the question of granularity. We confirm on our corpus that utterance-level features are more predictive than word-level features. Further, we study more detailed representations in which the utterance is divided into regions of interest (ROI), each with separate representation. We introduce two ROI representations, which significantly outperform less informed approaches. In addition we show that acoustic models of emotion can be improved considerably by taking into account annotator agreement and training the model on smaller but reliable dataset. Finally we discuss the potential for improving prediction by combining the lexical and acoustic modalities. Simple fusion methods do not lead to consistent improvements over lexical classifiers alone but improve over acoustic models. PMID:25382936

Cao, Houwei; Savran, Arman; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

2014-01-01

80

Acoustic and Lexical Representations for Affect Prediction in Spontaneous Conversations.  

PubMed

In this article we investigate what representations of acoustics and word usage are most suitable for predicting dimensions of affect|AROUSAL, VALANCE, POWER and EXPECTANCY|in spontaneous interactions. Our experiments are based on the AVEC 2012 challenge dataset. For lexical representations, we compare corpus-independent features based on psychological word norms of emotional dimensions, as well as corpus-dependent representations. We find that corpus-dependent bag of words approach with mutual information between word and emotion dimensions is by far the best representation. For the analysis of acoustics, we zero in on the question of granularity. We confirm on our corpus that utterance-level features are more predictive than word-level features. Further, we study more detailed representations in which the utterance is divided into regions of interest (ROI), each with separate representation. We introduce two ROI representations, which significantly outperform less informed approaches. In addition we show that acoustic models of emotion can be improved considerably by taking into account annotator agreement and training the model on smaller but reliable dataset. Finally we discuss the potential for improving prediction by combining the lexical and acoustic modalities. Simple fusion methods do not lead to consistent improvements over lexical classifiers alone but improve over acoustic models. PMID:25382936

Cao, Houwei; Savran, Arman; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

2015-01-01

81

Neonatal Characteristics and Directional Effects in Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 134 mothers and their newborn infants evaluated the relationships between neonatal style and mother-infant interaction. The procedure included a newborn assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale and two mother-infant interaction observations, one carried out during feeding and the other during a semi-structured…

Osofsky, Joy D.

82

The relationship between social interaction and characteristics of aggressive, cognitively impaired nursing home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of social interaction of aggressive, cognitively impaired nursing home residents and the relationship between social interaction and selected resident characteristics were explored in this study, which was part of a larger experimental study of the effect of dementia education for staff on the aggressive behavior of cognitively impaired residents. Staff rated residents using the Social Interaction Scale (SIS),which

Yu-Ling Chen; Muriel B. Ryden; Karen Feldt; Kay Savik

2000-01-01

83

Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing.  

PubMed

Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime-target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel ("almond") and manDAT ("mandate"; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime-target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B C; Friedrich, Claudia K

2014-09-01

84

Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing  

PubMed Central

Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

2014-01-01

85

Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments  

PubMed Central

Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

Nation, Kate

2014-01-01

86

Relationships Between Neonatal Characteristics and Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 51 mothers and their newborn infants were studied in order to evaluate the relationship between neonatal style and the early mother-infant relationship. The procedure included an infant assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, a mother-infant interaction observation during feeding, and an interview concerning maternal…

Osofsky, Joy D.; Danzger, Barbara

87

The Selection of Dendrite Tip Characteristics by Array Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a unique solution to the well known indeterminacy for the single dendrite Ivantsov similarity solution by considering the interaction between individual members of an array of dendrites undergoing directional solidification. Slender body theory is used to obtain an integral equation for the dendrite shape which has a solvability condition that selects a unique shape and tip undercooling for

Brian Spencer; Herbert Huppert

1996-01-01

88

Noise characteristics of interacting transitions in longitudinal thin film media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution and correlation of transition noise for closely recorded interacting transitions were characterized based on time domain noise measurements and analysis. Corresponding magnetization fluctuation of the transition profiles were obtained by a deconvolution method. It is found that at small bit intervals, correlated amplitude fluctuation of a dipulse, resulting from magnetization fluctuation of the regions in between the dibit

Jian-Gang Zhu; Haiyun Wang

1995-01-01

89

Characteristics of Laminar Vortex Ring - Diffusion Flame Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed to study the interaction between a laminar vortex ring and a diffusion flame. The compressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations are solved together with energy and species equations. The diffusion flame is generated by a `spark' and is implemented as initial condition for the simulations. A single-step second order irreversible Arrhenius type reaction is

C. Safta; C. K. Madnia

2000-01-01

90

Lexicality and modality effects on evoked potentials in a memory-scanning task.  

PubMed

Event-related potentials, as well as reaction times and performance accuracies, were recorded from normal young adults during the performance of a memory-scanning task, in response to the first and second items of the memorized set and to the probe. Stimuli included computer-generated digits, presented by earphones as speech (lexical auditory) or on a screen (lexical visual), meaningless voices (nonlexical auditory) with precisely the same frequency contents as the digits, or meaningless shapes with the very same colors and contours as the digits (nonlexical visual). The evoked potentials' late positivity (P3) to memorized items was earlier to auditory than to visual stimuli. P3 to memorized items and to probes was earlier to lexical than to nonlexical stimuli. P3 amplitudes to both memorized items and probes were smaller with auditory stimuli. Assuming P3 latency to reflect processing time and amplitude to reflect attentional allocation (effort) to the task-relevant stimuli, the results support phonological representations during processing in short-term memory, with nonauditory and nonlexical stimuli requiring more processing time and effort. A significant electrode x modality x lexicality interaction may suggest that stimuli of different modalities and lexicality involve variations in the relative contributions of the brain structures involved in their processing. PMID:8193910

Pratt, H; Erez, A; Geva, A B

1994-04-01

91

Pseudohomophone Priming in Lexical Decision Is Not Fragile in a Sparse Lexical Neighborhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In lexical decision, to date few studies in English have found a reliable pseudohomophone priming advantage with orthographically similar primes (the "klip-plip effect"; Frost, Ahissar, Gotesman, & Tayeb, 2003; see Rastle & Brysbaert, 2006, for a review). On the basis of the Bayseian reader model of lexical decision (Norris, 2006, 2009), we…

Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

2012-01-01

92

Interactions between alien plant species traits and habitat characteristics in agricultural landscapes in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival and success of alien plant species is determined by species traits (i.e., invasiveness) and the characteristics\\u000a of the habitats in the region of introduction (i.e., invasibility). However, little is known about species traits as related\\u000a to habitat characteristics. We assessed the characteristics of successful invaders and the interaction of environmental factors\\u000a and life-history traits for alien plant species.

Miia Jauni; Terho Hyvönen

93

Word Frequency, Repetition, and Lexicality Effects in Word Recognition Tasks: Beyond Measures of Central Tendency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response time (RT) distributions obtained from 3 word recognition experiments were analyzed by fitting an ex-Gaussian function to the empirical data to determine the main effects and interactive influences of word frequency, repetition, and lexicality on the nature of the underlying distributions. The ex-Gaussian analysis allows one to determine if a manipulation simply shifts the response time (RT) distribution, produces

David A. Balota; Daniel H. Spieler

1999-01-01

94

Characterization of intermolecular interaction between two substances when one substance does not possess any characteristic peak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether it is possible to use 2D correlation spectrum to characterize intermolecular interactions between two solutes dissolved in the same solution when one substance does not possesses any characteristic peak. We demonstrate that the interaction can be manifested by characteristic cross peaks in 2D asynchronous correlated spectrum. The above cross peaks reflect the subtle spectral variations on the characteristic peak of another solute under intermolecular interaction. On the other hand, 2D synchronous spectrum is not suitable to characterize intermolecular interaction since the cross peaks contain irremovable interfering parts. The terbium-chloride/benzamide/methanol system is used to demonstrate that this approach is applicable in the real chemical system.

Li, Xiaopei; Fan, Xiaokun; Huang, Kun; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Ying; Wei, Yongju; Liu, Cuige; Xu, Yizhuang; Noda, Isao; Wu, Jinguang

2014-07-01

95

Neural signatures of lexical tone reading.  

PubMed

Research on how lexical tone is neuroanatomically represented in the human brain is central to our understanding of cortical regions subserving language. Past studies have exclusively focused on tone perception of the spoken language, and little is known as to the lexical tone processing in reading visual words and its associated brain mechanisms. In this study, we performed two experiments to identify neural substrates in Chinese tone reading. First, we used a tone judgment paradigm to investigate tone processing of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that, relative to baseline, tone perception of printed Chinese characters were mediated by strong brain activation in bilateral frontal regions, left inferior parietal lobule, left posterior middle/medial temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal region, bilateral visual systems, and cerebellum. Surprisingly, no activation was found in superior temporal regions, brain sites well known for speech tone processing. In activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to combine results of relevant published studies, we attempted to elucidate whether the left temporal cortex activities identified in Experiment one is consistent with those found in previous studies of auditory lexical tone perception. ALE results showed that only the left superior temporal gyrus and putamen were critical in auditory lexical tone processing. These findings suggest that activation in the superior temporal cortex associated with lexical tone perception is modality-dependent. PMID:25196948

Kwok, Veronica P Y; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Yakpo, Kofi; Zhu, Linlin; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

2015-01-01

96

Lexical confusability and nasal coarticulation in French  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.

Scarborough, Rebecca

2005-09-01

97

Effects of Lexical Tone Contour on Mandarin Sentence Intelligibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…

Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi

2014-01-01

98

Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

Koprowski, Mark

2005-01-01

99

Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle

2009-01-01

100

Does Horse Activate Mother? Processing Lexical Tone in Form Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical tone languages make up the majority of all known languages of the world, but the role of tone in lexical processing remains unclear. In the present study, four form priming experiments examined the role of Mandarin tones in constraining lexical activation and the time course of the activation. When a prime and a target were related…

Lee, Chao-Yang

2007-01-01

101

Access to lexical knowledge in modular interpersonal communication aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the role of lexical linguistic information in the framework of modular architectures for interpersonal communication aids and describes the User Vocabulary Defin- ition and Meaning Mapping Module (UVDMM), developed in the context of the TIDE-ACCESS TP1001 project. The UVDMM Module is a multilingual lexical knowledge base that contains lin- guistic information and lexical translation relations for orthographic

Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis; Georgios Kouroupetroglou

1999-01-01

102

On the Use of Lexical Stress in Reading Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates whether or not lexical stress is used for lexical access in Spanish. A lexical decision task and a masking priming procedure were used to compare correctly-versus-incorrectly stressed words (e.g., "tecla-TECLA vs. tecla-TECLA"). SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was manipulated at 33, 66, 100, and 143 ms. The results showed…

Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Palma-Reyes, Alfonso

2008-01-01

103

WordNet An Electronic Lexical Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

WordNet, an electronic lexical database, is considered to be the most\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009important resource available to researchers in computational linguistics,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009text analysis, and many related areas. Its design is inspired by\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009current psycholinguistic and computational theories of human lexical\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are organized\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009into synonym sets, each representing one underlying lexicalized concept.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Different relations link the

Christiane Fellbaum

1998-01-01

104

Do Statistical Segmentation Abilities Predict Lexical-Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Abilities in Children with and without SLI?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

105

Lexical Frequency Profiles: A Monte Carlo Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a set of Monte Carlo simulations designed to evaluate the main claims made by Laufer and Nation about the Lexical Frequency Profile (LFP). Laufer and Nation claim that the LFP is a sensitive and reliable tool for assessing productive vocabulary in L2 speakers, and they suggest it might have a serious role to play in diagnostic…

Meara, Paul

2005-01-01

106

Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

107

Lexical Frequency Profiles and Zipf's Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laufer and Nation (1995) proposed that the Lexical Frequency Profile (LFP) can estimate the size of a second-language writer's productive vocabulary. Meara (2005) questioned the sensitivity and the reliability of LFPs for estimating vocabulary sizes, based on the results obtained from probabilistic simulations of LFPs. However, the underlying…

Edwards, Roderick; Collins, Laura

2011-01-01

108

Connectionist diagnosis of lexical disorders in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the cognitive neurolinguistic approach to lexical deficits in aphasia, impaired levels of processing are localised in a cognitive model. Model-oriented treatment may target these impaired components. Thus a precise assessment of the disorder is crucial. Connectionist models add to this by using computer simulation to specify the details of the functioning of these components. The connectionist semantic-phonological model

Stefanie Abel; Walter Huber; Gary S. Dell

2009-01-01

109

Lexical comprehension and production in Alexia system  

E-print Network

Lexical comprehension and production in Alexia system T. SELV A 1 , F . I SS A C2 , T. CHANIER1 , C that the dictionary is used very often in a written comprehension task. However, its utility is not always obvious the translation or the reading of a text in a foreign language. Indeed, the learner is faced with the problem

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Lexical Knowledge Representation and Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pustejovsky, J. and B. Boguraev, Lexical knowledge representation and natural language processing, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 193-223. Traditionally, semantic information in computational lexicons is limited to notions such as selectional restrictions or domain-specific constraints, encoded in a \\

James Pustejovsky; Branimir Boguraev

1993-01-01

111

Bilingual Lexical Activation in Sentence Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the cognitive nature of second language (L2) lexical processing in sentence context. We examined bilinguals' L2 word recognition performance for language-ambiguous words [cognates (e.g., "piano") and homographs (e.g., "pan")] in two sentence context experiments with highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals living…

Schwartz, Ana I.; Kroll, Judith F.

2006-01-01

112

The Malay Lexicon Project: a database of lexical statistics for 9,592 words.  

PubMed

Malay, a language spoken by 250 million people, has a shallow alphabetic orthography, simple syllable structures, and transparent affixation--characteristics that contrast sharply with those of English. In the present article, we first compare the letter-phoneme and letter-syllable ratios for a sample of alphabetic orthographies to highlight the importance of separating language-specific from language-universal reading processes. Then, in order to develop a better understanding of word recognition in orthographies with more consistent mappings to phonology than English, we compiled a database of lexical variables (letter length, syllable length, phoneme length, morpheme length, word frequency, orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes, and orthographic and phonological Levenshtein distances) for 9,592 Malay words. Separate hierarchical regression analyses for Malay and English revealed how the consistency of orthography-phonology mappings selectively modulates the effects of different lexical variables on lexical decision and speeded pronunciation performance. The database of lexical and behavioral measures for Malay is available at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:21139166

Yap, Melvin J; Liow, Susan J Rickard; Jalil, Sajlia Binte; Faizal, Siti Syuhada Binte

2010-11-01

113

Influence of intermolecular interactions on spectroscopic characteristics of metal nanoparticles and their composites.  

PubMed

In this paper we investigate the possibility to apply the concepts of non-specific intermolecular interactions and dispersive local field effect approach for study of the influence of interactions of metal nanoparticles with matrix molecules on the spectral characteristics of composites. The effect of intermolecular (interparticle) interactions and the influence of the dielectric environment on the peak position of the plasmon resonance band of colloidal solutions and thin films formed from noble metal nanostructures is determined. Simulated and experimental absorption spectra obtained for a colloidal solution of silver and gold nanoparticles, of various shapes and sizes in water and glycerol, are in good agreement. PMID:25310112

Shaganov, Igor I; Perova, Tatiana S; Mukhina, Maria V; Martynenko, Irina V; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gerard, Valerie; Gun'ko, Yuri K

2014-11-28

114

Task-Dependent Viscoelasticity of Human Multijoint Arm and Its Spatial Characteristics for Interaction with Environments  

E-print Network

mechanisms of the human arm, we studied the controllability and spatial characteristics of viscoelastic interactions with objects. Key words: human arm mechanical impedance; arm stiffness; arm viscosity; muscle control; arm control; environmental inter- action; isometric force control In all manipulation tasks

Osu, Rieko

115

BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical investigation of Brillouin optical-fiber time-domain analysis (BOTDA) is described. BOTDA uses Brillouin interaction in optical fibers to analyze the attenuation characteristics of the optical fibers nondestructively. The dynamic range performance of BOTDA is approximately 10-dB greater than that of conventional optical time-domain reflectometry

Tsuneo Horiguchi; Mitsuhiro Tateda

1989-01-01

116

Individual differences in the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency: The role of lexical integrity  

PubMed Central

Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency are critically dependent upon differences in the vocabulary knowledge of the participants. Specifically, across two Universities, additive effects of the two variables were observed in participants with more vocabulary knowledge, while interactive effects were observed in participants with less vocabulary knowledge. These results are discussed with reference to Borowsky and Besner’s (1993) multistage account and Plaut and Booth’s (2000) single-mechanism model. In general, the findings are also consistent with a flexible lexical processing system that optimizes performance based on processing fluency and task demands. PMID:20161653

Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

2009-01-01

117

Insights on Curriculum, Instruction, and Early Literacy Learning: Student Characteristic by Instruction Interaction Effects on Literacy Outcomes  

E-print Network

Insights on Curriculum, Instruction, and Early Literacy Learning: Student Characteristic by Instruction Interaction Effects on Literacy Outcomes Guest Lecture by literacy instruction interaction effects on students' literacy outcomes particularly

Rose, Michael R.

118

Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment  

PubMed Central

HIGHLIGHTS The redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific processes and various levels of word processing. PMID:23818879

Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

2013-01-01

119

Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody, but atypical lexical prosody production. Method 16 children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers participated in three experiments: 1. Perception of affective prosody, 2. Lexical stress perception, 3. Lexical stress production. In Experiment 1, participants labeled sad, happy, and neutral spoken sentences that were low-pass filtered, to eliminate verbal content. In Experiment 2 participants disambiguated word meanings based on lexical stress (HOTdog, vs. hotDOG). In Experiment 3 participants produced these words in a sentence completion task. Productions were analyzed using acoustic measures. Results Accuracy levels showed no group differences. Participants with HFA could determine affect from filtered sentences and disambiguate words based on lexical stress. They produced appropriately differentiated lexical stress patterns but demonstrated atypically long productions indicating reduced ability in natural prosody production. Conclusions Children with HFA were as capable as their TD peers in receptive tasks of lexical stress and affective prosody. Prosody productions were atypically long, despite accurate differentiation of lexical stress patterns. Future research should use larger samples and spontaneous vs. elicited productions. PMID:20530388

Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

2012-01-01

120

Characteristics of electron-wave interaction in orotron-DRG type devices at the higher modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excitation of oscillations in an orotron/diffraction-radiation generator at the higher longitudinal modes of the open resonator is analyzed with allowance for the space-charge field of the electron beam, represented by Fourier series in time harmonics of the oscillation frequency. Analytical expressions for the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the starting regime are obtained, and the case of large oscillation amplitudes (where nonlinear phenomena are significant) is analyzed numerically. The collective interaction of beam electrons and the resonator field is examined. Oscillation zones are determined, and the main characteristics of oscillation excitation at the higher modes are established.

Shmatko, A. A.

121

Coreference and Lexical Repetition: Mechanisms of Discourse Integration  

PubMed Central

The use of repeated expressions to establish coreference allows an investigation of the relationship between basic processes of word recognition and higher-level language processes that involve the integration of information into a discourse model. In two experiments on reading, we used eye tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether repeated expressions that are coreferential within a local discourse context show the kind of repetition priming that is shown in lists of words. In both experiments, effects of lexical repetition were modulated by effects of local discourse context that arose from manipulations of the linguistic prominence of the antecedent of a coreferentially repeated name. These results are interpreted within the context of discourse prominence theory, which suggests that processes of coreferential interpretation interact with basic mechanisms of memory integration during the construction of a model of discourse. PMID:17848036

Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Peter C.; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2006-01-01

122

Lexical competition in young children’s word learning  

PubMed Central

In two experiments, 1.5 year olds were taught novel words whose sound patterns were phonologically similar to familiar words (novel neighbors) or were not (novel nonneighbors). Learning was tested using a picture fixation task. In both experiments, children learned the novel nonneighbors but not the novel neighbors. In addition, exposure to the novel neighbors impaired recognition performance on familiar neighbors. Finally, children did not spontaneously use phonological differences to infer that a novel word referred to a novel object. Thus, lexical competition—inhibitory interaction among words in speech comprehension—can prevent children from using their full phonological sensitivity in judging words as novel. These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word. PMID:17054932

Swingley, Daniel; Aslin, Richard N.

2008-01-01

123

Age-related features of the interaction of learning success and characteristics of auditory operative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the interaction between learning success and measures of auditory operative memory were studied by\\u000a psychoacoustic testing of 42 medical workers aged 20–65 years trained to work in areas new to them (information science).\\u000a Three age groups were identified: 20–35 years, 36–50 years, and 51–65 years. The acoustic test consisted of a single presentation\\u000a via headphones of 12

E. S. Dmitrieva; V. Ya. Gel’man; K. A. Zaitseva; S. V. Lan’ko

2008-01-01

124

BALDEY: A database of auditory lexical decisions.  

PubMed

Abstract In an auditory lexical decision experiment, 5,541 spoken content words and pseudo-words were presented to 20 native speakers of Dutch. The words vary in phonological makeup and in number of syllables and stress pattern, and are further representative of the native Dutch vocabulary in that most are morphologically complex, comprising two stems or one stem plus derivational and inflectional suffixes, with inflections representing both regular and irregular paradigms; the pseudo-words were matched in these respects to the real words. The BALDEY data file includes response times and accuracy rates, with for each item morphological information plus phonological and acoustic information derived from automatic phonemic segmentation of the stimuli. Two initial analyses illustrate how this data set can be used. First, we discuss several measures of the point at which a word has no further neighbors, and compare the degree to which each measure predicts our lexical decision response outcomes. Second, we investigate how well four different measures of frequency of occurrence (from written corpora, spoken corpora, subtitles and frequency ratings by 70 participants) predict the same outcomes. These analyses motivate general conclusions about the auditory lexical decision task. The (publicly available) BALDEY database lends itself to many further analyses. Supplementary material. PMID:25397865

Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

2014-11-14

125

Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words.  

PubMed

Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented. PMID:22518273

Pollatsek, Alexander; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

2011-11-01

126

Lexical–semantic priming effects during infancy  

PubMed Central

When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word–word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants’ attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime–target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical–semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic–associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137

Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

2009-01-01

127

The impact of material characteristics on tire pavement interaction noise for flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise pollution has recently been one of the growing problems all over the world. While there are many sources of the noise, traffic noise is the main contributor to the total environmental noise. Although there are different sources for traffic noise, the tire pavement interaction noise is the most dominant component within most city and highway limits. One of the ways to reduce the tire pavement noise is to improve the material characteristics of the pavements such that they produce less noise. In this study, the relationship between basic material characteristics (e.g., Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) volumetrics) and sound generation and absorption characteristics of flexible pavements was investigated. In addition, the effect of linear visco-elastic properties (e.g., dynamic modulus (|E*|) and phase angle (delta)) on sound absorption was studied. In order to focus only on impact of material characteristics and overshadow the effect of surface texture, a novel laboratory tire pavement noise measurement simulator (TIPANOS) was developed. The statistical analysis results showed that although the individual material characteristics do not have appreciable influence on sound absorption, there is a significant correlation between sound pressure levels (SPL) and combination of several material and linear visco-elastic parameters.

Kocak, Salih

128

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

129

Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar, and unfamiliar…

Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

2009-01-01

130

A Bayesian-Network Approach to Lexical Disambiguation  

Microsoft Academic Search

lexical ambiguity can be syntactic If it involves mare than one grammatical cate- gory for a single word, or semantic If more than one meoning con be associated with a word. In thls article we discuss the application of o Boyesion-network model In the resolutlon of lexical ambiguities of both types. The network we pro- pose comprises a parsing subnetwork,

Leila M. R. Eizirik; Valmir C. Barbosa; Sueli Bandeira Teixeira Mendes

1993-01-01

131

Neural Correlates of Lexical and Sublexical Processes in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to compare the brain regions and systems that subserve lexical and sublexical processes in reading. In order to do so, three types of tasks were used: (i) silent reading of very high frequency regular words (lexical task); (ii) silent reading of nonwords (sublexical task); and, (iii) silent reading of very low…

Joubert, Sven; Beauregard, Mario; Walter, Nathalie; Bourgouin, Pierre; Beaudoin, Gilles; Leroux, Jean-Maxime; Karama, Sherif; Lecours, Andre Roch

2004-01-01

132

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

133

Inaugural Article: Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core operation in speech production is the preparation of words from a semantic base. The theory of lexical access reviewed in this article covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation. The initial stages of preparation are concerned with lexical selection, which is zooming in

Willem J. M. Levelt

2001-01-01

134

Lexical Bundles in University Spoken and Written Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical bundles--recurrent sequences of words--are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. Previous research has shown that lexical bundles are especially prevalent in university classroom teaching, where they serve three major discourse functions: stance expressions, discourse organizers, and referential…

Biber, Douglas; Barbieri, Federica

2007-01-01

135

Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

2012-01-01

136

Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

2012-01-01

137

Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

138

Bilingual and Monolingual Processing of Competing Lexical Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the performance of bilingual Russian-English speakers and monolingual English speakers during auditory processing of competing lexical items using eye tracking. Results revealed that both bilinguals and monolinguals experienced competition from English lexical items overlapping phonetically with an English target item. (VWL)

Marian, Viorica; Spivey, Michael

2003-01-01

139

Predicting Lexical Relations between Biomedical Terms: towards a Multilingual Morphosemantics-based System.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This issue is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morpho-semantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a la morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots, and (3) a set of language-independant rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3,000 lexical families. PMID:16160355

Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

2005-01-01

140

Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

2008-01-01

141

Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

2013-01-01

142

Hemispheric Sensitivities to Lexical and Contextual Information: Evidence from Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the manner in which both hemispheres utilize prior semantic context and relative meaning frequency during the processing of homographs. Participants read sentences biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meaning of their final homograph, or unbiased neutral sentences, and performed a lexical decision task on…

Peleg, Orna; Eviatar, Zohar

2008-01-01

143

Early processing of auditory lexical predictions revealed by ERPs.  

PubMed

Auditory lexical processing starts within 200ms after onset of the critical stimulus. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate whether (1) the so-called N200 effect can be triggered by single-item lexical context, and (2) such effects are robust against temporal violations of the signal. We presented items in which lexical status (i.e., is the stimulus a word or a pseudoword?) was determined at third syllable onset. The critical syllable could be naturally timed or delayed (by ?440 or ?800ms). Across all conditions, we observed an effect of lexicality that started ?200ms after third syllable onset (i.e., an N200 effect in naturally timed items and a similar effect superimposed on the P2 for the delayed items). The results indicate that early lexical processes are robust against violations of temporal coherence. PMID:25438158

Baart, Martijn; Samuel, Arthur G

2015-01-12

144

Energy characteristics of beam-plasma interaction in a closed volume  

SciTech Connect

Energy exchange between an electron beam and plasma during a beam-plasma discharge in a closed cavity excited by the electron beam is analyzed using computer simulations by the KARAT code. A method allowing one to analyze the beam-plasma interaction in the quasi-steady stage of the discharge is proposed. Qualitative characteristics of energy exchange (such as beam energy losses and the energy distributions of beam electrons and plasma particles leaving the discharge) both during spontaneous discharge excitation and in the presence of initial beam modulation by regular or noiselike signals are determined. The results obtained enable one to estimate the energy characteristics of a plasma processing reactor based on a beam-plasma discharge.

Klykov, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation); Tarakanov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for High Energy Densities, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Shustin, E. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

145

Prediction of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides based on characteristics responsible for their interaction with the membranes.  

PubMed

Most available antimicrobial peptides (AMP) prediction methods use common approach for different classes of AMP. Contrary to available approaches, we suggest that a strategy of prediction should be based on the fact that there are several kinds of AMP that vary in mechanisms of action, structure, mode of interaction with membrane, etc. According to our suggestion for each kind of AMP, a particular approach has to be developed in order to get high efficacy. Consequently, in this paper, a particular but the biggest class of AMP, linear cationic antimicrobial peptides (LCAP), has been considered and a newly developed simple method of LCAP prediction described. The aim of this study is the development of a simple method of discrimination of AMP from non-AMP, the efficiency of which will be determined by efficiencies of selected descriptors only and comparison the results of the discrimination procedure with the results obtained by more complicated discriminative methods. As descriptors the physicochemical characteristics responsible for capability of the peptide to interact with an anionic membrane were considered. The following characteristics such as hydrophobicity, amphiphaticity, location of the peptide in relation to membrane, charge density, propensities to disordered structure and aggregation were studied. On the basis of these characteristics, a new simple algorithm of prediction is developed and evaluation of efficacies of the characteristics as descriptors performed. The results show that three descriptors, hydrophobic moment, charge density and location of the peptide along the membranes, can be used as discriminators of LCAPs. For the training set, our method gives the same level of accuracy as more complicated machine learning approaches offered as CAMP database service tools. For the test set accuracy obtained by our method gives even higher value than the one obtained by CAMP prediction tools. The AMP prediction tool based on the considered method is available at http://www.biomedicine.org.ge/dbaasp/. PMID:24730612

Vishnepolsky, Boris; Pirtskhalava, Malak

2014-05-27

146

The Role of Amplitude Envelope in Lexical Tone Perception: Evidence from Cantonese Lexical Tone Discrimination in Adults with Normal Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously published studies on the role of amplitude envelope in lexical tone perception focused on Mandarin only. Amplitude envelope was found to co-vary with fundamental frequency in Mandarin lexical tones, and amplitude envelope alone could cue tone perception in Mandarin which uses primarily tone contour for phonemic tonal contrasts. The…

Zhou, Yining Victor

2012-01-01

147

Structure and Function in the Lexical System: Insights from Distributed Models of Word Reading and Lexical Decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view of the lexical system stipulates word-speciéc representations and separate pathways for regular and exception words. An alternative approach views lexical knowledge as developing from general learning principles applied to mappings among distributed representations of written and spoken words and their meanings. On this distributed account, distinctions among words, and between words and nonwords, are not reié ed

David C. Plaut

1997-01-01

148

Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

1984-01-01

149

Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change  

E-print Network

Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change in lexical diffusion shows that even phonetically gradual changes that in some cases are destined to be lexically regular show lexical diffusion while they are in progress. Change that is both phonetically

Port, Robert

150

Impact of Visual, Vocal, and Lexical Cues on Judgments of Counselor Qualities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate students (N=130) rated Carl Rogers via visual, lexical, vocal, or vocal-lexical communication channels. Lexical cues were more important in creating favorable impressions among females. Subsequent exposure to combined visual-vocal-lexical cues resulted in warmer and less distant ratings, but not on a consistent basis. (Author)

Strahan, Carole; Zytowski, Donald G.

1976-01-01

151

Lexical access and evoked traveling alpha waves  

PubMed Central

Retrieval from semantic memory is usually considered within a time window around 300–600 ms. Here we suggest that lexical access already occurs at around 100 ms. This interpretation is based on the finding that semantically rich and frequent words exhibit a significantly shorter topographical latency difference between the site with the shortest P1 latency (leading site) and that with the longest P1 latency (trailing site). This latency difference can be described in terms of an evoked traveling alpha wave as was already shown in earlier studies. PMID:24486978

Zauner, Andrea; Gruber, Walter; Himmelstoß, Nicole Alexandra; Lechinger, Julia; Klimesch, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

152

Interaction and Representational Integration: Evidence from Speech Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated…

Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa

2011-01-01

153

Spray-dried microparticles containing polymeric nanocapsules: formulation aspects, liquid phase interactions and particles characteristics.  

PubMed

Up to now, the full potential of polymer-based nanoparticles is not yet exploited because of a lack of stability when conserved in aqueous medium. The present paper reports the water elimination from nanocapsules (NC) dispersions by means of the spray-drying technique with the aim to achieve dried solid forms of interest using colloidal silicon dioxide as drying auxiliary. The influence of formulation parameters on the suspension behaviour and on the powders characteristics was also evaluated. Our findings demonstrated that the mixing protocol, the concentrations of both NC and silica are crucial parameters that affect the feed behaviour and the spray-dried particles characteristics. Interactions occurring in the feed are directed by hydrogen bounds and were more sensitive to the silica concentration than that of NC as evidenced by rheological measurements. The NC are entrapped within solid dried matrixes following their interaction with silica particles in the feed. SEM analyses of the obtained powders showed spherical separated microparticles formed by the association of NC and silica when they are mixed at adequate concentrations in the feed before spray-drying. On the other hand, fused agglomerated particles presenting NC at their surface, characterised by irregular shapes and a strong adhesiveness were prepared when the silica concentration was not sufficient. The surface composition of the spray-dried powders was investigated using the ESCA technique and revealed the NC exclusion from the surface to obtain powders suitable for further handling. PMID:16872767

Tewa-Tagne, Patrice; Briançon, Stéphanie; Fessi, Hatem

2006-11-15

154

The Relationship between Neonatal Characteristics and Three-Month Mother-Infant Interaction in High-Risk Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses three questions: (1) To what extent do risk factors of prematurity and illness affect neonatal characteristics? (2) Do these risk factors continue to account for differences in mother and infant social interactive behavior at three months? and (three) To what degree are neonatal characteristics predictive of mother and infant behavior at…

Greene, Jamie G.; And Others

1983-01-01

155

Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

2005-04-01

156

Spatiotemporal Signatures of Lexical-Semantic Prediction.  

PubMed

Although there is broad agreement that top-down expectations can facilitate lexical-semantic processing, the mechanisms driving these effects are still unclear. In particular, while previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has demonstrated a reduction in the N400 response to words in a supportive context, it is often challenging to dissociate facilitation due to bottom-up spreading activation from facilitation due to top-down expectations. The goal of the current study was to specifically determine the cortical areas associated with facilitation due to top-down prediction, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings supplemented by EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic priming paradigm. In order to modulate expectation processes while holding context constant, we manipulated the proportion of related pairs across 2 blocks (10 and 50% related). Event-related potential results demonstrated a larger N400 reduction when a related word was predicted, and MEG source localization of activity in this time-window (350-450 ms) localized the differential responses to left anterior temporal cortex. fMRI data from the same participants support the MEG localization, showing contextual facilitation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus for the high expectation block only. Together, these results provide strong evidence that facilitatory effects of lexical-semantic prediction on the electrophysiological response 350-450 ms postonset reflect modulation of activity in left anterior temporal cortex. PMID:25316341

Lau, Ellen F; Weber, Kirsten; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

2014-10-14

157

Lexical-perceptual integration influences sensorimotor adaptation in speech.  

PubMed

A combination of lexical bias and altered auditory feedback was used to investigate the influence of higher-order linguistic knowledge on the perceptual aspects of speech motor control. Subjects produced monosyllabic real words or pseudo-words containing the vowel [?] (as in "head") under conditions of altered auditory feedback involving a decrease in vowel first formant (F1) frequency. This manipulation had the effect of making the vowel sound more similar to [I] (as in "hid"), affecting the lexical status of produced words in two Lexical-Change (LC) groups (either changing them from real words to pseudo-words: e.g., less-liss, or pseudo-words to real words: e.g., kess-kiss). Two Non-Lexical-Change (NLC) control groups underwent the same auditory feedback manipulation during the production of [?] real- or pseudo-words, only without any resulting change in lexical status (real words to real words: e.g., mess-miss, or pseudo-words to pseudo-words: e.g., ness-niss). The results from the LC groups indicate that auditory-feedback-based speech motor learning is sensitive to the lexical status of the stimuli being produced, in that speakers tend to keep their acoustic speech outcomes within the auditory-perceptual space corresponding to the task-related side of the word/non-word boundary (real words or pseudo-words). For the NLC groups, however, no such effect of lexical status is observed. PMID:24860460

Bourguignon, Nicolas J; Baum, Shari R; Shiller, Douglas M

2014-01-01

158

Lexical-perceptual integration influences sensorimotor adaptation in speech  

PubMed Central

A combination of lexical bias and altered auditory feedback was used to investigate the influence of higher-order linguistic knowledge on the perceptual aspects of speech motor control. Subjects produced monosyllabic real words or pseudo-words containing the vowel [?] (as in “head”) under conditions of altered auditory feedback involving a decrease in vowel first formant (F1) frequency. This manipulation had the effect of making the vowel sound more similar to [I] (as in “hid”), affecting the lexical status of produced words in two Lexical-Change (LC) groups (either changing them from real words to pseudo-words: e.g., less—liss, or pseudo-words to real words: e.g., kess—kiss). Two Non-Lexical-Change (NLC) control groups underwent the same auditory feedback manipulation during the production of [?] real- or pseudo-words, only without any resulting change in lexical status (real words to real words: e.g., mess—miss, or pseudo-words to pseudo-words: e.g., ness—niss). The results from the LC groups indicate that auditory-feedback-based speech motor learning is sensitive to the lexical status of the stimuli being produced, in that speakers tend to keep their acoustic speech outcomes within the auditory-perceptual space corresponding to the task-related side of the word/non-word boundary (real words or pseudo-words). For the NLC groups, however, no such effect of lexical status is observed. PMID:24860460

Bourguignon, Nicolas J.; Baum, Shari R.; Shiller, Douglas M.

2014-01-01

159

Effect of initial-consonant intensity on the speed of lexical decisions.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of initial-consonant intensity on lexical decisions. Amplification was selectively applied to the initial consonant of monosyllabic words. In Experiment 1, young adults with normal hearing completed an auditory lexical decision task with words that either had the natural or amplified initial consonant. The results demonstrated faster reaction times for amplified words when listeners randomly heard words spoken by two unfamiliar talkers. The same pattern of results was found when comparing words in which the initial consonant was naturally higher in intensity than the low-intensity consonants, across all amplification conditions. In Experiment 2, listeners were familiarized with the talkers and tested on each talker in separate blocks, to minimize talker uncertainty. The effect of initial-consonant intensity was reversed, with faster reaction times being obtained for natural than for amplified consonants. In Experiment 3, nonlinguistic processing of the amplitude envelope was assessed using noise modulated by the word envelope. The results again demonstrated faster reaction times for natural than for amplified words. Across all experiments, the results suggest that the acoustic-phonetic structure of the word influences the speed of lexical decisions and interacts with the familiarity and predictability of the talker. In unfamiliar and less-predictable listening contexts, initial-consonant amplification increases lexical decision speed, even if sufficient audibility is available without amplification. In familiar contexts with adequate audibility, an acoustic match of the stimulus with the stored mental representation of the word is more important, possibly along with general auditory properties related to loudness perception. PMID:24435901

Fogerty, Daniel; Montgomery, Allen A; Crass, Kimberlee A

2014-04-01

160

WordNet: A Lexical Database for English  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WordNet is a powerful lexical reference system that combines aspects of dictionaries and thesauri with current psycholinguistic theories of human lexical memory. It is produced by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University, under the direction of Professor George Miller. In WordNet, words are defined and grouped into various related sets of synonyms. Not only is the system valuable to the casual user as a powerful thesaurus and dictionary, but also to the researcher as one of the few freely available, lexical databases. WordNet is available via an on-line interface and also as easy-to-compile C source code for Unix.

161

Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection  

PubMed Central

Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

2011-01-01

162

Interaction of silver nanoparticles with proteins: a characteristic protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are finding increasing applications in biological systems, for example as antimicrobial agents and potential candidates for control drug release systems. In all such applications, silver nanoparticles interact with proteins and other biomolecules. Hence, the study of such interactions is of considerable importance. While BSA has been extensively used as a model protein for the study of interaction with the silver nanoparticles, studies using other proteins are rather limited. The interaction of silver nanoparticles with light leads to collective oscillation of the conducting electrons giving rise to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Here, we have studied the protein concentration dependence of the SPR band profiles for a number of proteins. We found that for all the proteins, with increase in concentration, the SPR band intensity initially decreased, reaching minima and then increased again leading to a characteristic "dip and rise" pattern. Minimum point of the pattern appeared to be related to the isoelectric point of the proteins. Detailed dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the consistency of SPR profile was dependent on the average particle size and state of association of the silver nanoparticles with the change in the protein concentration. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed the binding constants of the proteins with the silver nanoparticles were in the nano molar range with more than one nanoparticle binding to protein molecule. Structural studies demonstrate that protein retains its native-like structure on the nanoparticle surface unless the molar ratio of silver nanoparticles to protein exceeds 10. Our study reveals that nature of the protein concentration dependent profile of SPR signal is a general phenomena and mostly independent of the size and structure of the proteins. PMID:23792543

Banerjee, Victor; Das, K P

2013-11-01

163

Interactive method of assessing the characteristics of softcopy display using observer performance tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interactive, easy-to-use computer program has been developed to assess the quality of softcopy display by measuring the contrast sensitivity, spatial resolution and spatial uniformity at different backgrounds and object types. The program features random variation of the test object location, which minimizes the guessing error often associated with psychophysical measurements. It operates on a Microsoft Window/NT platform and is intended for routine quality assurance (QA) as well as for acceptance testing of PACS. The QA data obtained with this program can be plotted chronologically and centrally managed so as to detect trends in monitor deterioration. The principal motivation for developing this program was to provide an indirect yet sensitive and accurate measure of monitor characteristics with a minimum of specialized equipment.

Wang, Jihong; Peng, Qi

2002-04-01

164

Micromotors with Step-Motor Characteristics by Controlled Magnetic Interactions among Assembled Components.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the control of the rotation dynamics of an innovative type of rotary micromotors with desired performances by tuning the magnetic interactions among the assembled micro/nanoscale components. The micromotors are made of metallic nanowires as rotors, patterned magnetic nanodisks as bearings and actuated by external electric fields. The magnetic forces for anchoring the rotors on the bearings play an essential role in the rotation dynamics of the micromotors. By varying the moment, orientation, and dimension of the magnetic components, distinct rotation behaviors can be observed, including repeatable wobbling and rolling in addition to rotation. We understood the rotation behaviors by analytical modeling, designed and realized micromotors with step-motor characteristics. The outcome of this research could inspire the development of high-performance nanomachines assembled from synthetic nanoentities, relevant to nanorobotics, microfluidics, and biomedical research. PMID:25536023

Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Xu, Xiaobin; Fan, Donglei Emma

2015-01-27

165

Which three-dimensional characteristics make efficient inhibitors of protein-protein interactions?  

PubMed

The specific properties of protein-protein interactions (PPI) (flat, large and hydrophobic) make them harder to tackle with low-molecular-weight compounds. Learning from the properties of successful examples of PPI interface inhibitors (iPPI) at earlier stages of developments, has been pinpointed as a powerful strategy to circumvent this trend. To this end, we have computationally analyzed the bioactive conformations of iPPI and those of inhibitors of conventional targets (e.g enzymes) to highlight putative iPPI 3D characteristics. Most noticeably, the essential property revealed by this study illustrates how efficiently iPPI manages to bind to the hydrophobic patch often present at the core of protein interfaces. The newly identified properties were further confirmed as characteristics of iPPI using much larger data sets (e.g iPPI-DB, www.ippidb.cdithem.fr ). Interestingly, the absence of correlation of such properties with the hydrophobicity and the size of the compounds opens new ways to design potent iPPI with better pharmacokinetic features. PMID:25285479

Kuenemann, Mélaine A; Bourbon, Laura M L; Labbé, Céline M; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Sperandio, Olivier

2014-11-24

166

Lexical decision and the number of morphemes and affixes.  

PubMed

There has been a considerable amount of research looking at the effects of both syllable number and syllable frequency on lexical decision and word naming times. Recently, there has also been an increased interest in morphological variables, but there have been no large scale studies that have examined the role of the number of morphemes in lexical decision for nonwords. This is partly because of the difficulty of identifying morphemes in nonwords. We present a program that identifies the presence of affixes and, therefore, can be used to count the number of morpheme-like elements in a nonword. We then used the program to measure the importance of affixes/morphemes in predicting lexical decision in nonwords. The results suggested that morphemes have an important role in lexical decision for both words and nonwords. PMID:23829866

Muncer, Steven J; Knight, David C; Adams, John W

2013-10-01

167

EVIDENCE OF LEXICAL PRIMING IN SPOKEN LIVERPOOL ENGLISH  

E-print Network

use, rather than just lexical stock, is a characterising feature of dialects. #12;3 Acknowledgements material and advice for chapter 11 and, in particular, chapter 7. Likewise, I cannot thank Andrew Hamer

Atkinson, Katie

168

Lexical Concept Distribution Reflects Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

It is not known whether narrative medical text directly reflects clinical reality. We have tested the hypothesis that the pattern of distribution of lexical concept of medication intensification in narrative provider notes correlates with clinical practice as reflected in electronic medication records. Over 29,000 medication intensifications identified in narrative provider notes and 444,000 electronic medication records for 82 anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic medications were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the fraction of dose increases among all medication intensifications and therapeutic range calculated from EMR medication records was 0.39 (p = 0.0003). Correlations with therapeutic ranges obtained from two medication dictionaries, used as a negative control, were not significant. These findings provide evidence that narrative medical documents directly reflect clinical practice and constitute a valid source of medical data. PMID:23304273

Breydo, Eugene; Shubina, Maria; Shalaby, James W.; Einbinder, Jonathan S.; Turchin, Alexander

2012-01-01

169

What lexical decision and naming tell us about reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) tasks are ubiquitous paradigms that employ printed word identification. They are\\u000a major tools for investigating how factors like morphology, semantic information, lexical neighborhood and others affect identification.\\u000a Although use of the tasks is widespread, there has been little research into how performance in LD or NAM relates to reading\\u000a ability, a deficiency that

Leonard Katz; Larry Brancazio; Julia Irwin; Stephen Katz; James Magnuson; D. H. Whalen

170

Roget's Thesaurus as a Lexical Resource for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

WordNet proved that it is possible to construct a large-scale electronic lexical database on the principles of lexical semantics. It has been accepted and used extensively by computational linguists ever since it was released. Inspired by WordNet's success, we propose as an alternative a similar resource, based on the 1987 Penguin edition of Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases.

Mario Jarmasz

2012-01-01

171

Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the introduction of lexical innovations into a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e. new term added to people's vocabulary, plays an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, information is spread through a variety of networks, including, among others, online and offline social networks and the World Wide Web. The entire system, comprising networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, lexical innovations diffusion occurs in a peculiar fashion. In particular, a lexical innovation can undergo three different processes: its original meaning is accepted; its meaning can be changed or misunderstood (e.g. when not properly explained), hence more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Lastly, in the case of a loan word, it can be translated into the population language (i.e. defining a new lexical innovation or using a synonym) or into a dialect spoken by part of the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered simply as information. We develop a model for analyzing this scenario using a multi-layer network comprising a social network and a media network. The latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g. television, the World Wide Web and radio. Furthermore, we identify temporal directed edges between the nodes of these two networks. In particular, at each time-step, nodes of the media network can be connected to randomly chosen nodes of the social network and vice versa. In doing so, information spreads through the whole system and people can share a lexical innovation with their neighbors or, in the event they work as reporters, by using media nodes. Lastly, we use the concept of "linguistic sign" to model lexical innovations, showing its fundamental role in the study of these dynamics. Many numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the proposed model and its outcomes.

Javarone, Marco Alberto

2014-04-01

172

Eurowordnet: a multilingual database with lexical semantic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

WordNet, the on-line English thesaurus and lexical database developed at Princeton University b y George Miller and his colleagues (Fellbaum 1998), has proved to be an extremely important resource used in much research in computational linguis-tics where lexical knowledge of English is required. The goal of the EuroWordNet project is to create similar wordnets for other languages of Europe. The

Piek Vossen

1998-01-01

173

Spatiotemporal characteristics and filament interaction in femtosecond Hermite-Gaussian laser pulses in a gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution, we investigate the femtosecond filament interactions in gas by employing Hermite-Gaussian TEM02 mode focused by lens in argon gas by means of numerically evaluating the 3+1 dimension nonlinear Schrödinger equation. High-resolution spatiotemporal characteristics has been obtained. The TEM02 mode laser pulse, which has three lobes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction, can form three filaments. In the filamentation region, interaction between the lobes occurs at the trailing parts of the laser filaments which correspond to the blue-shifted supercontinuum generated by self-phase modulation and plasma. We find the energetic spatiotemporal fragments are more inclined to repulsion rather than fusion when close to each other, which may imply that two adjacent single filaments dislike to combine into a big filament in multifilaments. It seems that the phenomenon of repulsion bears no relation to the phase difference between the input subpulses. Our finding may help to understand why one cannot supply energy to a single filament by multifilament fusion until to now.

Wang, Zhanxin; Liu, Jiansheng; Sun, Haiyi; Xu, Zhizhan

2013-05-01

174

An Interactive Method of Characteristics Java Applet to Design and Analyze Supersonic Aircraft Nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Method of Characteristics (MOC) is a classic technique for designing supersonic nozzles. An interactive computer program using MOC has been developed to allow engineers to design and analyze supersonic nozzle flow fields. The program calculates the internal flow for many classic designs, such as a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle, an ideal 2D or axisymmetric nozzle, or a variety of plug nozzles. The program also calculates the plume flow produced by the nozzle and the external flow leading to the nozzle exit. The program can be used to assess the interactions between the internal, external and plume flows. By proper design and operation of the nozzle, it may be possible to lessen the strength of the sonic boom produced at the rear of supersonic aircraft. The program can also calculate non-ideal nozzles, such as simple cone flows, to determine flow divergence and nonuniformities at the exit, and its effect on the plume shape. The computer program is written in Java and is provided as free-ware from the NASA Glenn central software server.

Benson, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

175

Emotion words and categories: evidence from lexical decision.  

PubMed

We examined the categorical nature of emotion word recognition. Positive, negative, and neutral words were presented in lexical decision tasks. Word frequency was additionally manipulated. In Experiment 1, "positive" and "negative" categories of words were implicitly indicated by the blocked design employed. A significant emotion-frequency interaction was obtained, replicating past research. While positive words consistently elicited faster responses than neutral words, only low frequency negative words demonstrated a similar advantage. In Experiments 2a and 2b, explicit categories ("positive," "negative," and "household" items) were specified to participants. Positive words again elicited faster responses than did neutral words. Responses to negative words, however, were no different than those to neutral words, regardless of their frequency. The overall pattern of effects indicates that positive words are always facilitated, frequency plays a greater role in the recognition of negative words, and a "negative" category represents a somewhat disparate set of emotions. These results support the notion that emotion word processing may be moderated by distinct systems. PMID:24258708

Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

2014-05-01

176

Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?  

PubMed Central

A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models. PMID:18942035

Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2009-01-01

177

Polarization and abstraction of grammatical formalisms as methods for lexical disambiguation  

E-print Network

Polarization and abstraction of grammatical formalisms as methods for lexical disambiguation- pose general methods for lexical disambigua- tion based on polarization and abstraction of grammatical formalisms. Polarization makes their resource sensitivity explicit and abstrac- tion aims at keeping

Perrier, Guy

178

Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

2011-01-01

179

Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

2011-01-01

180

The Relation between Mother-Infant Interactional Characteristics in Early Infancy and Later Attachment as Assessed in the Strange Situation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and infant interactional characteristics in early infancy were investigated in order to examine their causal relationship with later attachment as assessed in the Strange Situation. Although the results of rating for maternal variables at four months of age exhibited significant differences between the set (S1) composed of attachment type…

Kanaya, Yuko; Miyake, Kazuo

181

Effects of Training on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Using Lexically Hard Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined how repeated presentations of lexically difficult words within a background noise affect a listener's ability to understand both trained (lexically difficult) and untrained (lexically easy) words in isolation and within sentences. Method: In the 1st experiment, 9 young listeners with normal hearing completed a…

Burk, Matthew H.; Humes, Larry E.

2007-01-01

182

Lexical Transfer in the Written Production of a CLIL Group and a Non-CLIL Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on the difference in terms of lexical transfer between CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) and non-CLIL students has revealed that CLIL students produce fewer lexical transfer errors than non-CLIL students. This study aimed at comparing the lexical transfer production of two groups of students (CLIL and non-CLIL) and…

Manzano Vázquez, Borja

2014-01-01

183

Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2008-01-01

184

Effects of Nonlinguistic Auditory Variations on Lexical Processing in Broca's Aphasics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, the effect of white noise distortion and talker variation on lexical access in normal and Broca's aphasic participants was examined using an auditory lexical decision paradigm. Masking the prime stimulus in white noise resulted in reduced semantic priming for both groups, indicating that lexical access is degraded by…

Kittredge, Audrey; Davis, Lissa; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2006-01-01

185

Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

2010-01-01

186

The Acquisition of Lexical Knowledge from Combined Machine-Readable Dictionary Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the question of how to extract lexical knowledge from Machine-Readable Dictionaries (MRDs) within a lexical database which integrates a lexicon development environment. Our long term objective is the creation of a large lexical knowledge base using semiautomatic techniques to recover syntactic and semantic information from MRDs. In doing so, one finds that reliance on a

Antonio Sanfilippo; Victor Poznanski

1992-01-01

187

Exploring medical diagnostic performance using interactive, multi-parameter sourced receiver operating characteristic scatter plots.  

PubMed

Determining diagnostic criteria for specific disorders is often a tedious task that involves determining optimal diagnostic thresholds for symptoms and biomarkers using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. To help this endeavor, we developed softROC, a user-friendly graphic-based tool that lets users visually explore possible ROC tradeoffs. The software requires MATLAB installation and an Excel file containing threshold symptoms/biological measures, with corresponding gold standard diagnoses for a set of patients. The software scans the input file for diagnostic and symptom/biomarkers columns, and populates the graphical-user-interface (GUI). Users select symptoms/biomarkers of interest using Boolean algebra as potential inputs to create diagnostic criteria outputs. The software evaluates subtests across the user-established range of cut-points and compares them to a gold standard in order to generate ROC and quality ROC scatter plots. These plots can be examined interactively to find optimal cut-points of interest for a given application (e.g. sensitivity versus specificity needs). Split-set validation can also be used to set up criteria and validate these in independent samples. Bootstrapping is used to produce confidence intervals. Additional statistics and measures are provided, such as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). As a testing set, softROC is used to investigate nocturnal polysomnogram measures as diagnostic features for narcolepsy. All measures can be outputted to a text file for offline analysis. The softROC toolbox, with clinical training data and tutorial instruction manual, is provided as supplementary material and can be obtained online at http://www.stanford.edu/~hyatt4/software/softroc or from the open source repository at http://www.github.com/informaton/softroc. PMID:24561350

Moore, Hyatt E; Andlauer, Olivier; Simon, Noah; Mignot, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

188

Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis to Refine the Prediction of Potential Digoxin Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC50 ([I1]/IC50) is ?0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC50 ([I2]/IC50) is ?10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC50 values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC50 values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I1]/IC50 ? 0.03 and [I2]/IC50 ? 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC50 values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC50 values, translating into a range of [I1]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50 values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC50 values. PMID:23620486

Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, JoAnn; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E.; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P.; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O’Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M.; Li, LiBin; Pak, Anne Y.; Perloff, Elke S.; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

189

Application of receiver operating characteristic analysis to refine the prediction of potential digoxin drug interactions.  

PubMed

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC?? ([I?]/IC??) is ?0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC?? ([I?]/IC??) is ?10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC?? values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC?? values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I?]/IC?? ? 0.03 and [I?]/IC?? ? 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC?? values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC?? values, translating into a range of [I?]/IC?? and [I?]/IC?? values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC?? values. PMID:23620486

Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, Joann; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O'Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M; Li, Libin; Pak, Anne Y; Perloff, Elke S; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Xia, Cindy Q; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Lee, Caroline A

2013-07-01

190

Interaction between Shiga Toxin and Monoclonal Antibodies: Binding Characteristics and in Vitro Neutralizing Abilities  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been employed either for diagnosis or treatment of infections caused by different pathogens. Specifically for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), numerous immunoassays have been developed for STEC diagnosis, showing variability in sensitivity and specificity when evaluated by reference laboratories, and no therapy or vaccines are currently approved. Thus, the aim of this work was the characterization of the interaction between MAbs against Stx1 and Stx2 toxins and their neutralizing abilities to enable their use as tools for diagnosis and therapy. The selected clones designated 3E2 (anti-Stx1) and 2E11 (anti-Stx2) were classified as IgG1. 3E2 recognized the B subunit of Stx1 with an affinity constant of 2.5 × 10?10 M, detected as little as 6.2 ng of Stx1 and was stable up to 50 ºC. In contrast, 2E11 recognized the A subunit of Stx2, was stable up to 70 ºC, had a high dissociation constant of 6.1 × 10?10 M, and detected as little as 12.5 ng of Stx2. Neutralization tests showed that 160 ng of 3E2 MAb inhibited 80% of Stx1 activity and 500 µg 2E11 MAb were required for 60% inhibition of Stx2 activity. These MAb amounts reversed 25 to 80% of the cytotoxicity triggered by different STEC isolates. In conclusion, these MAbs show suitable characteristics for their use in STEC diagnosis and encourage future studies to investigate their protective efficacy. PMID:23105978

Rocha, Letícia B.; Luz, Daniela E.; Moraes, Claudia T. P.; Caravelli, Andressa; Fernandes, Irene; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

2012-01-01

191

Phi-square Lexical Competition Database (Phi-Lex): an online tool for quantifying auditory and visual lexical competition.  

PubMed

A widely agreed-upon feature of spoken word recognition is that multiple lexical candidates in memory are simultaneously activated in parallel when a listener hears a word, and that those candidates compete for recognition (Luce, Goldinger, Auer, & Vitevitch, Perception 62:615-625, 2000; Luce & Pisoni, Ear and Hearing 19:1-36, 1998; McClelland & Elman, Cognitive Psychology 18:1-86, 1986). Because the presence of those competitors influences word recognition, much research has sought to quantify the processes of lexical competition. Metrics that quantify lexical competition continuously are more effective predictors of auditory and visual (lipread) spoken word recognition than are the categorical metrics traditionally used (Feld & Sommers, Speech Communication 53:220-228, 2011; Strand & Sommers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130:1663-1672, 2011). A limitation of the continuous metrics is that they are somewhat computationally cumbersome and require access to existing speech databases. This article describes the Phi-square Lexical Competition Database (Phi-Lex): an online, searchable database that provides access to multiple metrics of auditory and visual (lipread) lexical competition for English words, available at www.juliastrand.com/phi-lex . PMID:23754576

Strand, Julia F

2014-03-01

192

Lexical retrieval in discourse: An early indicator of Alzheimer's dementia  

PubMed Central

We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n = 24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS), and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7–9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2–4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD. PMID:23985011

Pekkala, Seija; Wiener, Debra; Himali, Jayandra J.J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Obler, Loraine K.; Liu, Yulin; McKee, Ann; Auerbach, Sanford; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

2014-01-01

193

Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access  

PubMed Central

A core operation in speech production is the preparation of words from a semantic base. The theory of lexical access reviewed in this article covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation. The initial stages of preparation are concerned with lexical selection, which is zooming in on the appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i.e., retrieving a word's morphemic phonological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corresponding articulatory gestures. The theory is based on chronometric measurements of spoken word production, obtained, for instance, in picture-naming tasks. The theory is largely computationally implemented. It provides a handle on the analysis of multiword utterance production as well as a guide to the analysis and design of neuroimaging studies of spoken utterance production. PMID:11698690

Levelt, Willem J. M.

2001-01-01

194

Lexical profiles of bilingual children with primary language impairment.  

PubMed

This study used lexical tasks to examine associations between languages, tasks, and age in bilingual children with primary language impairment. Participants (n = 41, mean age 8;8 years) lived in the United States, spoke primarily Spanish (L1) at home and English (L2) at school, and were identified with moderate to severe impairments in both languages. A total of eight tasks (four in each language) measured breadth of vocabulary knowledge (receptive and expressive vocabulary) and aspects of lexical processing (rapid automatic naming and nonword repetition). Correlational analyses revealed older children outperformed younger children on lexical tasks in L2 but not L1, as well as relative L2 dominance for most individuals and tasks. Positive associations were found between languages on processing-based tasks but not vocabulary measures. Findings were consistent with literature on typical bilingual learners, albeit with a notable increased risk of plateau in L1 growth. Results are interpreted within a Dynamic Systems framework. PMID:25404865

Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

2014-10-01

195

Lexical retrieval in discourse: an early indicator of Alzheimer's dementia.  

PubMed

We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n = 24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS) and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7-9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2-4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD. PMID:23985011

Pekkala, Seija; Wiener, Debra; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Obler, Loraine K; Liu, Yulin; McKee, Ann; Auerbach, Sanford; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

2013-12-01

196

Electrophysiological evidence that inhibition supports lexical selection in picture naming.  

PubMed

We investigated the neural basis of inhibitory control during lexical selection. Participants overtly named pictures while response times (RTs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The difficulty of lexical selection was manipulated by using object and action pictures with high name agreement (few response candidates) versus low name agreement (many response candidates). To assess the involvement of inhibition, we conducted delta plot analyses of naming RTs and examined the N2 component of the ERP. We found longer mean naming RTs and a larger N2 amplitude in the low relative to the high name agreement condition. For action naming we found a negative correlation between the slopes of the slowest delta segment and the difference in N2 amplitude between the low and high name agreement conditions. The converging behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggests that selective inhibition is engaged to reduce competition during lexical selection in picture naming. PMID:25219485

Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Acheson, Daniel J; Meyer, Antje S

2014-10-24

197

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims The study aims were (a) to explore the differences between the oral language samples of PWA and NIA in terms of LD as measured by dedicated computer software (voc-D), (b) to determine whether PWA are sensitive to discourse elicitation task in terms of LD, and (c) to identify whether differences between PWA and NIA vary in magnitude as a function of discourse task. Method & Procedures Oral language samples from 25 PWA and 27 NIA were analysed. Participants completed three commonly used discourse elicitation tasks (single pictures, sequential pictures, story telling) and voc-D was used to obtain estimates of their LD. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA revealed a significant group task interaction that was followed by an investigation of simple main effects and tetrad×comparisons. Different patterns of LD were uncovered for each group. For the NIA group results were consistent with previous findings in the literature according to which LD varies as a function of elicitation technique. However, for PWA sequential pictures and story telling elicited comparable estimates of LD. Conclusions Results indicated that LD is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by elicitation task and the presence of aphasia. These findings have important implications for modelling lexical diversity and selecting and interpreting results from different discourse elicitation tasks. PMID:23125474

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris

2012-01-01

198

Interacting Linear and Nonlinear Characteristics Produce Population Coding Asymmetries between ON and OFF Cells in the Retina  

PubMed Central

The early visual system is a model for understanding the roles of cell populations in parallel processing. Cells in this system can be classified according to their responsiveness to different stimuli; a prominent example is the division between cells that respond to stimuli of opposite contrasts (ON vs OFF cells). These two cell classes display many asymmetries in their physiological characteristics (including temporal characteristics, spatial characteristics, and nonlinear characteristics) that, individually, are known to have important roles in population coding. Here we describe a novel distinction between the information that ON and OFF ganglion cell populations carry in mouse—that OFF cells are able to signal motion information about both light and dark objects, while ON cells have a selective deficit at signaling the motion of dark objects. We found that none of the previously reported asymmetries in physiological characteristics could account for this distinction. We therefore analyzed its basis via a recently developed linear–nonlinear-Poisson model that faithfully captures input/output relationships for a broad range of stimuli (Bomash et al., 2013). While the coding differences between ON and OFF cell populations could not be ascribed to the linear or nonlinear components of the model individually, they had a simple explanation in the way that these components interact. Sensory transformations in other systems can likewise be described by these models, and thus our findings suggest that similar interactions between component properties may help account for the roles of cell classes in population coding more generally. PMID:24027295

Nichols, Zachary; Nirenberg, Sheila

2013-01-01

199

Author's personal copy An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical Lexical competition Acoustic-phonetic competition FMRI Middle temporal gyrus a b s t r a c t The current study explored how factors of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition affect access to the lexical

200

Structural characteristics of an antigen required for its interaction with Ia and recognition by T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of the residues within an immunogenic peptide that endow it with the capacity to interact with Ia and to be recognized by T cells is presented. Ia interacts with only a few of the peptide residues and overall exhibits a very broad specificity. Some residues appear to interact both with Ia and with T cells, leading to

Alessandro Sette; Søren Buus; Sonia Colon; John A. Smith; Craig Miles; Howard M. Grey

1987-01-01

201

The interaction effect of fast and slow solar wind streams in interplanetary space on wind characteristics at the earth's orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative relationships that represent the role of the interaction of fast and slow solar wind (SW) streams in the formation of characteristic SW properties at the earth's orbit are determined from observational data. It is shown that maximum values of the magnetic field and density peaks in the neighborhood of the sector boundary (SB) at the base of the high-speed stream front are associated with solar wind characteristics such as the SW minimum velocity near the SB, the maximum velocity in the central part of the fast stream, and the slope of the magnetic field neutral line to the solar plane at 2.5 solar radii.

Fainshtein, V. G.

1991-11-01

202

Riding the Lexical Speedway: A Critical Review on the Time Course of Lexical Selection in Speech Production  

PubMed Central

Speech requires time. How much time often depends on the amount of labor the brain has to perform in order to retrieve the linguistic information related to the ideas we want to express. Although most psycholinguistic research in the field of language production has focused on the net result of time required to utter words in various experimental conditions, over the last years more and more researchers pursued the objective to flesh out the time course of particular stages implicated in language production. Here we critically review these studies, with particular interest for the time course of lexical selection. First, we evaluate the data underlying the estimates of an influential temporal meta-analysis on language production (Indefrey and Levelt, 2004). We conclude that those data alone are not sufficient to provide a reliable time frame of lexical selection. Next, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence which we argue to offer more explicit insights into the time course of lexical selection. Based on this evidence we suggest that, despite the absence of a clear time frame of how long lexical selection takes, there is sufficient direct evidence to conclude that the brain initiates lexical access within 200?ms after stimulus presentation, hereby confirming Indefrey and Levelt’s estimate. In a final section, we briefly review the proposed mechanisms which could lead to this rapid onset of lexical access, namely automatic spreading activation versus specific concept selection, and discuss novel data which support the notion of spreading activation, but indicate that the speed with which this principle takes effect is driven by a top-down signal in function of the intention to engage in a speech act. PMID:22144973

Strijkers, Kristof; Costa, Albert

2011-01-01

203

Developmental Changes in Mismatch Responses to Mandarin Consonants and Lexical Tones from Early to Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use mismatch responses (MMRs) to explore the dynamic changes of Mandarin speech perception abilities from early to middle childhood. Twenty preschoolers, 18 school-aged children, and 26 adults participated in this study. Two sets of synthesized speech stimuli varying in Mandarin consonant (alveolo-palatal affricate vs. fricative) and lexical tone features (rising vs. contour tone) were used to examine the developmental course of speech perception abilities. The results indicated that only the adult group demonstrated typical early mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, suggesting that the ability to discriminate specific speech cues in Mandarin consonant and lexical tone is a continuing process in preschool- and school-aged children. Additionally, distinct MMR patterns provided evidence indicating diverse developmental courses to different speech characteristics. By incorporating data from the two speech conditions, we propose using MMR profiles consisting of mismatch negativity (MMN), positive mismatch response (p-MMR), and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as possible brain indices to investigate speech perception development. PMID:24755999

Liu, Huei-Mei; Chen, Yuchun; Tsao, Feng-Ming

2014-01-01

204

Developmental changes in mismatch responses to mandarin consonants and lexical tones from early to middle childhood.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use mismatch responses (MMRs) to explore the dynamic changes of Mandarin speech perception abilities from early to middle childhood. Twenty preschoolers, 18 school-aged children, and 26 adults participated in this study. Two sets of synthesized speech stimuli varying in Mandarin consonant (alveolo-palatal affricate vs. fricative) and lexical tone features (rising vs. contour tone) were used to examine the developmental course of speech perception abilities. The results indicated that only the adult group demonstrated typical early mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, suggesting that the ability to discriminate specific speech cues in Mandarin consonant and lexical tone is a continuing process in preschool- and school-aged children. Additionally, distinct MMR patterns provided evidence indicating diverse developmental courses to different speech characteristics. By incorporating data from the two speech conditions, we propose using MMR profiles consisting of mismatch negativity (MMN), positive mismatch response (p-MMR), and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as possible brain indices to investigate speech perception development. PMID:24755999

Liu, Huei-Mei; Chen, Yuchun; Tsao, Feng-Ming

2014-01-01

205

Technological Novelty and Open-Endedness: Two Characteristics of Interactive Exhibits That Contribute to the Holding of Visitor Attention in a Science Museum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the characteristics of interactive exhibits that are effective in attracting and holding the attention of visitors in a science museum. Identifies exhibit characteristics and examines them. Characteristics include: (1) technological novelty; (2) user-centeredness; (3) sensory stimulation; and (4) open-endedness. Discusses the correlation…

Sandifer, Cody

2003-01-01

206

Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

1949-01-01

207

Reading Words in Discourse: The Modulation of Lexical Priming Effects by Message-Level Context  

PubMed Central

Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysio-logical studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension. PMID:16891554

Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Gordon, Peter C.

2006-01-01

208

Left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions contribute to speed of lexical decision: A TMS study.  

PubMed

Activation of left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aLIFG) and left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) has been observed in some functional neuroimaging studies of lexical decision but not others. It is thus unclear whether these two regions are necessary for word recognition. By applying continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which temporally suppresses local brain function, we examined whether aLIFG and LMTG play causal roles in word recognition in a visual lexical decision task (LDT). Furthermore, we manipulated stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between prime and target to test whether these regions contribute to word recognition differently. In the LDT task, target words were preceded by semantically related primes (Related Condition; RC) or semantically unrelated words (Unrelated Condition; UC), under both short (150ms) and long (600ms) SOA conditions. TMS of aLIFG and LMTG significantly affected the word recognition speed compared to TMS of Vertex. Our results provide evidence that both aLIFG and LMTG contribute to word recognition speed. Furthermore, at short SOA, TMS of aLIFG or LMTG prolonged reaction time (RT). In contrast, at long SOA, there was a significant region by SOA by TMS interaction such that TMS of aLIFG prolonged RT, whereas TMS of LMTG speeded RT. These results suggest that aLIFG and LMTG may play different roles in word recognition. PMID:25463244

Zhu, Zude; Gold, Brian T; Chang, Chi-Fu; Wang, Suiping; Juan, Chi-Hung

2015-02-01

209

Syntactic priming without lexical overlap in reading comprehension.  

PubMed

Syntactic priming without lexical overlap is well-documented in language production. In contrast, reading-time comprehension studies, which typically use locally ambiguous sentences, generally find syntactic priming only with lexical overlap. This asymmetry has led some researchers to propose that distinct mechanisms underlie the comprehension and production of syntactic structure. Instead, we propose that methodological differences in how priming is assessed are largely responsible for the asymmetry: in comprehension, lexical biases in a locally ambiguous target sentence may overwhelm the influence of syntactic priming effects on a reader's interpretation. We addressed these issues in a self-paced reading study by (1) using target sentences containing global attachment ambiguities, (2) examining a syntactic structure which does not involve an argument of the verb, and (3) factoring out the unavoidable lexical biases associated with the target sentences in a mixed-effects regression model. Under these conditions, syntactic priming affected how ambiguous sentences were parsed, and facilitated reading times when target sentences were parsed using the primed structure. This resolves discrepancies among previous findings, and suggests that the same mechanism underlies syntactic priming in comprehension and production. PMID:25102605

Kim, Christina S; Carbary, Kathleen M; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2014-06-01

210

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

211

Stress Matters: Effects of Anticipated Lexical Stress on Silent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from two eye-tracking studies designed to investigate the role of metrical prosody in silent reading. In Experiment 1, participants read stress-alternating noun-verb or noun-adjective homographs (e.g. "PREsent", "preSENT") embedded in limericks, such that the lexical stress of the homograph, as determined by context,…

Breen, Mara; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

2011-01-01

212

Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

Jangjamras, Jirapat

2011-01-01

213

Sentiment Analysis by Augmenting Expectation Maximisation with Lexical Knowledge  

E-print Network

Sentiment Analysis by Augmenting Expectation Maximisation with Lexical Knowledge Xiuzhen Zhang1 {baileyj,kotagiri}@unimelb.edu.au Abstract. Sentiment analysis of documents aims to characterise the positive or negative sentiment expressed in documents. It has been for- mulated as a supervised

Bailey, James

214

Neural distance amplification of lexical tone in human auditory cortex.  

PubMed

In tonal languages, like Chinese, lexical tone serves as a key feature to provide contrast in word meaning. Behavior studies suggest that Mandarin Chinese tone is categorically perceived. However, the neural mechanism underlying Mandarin tone perception is still poorly understood. In this study, an Oddball paradigm was designed by selecting two standard-deviant stimulus pairs with same physical distance but different category labels, among the synthesized tones with continuously varying pitch contours. Using electrocorticography (ECoG) recording over human auditory cortex, high temporal and spatial resolution cortical neural signals were used for the first time to investigate the cortical processing of lexical tone. Here, we found different neural responses to the two standard-deviant tone pairs, and the difference increased from low to high level along the hierarchy of human auditory cortex. In the two dimensional neural space, cross-category neural distance of lexical tones is selectively amplified on those high level electrodes. These findings support a hierarchical and categorical model of Mandarin tone perception, and favor the using of high-level electrodes for a better performance of lexical tone discrimination in speech brain computer interface. PMID:25570869

Xiaopeng Si; Wenjing Zhou; Bo Hong

2014-08-01

215

Determiner Primes as Facilitators of Lexical Retrieval in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner…

Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

2012-01-01

216

Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

217

On the Generality of Thesaurally derived Lexical Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohesion is that property of a text that allows it to be read as a unified entity rather than a series of unconnected sentences. Lexical cohesion may be detected using an external thesaurus and the resulting representation used in a variety of language processing tasks. Our particular interest is in determining whether texts of different genres are similar in meaning.

Jeremy Ellman; John Tait

2000-01-01

218

The Impact of Lexical Simplification by Verbal Paraphrases for  

E-print Network

The Impact of Lexical Simplification by Verbal Paraphrases for People with and without Dyslexia Luz simplification are people with dyslexia. One of the alterna- tives for text simplification is the use of verbal im- pact the readability and the comprehension of people with and without dyslexia dyslexia

219

Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-01-01

220

Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

1997-01-01

221

Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2004-01-01

222

Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound preview characters. Results generalized parafoveal semantic processing to this representative set of Chinese characters and

Ming Yan; Wei Zhou; Hua Shu; Reinhold Kliegl

2012-01-01

223

Appraising Lexical Bundles in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: Obligation and Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working from a large corpus of transcripts from secondary mathematics classrooms, we identify patterns of speech that encode interpersonal positioning. We extend our analysis from a previous article (Herbel-Eisenmann, Wagner & Cortes, Educ Stud Math, 2010, in press), in which we introduced a concept from corpus linguistics--a "lexical bundle,"…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David

2010-01-01

224

Perceptual similarity co-existing with lexical dissimilarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme case of perceptual similarity is indiscriminability, as when two second-language phonemes map to a single native category. An example is the English had-head vowel contrast for Dutch listeners; Dutch has just one such central vowel, transcribed [E]. We examine whether the failure to discriminate in phonetic categorization implies indiscriminability in other-e.g., lexical-processing. Eyetracking experiments show that Dutch-native listeners instructed in English to ``click on the panda'' look (significantly more than native listeners) at a pictured pencil, suggesting that pan- activates their lexical representation of pencil. The reverse, however, is not the case: ``click on the pencil'' does not induce looks to a panda, suggesting that pen- does not activate panda in the lexicon. Thus prelexically undiscriminated second-language distinctions can nevertheless be maintained in stored lexical representations. The problem of mapping a resulting unitary input to two distinct categories in lexical representations is solved by allowing input to activate only one second-language category. For Dutch listeners to English, this is English [E], as a result of which no vowels in the signal ever map to words containing [ae]. We suggest that the choice of category is here motivated by a more abstract, phonemic, metric of similarity.

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2003-10-01

225

Building Specialized Multilingual Lexical Graphs Using Community Resources  

E-print Network

. {Mohammad.Daoud , Christian.Boitet, Mathieu.Mangeot}@imag.fr 2 Library and Information Science Laboratory focus on collecting data from online community users as a main source, therefore, our approach depends of online community users. A Multilingual Preterminological Graph is a special lexical resource

Boyer, Edmond

226

Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension in Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…

Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne

2013-01-01

227

The Effects of Prohibiting Gestures on Children's Lexical Retrieval Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two alternative accounts have been proposed to explain the role of gestures in thinking and speaking. The Information Packaging Hypothesis (Kita, 2000) claims that gestures are important for the conceptual packaging of information before it is coded into a linguistic form for speech. The Lexical Retrieval Hypothesis (Rauscher, Krauss & Chen, 1996)…

Pine, Karen J.; Bird, Hannah; Kirk, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

228

What Is Said As Lexical Meaning Isidora Stojanovic  

E-print Network

What Is Said As Lexical Meaning Isidora Stojanovic CNRS/Institut Jean-Nicod, 1bis avenue Lowendal, 75007 Paris, France isidora@stanford.edu 1 Introduction: The Dominant View on What Is Said, Semantic) the content that I have asserted by uttering (1), or the "what is said". This dominant view, whose origin we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Lexical Exploration for Advanced ESL Students in Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper develops guidelines for instructional materials for advanced English as a second language students in which the objects of instruction would be: (1) the relationship between surface structures of lexical items and their underlying meanings; (2) the important aspects of structural forms; and (3) the special uses of words in the lexicon…

Wakai, Helen K.

230

Chicano Spanish: Cross Hispanic Language Attitudes toward Specific Lexical Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to gather attitudes of Spanish-speakers toward specific types of Chicano Spanish dialect lexical items. Reactions were randomly taken from 11 Latin American students who attended Southern Illinois University at Carbondale during the 1975 spring semester; 20 Mexican residents of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who attended English as…

Giron, Robert LeRoy

231

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

2004-01-01

232

Orthographic Neighborhood and Concreteness Effects in the Lexical Decision Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment reported here investigated the sensitivity of concreteness effects to orthographic neighborhood density and frequency in the visual lexical decision task. The concreteness effect was replicated with a sample of concrete and abstract words that were not matched for orthographic neighborhood features and in which concrete words turned…

Samson, Dana; Pillon, Agnesa

2004-01-01

233

Syntactic Approximation Using Iterative Lexical Analysis Anthony Cox  

E-print Network

and comprehension tools that employ traditional parsing techniques. As an alternative to parsing, we have developed are used to evaluate and compare the two approaches. 1. Introduction The majority of source­code analysis some form of `fuzzy' parsing [16, 19], we believe that lexical approaches should also be examined

Clarke, Charlie

234

Building and Using a Lexical Knowledge-Base  

E-print Network

of Ottawa Graeme Hirst University of Toronto Choosing the wrong word in a machine translation or natural. The knowledge-base is used by Xenon, a natural language generation system that shows how the new lexical in grammatical or collocational constraints. For example, the word foe emphasizes active warfare more than enemy

Inkpen, Diana

235

Modelling, Detection and Exploitation of Lexical Functions for Analysis  

E-print Network

thematic (conceptual vectors) and lexical (materialised relations between database objects) informa- tion and how we exploit the results in the base. We also describe how these functions allow the database Language Processing, like automatic summarization (AS), information retrieval (IR) or machinal translation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Lexical inhibition and sublexical facilitation are surprisingly long lasting.  

PubMed

When a listener hears a word (beef), current theories of spoken word recognition posit the activation of both lexical (beef) and sublexical (/b/, /i/, /f/) representations. No lexical representation can be settled on for an unfamiliar utterance (peef). The authors examined the perception of nonwords (peef) as a function of words or nonwords heard 10-20 min earlier. In lexical decision, nonword recognition responses were delayed if a similar word had been heard earlier. In contrast, nonword processing was facilitated by the earlier presentation of a similar nonword (baff-paff). This pattern was observed for both word-initial (beef-peef), and word-final (job-jop) deviation. With the word-in-noise task, real word primes (beef) increased real word intrusions for the target nonword (peef), but only consonant-vowel (CV) or vowel-consonant (VC) intrusions were increased with similar pseudoword primes (baff-paff). The results across tasks and experiments support both a lexical neighborhood view of activation and sublexical representations based on chunks larger than individual phonemes (CV or VC sequences). PMID:17576153

Sumner, Meghan; Samuel, Arthur G

2007-07-01

237

Lexical Errors in Second Language Scientific Writing: Some Conceptual Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, scientific writers are required not only a thorough knowledge of their subject field, but also a sound command of English as a lingua franca. In this paper, the lexical errors produced in scientific texts written in English by non-native researchers are identified to propose a classification of the categories they contain. This study…

Carrió Pastor, María Luisa; Mestre-Mestre, Eva María

2014-01-01

238

Word Onset Patterns and Lexical Stress in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of English phonology regard syllable onset patterns as irrelevant to the assignment of lexical stress. This paper describes three studies that challenge this position. Study 1 tested whether stress patterns on a large sample of disyllabic English words varied as a function of word onset. The incidence of trochaic stress increased…

Kelly, Michael H.

2004-01-01

239

The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

2014-01-01

240

The Role of Embodied Intention in Early Lexical Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the influence of inferring interlocutors' referential intentions from their body move- ments at the early stage of lexical acquisition. By testing human participants and comparing their perfor- mances in different learning conditions, we find that those embodied intentions facilitate both word dis- covery and word-meaning association. In light of empirical findings, the main part of this article presents

Chen Yu; Dana H. Ballard; Richard N. Aslin

241

The SENSEVAL-3 Multilingual English-Hindi Lexical Sample Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the English-Hindi Multilingual lexical sample task in SENSEVAL-3. Rather than tagging an English word with a sense from an En- glish dictionary, this task seeks to assign the most appropriate Hindi translation to an ambiguous tar- get word. Training data was solicited via the Open Mind Word Expert (OMWE) from Web users who are fluent in English

Timothy Chklovski; Rada Mihalcea; Ted Pedersen; Amruta Purandare

2004-01-01

242

Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis  

E-print Network

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics...

Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

243

Turbulence Characteristics and Interaction between Particles and Fluid in Particle-Laden Open Channel Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanism of sediment transport is composed of complicated interactions between turbulent flow, particle motion, and bed configurations. Of particular significance is the interaction between turbulence and particle motion, although turbulence measurements of particle-laden two phase flow have been a problem for a long time, especially in the near-wall region. In this study, simultaneous measurements of both the particles and fluid

Iehisa Nezu

2004-01-01

244

ERP Characterization of Sustained Attention Effects in Visual Lexical Categorization  

PubMed Central

As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1) it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2) the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages) remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs). Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition) or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition). The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus. PMID:20361039

Martin, Clara D.; Thierry, Guillaume; Démonet, Jean-François

2010-01-01

245

Radiation characteristics and turbulence–radiation interactions in sooting turbulent jet flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive modeling strategy including detailed chemistry, soot and radiation models coupled with state-of-the-art closures for turbulence–chemistry interactions and turbulence–radiation interactions is applied to various luminous turbulent jet flames. Six turbulent jet flames are simulated with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15,000, two fuel types (pure ethylene, 90% methane–10% ethylene blend) and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream

R. S. Mehta; M. F. Modest; D. C. Haworth

2010-01-01

246

Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self-esteem than adolescents from the other two regions. PMID:23172992

Klarin, Mira; Pororokovi?, Ana; Šaši?, Slavica Šimi?; Arnaudova, Violeta

2012-01-01

247

Characteristic parameters of superconductor-coolant interaction including high Tc current density limits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area of basic mechanisms of helium heat transfer and related influence on super-conducting magnet stability, thermal boundary conditions are important constraints. Characteristic lengths are considered along with other parameters of the superconducting composite-coolant system. Based on helium temperature range developments, limiting critical current densities are assessed at low fields for high transition temperature superconductors.

Frederking, T. H. K.

1989-01-01

248

Studies I: Characteristics of Successful Student/Teacher Interaction in Marine Science Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes initial steps to determine characteristics of students and teachers with award-winning marine science projects selected by the National Marine Education Association. Thirteen student/sponsor pairs (1 zoo employee, 1 marine research employee, 11 high school teachers) completed instruments assessing learning/teaching styles, attitudes, and…

Wheatley, Jack; And Others

1985-01-01

249

The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

250

Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS),…

Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

2014-01-01

251

Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

Zhao, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpzhao@nwpu.edu.cn; Song, Kun [Smart Materials Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, 710129 (China)

2014-10-15

252

Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

Zhao, Xiaopeng; Song, Kun

2014-10-01

253

The characteristics of particles emitted in energetic nucleus-nucleus interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of the interactions of heavy cosmic ray nuclei in nuclear emulsion exposed over Texas is continued, with 500 interactions of nuclei of E greater than 1.5 GeV/nucleon added. In this paper the experimental data correlating meson production with fragmentation of the projectile and target nuclei are given. These data, combined with earlier results, are also used to reexamine the problem of the mean free path of secondary fragments. Using the same techniques of analysis used for the accelerator ions, evidence is found for anomalously short mean free paths of secondary fragments in the first centimeter after production.

Barber, H. B.; Freier, P. S.; Waddington, C. J.

1982-01-01

254

Surface characteristics of projectiles after frictional interaction with metal matrix composites under ballistic condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface characteristics of the AK-47 (7.62mm×39mm Armour Piercing) and G3 (7.62mm×51mm Armour Piercing) projectile tips were investigated after impacting an Al alloy reinforced with Al2O3 particles at high velocity. The composite samples were manufactured from Al-7075 by the squeeze casting method and they were subjected to ballistic impact tests as defined in related ballistic standards of the National Institute

M. Baki Karam??; A. Alper Cerit; Fehmi Nair

2006-01-01

255

Characteristics of the ionization tracks and interactions of uranium-238 nuclei in emulsion  

SciTech Connect

The acceleration and extraction of uranium-238 nuclei by the Bevalac have been confirmed by their visual detection in nuclear research emulsion. A preliminary result for the collision mean free path for stopping uranium-238 (energy less than or equal to 115 million electron volts per nucleon) is 3.1 +- 0.6 centimeters. Qualitative characteristics of the observed uranium-nucleus collisions are also described.

Heckman, H.H.; Karant, Y.J.; Friedlander, E.M.

1982-09-17

256

The Interaction between Children's Achievement-Related Beliefs and the Characteristics of Different Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the ways in which children's beliefs about their abilities influence their academic achievement. These beliefs interact with the demands of different tasks or learning situations. Research is described which deals with children's causal attributions for their academic success or failure and with children's definitions of…

Licht, Barbara G.

257

Odor identification as an early marker for Alzheimer's disease: Impact of lexical functioning and detection sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of lexical functioning and detection sensitivity on the deficit of odor identification in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was studied in persons diagnosed with probable and questionable AD. Tests consisted of lexical-based odor identification, lexical-based picture identification, picture-based odor identification, and odor-detection threshold. Results suggest (1) that odor identification is poorer than picture identification in probable and questionable AD, (2)

Charlie D. Morgan; Steven Nordin; Claire Murphy

1995-01-01

258

Biological interactions in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles of different characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have recently received growing attention for various biomedical applications, including use as therapeutic or carrier for drug delivery and/or imaging. For the above applications, the NPs necessitate administration into the body leading to their systemic exposure. To better anticipate the safety, make risk assessment, and be able to interpret the future preclinical and clinical safety data, it is important to systematically understand the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences of such interaction, and the mechanisms associated with the toxicity induction, with the important components with which the NPs are expected to be in contact after systemic exposure. In this context, we report here a detailed study on the biological interactions in vitro of the ZnO NPs with healthy human primary lymphocytes as these are the important immune components and the first systemic immune contact, and with the whole human blood. Additionally, the influence, if any, of the NPs shape (spheres and rods) on the biological interaction has been evaluated. The ZnO NPs caused toxicity (30% at 12.5 ?g ml-1 spheres and 10.5 ?g ml-1 rods; 50% at 22 ?g ml-1 spheres and 19.5 ?g ml-1 rods) to the lymphocytes at molecular and genetic level in a dose-dependent and shape-dependent manner, while the interaction consequences with the blood and blood components such as RBC, platelets was only dose-dependent and not shape-dependent. This is evident from the decreased RBC count due to increased %Hemolysis (5.3% in both the spheres- and rods-treated blood) and decreased platelet count due to increased %platelet aggregation (28% in spheres-treated and 33% in rods-treated platelet-rich plasma). Such in-depth understanding of the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences, and the associated mechanisms in vitro could be expected to allow anticipating the NP safety for risk assessment and for interpretation of the preclinical and clinical safety data when available.

Aula, Sangeetha; Lakkireddy, Samyuktha; AVN, Swamy; Kapley, Atya; Jamil, Kaiser; Rao Tata, Narasinga; Hembram, Kaliyan

2014-09-01

259

Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals  

PubMed Central

This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

2014-01-01

260

Cerebellar theta-burst stimulation selectively enhances lexical associative priming.  

PubMed

Recent research in cerebellar cognitive and linguistic functions makes plausible the idea that the cerebellum is involved in processing temporally contiguous linguistic input. In order to assess this hypothesis, a simple lexical decision task was constructed to study whether the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on two different cerebellar sites would have a selective impact on associative as opposed to semantic priming. This is the first experiment applying transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum to a linguistic task. The results show a selective drop in lexical decision accuracy after stimulation of a medial cerebellar site in the first session of participation. Most importantly, they also demonstrate a selective increase of associative priming sizes after stimulation of the same site that cannot be attributed to changes in sensorimotor performance or in accuracy rates. The finding is discussed within the context of domain-general associative cerebellar computations. PMID:21451999

Argyropoulos, Giorgos P

2011-09-01

261

Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

2014-01-01

262

Web-based Dynamic Learning through Lexical Chaining: A Step Forward towards Knowledge-Driven Education  

E-print Network

diagnosed his disease as "Rosacea" and prescribed antibiotics. Using the lexical chaining algorithm, diagnose, disease, Rosacea, prescribed, antibiotics} The chain of words together indicates a topic related

Haarslev, Volker

263

Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.  

PubMed

Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

2010-01-01

264

The Mnemonic Effect of Noticing Alliteration in Lexical Chunks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If good proficiency in L2 entails the acquisition not only of many single words but of many lexical chunks as well, it must then be asked how all this additional lexis is to be committed to long-term memory in the limited time available on non-intensive classroom-based language courses. If it is the case that a significant fraction of…

Lindstromberg, Seth; Boers, Frank

2008-01-01

265

Lexical semantic and associative priming in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic memory impairment was investigated in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a threshold oral word reading task to assess priming of different lexical relationships. Healthy elderly controls showed significant priming for associatively related nouns (tempest-teapot) and also for nouns semantically related either because both designate basic-level exemplars of a common superordinate category (cousin-nephew) or because the target names

Guila Glosser; Rhonda B. Friedman; Patrick K. Grugan; Jefferson H. Lee; Murray Grossman

1998-01-01

266

Using Lexical tools to convert Unicode characters to ASCII.  

PubMed

Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. It is widely used in multilingual NLP (natural language processing) projects. On the other hand, there are some NLP projects still only dealing with ASCII characters. This paper describes methods of utilizing lexical tools to convert Unicode characters (UTF-8) to ASCII (7-bit) characters. PMID:18998787

Lu, Chris J; Browne, Allen C; Divita, Guy

2008-01-01

267

Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i. e., retrieving a word's morphemic pho-nological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corre-sponding articulatory gestures. The theory is based on chronomet-ric measurements of spoken word production, obtained, for instance, in picture-naming tasks. The theory is largely computa-tionally implemented. It provides a handle on the analysis

Willem J. M. Levelt

2001-01-01

268

Lexical Semantic Relatedness and Its Application in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical Semantic Relatedness and Its Application in Natural Language ProcessingAlexander BudanitskyDepartment of Computer ScienceUniversity of TorontoAugust 1999A great variety of Natural Language Processing tasks, from word sense disambiguation totext summarization to speech recognition, rely heavily on the ability to measure semanticrelatedness or distance between words of a natural language. This report is a comprehensivestudy of recent computational methods of measuring

Alexander Budanitsky

1999-01-01

269

Hemispheric asymmetries in the resolution of lexical ambiguity.  

PubMed

The linguistic phenomenon of lexical ambiguity has been intensively investigated as a means of gaining insight into general mechanisms of lexical access. It is now evident that both context and meaning frequency are significant factors in the determination of lexical outcomes. This suggests that hemispheric processes may be relevant to the resolution of lexical ambiguity, because both factors have been shown to have differential implications for the processing of language in the hemispheres. This study set out to examine the effects of context and meaning frequency on the resolution of ambiguous word meanings within the hemispheres. Sentences presented at the beginning of each trial embodied contexts which expressed either the dominant or subordinate meaning of a terminating homographic prime. Laterally presented target words reflected senses of the prime which were either consistent with, or inconsistent with, the context created by the preceding sentence. The most interesting results were observed at short prime-target intervals where it was found that although dominant meanings of the target did not give rise to visual field differences, subordinate meanings evoked facilitated responses only in the left visual field. This result suggests that the right hemisphere immediately and exhaustively activates the various meanings associated with a word, while in the left hemisphere initial access is selectively restricted to the dominant meaning. It is proposed that this reflects a model of language comprehension in which the right hemisphere plays a supportive role by making available a set of alternative and less probable word meanings, thus freeing the left hemisphere to focus cognitive resources upon the most probable meaning of a word in a given context. PMID:10678693

Coney, J; Evans, K D

2000-01-01

270

Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation in Multilingual Text Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical semantics and knowledge representationin multilingual sentence generationManfred StedeDoctor of PhilosophyGraduate Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Toronto1996This thesis develops a new approach to automatic language generation that focuses on the needto produce a range of different paraphrases from the same input representation. One novelty ofthe system is its solidly grounding representations of word meaning in a background knowledgebase, which enables

Manfred Stede

1996-01-01

271

Phonology and Lexicon in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective: The Importance of Phonetics--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her interesting article, Stoel-Gammon (this issue) reviews studies concerning the interactions between lexical and phonological development. While the focus of the review is on vocabulary production from children acquiring American English, she also suggests that cross-linguistic research be undertaken to examine how universal and…

Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lum, Jarrad; Vach, Werner

2011-01-01

272

Vergence responses to vertical binocular disparity during lexical identification.  

PubMed

Humans typically make use of both eyes during reading, which necessitates precise binocular coordination in order to achieve a unified perceptual representation of written text. A number of studies have explored the magnitude and effects of naturally occurring and induced horizontal fixation disparity during reading and non-reading tasks. However, the literature concerning the processing of disparities in different dimensions, particularly in the context of reading, is considerably limited. We therefore investigated vertical vergence in response to stereoscopically presented linguistic stimuli with varying levels of vertical offset. A lexical decision task was used to explore the ability of participants to fuse binocular image disparity in the vertical direction during word identification. Additionally, a lexical frequency manipulation explored the potential interplay between visual fusion processes and linguistic processes. Results indicated that no significant motor fusional responses were made in the vertical dimension (all p-values>.11), though that did not hinder successful lexical identification. In contrast, horizontal vergence movements were consistently observed on all fixations in the absence of a horizontal disparity manipulation. These findings add to the growing understanding of binocularity and its role in written language processing, and fit neatly with previous literature regarding binocular coordination in non-reading tasks. PMID:25433156

Nikolova, M; Jainta, S; Blythe, H I; Jones, M O; Liversedge, S P

2015-01-01

273

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

274

Significance analysis of lexical bias in microarray data  

PubMed Central

Background Genes that are determined to be significantly differentially regulated in microarray analyses often appear to have functional commonalities, such as being components of the same biochemical pathway. This results in certain words being under- or overrepresented in the list of genes. Distinguishing between biologically meaningful trends and artifacts of annotation and analysis procedures is of the utmost importance, as only true biological trends are of interest for further experimentation. A number of sophisticated methods for identification of significant lexical trends are currently available, but these methods are generally too cumbersome for practical use by most microarray users. Results We have developed a tool, LACK, for calculating the statistical significance of apparent lexical bias in microarray datasets. The frequency of a user-specified list of search terms in a list of genes which are differentially regulated is assessed for statistical significance by comparison to randomly generated datasets. The simplicity of the input files and user interface targets the average microarray user who wishes to have a statistical measure of apparent lexical trends in analyzed datasets without the need for bioinformatics skills. The software is available as Perl source or a Windows executable. Conclusion We have used LACK in our laboratory to generate biological hypotheses based on our microarray data. We demonstrate the program's utility using an example in which we confirm significant upregulation of SPI-2 pathogenicity island of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the cation chelator dipyridyl. PMID:12697067

Kim, Charles C; Falkow, Stanley

2003-01-01

275

Lexical segmentation and vocabulary growth in early language acquisition.  

PubMed

The identification of appropriate lexical segmentations of the speech signal constitutes a problem for the language learner and the child language researcher alike. Articulatory precision and fluency criteria for identifying formulaic expressions, sub-lexical forms and target lexemes in linguistic productions are defined and applied to the analysis of two Danish children's language development between the ages of 1;0 and 2;0. The results of this analysis are compared to the results of applying standard distributional and frequency criteria in the tabulation of mean length of utterance and vocabulary profiles for both standard and non-standard lexical segmentations. It is argued that although the two methods yield converging profiles of development during the latter part of the period studied, articulatory precision and fluency criteria offer a more powerful tool for identifying alternative segmentation strategies in early language acquisition. Profiles of vocabulary development for these two children suggest that the solution to the segmentation problem may be an important trigger for their vocabulary spurts. PMID:8454686

Plunkett, K

1993-02-01

276

Interaction of participant characteristics and type of AAC with individuals with ASD: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), speech-generating devices (SGDs), and other picture-based AAC. Effectiveness was measured via the Improvement Rate Difference. Results indicated that AAC has small to moderate effects on speech outcomes, and that SGDs appear to be most effective when considering any outcome measure with individuals with ASD without comorbid intellectual/developmental disorders (IDD). PECS appears to be most effective when considering any outcome measure with individuals with ASD and IDD. SGDs and PECS were the most effective type of AAC for preschoolers, when aggregating across outcome measures. No difference was found between systems for elementary-aged and older individuals. PMID:25354122

Ganz, Jennifer B; Mason, Rose A; Goodwyn, Fara D; Boles, Margot B; Heath, Amy K; Davis, John L

2014-11-01

277

Rotor wake characteristics relevant to rotor-stator interaction noise generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mean and turbulence wake properties at three axial locations behind the rotor of an aerodynamically loaded 1.2 pressure ratio fan were measured using a stationary cross film anemometer in an anechoic wind tunnel. Wake characteristics at four radial immersions across the duct at four different fan speeds were determined utilizing a signal enhancement technique. The shapes of the waveforms of the mean rotor relative and mean upwash velocities were shown to change significantly across the span of the blades. In addition, an increase in fan rotational speed caused an increase in the maximum wake turbulence intensity levels near the hub and tip. Spectral analysis was used to describe the complex nature of the rotor wake.

Shaw, L. M.; Balombin, J. R.

1981-01-01

278

Rotor wake characteristics relevant to rotor-stator interaction noise generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mean and turbulent wake properties at three axial locations behind the rotor of an aerodynamically loaded 1.2 pressure ratio fan were measured using a stationary cross film anemometer in an anechoic wind tunnel. Wake characteristics at four radial immersions across the duct at four different fan speeds were determined utilizing a signal enhancement technique. The shapes of the waveforms of the mean rotor relative and mean upwash velocities were shown to change significantly across the span of the blades. In addition, an increase in fan rotational speed caused an increase in the maximum wake turbulence intensity levels near the hub and tip. Spectral analysis was used to described the complex nature of the rotor wake.

Shaw, L. M.; Balombin, J. R.

1981-01-01

279

Study on the interaction characteristics of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic technique.  

PubMed

The interaction of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching in combination with UV-Vis spectroscopic method under near physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching rate constants and binding constants for BSA-cefamandole system were determined at different temperatures. The fluorescence quenching of BSA by cefamandole is due to static quenching and energy transfer. The results of thermodynamic parameters, ?H (-268.0kJmol(-1)), ?S (-810.0Jmol(-1)K(-1)) and ?G (-26.62 to -8.52kJmol(-1)), indicated that van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding played a major role for cefamandole-BSA association. The competitive experiments demonstrated that the primary binding site of cefamandole on BSA was located at site III in sub-domain IIIA of BSA. The distance between cefamandole and a tryptophane unit was estimated to be 1.18nm based on the Förster resonance energy transfer theory. The binding constant (KA) of BSA-cefamandole at 298K was 2.239×10(4)Lmol(-1). Circular dichroism spectra, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence studies showed that the presence of cefamandole could change the conformation of BSA during the binding process. PMID:25448935

Wang, Qian; Liu, Xuyang; Su, Ming; Shi, Zhihong; Sun, Hanwen

2015-02-01

280

Study on the interaction characteristics of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching in combination with UV-Vis spectroscopic method under near physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching rate constants and binding constants for BSA-cefamandole system were determined at different temperatures. The fluorescence quenching of BSA by cefamandole is due to static quenching and energy transfer. The results of thermodynamic parameters, ?H (-268.0 kJ mol-1), ?S (-810.0 J mol-1 K-1) and ?G (-26.62 to -8.52 kJ mol-1), indicated that van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding played a major role for cefamandole-BSA association. The competitive experiments demonstrated that the primary binding site of cefamandole on BSA was located at site III in sub-domain IIIA of BSA. The distance between cefamandole and a tryptophane unit was estimated to be 1.18 nm based on the Förster resonance energy transfer theory. The binding constant (KA) of BSA-cefamandole at 298 K was 2.239 × 104 L mol-1. Circular dichroism spectra, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence studies showed that the presence of cefamandole could change the conformation of BSA during the binding process.

Wang, Qian; Liu, Xuyang; Su, Ming; Shi, Zhihong; Sun, Hanwen

2015-02-01

281

Shear deformation characteristics of single walled carbon nanotube with water interactions by using molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with water interactions are studied in this work using molecular dynamics simulation method. The elastic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a biological/fluidic medium such as water are critical for its key role in determining the lifetime and stability of CNT based nano-fluidic devices. The effect of chirality, defects and the density of water encapsulation is studied by subjecting the SWCNT to shear loading. The findings show that the interaction of water molecules and defect density and distribution will reduce the mechanical strength of SWCNT. We also conducted studies on the mechanical response of free standing and water submerged capped SWCNTs filled with water molecules under axial shear loading. We find that the mechanical strength of the water encapsulated SWCNTs is affected by the density of water encapsulation. Our findings and conclusions obtained from this paper is expected to further compliment the potential applications of CNTs as promising candidates for applications in nano-biological and nano-fluidic devices.

Vijayaraghavan, V.; Wong, C. H.

2013-12-01

282

Flocculating characteristic of activated sludge flocs: interaction between Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances.  

PubMed

Aluminum flocculant can enhance the flocculating performance of activated sludge. However, the binding mechanism of aluminum ion (Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge is unclear due to the complexity of EPS. In this work, three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM), fluorescence quenching titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to explore the binding behavior and mechanism between Al(3+) and EPS. The results showed that two fluorescence peaks of tyrosine- and tryptophan-like substances were identified in the loosely bound-extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), and three peaks of tyrosine-, tryptophan- and humic-like substances were identified in the tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS). It was found that these fluorescence peaks could be quenched with Al(3+) at the dosage of 3.0 mg/L, which demonstrated that strong interactions took place between the EPS and Al(3+). The conditional stability constants for Al(3+) and EPS were determined by the Stern-Volmer equation. As to the binding mechanism, the -OH, N-H, C=O, C-N groups and the sulfur- and phosphorus-containing groups showed complexation action, although the groups in the LB-EPS and TB-EPS showed different behavior. The TB-EPS have stronger binding ability to Al(3+) than the LB-EPS, and TB-EPS play an important role in the interaction with Al(3+). PMID:24218821

Ruan, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

2013-05-01

283

Spacetime is Locally Inertial at Points of General Relativistic Shock Wave Interaction between Shocks from Different Characteristic Families  

E-print Network

We prove that spacetime is locally inertial at points of shock wave collision in General Relativity. The result applies for collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. We give a constructive proof that there exist coordinate transformations which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from $C^{0,1}$ to $C^{1,1}$ in a neighborhood of such points of shock wave interaction, and a $C^{1,1}$ metric regularity suffices for locally inertial frames to exist. This result corrects an error in our earlier RSPA-publication, which led us to the wrong conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to $C^{1,1}$, cannot exist. Our result here proves that regularity singularities, (a type of mild singularity introduced in our RSPA-publication), do \\emph{not exist} at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes, and this generalizes Israel's famous 1966 result to the case of such shock wave interactions. The strategy of proof here is an extension of the strategy outlined in our RSPA-paper, but differs fundamentally from the method used by Israel. The question whether regularity singularities exist in more complicated shock wave solutions of the Einstein Euler equations still remains open.

Moritz Reintjes

2014-09-17

284

The effects of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine on life history characteristics of flat-headed mayflies (Heptageniidae) and aquatic resource interactions.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical pollutants are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems around the world and have biological effects on aquatic organisms. However, current understanding of the influence this contaminant class has on freshwater communities and ecosystems is lacking. Recently the scientific community has called for research focusing on certain pharmaceuticals due to their ubiquity and potential toxicity. Carbamazepine is one of these pharmaceuticals. To better understand the effect carbamazepine has on life history characteristics of aquatic organisms and consumer-resource interactions, we quantified the influence of carbamazepine on the development, growth and behavior of mayfly nymphs (Stenonema sp.) and the alterations in food consumer-resource interactions between Stenonema and algae (Chaetophora). Microcosms were assembled in a factorial design containing algae and mayfly nymphs native to central Indiana and dosed with environmentally relevant concentrations of carbamazepine. From this ecotoxicological experiment we were able to infer that carbamazepine at 2,000 ng/L influenced the development and behavior of Stenonema nymphs and the body dimensions of adult individuals. However, it appears that carbamazepine does not influence consumer-resource interactions at concentrations found in surface waters. The pharmaceutical carbamazepine may influence the behavior, growth and development of mayflies, which could have significant consequences at the population, community and ecosystem level. PMID:25130701

Jarvis, Amanda L; Bernot, Melody J; Bernot, Randall J

2014-11-01

285

Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

Erickson, Gary E.

1991-01-01

286

Physical and biophysical characteristics of nanoscale tungsten oxide particles and their interaction with human genomic DNA.  

PubMed

Nanoscale tungsten oxide (WO3) particles were synthesized via a user-friendly solvothermal cum reduction route using sodium tungstanate (Na2WO4) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (C19H42NBr) as reactants. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed monoclinic phase of WO3 with an average crystallite size of 40 nm and competitive crystallographic orientation along (002), (020), (200) planes. After extracting human genomic DNA from human blood by a standard protocol (Qiagen-Kit method), they were conjugated with nanoscale WO3 particles in varying molar concentrations. The biophysical interaction of DNA bound nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, agarose gel-electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. Understanding physical and biophysical aspects of unconjugated and DNA conjugated WO3 would provide scope for biosensing applications. PMID:21770090

Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Sawian, Clara Ermine; Mohanta, Dambarudhar; Baruah, Shashi; Islam, Nashreen S

2011-06-01

287

[Lexical fields of predictive and personalized medicine].  

PubMed

After human genome mapping, omics revolution and empowering sequencing technologies developed at the turn of the century, new deals are to switch from population medicine to individual therapies, from curing the disease to preventing it. This review by the pharmacogenetics and predictive medicine working group of the French clinical biology society (SFBC) aims at placing into perspective the notions of tailored medicine, pharmacogenetics, genetics and genomics, emphasizing their interactions and discussing their signifiance according to researchers and to clinicians. PMID:23207809

Mathieu, Thierry; Bermont, Laurent; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Versuyft, Céline; Evrard, Alexandre; Cuvelier, Isabelle; Couderc, Remy; Peoc'h, Katell

2012-01-01

288

Characteristics of wave-particle interactions during sudden commencements. 1. Ground-based observations  

SciTech Connect

ELF-VLF (0.3-30 kHz) wave data measured at ground-based observatories for 250 sudden commencements were analyzed for amplitude and spectral modifications and correlated with magnetic field and precipitating particle observations. Changes in ELF-VLF wave activity at high-latitude stations were observed in 50-60% of the events studied and for approximately 80% of the events when the observing station was on the dayside. Characteristic, well-defined modifications of both coherent and incoherent ELF-VLF wave emissions were observed, including wave growth of the order of 20 dB, increases in the upper frequency limit of the waves, and enhanced triggering of discrete emissions. Wave growth generally occurred first at lower frequencies and with increasing delay at upper frequencies. The growth rate for the incoherent wave emissions (0.3-2.7 dB/s) was found to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than known growth rates for coherent waves. Measurable particle precipitation inferred from cosmic noise signal absorption was observed to begin simultaneous to within 5 s of the wave growth onset in a significant number of cases, suggesting that at least a part of the observed precipitation results from wave-induced scattering.

Gail, W.B.; Inan, U.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Carpenter, D.L. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Krishnaswamy, S.; Rosenberg, T.J. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Lanzerotti, L.J. (Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

1990-01-01

289

Magellan Aerodynamic Characteristics During the Termination Experiment Including Thruster Plume-Free Stream Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Magellan spacecraft during the October 1994 Termination Experiment, including the effects of the thruster engine exhaust plumes upon the molecular free stream around the spacecraft and upon the aerodynamics coefficients. As Magellan passed through the Venusian atmosphere, the solar arrays were turned in opposite directions relative to the free stream creating a torque on the spacecraft. The spacecraft control system was programmed to counter the effects of this torque with attitude control engines to maintain an inertially fixed attitude. The orientation and reaction engine telemetry returned from Magellan are used to create a model of the aerodynamic torques. Geometric models of the Magellan spacecraft are analyzed with the aid of both free molecular and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes. The simulated aerodynamic torques determined are compared to the measured torques. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is also used to model the attitude engine exhaust plumes, the free stream disturbance caused by these plumes, and the resulting torques acting on the spacecraft compared to no-exhaust plume cases. The effect of the exhaust plumes was found to be sufficiently large that thrust reversal is possible.

Cestero, Francisco J.; Tolson, Robert H.

1998-01-01

290

Lexicality Effects in Word and Nonword Recall of Semantic Dementia and Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal working memory is an essential component of many language functions, including sentence comprehension and word learning. As such, working memory has emerged as a domain of intense research interest both in aphasiology and in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. The integrity of verbal working memory encoding relies on a fluid interaction between semantic and phonological processes. That is, we encode verbal detail using many cues related to both the sound and meaning of words. Lesion models can provide an effective means of parsing the contributions of phonological or semantic impairment to recall performance. Methods and Procedures We employed the lesion model approach here by contrasting the nature of lexicality errors incurred during recall of word and nonword sequences by 3individuals with progressive nonfluent aphasia (a phonological dominant impairment) compared to that of 2 individuals with semantic dementia (a semantic dominant impairment). We focused on psycholinguistic attributes of correctly recalled stimuli relative to those that elicited a lexicality error (i.e., nonword ? word OR word ? nonword). Outcomes and results Patients with semantic dementia showed greater sensitivity to phonological attributes (e.g., phoneme length, wordlikeness) of the target items relative to semantic attributes (e.g., familiarity). Patients with PNFA showed the opposite pattern, marked by sensitivity to word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and imageability. Conclusions We interpret these results in favor of a processing strategy such that in the context of a focal phonological impairment patients revert to an over-reliance on preserved semantic processing abilities. In contrast, a focal semantic impairment forces both reliance upon and hypersensitivity to phonological attributes of target words. We relate this interpretation to previous hypotheses about the nature of verbal short-term memory in progressive aphasia. PMID:23486736

Reilly, Jamie; Troche, Joshua; Chatel, Alison; Park, Hyejin; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Martin, Nadine

2012-01-01

291

Developmental Trajectory for Production of Prosody: Lexical Stress Contrastivity in Children Ages 3 to 7 Years and in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Accurate production of lexical stress within English polysyllabic words is critical for intelligibility and is affected in many speech-language disorders. However, models of speech production remain underspecified with regard to lexical stress. In this study, the authors report a large-scale acoustic investigation of lexical stress…

Ballard, Kirrie J.; Djaja, Danica; Arciuli, Joanne; James, Deborah G. H.; van Doorn, Jan

2012-01-01

292

Investigation of interactions between limb-manipulator dynamics and effective vehicle roll control characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed-base simulation was performed to identify and quantify interactions between the pilot's hand/arm neuromuscular subsystem and such features of typical modern fighter aircraft roll rate command control system mechanization as: (1) force sensing side-stick type manipulator; (2) vehicle effective role time constant; and (3) flight control system effective time delay. The simulation results provide insight to high frequency pilot induced oscillations (PIO) (roll ratchet), low frequency PIO, and roll-to-right control and handling problems previously observed in experimental and production fly-by-wire control systems. The simulation configurations encompass and/or duplicate actual flight situations, reproduce control problems observed in flight, and validate the concept that the high frequency nuisance mode known as roll ratchet derives primarily from the pilot's neuromuscular subsystem. The simulations show that force-sensing side-stick manipulator force/displacement/command gradients, command prefilters, and flight control system time delays need to be carefully adjusted to minimize neuromuscular mode amplitude peaking (roll ratchet tendency) without restricting roll control bandwidth (with resulting sluggish or PIO prone control).

Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

1986-01-01

293

Tissue alteration and thermal characteristics of excimer laser interaction with dentin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of two short pulse excimer lasers with dentin has been evaluated using 193 nm radiation from a 15 ns ArF and 308 nm pulses from a 15 ns XeCl. Temperature changes of the ablated surfaces were monitored and correlated to scanning electron microscope studies. While surface temperatures during irradiation with the XeCl laser rose significantly higher than those due to exposure to the ArF pulses, heat penetration into the tooth was minimal in both systems and did not perturb the vicinity of the root canal. The dependence of the dentin thermal response on changes in the beam spot size was investigated as well. Surface temperatures were found to be linearly dependent on spot size in both lasers. Scanning electron microscopic observations of the ablated surface showed that although temperature changes at low pulse repetition rates and at low fluence were minimal in both lasers, localized melting of dentin was observed in both lasers. In the case of the XeCl laser, sufficient amount of melted dentin was generated to induce flow and partial sealing of existing cracks in the dentin structure. Only minimal amount of dentin melting was generated by the ArF laser, but a very thin (approximately equals 1 micrometers ) coating of exposed tubules was observed at lower fluences. Surface morphology was found to depend strongly on the fluence levels used but was relatively insensitive to the laser pulse repetition rates.

Neev, Joseph; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Stabholtz, Adam; Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Fujishige, Jack T.; Berns, Michael W.

1992-06-01

294

Effects of Perceptual Learning Style Preferences on L2 Lexical Inferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of perceptual learning style preferences on L2 lexical inferencing and whether learners with certain perceptual learning styles benefited more from an explicitly instructional program. Joy Reid's (1995) Perceptual Learning Style Preferences (PLSP) Inventory and a lexical inferencing test…

Shen, Ming-yueh

2010-01-01

295

Disambiguating form and lexical frequency effects in MEG responses using homonyms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an MEG study of homonym recognition in reading, identifying effects of a semantic measure of homonym ambiguity. This measure sheds light on two competing theories of lexical access: the “early access” theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing; and the “late access” theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic

Dylan Alexander Simon; Gwyneth Lewis; Alec Marantz

2011-01-01

296

Disambiguating form and lexical frequency effects in MEG responses using homonyms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an MEG study of homonym recognition in reading, identifying effects of a semantic measure of homonym ambiguity. This measure sheds light on two competing theories of lexical access: the “early access” theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing; and the “late access” theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic

Dylan Alexander Simon; Gwyneth Lewis; Alec Marantz

2012-01-01

297

Disambiguating Form and Lexical Frequency Effects in MEG Responses Using Homonyms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an MEG study of homonym recognition in reading, identifying effects of a semantic measure of homonym ambiguity. This measure sheds light on two competing theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing; and the "late access" theory, which…

Simon, Dylan Alexander; Lewis, Gwyneth; Marantz, Alec

2012-01-01

298

Revisiting the Use of LexicallyBased Features for Sentiment Detection Ben Allison  

E-print Network

Revisiting the Use of Lexically­Based Features for Sentiment Detection Ben Allison Department the problem of supervised sentiment detection using classifiers which are derived from word features. We argue that, while the literature has suggested the use of lexical features is inappropriate for sentiment

Edinburgh, University of

299

English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

2009-01-01

300

Lexical Enrichment of a Human Anatomy Ontology using WordNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with lexical enrichment of ontolo- gies, i.e. how to enrich a given ontology with lexical entries derived from a semantic lexicon. We present an approach towards the integration of both types of resources, in particular for the human anatomy domain as represented by the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). The paper describes our approach on combining

Nils Reiter; Paul Buitelaar

301

Effects of lexicality and trigram frequency on handwriting production in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of handwriting have shown that linguistic variables, such as phonology or lexicality, influence various aspects of the production of letter sequences. Following a previous experiment, in which a facilitation effect of words over pseudowords has been documented both in children and in adults, an experiment is reported concerning the effect of lexicality and of trigram frequency on handwriting

Pascal Zesiger; Pierre Mounoud; Claude-Alain Hauert

1993-01-01

302

ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2013-01-01

303

Testing for Lexical Competition during Reading: Fast Priming with Orthographic Neighbors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the fast priming…

Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

304

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

305

Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

2011-01-01

306

Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

2013-01-01

307

Creation of Lexical Relations for IndoWordNet Ashish Narang  

E-print Network

to the researchers in the area of computational linguistics, text processing and other related areas. Word of creation of lexical relations like antonym, compounding, conjunction and gradation for IndoWordCreation of Lexical Relations for IndoWordNet Ashish Narang CSED, Thapar University Patiala India

308

Bootstrapping a Unified Model of Lexical and Phonetic Acquisition Micha Elsner  

E-print Network

Bootstrapping a Unified Model of Lexical and Phonetic Acquisition Micha Elsner melsner0@gmail early language acquisition, infants must learn both a lexicon and a model of phonet- ics that explains evidence suggests infants acquire lexical and phonetic knowledge simultaneously. We present a Bayesian

Edinburgh, University of

309

A New Statistical Parser Based on Bigram Lexical Dependencies Michael John Collins \\Lambda  

E-print Network

to calcu­ late probabilities of dependencies between pairs of words. Tests using Wall Street Journal data lexical information, and recovers labeled constituents in Wall Street Journal text with above 84% accuracy Street Journal data. The method uses lexical informa­ tion directly by modeling head­modifier 1 relations

Collins, Michael

310

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2012-01-01

311

The Prosodic Property of Lexical Stress Affects Eye Movements during Silent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined lexical stress in the context of silent reading by measuring eye movements. We asked whether lexical stress registers in the eye movement record and, if so, why. The study also tested the implicit prosody hypothesis, or the idea that readers construct a prosodic contour during silent reading. Participants read high and…

Ashby, J.; Clifton Jr., C.

2005-01-01

312

Aspects of Lexical Proficiency in Writing Summaries in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of aspects of the lexical proficiency of EFL students on their summary writing in English (L2) by controlling for the impact of a range of linguistic abilities in English and Japanese (L1). Sixty-eight Japanese undergraduate students wrote two summaries of English texts in English. Their English lexical

Baba, Kyoko

2009-01-01

313

Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

2009-01-01

314

Enriching GermaNet with verb-noun relations - a case study of lexical acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will focus on the lexical-semantic relations in the German wordnet GermaNet. It has been shown that wordnets suffer from the relatively small number of relations between their lexical objects. It is assumed that applications in NLP and I R, in particular those relying on word sense disambiguation, can be boosted by a higher relational density of

Lothar Lemnitzer; Holger Wunsch; Piklu Gupta

2008-01-01

315

Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

2013-01-01

316

Lexical-Semantic Reading in a Shallow Orthography: Evidence from a Girl with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading skills of a girl with Williams Syndrome are assessed by a timed word-naming task. To test the efficiency of lexical and nonlexical reading, we considered four marker effects: Lexicality (better reading of words than nonwords), frequency (better reading of high than low frequency words), length (better reading of short than long words),…

Barca, Laura; Bello, Arianna; Volterra, Virginia; Burani, Cristina

2010-01-01

317

Balancing Generalization and Lexical Conservatism: An Artificial Language Study with Child Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful language acquisition involves generalization, but learners must balance this against the acquisition of lexical constraints. Such learning has been considered problematic for theories of acquisition: if learners generalize abstract patterns to new words, how do they learn lexically-based exceptions? One approach claims that learners use…

Wonnacott, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

318

A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n = 33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points.…

Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

2014-01-01

319

Lexical Contributions to Retention of Verbal Information in Working Memory: Event-Related Brain Potential Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether lexical codes contribute to retention of verbal information in working memory. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded while participants were performing a serial recall task to show differences in brain activity during retention of words or pseudowords. The effects of lexical status and memory load (task difficulty) upon ERP activity during retention also differed,

Daniel S. Ruchkin; Rita S. Berndt; Ray Johnson; Jordan Grafman; Walter Ritter; Howard L. Canoune

1999-01-01

320

Nonword Repetition Priming in Lexical Decision Reverses as a Function of Study Task and Speed Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argue that nonword repetition priming in lexical decision is the net result of 2 opposing processes. First, repeating nonwords in the lexical decision task results in the storage of a memory trace containing the interpretation that the letter string is a nonword; retrieval of this trace leads to an increase in performance for repeated…

Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Shiffrin, Richard M.

2004-01-01

321

Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of "Random"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words that are part of colloquial English but used differently in a technical domain may possess lexical ambiguity. The use of such words by instructors may inhibit student learning if incorrect connections are made by students between the technical and colloquial meanings. One fundamental word in statistics that has lexical ambiguity for students…

Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

2014-01-01

322

"Heating up" or "Cooling up" the Brain? MEG Evidence that Phrasal Verbs Are Lexical Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a considerable linguistic debate on whether phrasal verbs (e.g., "turn up," "break down") are processed as two separate words connected by a syntactic rule or whether they form a single lexical unit. Moreover, views differ on whether meaning (transparency vs. opacity) plays a role in determining their syntactically-connected or lexical

Cappelle, Bert; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

2010-01-01

323

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

324

Lexical Encoding of L2 Tones: The Role of L1 Stress, Pitch Accent and Intonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native language prosodic structure is known to modulate the processing of non-native suprasegmental information. It has been shown that native speakers of French, a language without lexical stress, have difficulties storing non-native stress contrasts. We investigated whether the ability to store lexical tone (as in Mandarin Chinese) also depends…

Braun, Bettina; Galts, Tobias; Kabak, Baris

2014-01-01

325

Building Synsets for Indonesian WordNet with Monolingual Lexical Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to build synsets for Indonesian Word Net semi-automatically using monolingual lexical resources available freely in Bahasa Indonesia. Monolingual lexical resources refer to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indoensia or KBBI (monolingual dictionary of Bahasa Indonesia) and Tesaurus Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian thesaurus). We assume that monolingual resources will play an important role in synsets building, because it will

G. Gunawan; Andy Saputra

2010-01-01

326

The Role of Low-Spatial Frequencies in Lexical Decision and Masked Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial frequency filtering was used to test the hypotheses that low-spatial frequency information in printed text can: (1) lead to a rapid lexical decision or (2) facilitate word recognition. Adult proficient readers made lexical decisions in unprimed and masked repetition priming experiments with unfiltered, low-pass, high-pass and notch…

Boden, C.; Giaschi, D.

2009-01-01

327

Surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash particles after interaction with seawater under natural deep sea conditions  

SciTech Connect

The surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash (CFA) before and after interaction with Mediterranean deep seawater was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Significantly lower values of Si, Ca, and S and higher values of Mg and Cl were found in the retrieved CFA as compared to fresh CFA. It is suggested that hydrolysis of the oxide matrixes results in an alkaline environment which rapidly leads to several chemical reactions. The two most important are (a) dissolution of the amorphous silicate and the calcium phases and (b) precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2}-brucite. A depth profile of the retrieved CFA was measured by both line-shape analysis of the XPS spectra and by consecutive cycle of sputtering. The thickness of the brucite layer is estimated to be 1.3 nm.

Brami, Y.; Shemesh, A.; Cohen, H. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)] [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Herut, B. [National Inst. of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)] [National Inst. of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

1999-01-15

328

Lexical fields of predictive and personalized medicine.  

PubMed

With human genome mapping, the omics revolution and the empowering sequencing technologies developed at the turn of the century, the new goals in medicine are to switch from population medicine to individualized therapies, not only to cure diseases but also to prevent them. The purpose of this review by the pharmacogenetics and predictive medicine working group of the French clinical biology society (SFBC) is to situate in their correct context the notions of personalized medicine, pharmacogenetics, genetics and genomics, emphasizing their interactions and discussing their significance for researchers and clinicians. PMID:23740683

Mathieu, Thierry; Bermont, Laurent; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Versuyft, Céline; Evrard, Alexandre; Cuvelier, Isabelle; Couderc, Remy; Peoc'h, Katell

2013-01-01

329

Characteristics of the interaction of calcium with casein submicelles as determined by analytical affinity chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of calcium with casein submicelles was investigated in CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers and with synthetic milk salt solutions using the technique of analytical affinity chromatography. Micelles that had been prepared by size exclusion chromatography with glycerolpropyl controlled-pore glass from fresh raw skim milk that had never been cooled, were dialyzed at room temperature against calcium-free imidazole buffer, pH 6.7. Resulting submicelles were covalently immobilized on succinamidopropyl controlled-pore glass (300-nm pore size). Using 45Ca to monitor the elution retardation, the affinity of free Ca2+ and calcium salt species was determined at temperatures of 20 to 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 to 7.5. Increasing the pH in this range or increasing the temperature strengthened the binding of calcium to submicelles, similar to previous observations with individual caseins. However, the enthalpy change obtained from the temperature dependence was considerably greater than that reported for alpha s1- and beta-caseins. Furthermore, the elution profiles for 45Ca in milk salt solutions were decidedly different from those in CaCl2 or calcium phosphate buffers and the affinities were also greater. For example, at pH 6.7 and 30 degrees C the average dissociation constant for the submicelle-calcium complex is 0.074 mM for CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers, vs 0.016 mM for the milk salt solution. The asymmetric frontal boundaries and higher average affinities observed with milk salts may be due to binding of calcium salts with greater affinity in addition to the binding of free Ca2+ in these solutions.

Jang, H.D.; Swaisgood, H.E. (North Carolina State Univ. (USA))

1990-12-01

330

ILexicOn: toward an ECD-compliant interlingual lexical ontology described with semantic web formalisms  

E-print Network

We are interested in bridging the world of natural language and the world of the semantic web in particular to support natural multilingual access to the web of data. In this paper we introduce a new type of lexical ontology called interlingual lexical ontology (ILexicOn), which uses semantic web formalisms to make each interlingual lexical unit class (ILUc) support the projection of its semantic decomposition on itself. After a short overview of existing lexical ontologies, we briefly introduce the semantic web formalisms we use. We then present the three layered architecture of our approach: i) the interlingual lexical meta-ontology (ILexiMOn); ii) the ILexicOn where ILUcs are formally defined; iii) the data layer. We illustrate our approach with a standalone ILexicOn, and introduce and explain a concise human-readable notation to represent ILexicOns. Finally, we show how semantic web formalisms enable the projection of a semantic decomposition on the decomposed ILUc.

Lefrançois, Maxime

2012-01-01

331

Immediate Auditory Repetition of Words and Nonwords: An ERP Study of Lexical and Sublexical Processing  

PubMed Central

ERPs were elicited to (1) words, (2) pseudowords derived from these words, and (3) nonwords with no lexical neighbors, in a task involving listening to immediately repeated auditory stimuli. There was a significant early (P200) effect of phonotactic probability in the first auditory presentation, which discriminated words and pseudowords from nonwords; and a significant somewhat later (N400) effect of lexicality, which discriminated words from pseudowords and nonwords. There was no reliable effect of lexicality in the ERPs to the second auditory presentation. We conclude that early sublexical phonological processing differed according to phonotactic probability of the stimuli, and that lexically-based redintegration occurred for words but did not occur for pseudowords or nonwords. Thus, in online word recognition and immediate retrieval, phonological and/or sublexical processing plays a more important role than lexical level redintegration. PMID:24642662

Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Riddell, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

332

Individual Differences in Sentence Comprehension: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Syntactic and Lexical Processing Demands  

PubMed Central

Language comprehension is neurally underpinned by a network of collaborating cortical processing centers; individual differences in comprehension must be related to some set of this network’s properties. This study investigated the neural bases of individual differences during sentence comprehension by examining the network’s response to two variations in processing demands: reading sentences containing words of high versus low lexical frequency and having simpler versus more complex syntax. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, readers who were independently identified as having high or low working memory capacity for language exhibited three differentiating properties of their language network, namely, neural efficiency, adaptability, and synchronization. First, greater efficiency (defined as a reduction in activation associated with improved performance) was manifested as less activation in the bilateral middle frontal and right lingual gyri in high-capacity readers. Second, increased adaptability was indexed by larger lexical frequency effects in high-capacity readers across bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior occipital, and right temporal regions. Third, greater synchronization was observed in high-capacity readers between left temporal and left inferior frontal, left parietal, and right occipital regions. Synchronization interacted with adaptability, such that functional connectivity remained constant or increased with increasing lexical and syntactic demands in high-capacity readers, whereas low-capacity readers either showed no reliable differentiation or a decrease in functional connectivity with increasing demands. These results are among the first to relate multiple cortical network properties to individual differences in reading capacity and suggest a more general framework for understanding the relation between neural function and individual differences in cognitive performance. PMID:17892384

Prat, Chantel S.; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam

2008-01-01

333

Effects of 5d electrons and spin-orbit interaction on the characteristics of bulk plasmons in lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ab initio study of the dynamical dielectric response of bulk lead is presented. The influence of the 5d semicore states on the characteristics of the bulk plasmon is analyzed by means of first-principles pseudopotential calculations. The effects of spin-orbit interactions and local-fields are also studied in detail. The inclusion of the 5d semicore states in the valence configuration completely changes the high-energy-transfer dielectric properties of bulk Pb. In particular, it lowers the computed bulk plasmon energy by about 3.5 eV, bringing its frequency to good agreement with experimental data. In general, the high-energy-transfer dielectric response of bulk Pb is found to be shaped mostly by the interplay between the interband transitions involving the semicore 5d states and the spin-orbit coupling interaction. Local-field effects are found to affect the relative spectral weight of the high-energy excitations, while leaving their dispersion mostly unaffected.

Zubizarreta, X.; Silkin, V. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

2014-10-01

334

Experimental study of needle-tissue interaction forces: effect of needle geometries, insertion methods and tissue characteristics.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of needle-tissue interaction mechanics is necessary to optimize needle design, achieve robotically needle steering, and establish surgical simulation system. It is obvious that the interaction is influenced by numerous variable parameters, which are divided into three categories: needle geometries, insertion methods, and tissue characteristics. A series of experiments are performed to explore the effect of influence factors (material samples n=5 for each factor) on the insertion force. Data were collected from different biological tissues and a special tissue-equivalent phantom with similar mechanical properties, using a 1-DOF mechanical testing system instrumented with a 6-DOF force/torque (F/T) sensor. The experimental results indicate that three basic phases (deformation, insertion, and extraction phase) are existent during needle penetration. Needle diameter (0.7-3.2mm), needle tip (blunt, diamond, conical, and beveled) and bevel angle (10-85°) are turned out to have a great influence on insertion force, so do the insertion velocity (0.5-10mm/s), drive mode (robot-assisted and hand-held), and the insertion process (interrupted and continuous). Different tissues such as skin, muscle, fat, liver capsule and vessel are proved to generate various force cures, which can contribute to the judgement of the needle position and provide efficient insertion strategy. PMID:25169657

Jiang, Shan; Li, Pan; Yu, Yan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

2014-10-17

335

Ionospheric characteristics associated with wave-particle interactions in a SED plume during a super geomagnetic storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report some interesting ionospheric characteristics associated with wave-particle interactions with observations of the ionosonde and co-located incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Millstone Hill in a storm-enhanced density (SED) plume identified from two-dimensional GPS TEC maps during a super geomagnetic storm on Nov. 20, 2003. Firstly, the digisonde ionogram only contained echoes for scanning frequencies from 6.2 MHz to 9.3 MHz. The lack of echoes at frequencies below 6.2 MHz is attributed to enhancements of sub-ionospheric absorption caused by precipitating RC electrons in the SED plume. Secondly, there was an obvious F1 layer, as well as an Es layer, appearing on the ISR profile, that was not observed by the digisonde due to strong sub-ionospheric absorption. For echoes at frequencies from 6.2 MHz to 9.3 MHz, a comparison of the virtual height obtained from the digisonde ionogram and that derived from the ISR electron density profile, demonstrated that an Es layer appeared with a peak altitude of 123 km. The occurrence of the Es layer is attributed to enhancements of precipitating energetic ion fluxes in the SED plume. Our result suggests that the ionospheric behavior in the SED plume is controlled not only by ionospheric dynamical process but also by precipitating energetic RC ions/ electrons as a consequence of wave-particle interactions in the plasmaspheric plume.

Yuan, Zhigang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Shunrong; Deng, Xiaohua; Wang, Jingfang

2013-04-01

336

Lexical orthography acquisition: Is handwriting better than spelling aloud?  

PubMed Central

Lexical orthography acquisition is currently described as the building of links between the visual forms and the auditory forms of whole words. However, a growing body of data suggests that a motor component could further be involved in orthographic acquisition. A few studies support the idea that reading plus handwriting is a better lexical orthographic learning situation than reading alone. However, these studies did not explore which of the cognitive processes involved in handwriting enhanced lexical orthographic acquisition. Some findings suggest that the specific movements memorized when learning to write may participate in the establishment of orthographic representations in memory. The aim of the present study was to assess this hypothesis using handwriting and spelling aloud as two learning conditions. In two experiments, fifth graders were asked to read complex pseudo-words embedded in short sentences. Immediately after reading, participants had to recall the pseudo-words' spellings either by spelling them aloud or by handwriting them down. One week later, orthographic acquisition was tested using two post-tests: a pseudo-word production task (spelling by hand in Experiment 1 or spelling aloud in Experiment 2) and a pseudo-word recognition task. Results showed no significant difference in pseudo-word recognition between the two learning conditions. In the pseudo-word production task, orthography learning improved when the learning and post-test conditions were similar, thus showing a massive encoding-retrieval match effect in the two experiments. However, a mixed model analysis of the pseudo-word production results revealed a significant learning condition effect which remained after control of the encoding-retrieval match effect. This later finding suggests that orthography learning is more efficient when mediated by handwriting than by spelling aloud, whatever the post-test production task. PMID:24575058

Bosse, Marie-Line; Chaves, Nathalie; Valdois, Sylviane

2014-01-01

337

Spanish norms for age of acquisition, concept familiarity, lexical frequency, manipulability, typicality, and other variables for 820 words from 14 living/nonliving concepts.  

PubMed

This article presents a new corpus of 820 words pertaining to 14 semantic categories, 7 natural (animals, body parts, insects, flowers, fruits, trees, and vegetables) and 7 man-made (buildings, clothing, furniture, kitchen utensils, musical instruments, tools, and vehicles); each word in the database was collected empirically in a previous exemplar generation study. In the present study, 152 Spanish speakers provided data for four psycholinguistic variables known to affect lexical-semantic processing in both neurologically intact and brain-damaged participants: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, and typicality. Furthermore, we collected lexical frequency data derived from Internet search hits, plus three additional Spanish lexical frequency indexes. Word length, number of syllables, and the proportion of respondents citing the exemplar as a category member-which can be useful as an additional measure of typicality-are also provided. Reliability and validity indexes showed that our items display characteristics similar to those of other corpora. Overall, this new corpus of words provides a useful tool for scientists engaged in cognitive- and neuroscience-based research focused on examining language, memory, and object processing. The full set of norms can be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:24415408

Moreno-Martínez, F Javier; Montoro, Pedro R; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C

2014-12-01

338

Bilingual vocabulary size and lexical reading in Italian.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated how the vocabulary size of English-Italian bilinguals affects reading aloud in Italian (L2) modulating the reader's sensitivity to lexical aspects of the language. We divided adult bilinguals in two groups according to their vocabulary size (Larger - LV, and smaller - SV), and compared their naming performance to that of native Italian (NI) readers. In Experiment 1 we investigated the lexicality and word frequency effects in reading aloud. Similarly to NI, both groups of bilinguals showed these effects. In Experiment 2 we investigated stress assignment - which is not predictable by rule - to Italian words. The SV group made more stress errors in reading words with a non-dominant stress pattern compared to the LV group. The results suggest that the size of the reader's L2 lexicon affects the probability of correct reading aloud. Overall, the results indicate that proficient adult bilinguals show a similar sensibility to the statistical and distributional properties of the language as compared to Italian monolinguals. PMID:24140823

Primativo, Silvia; Rinaldi, Pasquale; O'Brien, Shaunna; Paizi, Despina; Arduino, Lisa S; Burani, Cristina

2013-11-01

339

Lexical frequency and voice assimilation in complex words in Dutch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Words with higher token frequencies tend to have more reduced acoustic realizations than lower frequency words (e.g., Hay, 2000; Bybee, 2001; Jurafsky et al., 2001). This study documents frequency effects for regressive voice assimilation (obstruents are voiced before voiced plosives) in Dutch morphologically complex words in the subcorpus of read-aloud novels in the corpus of spoken Dutch (Oostdijk et al., 2002). As expected, the initial obstruent of the cluster tends to be absent more often as lexical frequency increases. More importantly, as frequency increases, the duration of vocal-fold vibration in the cluster decreases, and the duration of the bursts in the cluster increases, after partialing out cluster duration. This suggests that there is less voicing for higher-frequency words. In fact, phonetic transcriptions show regressive voice assimilation for only half of the words and progressive voice assimilation for one third. Interestingly, the progressive voice assimilation observed for higher-frequency complex words renders these complex words more similar to monomorphemic words: Dutch monomorphemic words typically contain voiceless obstruent clusters (Zonneveld, 1983). Such high-frequency complex words may therefore be less easily parsed into their constituent morphemes (cf. Hay, 2000), favoring whole word lexical access (Bertram et al., 2000).

Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, Harald

2001-05-01

340

Lexical availability and grammatical encoding scope during spoken sentence production.  

PubMed

Three sentence production experiments investigate the relationship between lexical and structural processing scope. Speakers generated sentences with varying phrase structures in response to visual displays (e.g., The dog and the hat move above the fork and the tree/The dog moves above the hat and the fork and the tree). On half of the trials, one of the pictures in the arrays was previewed. Filler sentences varied preview position and sentence structure from trial to trial. When speakers could not anticipate the position of the previewed picture in the upcoming sentence (Experiment 1), preview benefit for pictures corresponding to the second noun to be produced was limited to pictures that fell within the sentence-initial phrase. When the linear position of the previewed picture was predictable, preview benefits were observed for the second noun to be produced, irrespective of phrase position (Experiment 2). However, no preview benefits were observed for the third noun to be produced (Experiment 3). In contrast, significant effects of initial phrase structure were observed in all experiments, with latencies increasing with initial phrase length. The results are consistent with speakers operating a phrasal scope for structural planning within which the scope of lexical access can vary. PMID:23286440

Wheeldon, Linda; Ohlson, Natalie; Ashby, Aimee; Gator, Sophie

2013-08-01

341

Context Effects in Embodied Lexical-Semantic Processing  

PubMed Central

The embodied view of language comprehension proposes that the meaning of words is grounded in perception and action rather than represented in abstract amodal symbols. Support for embodied theories of language processing comes from behavioral studies showing that understanding a sentence about an action can modulate congruent and incongruent physical responses, suggesting motor involvement during comprehension of sentences referring to bodily movement. Additionally, several neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that comprehending single words denoting manipulable objects elicits specific responses in the neural motor system. An interesting question that remains is whether action semantic knowledge is directly activated as motor simulations in the brain, or rather modulated by the semantic context in which action words are encountered. In the current paper we investigated the nature of conceptual representations using a go/no-go lexical decision task. Specifically, target words were either presented in a semantic context that emphasized dominant action features (features related to the functional use of an object) or non-dominant action features. The response latencies in a lexical decision task reveal that participants were faster to respond to words denoting objects for which the functional use was congruent with the prepared movement. This facilitation effect, however, was only apparent when the semantic context emphasized corresponding motor properties. These findings suggest that conceptual processing is a context-dependent process that incorporates motor-related knowledge in a flexible manner. PMID:21833218

van Dam, Wessel O.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

2010-01-01

342

[Interactive effects of drought and salt stresses on winter wheat seedlings growth and physiological characteristics of stress-resistance].  

PubMed

In a hydroponic culture, different concentrations of PEG-6000 (0, 8.3%, and 12.6%, W/V) and NaCl (0, 25, and 50 mmol x L(-1) were added to simulate different degrees of drought and salt stresses, aimed to study their interactive effects on the winter wheat (cv. Cang-6001) seedlings growth and physiological characteristics of stress-resistance. The results showed that under the conditions of adding 8.3% and 12.6% of PEG-6000, the addition of 25 mmol NaCl x L(-1) increased the dry matter accumulation and water content in plant, the contents of soluble sugar and soluble protein in leaf and the Na+ content in shoot and root, while decreased the MDA and proline contents in leaf and the K+ content in shoot and root, compared with no NaCl addition. Adding 12.6% of PEG-6000 and 50 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl more inhibited plant growth, compared with no NaCl added. It was suggested that under drought stress, applying definite amount of salt could alleviate the deleterious effects of drought stress on winter wheat seedlings growth. PMID:19565760

Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Xie, Zhi-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jing

2009-04-01

343

Interactions between rootstock, inter-stem and scion xylem vessel characteristics of peach trees growing on rootstocks with contrasting size-controlling characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The primary physiological mechanism influencing tree vigour in size-controlling rootstocks of peach has been related to the hydraulic conductance of the rootstock. Differences in rootstock hydraulic conductance are a function of rootstock xylem vessel characteristics. The present research examined whether the vigour and xylem vessel characteristics of the rootstock influence the xylem characteristics of the scion. We tested whether using a size-controlling rootstock genotype as an inter-stem influences the xylem vessel characteristics of either the rootstock below the inter-stem or the scion above it and vice versa. Methodology Anatomical measurements (diameter and frequency) of xylem vessels were determined above and below the graft unions of the trunks of peach trees with differing scion/rootstock combinations. The three peach rootstocks were ‘Nemaguard’ (vigorous), ‘P30-135’ (intermediate vigour) and ‘K146-43’ (dwarfing). The vigorous scion cultivar was ‘O'Henry’. The inter-stem experiment involved trees with ‘Nemaguard’ (vigorous) as the rootstock, ‘K146-43’ (dwarfing) as the inter-stem and ‘O'Henry’ as the scion. Based on anatomical measurements, we calculated the theoretical axial xylem conductance of each stem piece and rootstock genotype with the Hagen–Poiseuille law. Principal results Xylem vessel dimensions of rootstocks varied in conjunction with tree vigour. Scion xylem vessel dimensions of different scion/rootstock combinations were only marginally affected by rootstock genotype. The inter-stem sections from the dwarfing genotype (‘K146-43’) had narrower vessels and a lower calculated hydraulic conductance than the xylem from either the vigorous rootstock below (‘Nemaguard’) or the scion above (‘O'Henry’). Conclusions Rootstock genotype only marginally affected scion xylem vessel characteristics. Thus the xylem vessel characteristics of the dwarfing rootstock genotypes appear to influence tree growth directly rather than through an effect on the xylem characteristics of the scion. A dwarfing rootstock genotype used as an inter-stem appeared to work as a physical restriction to water movement, reducing potential xylem flow and conductance of the whole tree. PMID:22476071

Tombesi, Sergio; Johnson, R. Scott; Day, Kevin R.; DeJong, Theodore M.

2010-01-01

344

Inferences on Inference: The Effects of Age, Transitive Ability, Memory Load, and Lexical Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined constructive memory in sentence-recognition tasks as a function of lexical factors, logical ability to make transitive inferences, memory load, and age (kindergarten, first, and third grade children.) (Author/JMB)

Liben, Lynn S.; Posnansky, Carla J.

1977-01-01

345

Rhyme priming in aphasia: the role of phonology in lexical access.  

PubMed

The present experiment was conducted to explore the facilitory effects of rhyme in lexical processing in brain-damaged individuals. Normal subjects and non-fluent and fluent aphasic subjects performed auditory lexical decision and rhyme judgement tasks, in which prime-target pairs were phonologically related (either identical or rhyming) or unrelated. Results revealed rhyme facilitation of lexical decisions to real-word targets for normal and non-fluent aphasic subjects; for fluent aphasic subjects, results were equivocal. In the rhyme judgement task, facilitory effects of rhyme were found for all three groups with real-word targets. None of the groups showed clear rhyme facilitation effects with non-word targets in either task. Findings are discussed with reference to the role of phonology in lexical processing in normal and aphasic populations. PMID:7859058

Gordon, J K; Baum, S R

1994-11-01

346

LIFG-based attentional control and the resolution of lexical ambiguities in sentence context  

PubMed Central

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively unimpaired. Experiment 2 showed that all three patients did as well as normal controls in using biasing sentence context to resolve lexical ambiguities involving balanced ambiguous words, but only the LIFG patients took an abnormally long time on lexical ambiguities that resolved toward a subordinate meaning of biased ambiguous words. Taken together, the results suggest that attentional control plays an important role in the resolution of certain lexical ambiguities – those that induce strong interference from context-inappropriate meanings (i.e., dominant meanings of biased ambiguous words). PMID:20971500

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2010-01-01

347

LEXICAL DIVERSITY AND PRODUCTIVITY IN FRENCH PRESCHOOOLERS DEVELOPMENTAL AND BIOSOCIAL ASPECTS  

E-print Network

influences of SCL, with children from high SCL families showing more complex lexical productions and a higher on the normative data of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI), Bates and colleagues (1994

Boyer, Edmond

348

On Lexicalized Valency and the Valency of (New) Complex Verbal Formations in Slovenian  

E-print Network

The paper considers the matter of so-called lexicalized valency within the framework of new complex verbal formations in Slovenian, and in consequence, the increasingly dominant accusative valency in the language, which can also indicate...

Žele, Andreja

2013-01-01

349

Lexical Access and Dual-Task Performance: Determining the Locus of the Bottleneck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the two years of funding for NASA Grant "NCC21325, Lexical access and dual-task performance: Determining the locus of the bottleneck," we completed three experiments involving the psychological refractory period (PRP) and word frequency.

Allen, Phil

2004-01-01

350

Lexical evolution rates derived from automated stability measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from the matrix which contains the distances between all pairs of languages in a family. Recently, we proposed a new method which uses normalized Levenshtein distances among words with the same meaning and averages over all the items of a given list. Decisions about the number of items in the input lists for language comparison have been debated since the beginning of glottochronology. The point is that words associated with some of the meanings have a rapid lexical evolution. Therefore, a large vocabulary comparison is only apparently more accurate than a smaller one, since many of the words do not carry any useful information. In principle, one should find the optimal length of the input lists, studying the stability of the different items. In this paper we tackle the problem with an automated methodology based only on our normalized Levenshtein distance. With this approach, the program of an automated reconstruction of language relationships is completed.

Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

2010-03-01

351

Representing lexical components of medical terminologies in OWL.  

PubMed

Medical Terminologies play a vital role in clinical data capture, reporting, information integration, indexing and retrieval. The Web Ontology language (OWL) provides an opportunity for the medical community to leverage the capabilities of OWL semantics and tools to build formal, sound and consistent medical terminologies, and to provide a standard web accessible medium for inter-operability,access and reuse. One of the tasks facing the medical community today is to represent the extensive terminology content that already exists into this new medium. This paper addresses one aspect of this challenge - how to incorporate multilingual, structured lexical information such as definitions, synonyms, usage notes, etc. into the OWL ontology model in a standardized, consistent and useful fashion. PMID:16779134

Supekar, Kaustubh; Chute, Christopher G; Solbrig, Harold

2005-01-01

352

Enhancement and suppression in a lexical interference fMRI-paradigm  

PubMed Central

Previous picture-word interference (PWI) fMRI-paradigms revealed ambiguous mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition in healthy subjects. Lexical distractors revealed increased (enhancement) or decreased (suppression) activation in language and monitoring/control areas. Performing a secondary examination and data analysis, we aimed to illuminate the relation between behavioral and neural interference effects comparing target-related distractors (REL) with unrelated distractors (UNREL). We hypothesized that interference involves both (A) suppression due to priming and (B) enhancement due to simultaneous distractor and target processing. Comparisons to UNREL should remain distractor unspecific even at a low threshold. (C) Distractor types with common characteristics should reveal overlapping brain areas. In a 3T MRI scanner, participants were asked to name pictures while auditory words were presented (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = –200 msec). Associatively and phonologically related distractors speeded responses (facilitation), while categorically related distractors slowed them down (inhibition) compared to UNREL. As a result, (A) reduced brain activations indeed resembled previously reported patterns of neural priming. Each target-related distractor yielded suppressions at least in areas associated with vision and conflict/competition monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), revealing least priming for inhibitors. (B) Enhancements concerned language-related but distractor-unspecific regions. (C) Some wider brain regions were commonly suppressed for combinations of distractor types. Overlapping areas associated with conceptual priming were found for facilitatory distractors (inferior frontal gyri), and areas related to phonetic/articulatory processing (precentral gyri and left parietal operculum/insula) for distractors sharing feature overlap. Each distractor with semantic relatedness revealed nonoverlapping suppressions in lexical-phonological areas (superior temporal regions). To conclude, interference combines suppression of areas well known from neural priming and enhancement of language-related areas caused by dual activation from target and distractor. Differences between interference and priming need to be taken into account. The present interference paradigm has the potential to reveal the functioning of word-processing stages, cognitive control, and responsiveness to priming at the same time. PMID:22574280

Abel, Stefanie; Dressel, Katharina; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter

2012-01-01

353

Real-time lexical competitions during speech-in-speech comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at characterizing the cognitive processes that come into play during speech-in-speech comprehension by examining lexical competitions between target speech and concurrent multi-talker babble. We investigated the effects of number of simultaneous talkers (2, 4, 6 or 8) and of the token frequency of the words that compose the babble (high or low) on lexical decision to target

Véronique Boulenger; Michel Hoen; Emmanuel Ferragne; François Pellegrino; Fanny Meunier

2010-01-01

354

Lexical Plasticity in Early Bilinguals Does Not Alter Phoneme Categories: I. Neurodynamical Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sebastián-Gallés et al. [The influence of initial exposure on lexical representation: Comparing early and simultaneous bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 240255, 2005] contrasted highly proficient early Spanish-Catalan and Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, using Catalan materials in a lexical decision task (LDT). They constructed two types of experimental pseudowords, substituting Catalan phoneme \\/e\\/ for Catalan \\/??\\/, or vice versa. Catalan-dominant bilinguals

J. P. Larsson; Fátima Vera Constán; Núria Sebastián-gallés; Gustavo Deco

2008-01-01

355

Lexical Plasticity in Early Bilinguals Does Not Alter Phoneme Categories: I. Neurodynamical Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sebastian-Galles et al. (The influence of initial exposure on lexical representation: Comparing early and simultaneous bi- linguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 240-255, 2005) contrasted highly proficient early Spanish-Catalan and Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, using Catalan materials in a lexical decision task (LDT). They constructed two types of exper- imental pseudowords, substituting Catalan phoneme \\/e\\/ for Catalan \\/>\\/, or vice versa.

J. P. Larsson; F atima; Vera Constan; Gustavo Deco

356

Lexical effects and lexical properties associated with National Adult Reading Test (NART) stimuli in healthy young adults and healthy elderly adults.  

PubMed

Fifty healthy younger adults and 45 healthy elderly adults performed a speeded lexical decision task (LDT). Stimuli consisted of 57 National Adult Reading Test (NART) words (the NART consists of "irregular" words that violate standard spelling-to-sound correspondence rules) and 57 pronounceable pseudowords (e.g., blant). Both groups displayed statistically equivalent lexicality (PW-W) effects, and error rates were lower in elderly adults. With groups equated on vocabulary ability, lexicality effects remained the same and error rates did not differ across either group. Correlational analyses confirmed the role played by word frequency and word familiarity in latencies to NART stimuli. Results are discussed regarding the importance of obtaining speeded latency measures for age-related word recognition comparisons. PMID:9696107

Ferraro, F R; Sturgill, D

1998-08-01

357

Responding to Nonwords in the Lexical Decision Task: Insights From the English Lexicon Project.  

PubMed

Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, because a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide valuable insights into early lexical processes. In the present study, item-level and participant-level analyses were conducted on the trial-level lexical decision data for almost 37,000 nonwords in the English Lexicon Project in order to identify the influence of different psycholinguistic variables on nonword lexical decision performance and to explore individual differences in how participants respond to nonwords. Item-level regression analyses reveal that nonword response time was positively correlated with number of letters, number of orthographic neighbors, number of affixes, and base-word number of syllables, and negatively correlated with Levenshtein orthographic distance and base-word frequency. Participant-level analyses also point to within- and between-session stability in nonword responses across distinct sets of items, and intriguingly reveal that higher vocabulary knowledge is associated with less sensitivity to some dimensions (e.g., number of letters) but more sensitivity to others (e.g., base-word frequency). The present findings provide well-specified and interesting new constraints for informing models of word recognition and lexical decision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25329078

Yap, Melvin J; Sibley, Daragh E; Balota, David A; Ratcliff, Roger; Rueckl, Jay

2014-10-20

358

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review  

PubMed Central

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O.

2014-01-01

359

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review.  

PubMed

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one's native language, in one's second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O

2014-01-01

360

Aspectual asymmetries in the mental representation of events: Role of lexical and grammatical aspect.  

PubMed

Temporal information is important in the construction of situation models, and many languages make use of perfective and imperfective aspect markers to distinguish between completed situations (e.g., He made a cake) and ongoing situations (e.g., He is making a cake). Previous studies in which the effect of grammatical aspect has been examined have shown that perfective sentences are often processed more quickly than imperfective ones (e.g., Chan, Yap, Shirai, & Matthews, 2004; Madden & Zwaan, 2003; Yap et al., 2004; Yap et al., 2006). However, these studies used only accomplishment verbs (i.e., verbs with an inherent endpoint, such as bake a cake). The present study on the processing of Cantonese includes activity verbs (i.e., durative verbs with no inherent endpoint, such as play the piano), and the results indicate a strong interaction between lexical aspect (i.e., verb type) and grammatical aspect. That is, perfective sentences were processed more quickly with accomplishment verbs, consistent with previous findings, but imperfective sentences were processed more quickly with activity verbs. We suggest that these different aspectual asymmetries emerge as a result of the inherent associations between accomplishment verbs and the bounded features of perfective aspect and between activity verbs and the unbounded features of imperfective aspect. The sentence stimuli from this study may be downloaded from mc.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:19487750

Yap, Foong Ha; Chu, Patrick Chun Kau; Yiu, Emily Sze Man; Wong, Stella Fay; Kwan, Stella Wing Man; Matthews, Stephen; Tan, Li Hai; Li, Ping; Shirai, Yasuhiro

2009-07-01

361

Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

2014-05-01

362

Human-computer interaction: input devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

All aspects of human-computer interaction, from the high-level concerns of organizational context and system requirements to the conceptual, semantic, syntactic, and lexical levels of user interface design, are ultimately funneled through physical input and output actions and devices. The fundamental task in computer input is to move information from the brain of the user to the computer. Progress in this

Robert J. K. Jacob

1996-01-01

363

Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

364

Parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined parent-child interactions and parent characteristics in families of nonproblem children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with lower (ADHD-LOD) and higher (ADHD-HOD) levels of oppositional-defiant behavior. Families of ADHD children were recruited from a parent training program. Observed and parent-reported child behavior problems were highest in the ADHD-HOD group. Observed parent behavior revealed few differences, but

Charlotte Johnston

1996-01-01

365

Study of the characteristics of La sup 139 emulsion interactions at 1. 2A GeV  

SciTech Connect

La{sup 139} interactions at 1.2A GeV are studied in an emulsion stack exposed at Bevalac (Berkeley). The results on interaction cross-section and mean free path are discussed in the light of geometrical model and compared with the corresponding results from interactions of other projectiles over a wide range of mass (1 to 139). Various multiplicities, multiplicity distributions, multiplicity correlations, angular distributions and rapidity-density distributions are studied and compared with other projectiles.

Gil, A.; Bhalla, K.B.; Kumar, V.; Lokanathan, S.; Palsania, H.S.; Shukla, V.S.. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (IN)); Bhasin, A.; Gupta, V.K.; Kitroo, S.; Mangotra, L.K.; Rao, N.K. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Jammu, Jammu-180001 (IN))

1990-02-20

366

Processing of lexical stress cues by young children.  

PubMed

Although infants learn an impressive amount about their native-language phonological system by the end of the first year of life, after the first year children still have much to learn about how acoustic dimensions cue linguistic categories in fluent speech. The current study investigated what children have learned about how the acoustic dimension of pitch indicates the location of the stressed syllable in familiar words. Preschoolers (2.5- to 5-year-olds) and adults were tested on their ability to use lexical-stress cues to identify familiar words. Both age groups saw pictures of a bunny and a banana and heard versions of "bunny" and "banana" in which stress either was indicated normally with convergent cues (pitch, duration, amplitude, and vowel quality) or was manipulated such that only pitch differentiated the words' initial syllables. Adults (n=48) used both the convergent cues and the isolated pitch cue to identify the target words as they unfolded. Children (n=206) used the convergent stress cues but not pitch alone in identifying words. We discuss potential reasons for children's difficulty in exploiting isolated pitch cues to stress despite children's early sensitivity to pitch in language. These findings contribute to a view in which phonological development progresses toward the adult state well past infancy. PMID:24705094

Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

2014-07-01

367

Multimodal lexical processing in auditory cortex is literacy skill dependent.  

PubMed

Literacy is a uniquely human cross-modal cognitive process wherein visual orthographic representations become associated with auditory phonological representations through experience. Developmental studies provide insight into how experience-dependent changes in brain organization influence phonological processing as a function of literacy. Previous investigations show a synchrony-dependent influence of letter presentation on individual phoneme processing in superior temporal sulcus; others demonstrate recruitment of primary and associative auditory cortex during cross-modal processing. We sought to determine whether brain regions supporting phonological processing of larger lexical units (monosyllabic words) over larger time windows is sensitive to cross-modal information, and whether such effects are literacy dependent. Twenty-two children (age 8-14 years) made rhyming judgments for sequentially presented word and pseudoword pairs presented either unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) or cross-modally (audiovisual). Regression analyses examined the relationship between literacy and congruency effects (overlapping orthography and phonology vs. overlapping phonology-only). We extend previous findings by showing that higher literacy is correlated with greater congruency effects in auditory cortex (i.e., planum temporale) only for cross-modal processing. These skill effects were specific to known words and occurred over a large time window, suggesting that multimodal integration in posterior auditory cortex is critical for fluent reading. PMID:23588185

McNorgan, Chris; Awati, Neha; Desroches, Amy S; Booth, James R

2014-09-01

368

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2011-01-01

369

ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency  

PubMed Central

The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2013-01-01

370

Effects of prediction and contextual support on lexical processing: Prediction takes precedence.  

PubMed

Readers may use contextual information to anticipate and pre-activate specific lexical items during reading. However, prior studies have not clearly dissociated the effects of accurate lexical prediction from other forms of contextual facilitation such as plausibility or semantic priming. In this study, we measured electrophysiological responses to predicted and unpredicted target words in passages providing varying levels of contextual support. This method was used to isolate the neural effects of prediction from other potential contextual influences on lexical processing. While both prediction and discourse context influenced ERP amplitudes within the time range of the N400, the effects of prediction occurred much more rapidly, preceding contextual facilitation by approximately 100ms. In addition, a frontal, post-N400 positivity (PNP) was modulated by both prediction accuracy and the overall plausibility of the preceding passage. These results suggest a unique temporal primacy for prediction in facilitating lexical access. They also suggest that the frontal PNP may index the costs of revising discourse representations following an incorrect lexical prediction. PMID:25497522

Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

2015-03-01

371

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., "Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil", preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

Boudewyn, Megan A; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y

2012-06-01

372

Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

2013-01-01

373

An fMRI Study of Sentence-Embedded Lexical-Semantic Decision in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical-semantic knowledge is a core language component that undergoes prolonged development throughout childhood and is therefore highly amenable to developmental studies. Most previous lexical-semantic functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been limited to single-word or word-pair tasks, outside a sentence context. Our objective was to investigate…

Moore-Parks, Erin Nicole; Burns, Erin L.; Bazzill, Rebecca; Levy, Sarah; Posada, Valerie; Muller, Ralph-Axel

2010-01-01

374

Processing lexical ambiguity in sentential context: Eye-tracking data from brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged individuals.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to identify general and syndrome-specific deficits in the lexical processing of individuals with non-fluent and fluent aphasia compared to individuals without cognitive, neurological or language impairments. The time course of lexical access, as well as lexical selection and integration was studied using a visual-world paradigm in three groups of Russian speakers: 36 individuals in the control group, 15 individuals with non-fluent aphasia and eight individuals with fluent aphasia. Participants listened to temporarily ambiguous sentences wherein the context biased the interpretation of an ambiguous word toward one of its two meanings. In half of the experimental sentences, a reanalysis was needed upon encountering the disambiguating phrase. The effect of the length of the intervening material between the ambiguous word and the disambiguation point was additionally monitored. All groups of participants showed intact lexical access under slowed speech rate, but non-fluent participants experienced difficulties with timely activation of multiple referents. At later stages of lexical processing, they additionally demonstrated a specific impairment of reanalysis. The deficit in participants with fluent aphasia was not focalized at any specific stage of lexical processing. Rather, the breakdown of lexical processes in fluent aphasia was likely related to difficulties with the inhibition of irrelevant lexical activation, which is further supported by the finding that increased phonological distance between the ambiguous word and ambiguity resolution was influential to the offline performance in this group. PMID:25281888

Laurinavichyute, A K; Ulicheva, A; Ivanova, M V; Kuptsova, S V; Dragoy, O

2014-10-01

375

The Crucial Role of Thiamine in the Development of Syntax and Lexical Retrieval: A Study of Infantile Thiamine Deficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effect of thiamine deficiency during early infancy on the development of syntax and lexical retrieval. We tested syntactic comprehension and production, lexical retrieval abilities and conceptual abilities of 59 children aged 5-7 years who had been fed during their first year of life with a thiamine-deficient milk…

Fattal, Iris; Friedmann, Naama; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

2011-01-01

376

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well documented nor well understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound…

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

377

Durational Properties of Lexical Stress and Grammatical Stress in Nanchang Chinese and Their Implications for Tonal Contrasts  

E-print Network

that the tonal inventory is reduced in lexically stressless syllables, which have shorter rhyme duration. Nanchang is a Gan dialect spoken by about 4 million people in the city of Nanchang in Southeast China (Li 1995). There are five lexical tones in Nanchang...

Liu, Jiang

2010-03-11

378

No Lexical-Prelexical Feedback during Speech Perception or: Is It Time to Stop Playing Those Christmas Tapes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of "Christma?" should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous…

McQueen, James M.; Jesse, Alexandra; Norris, Dennis

2009-01-01

379

Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

2014-01-01

380

A challenging dissociation in masked identity priming with the lexical decision task.  

PubMed

The masked priming technique has been used extensively to explore the early stages of visual-word recognition. One key phenomenon in masked priming lexical decision is that identity priming is robust for words, whereas it is small/unreliable for nonwords. This dissociation has usually been explained on the basis that masked priming effects are lexical in nature, and hence there should not be an identity prime facilitation for nonwords. We present two experiments whose results are at odds with the assumption made by models that postulate that identity priming is purely lexical, and also challenge the assumption that word and nonword responses are based on the same information. Our experiments revealed that for nonwords, but not for words, matched-case identity PRIME-TARGET pairs were responded to faster than mismatched-case identity prime-TARGET pairs, and this phenomenon was not modulated by the lowercase/uppercase feature similarity of the stimuli. PMID:24525167

Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gómez, Pablo

2014-05-01

381

Facilitated lexical ambiguity processing by transcranial direct current stimulation over the left inferior frontal cortex.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that the left inferior frontal cortex is involved in the resolution of lexical ambiguities for language comprehension. In this study, we hypothesized that processing of lexical ambiguities is improved when the excitability of the left inferior frontal cortex is enhanced. To test the hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We investigated the effect of anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex on behavioral indexes for semantic judgment on lexically ambiguous and unambiguous words within a context. Supporting the hypothesis, the RT was shorter in the anodal tDCS session than in the sham session for ambiguous words. The results suggest that controlled semantic retrieval and contextual selection were facilitated by anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex. PMID:25208744

Ihara, Aya S; Mimura, Takanori; Soshi, Takahiro; Yorifuji, Shiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Yoshinime, Toshiki; Umehara, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Norio

2015-01-01

382

The Effectiveness of Social Stories[TM] to Develop Social Interactions with Adults with Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research into the effectiveness of Social Stories has focused on children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examines the use of Social Stories with four adults with learning disabilities and social communication impairments characteristic of ASD. This study employed an N = 1 multiple-baseline, across-participant, AB design with…

Samuels, Rachel; Stansfield, Jois

2012-01-01

383

When a Stone Tries to Climb up a Slope: The Interplay between Lexical and Perceptual Animacy in Referential Choices  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that referential choices are influenced by animacy. On the one hand, animate referents are more likely to be mentioned as subjects than inanimate referents. On the other hand, animate referents are more frequently pronominalized than inanimate referents. These effects have been analyzed as effects of conceptual accessibility. In this paper, we raise the question whether these effects are driven only by lexical concepts, such that referents described by animate lexical items (e.g., “toddler”) are more accessible than referents described by inanimate lexical items (e.g., “shoe”), or can also be influenced by context-derived conceptualizations, such that referents that are perceived as animate in a particular context are more accessible than referents that are not. In two animation-retelling experiments, conducted in Dutch, we investigated the influence of lexical and perceptual animacy on the choice of referent and the choice of referring expression. If the effects of animacy are context-dependent, entities that are perceived as animate should yield more subject references and more pronouns than entities that are perceived as inanimate, irrespective of their lexical animacy. If the effects are tied to lexical concepts, entities described with animate lexical items should be mentioned as the subject and pronominalized more frequently than entities described with inanimate lexical items, irrespective of their perceptual animacy. The results show that while only lexical animacy appears to affect the choice of subject referent, perceptual animacy may overrule lexical animacy in the choice of referring expression. These findings suggest that referential choices can be influenced by conceptualizations based on the perceptual context. PMID:23554600

Vogels, Jorrig; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons

2013-01-01

384

N400 to lexical ambiguity and semantic incongruity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Our previous work showed a semantic bias in interpreting ambiguous words in schizophrenia, with disproportionate misinterpretation of subordinate meanings (toast at a wedding). We proposed pre-selection in schizophrenia of dominant-meaning networks at points of lexical ambiguity, thereby misleading thought. This selection bias may be due to semantic memory hyper-priming causing strong associates to dominate cognition. Alternately, later verbal memory maintenance failure may cause weaker associates to fade more quickly than stronger associates from memory due to less initial activation. To further examine this semantic bias, patients and controls were presented short 4 word long sentences (The toast was buttered). The second word was a homograph or unambiguous noun. The last word disambiguated homographs (dominant or subordinate meaning) or was congruent or incongruent with unambiguous nouns. Previously, we showed increasingly larger N400 from unambiguous associates to dominate associates to subordinate associates to unambiguous non-associates in controls. Pre-selection of dominant meanings predicts that schizophrenia patients would show small N400 to dominant associates and as large N400 to subordinate associates as to incongruous endings. Here, controls again showed graded N400 amplitudes. Patients with schizophrenia showed small N400 to congruent and dominant endings and large N400 to subordinate and incongruous endings. These data suggest early pre-selection of dominant associates in schizophrenia. This effect is unlikely solely due to verbal memory maintenance failure, as patients were able to detect incongruity, albeit with a smaller N400 effect, and displayed generally larger N400 to all stimuli. These results suggest alterations in semantic memory associative networks coupled with verbal working memory maintenance decay in schizophrenia. PMID:19819269

Salisbury, Dean

2010-02-01

385

Modeling on the Momentum and Heat\\/Mass Transfer Characteristics of an Argon Plasma Jet Issuing into Air Surroundings and Interacting with a Counter-Injected Argon Jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling study is performed to reveal the momentum and heat\\/mass transfer characteristics of a turbulent or laminar plasma\\u000a reactor consisting of an argon plasma jet issuing into ambient air and interacting with a co-axially counter-injected argon\\u000a jet. The combined-diffusion-coefficient method and the turbulence-enhanced combined-diffusion-coefficient method are employed\\u000a to treat the diffusion of argon in the argon–air mixture for the laminar

Hai-Xing WangXi; Xi Chen; He-Ping Li

2011-01-01

386

On the solidification of dendritic arrays: selection of the tip characteristics of slender needle crystals by array interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a unique solution to the well known indeterminacy for Ivantsov dendrites [Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR,58, 567 (1947)] by considering the directional solidification of a binary alloy as an array of interacting needle crystal dendrites. From the results of an asymptotic theory for the steady-state solidification of slender needle crystal arrays, the shape of the dendrite can be obtained

B. J. Spencer; H. E. Huppert

1998-01-01

387

Characteristics of Academic Language Register Occurring in Caretaker-Child Interaction: Development and Validation of a Coding Scheme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at validating a coding scheme designed to investigate the precursors of academic language occurring in early caretaker-child interactions. Exposure to the academic dimensions of language is an important asset for children to be successful in academic settings. The proposed analytical framework, based on systemic functional…

Aarts, Rian; Demir, Serpil; Vallen, Ton

2011-01-01

388

Amplified terminal protection assay of small molecule/protein interactions via a highly characteristic solid-state Ag/AgCl process.  

PubMed

In this work, we describe a new sensitive strategy for electrochemical detection of protein via small molecule/protein interactions. This assay is based on a terminal protection mechanism that small molecule-linked single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is protected against hydrolysis by exonuclease I when the target protein is captured by the corresponding small molecule recognition element. Positively charged gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attached to the termini-protected and negatively charged ssDNA through electrostatic interactions. Subsequent AuNP-catalyzed silver enhancement followed by a highly characteristic and sensitive solid-state Ag/AgCl process is introduced to the sensing platform to amplify the signal output. By combining the amplification ability resulting from the silver deposition on the surface-captured AuNPs with the inherent high sensitivity of the electrochemical solid-state Ag/AgCl process, our method expands its range to the detection of macromolecules that bind to specific small molecules and enables low picomolar detection of protein. As a model of biotin/streptavidin interaction, a detection limit of 10 pM for streptavidin is readily achieved with desirable sensitivity and specificity, which indicates that the terminal protection assay coupled with the electrochemical solid-state Ag/AgCl process can offer a promising platform for the determination of various of types of proteins or small molecule-protein interactions. PMID:23274192

Wang, Qiong; Jiang, Bingying; Xu, Jin; Xie, Jiaqing; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

2013-05-15

389

On the structure, interaction, and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slender wing vortex flows at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds were investigated in a 6 x 6 ft wind tunnel. Test data obtained include off-body and surface flow visualizations, wing upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The results reveal the transition from the low-speed classical vortex regime to the transonic regime, beginning at a freestream Mach number of 0.60, where vortices coexist with shock waves. It is shown that the onset of core breakdown and the progression of core breakdown with the angle of attack were sensitive to the Mach number, and that the shock effects at transonic speeds were reduced by the interaction of the wing and the lead-edge extension (LEX) vortices. The vortex strengths and direct interaction of the wing and LEX cores (cores wrapping around each other) were found to diminish at transonic and supersonic speeds.

Erickson, Gary E.; Schreiner, John A.; Rogers, Lawrence W.

1989-01-01

390

Interactions Among DUI Offender Characteristics and Traditional Intervention Modalities: a long-term recidivism follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using long-term DUI (Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol) arrest recidivism data from a controlled study of DUI intervention effectiveness, interactions among DUI interventions, age, race, education, and alcohol severity were estimated using logit analysis. Data were collected in a 9-year follow-up study of the Mississippi DUI Probation Project. The effects of short-term interventions (alcohol education schools for low

ELISABETH WELLS-PARKER; BRADLEY J. ANDERSON; DAVID L. McMILLEN; JAMES W. LANDRUM

1989-01-01

391

CHARACTERISTICS OF KINEMATICS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DURING THE 2010 AUGUST 1 CME-CME INTERACTION EVENT  

SciTech Connect

We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and heliospheric imager (HI) data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field of view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; {approx}700 km s{sup -1}). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2, suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Flor, Olga [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan; Zic, Tomislav [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); De Koning, Curt A. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Liu, Ying [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bosman, Eckhard [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Davies, Jackie A.; Bothmer, Volker [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Harrison, Richard [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Nitta, Nariaki [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Centre, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1191 (United States); Bisi, Mario [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Eastwood, Jonathan; Forsyth, Robert [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.at [Computational and Data Sciences, George Mason University/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-04-10

392

Effect of structural characteristics distribution on strength demand and ductility reduction factor of MDOF systems considering soil-structure interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that structural stiffness and strength distributions have an important role in the seismic response of buildings. The effect of using different code-specified lateral load patterns on the seismic performance of fixed-base buildings has been investigated by researchers during the past two decades. However, no investigation has yet been carried out for the case of soil-structure systems. In the present study, through intensive parametric analyses of 21,600 linear and nonlinear MDOF systems and considering five different shear strength and stiffness distribution patterns, including three code-specified patterns as well as uniform and concentric patterns subjected to a group of earthquakes recorded on alluvium and soft soils, the effect of structural characteristics distribution on the strength demand and ductility reduction factor of MDOF fixed-base and soil-structure systems are parametrically investigated. The results of this study show that depending on the level of inelasticity, soil flexibility and number of degrees-of-freedoms (DOFs), structural characteristics distribution can significantly affect the strength demand and ductility reduction factor of MDOF systems. It is also found that at high levels of inelasticity, the ductility reduction factor of low-rise MDOF soil-structure systems could be significantly less than that of fixed-base structures and the reduction is less pronounced as the number of stories increases.

Ganjavi, Behnoud; Hao, Hong

2012-03-01

393

Bigram frequency, number of syllables and morphemes and their effects on lexical decision and word naming.  

PubMed

There has been an increasing volume of evidence supporting the role of the syllable in word processing tasks. Recently it has also been shown that orthographic redundancy, related to the pattern of bigram frequencies, could not explain the syllable number effect on lexical decision times. This was demonstrated on a large sample of words taken from the British Lexicon Project. In this study we extend this research by examining both lexical decision and word naming times taken from the English Lexicon Project. There was a syllable number effect for both tasks in the expected direction, and this effect was independent of the presence of a bigram trough. The research also examined the role of other bigram related variables and the number of morphemes on lexical decision and word naming times. The number of morphemes had a significant effect on both word processing tasks, with words with more morphemes producing faster reaction times and also fewer errors. This pattern was reversed for nonword lexical decision times. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in models of reading. PMID:23613200

Muncer, Steven J; Knight, David; Adams, John W

2014-06-01

394

Effect of Syllable Congruency in Sixth Graders in the Lexical Decision Task with Masked Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the syllable in visual recognition of French words in Grade 6. To do so, the syllabic congruency effect was examined in the lexical decision task combined with masked priming. Target words were preceded by pseudoword primes sharing the first letters that either corresponded to the syllable…

Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

2012-01-01

395

Second Language Idiom Learning: The Effects of Lexical Knowledge and Pedagogical Sequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the acquisition of Spanish idioms in a classroom setting that was supplemented with explicit instruction over a 10-week period. The research design manipulated two variables: prior lexical knowledge and idiom organization. Sixty-five second language (L2) learners completed pre- and posttests that measured their ability to…

Zyzik, Eve

2011-01-01

396

Functional lateralization of lexical stress representation: a systematic review of patient data.  

PubMed

According to the functional lateralization hypothesis (FLH) the lateralization of speech prosody depends both on its function (linguistic = left, emotional = right) and on the size of the units it operates on (small = left, large = right). In consequence, according to the FLH, lexical stress should be processed by the left (language-dominant) hemisphere, given its linguistic function and small unit size. We performed an exhaustive search for case studies of patients with acquired dysprosody due to unilateral brain damage. In contrast to previous reviews we only regarded dysprosody at the lexical level (excluding phrasal stress). Moreover, we focused on the representational stage of lexical stress processing, excluding more peripheral perceptual or motor deficits. Applying these criteria, we included nine studies reporting on 11 patients. All of these patients showed representational deficits in word stress processing following a lesion in their language-dominant hemisphere. In 9 out of 11 patients, it was the left hemisphere which was affected. This is a much more consistent pattern as found in previous reviews, in which less rigorous inclusion criteria may have blurred the pattern of results. We conclude that the representation of lexical stress crucially relies on the functioning of the language-dominant (mostly left) hemisphere. PMID:24782813

Häuser, Katja; Domahs, Frank

2014-01-01

397

A Comparison of Word Lexicality in the Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research programme was to evaluate the role of word lexicality in effecting phonological change in children's sound systems. Four children with functional speech sound disorders (SSDs) were enrolled in an across-subjects multiple baseline single-subject design; two were treated using high-frequency real words (RWs) and two were…

Cummings, Alycia E.; Barlow, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

398

Lexical and Child-Related Factors in Word Variability and Accuracy in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effects of lexical age of acquisition (AoA), phonological complexity, age and expressive vocabulary on spoken word variability and accuracy in typically developing infants, aged 1;9-3;1. It was hypothesized that later-acquired words and those with more complex speech sounds would be produced more variably and…

Macrae, Toby

2013-01-01

399

Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: pressure, select, adapt, need, and must. We utilized a new technological tool known as the Assessment Cascade System (ACS) to investigate the frequency with which biology majors spontaneously used lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations, as well as their definitions and explanations of what they meant when they used such terms. Three categories of language were identified and examined in this study: terms with Dual Ambiguity, Incompatible Ambiguity, and Unintended Ambiguity. In the sample of 1282 initial evolutionary explanations, 81 % of students spontaneously incorporated lexically ambiguous language at least once. Furthermore, the majority of these initial responses were judged to be inaccurate from a scientific point of view. While not significantly related to gender, age, or reading/writing ability, students' use of contextually appropriate evolutionary language ( pressure and adapt) was significantly associated with academic performance in biology. Comparisons of initial responses to follow-up responses demonstrated that the majority of student explanations were not reinterpreted after consideration of the follow-up response; nevertheless, a sizeable minority was interpreted differently. Most cases of interpretation change were a consequence of resolving initially ambiguous responses, rather than a change of accuracy, resulting in an increased understanding of students' evolutionary explanations. We discuss a series of implications of lexical ambiguity for evolution education.

Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

2013-06-01

400

Depth of Lexical Knowledge among Bilingual Children: The Impact of Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of studies examining the language and literacy skills of second generation immigrant bilingual children have focused on the breadth of lexical knowledge in populations with a low level of involvement in literacy activities. This study extends previous work in three ways. First, we focused on a sample of second generation immigrant…

Schwartz, Mila; Katzir, Tami

2012-01-01

401

From Sound to Syntax: Phonological Constraints on Children's Lexical Categorization of New Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality--an aggregate measure of the relationship between the…

Fitneva, Stanka A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-01-01

402

A Lexical Comparison of Signs from Icelandic and Danish Sign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a comparison of lexical items in the vocabulary of Icelandic and Danish sign languages prompted by anecdotal reports of similarity and historical records detailing close contact between the two communities. Drawing on previous studies, including Bickford (2005), McKee and Kennedy (1998, 2000a, 2000b) and Parkhurst and…

Aldersson, Russell R.; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa J.

2008-01-01

403

Structural Correlates for Lexical Efficiency and Number of Languages in Non-Native Speakers of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers.…

Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M. L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J.

2012-01-01

404

Traditional vs. Virtual Learning: Does It Make a Difference? ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexical Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents survey data from English Philology students (University of Granada) on a virtual course entitled ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexis--which was carried out in 2007-08 to enhance vocabulary acquisition. In the first part of this paper, we briefly offer a description of this second generation virtual course to enhance lexical

Jaen, Maria Moreno

2009-01-01

405

Les petits soucis ne poussent plus dans le champ lexical des sentiments  

E-print Network

Les petits soucis ne poussent plus dans le champ lexical des sentiments Alain Polguère Université de Lorraine & CNRS, ATILF Introduction �motions, sentiments, états affectifs, etc., sont autant de'inverse, se pencher en tout premier lieu sur le vocabulaire lié à la dénotation des sentiments dans les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Short-term retention of lexical-semantic representations: Implications for speech production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with semantic STM deficits have difficulty comprehending sentences that require the retention of several lexical-semantic representations prior to their integration into higher-level propositions (Martin, 1995; Martin & Romani, 1994). In Experiment 1, patients with a semantic retention deficit had difficulty with the same type of constructions in speech production, namely noun phrases with one or two prenominal adjectives. Their

Randi C. Martin; Monica L. Freedman

2001-01-01

407

Phonemic Repetition and the Learning of Lexical Chunks: The Power of Assonance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of lexical chunks correlates positively with L2 proficiency. However, high estimates of the number of chunks in natural language have led to scepticism about the feasibility of large-scale chunk-learning on non-intensive, classroom-based courses. Furthermore, few proposals for chunk-teaching have looked beyond the noticing stage. One…

Lindstromberg, Seth; Boers, Frank

2008-01-01

408

Heating up or cooling up the brain? MEG evidence that phrasal verbs are lexical units.  

PubMed

There is a considerable linguistic debate on whether phrasal verbs (e.g., turn up, break down) are processed as two separate words connected by a syntactic rule or whether they form a single lexical unit. Moreover, views differ on whether meaning (transparency vs. opacity) plays a role in determining their syntactically-connected or lexical status. As linguistic arguments could not settle these issues, we used neurophysiological brain imaging to address them. Applying a multi-feature Mismatch Negativity (MMN) design with subjects instructed to ignore speech stimuli, we recorded magnetic brain responses to particles (up, down) auditorily presented as infrequent "deviant" stimuli in the context of frequently occurring verb "standard" stimuli. Already at latencies below 200ms, magnetic brain responses were larger to particles appearing in existing phrasal verbs (e.g. rise up) than to particles appearing in non-existing combinations (e.g. ?fall up), regardless of whether particles carried a literal or metaphorical sense (e.g. rise up, heat up). Previous research found an enhanced MMN response to morphemes in existing (as opposed to non-existing) words but a reduced MMN to words in grammatically acceptable (as opposed to unacceptable) combinations. The increased brain activation to particles in real phrasal verbs reported here is consistent with the lexical enhancement but inconsistent with the syntactic reduction of the MMN, thus providing neurophysiological support that a congruent verb-particle sequence is not assembled syntactically but rather accessed as a single lexical chunk. PMID:21030069

Cappelle, Bert; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2010-12-01

409

Sandwich Priming: A Method for Overcoming the Limitations of Masked Priming by Reducing Lexical Competitor Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An orthographically similar masked nonword prime facilitates responding in a lexical decision task (Forster & Davis, 1984). Recently, this masked priming paradigm has been used to evaluate models of orthographic coding--models that attempt to quantify prime-target similarity. One general finding is that priming effects often do not occur when…

Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

2009-01-01

410

The Production of Pronominal Clitics: Implications for Theories of Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments we investigated the locus of the frequency effect in lexical access and the mechanism of gender feature selection. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to produce gender-marked verb plus pronominal clitic utterances in Italian (e.g., "portalo" (bring it [masculine]) in response to a written verb and pictured object. We…

Finocchiaro, Chiara; Caramazza, Alfonso

2006-01-01

411

Masked Priming with Orthographic Neighbors: A Test of the Lexical Competition Assumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In models of visual word identification that incorporate inhibitory competition among activated lexical units, a word's higher frequency neighbors will be the word's strongest competitors. Preactivation of these neighbors by a prime is predicted to delay the word's identification. Using the masked priming paradigm (K. I. Forster & C. Davis, 1984,…

Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

412

Lexical Competition is Enhanced in the Left Hemisphere: Evidence from Different Types of Orthographic Neighbors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in orthographic neighborhood effects. In Experiment 1, we employed two types of words: words with many substitution neighbors (high-"N") and words with few substitution neighbors (low-"N"). Results showed a facilitative effect of…

Perea, Manuel; Acha, Joana; Fraga, Isabel

2008-01-01

413

Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

Burton, Graham

2013-01-01

414

Lexical Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presence or absence of clinically delayed language development prior to 3 years of age is a key, but contentious, clinical feature distinguishing autism from Asperger's disorder. The aim of this study was to examine language processing in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD) using a task which taps lexical

Speirs, Samantha; Yelland, Greg; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce

2011-01-01

415

When Variability Matters More than Meaning: The Effect of Lexical Forms on Use of Phonemic Contrasts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the first half of the 2nd year of life, infants struggle to use phonemic distinctions in label-object association tasks. Prior experiments have demonstrated that exposure to the phonemes in distinct lexical forms (e.g., /"d"/ and /"t"/ in "daddy" and "tiger", respectively) facilitates infants' use of phonemic contrasts but also that they…

Thiessen, Erik D.

2011-01-01

416

Lexical and Clause-Linkage Properties of the Converbal Constructions in Sakha (Yakut)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis is a comprehensive study of lexical and clause-linkage properties of converbs in an underdescribed language, Sakha (aka Yakut). Following Haspelmath (1995b) a converb is defined as a non-finite verb form which mainly indicates an adverbial subordination. Converbs are attested in diverse languages of the world, but are used extensively…

Petrova, Nyurguyana

2011-01-01

417

Sensitivity to Lexical Stress in Dyslexia: A Case of Cognitive Not Perceptual Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensitivity to lexical stress in adult German-speaking students with reading difficulty was investigated using minimal pair prepositional verbs whose meaning and syntax depend on the location of the stressed syllable. Two tests of stress perception were used: (i) a stress location task, where listeners indicated the location of the perceptually…

Barry, Johanna G.; Harbodt, Silke; Cantiani, Chiara; Sabisch, Beate; Zobay, Oliver

2012-01-01

418

What Is Morphological Awareness? Tapping Lexical Compounding Awareness in Chinese Third Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred twenty-one third-grade Chinese children were assessed with a new morphological awareness task involving open-ended lexical compounding, in addition to completing other measures. With children's age, nonverbal intelligence, phonological awareness, and previously established measures of morphological awareness statistically controlled,…

Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2010-01-01

419

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ensembles of Decision Trees in Disambiguating Senseval Lexical Samples  

E-print Network

function words as features. For example, if the target word is water and the training example is I water is an ensemble approach that assigns a sense to an instance of an ambiguous word by taking a vote among three with the target word. Each view of the training examples is based on one of the fol­ lowing three types of lexical

Pedersen, Ted

420

On the Meaning of Words and Dinosaur Bones: Lexical Knowledge Without a Lexicon  

E-print Network

On the Meaning of Words and Dinosaur Bones: Lexical Knowledge Without a Lexicon Jeffrey L. Elman to Hebb's (1949) paleontologist, who uses his beliefs and knowledge about dinosaurs in conjunction- tologist, and the dinosaur, to the meaning conveyed through these clues. (p. 140) David Rumelhart (1979) 1

Elman, Jeff

421

Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

2015-01-01

422

Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

423

Phonology, Decoding, and Lexical Compensation in Vowel Spelling Errors Made by Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive study of vowel spelling errors made by children first diagnosed with dyslexia (n = 79) revealed that phonological errors, such as "bet" for "bat", outnumbered orthographic errors, such as "bate" for "bait". These errors were more frequent in nonwords than words, suggesting that lexical context helps with vowel spelling. In a second…

Bernstein, Stuart E.

2009-01-01

424

Classroom success of an intelligent tutoring system for lexical practice and reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an intelligent tutoring system called REAP that provides reader-specific lexical practice for improved reading comprehension. REAP offers individualized practice to students by presenting authentic and appropriate reading materials selected automatically from the web. We encountered a number of challenges that must be met in order for the system to be effective in a classroom setting. These include general

Michael Heilman; Kevyn Collins-Thompson; Jamie Callan; Maxine Eskenazi

2006-01-01

425

The Mental Space Function of BUT as a Lexical Discourse Marker in American Sign Language Lectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation centers on the application of the mental space theory to expand our understanding of the role lexical discourse markers (LDMs) play in discourse. LDMs have been recognized by many researchers for their discourse connective function(s) (Levinson, 1983; Schiffrin, 1987; Blakemore, 1989, 2000, 2001, 2002; Fraser, 1996, 1999, 2006).…

Garrow, William George

2012-01-01

426

Decomposition into multiple morphemes during lexical access: A masked priming study of Russian nouns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) transparent, in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the diminutive suffix -k, e.g., gorka ‘little mountain’ –

Nina Kazanina; Galina Dukova-Zheleva; Dana Geber; Viktor Kharlamov; Keren Tonciulescu

2008-01-01

427

Lexical-Semantic Organization in Bilingual Children: Evidence from a Repeated Word Association Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined lexical-semantic organization of bilingual children in their 2 languages and in relation to monolingual age-mates. Method: Twelve Mandarin-English bilingual and 12 English monolingual children generated 3 associations to each of 36 words. Responses were coded as paradigmatic ("dog-cat") or syntagmatic ("dog-bark").…

Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.; Marian, Viorica

2006-01-01

428

Cross-Language Mediated Priming: Effects of Context and Lexical Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined how linguistic context influences the nature of bilingual lexical activation. We hypothesized that in single-word context, form-related words would receive the strongest activation while, in sentence context, semantically related words would receive the strongest activation. Spanish-English bilinguals performed a semantic verification…

Schwartz, Ana I.; Areas Da Luz Fontes, Ana B.

2008-01-01

429

Is the Tanzanian Ngoni Language Threatened? A Survey of Lexical Borrowing from Swahili  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tanzania's post-independence language policy has promoted Swahili as a means of achieving national and linguistic unity. This policy has affected the Ngoni language in south-western Tanzania. Today, Swahili has permeated communication all over Tanzania, even in rural and remote areas. This paper discusses lexical borrowing and especially…

Rosendal, Tove; Mapunda, Gastor

2014-01-01

430

When Does Native Language Input Affect Phonetic Perception? The Precocious Case of Lexical Tone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that the perception of vowels and consonants changes from language-universal to language-specific between 6 and 12 months of age. This report suggests that language-specific perception emerges even earlier for lexical tones. Experiment 1 tested English-learners' perception of Cantonese tones, replicating declines in…

Yeung, H. Henny; Chen, Ke Heng; Werker, Janet F.

2013-01-01

431

Effect of Prefrontal Cortex Damage on Resolving Lexical Ambiguity in Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The function of suppression of context-inappropriate meanings during lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in 25 adults with prefrontal cortex damage (PFCD) localized to the left (N = 8), right (N = 6), or bilaterally (N = 11); and 21 matched Controls. Results revealed unexpected inverse patterns of suppression between PFCD and Control groups,…

Frattali, Carol; Hanna, Rebecca; McGinty, Anita Shukla; Gerber, Lynn; Wesley, Robert; Grafman, Jordan; Coelho, Carl

2007-01-01

432

A Joint Learning Model of Word Segmentation, Lexical Acquisition, and Phonetic Variability  

E-print Network

A Joint Learning Model of Word Segmentation, Lexical Acquisition, and Phonetic Variability Micha and learns an explicit model of phonetic variation. We define the model as a Bayesian noisy channel; we infant learners, tends to learn multiword collocations. We also conduct analyses of the phonetic

Edinburgh, University of

433

THE PHONETIC EVOLUTION OF REDUPLICATED EXPRESSIONS: REDUPLICATION, LEXICAL TONES AND PROSODY IN NA (NAXI)  

E-print Network

THE PHONETIC EVOLUTION OF REDUPLICATED EXPRESSIONS: REDUPLICATION, LEXICAL TONES AND PROSODY IN NA in the other cases. The facts are set out in section 2. Our research brings out a phonetic similarity between of phonetic factors which are still observable in synchrony. The phonetic variation of some of the tones

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Adding phonetic similarity data to a lexical database Ruli Manurung (maruli@cs.ui.ac.id)  

E-print Network

Adding phonetic similarity data to a lexical database Ruli Manurung (maruli@cs.ui.ac.id) University, synonymy, hyponymy, etc., we have added various enhancements, including phonetic similarity ratings a notion of phonetic similarity, so that puns could be made using words which were similar, not simply

Ritchie, Graeme

435

Probabilistic Constraint Satisfaction at the Lexical/Phonetic Interface: Evidence for  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Constraint Satisfaction at the Lexical/Phonetic Interface: Evidence for Gradient. INTRODUCTION The absence of an invariant mapping between the acoustic stream and plau- sible phonetic featuresMurray, Tanenhaus, Aslin, and Spivey Virtually every phonetic feature examined to date has been found to corre- late

DeAngelis, Gregory

436

Parsing the Wall Street Journal using a Lexical-Functional Grammar and Discriminative Estimation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a stochastic parsing system consisting of a Lexical - Functional Gram - mar (LFG), a constraint - based parser and a stochastic disambiguation model We re - port on the results of applying this sys - tem to parsing the UPenn Wall Street Journal (WSJ) treebank The model com - bines full and partial parsing techniques to

Stefan Riezler; Tracy H. King; Ronald M. Kaplan; Richard S. Crouch; John T. Maxwell III; Mark Johnson

2002-01-01

437

Parsing the wall street journal using a Lexical-Functional Grammar and discriminative estimation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a stochastic parsing system consisting of a Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG), a constraint-based parser and a stochastic disambiguation model. We report on the results of applying this system to parsing the UPenn Wall Street Journal (WSJ) treebank. The model combines full and partial parsing techniques to reach full grammar coverage on unseen data. The treebank annotations are used to

Stefan Riezler; Tracy H. King; Ronald M. Kaplan; Richard Crouch; John T. III maxwell; Mark Johnson

2001-01-01

438

Lexical Collocation and Topic Occurrence in Well-Written Editorials: A Study in Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the concept of lexical collocation, or relationships between words, a study was conducted based on three assumptions: (1) that a text structure for a unit of discourse was analogous to that existing at the level of the sentence, (2) that such a text form could be discovered if a large enough sample of generically similar texts was…

Addison, James C., Jr.

439

Body Schematics: On the Role of the Body Schema in Embodied Lexical-Semantic Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words denoting manipulable objects activate sensorimotor brain areas, likely reflecting action experience with the denoted objects. In particular, these sensorimotor lexical representations have been found to reflect the way in which an object is used. In the current paper we present data from two experiments (one behavioral and one neuroimaging)…

Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Pfeiffer, Christian; Bekkering, Harold

2010-01-01

440

Lexical and Grammatical Development in a Child with Cochlear Implant and Attention Deficit: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study to explore lexical and grammatical development in a deaf child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive sub-type (ADHDI). The child, whose family language was Spanish, was fitted with a cochlear implant (CI) when she was 18 months old. ADHDI, for which she was prescribed medication, was diagnosed…

Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Torres, Santiago; Santana, Rafael

2010-01-01

441

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

442

Cues for Lexical Tone Perception in Children: Acoustic Correlates and Phonetic Context Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors investigated the effects of acoustic cues (i.e., pitch height, pitch contour, and pitch onset and offset) and phonetic context cues (i.e., syllable onsets and rimes) on lexical tone perception in Cantonese-speaking children. Method: Eight minimum pairs of tonal contrasts were presented in either an identical phonetic context…

Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine; Burnham, Denis

2014-01-01

443

Temporal relation between top-down and bottom-up processing in lexical tone perception  

PubMed Central

Speech perception entails both top-down processing that relies primarily on language experience and bottom-up processing that depends mainly on instant auditory input. Previous models of speech perception often claim that bottom-up processing occurs in an early time window, whereas top-down processing takes place in a late time window after stimulus onset. In this paper, we evaluated the temporal relation of both types of processing in lexical tone perception. We conducted a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments that recruited Mandarin participants and adopted three experimental paradigms, namely dichotic listening, lexical decision with phonological priming, and semantic violation. By systematically analyzing the lateralization patterns of the early and late ERP components that are observed in these experiments, we discovered that: auditory processing of pitch variations in tones, as a bottom-up effect, elicited greater right hemisphere activation; in contrast, linguistic processing of lexical tones, as a top-down effect, elicited greater left hemisphere activation. We also found that both types of processing co-occurred in both the early (around 200 ms) and late (around 300–500 ms) time windows, which supported a parallel model of lexical tone perception. Unlike the previous view that language processing is special and performed by dedicated neural circuitry, our study have elucidated that language processing can be decomposed into general cognitive functions (e.g., sensory and memory) and share neural resources with these functions. PMID:24723863

Shuai, Lan; Gong, Tao

2013-01-01

444

The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

2012-01-01

445

Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

2005-01-01

446

Lexical Selection Is Competitive: Evidence from Indirectly Activated Semantic Associates during Picture Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm,…

Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

2013-01-01

447

Lexical Diversity and Productivity in French Preschoolers: Developmental, Gender and Sociocultural Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of child gender and sociocultural (SCL) factors in language production. Subjects were French Parisian children in nine age groups (24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45 and 48 months). A total of 316 language samples were recorded during a 20-min standardized play session. Measures of grammatical and lexical

Le Normand, Marie-Therese; Parisse, Christophe; Cohen, Henri

2008-01-01

448

Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu  

E-print Network

Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu National Taiwan, the authors examined the acoustic modifications of infant-directed speech (IDS) at the syllable level to test and addressing an adult. The results indicate that IDS does not distort the acoustic cues that are essential

449

From Phonological Recoding to Lexical Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Reading Development in Italian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study we analyse the early phases of reading development in Italian and explore the transition from phonological to lexical reading. A group of 28 Italian children was tested in four phases. Language and cognitive skills were first assessed in the preschool. Reading performance was then tested in three different sessions, in…

Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Tosi, Valeria; De Nigris, Barbara; Carrieri, Roberto

2006-01-01

450

Effects of Prosodic and Lexical Constraints on Parsing in Young Children (and Adults)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing [Trueswell, J.C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N.M., & Logrip, M.L, (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: Studying on-line sentence processing in young children.…

Snedeker, Jesse; Yuan, Sylvia

2008-01-01

451

Putting Lexical Constraints in Context into the Visual-World Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior eye-tracking studies of spoken sentence comprehension have found that the presence of two potential referents, e.g., two frogs, can guide listeners toward a Modifier interpretation of "Put the frog on the napkin..." despite strong lexical biases associated with "Put" that support a Goal interpretation of the temporary ambiguity (Tanenhaus,…

Novick, Jared M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Trueswell, John C.

2008-01-01

452

Decision Lists for Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical ambiguity resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given ambiguity. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies.

David Yarowsky

1994-01-01

453

Input Frequency and Word Truncation in Child Japanese: Structural and Lexical Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research indicates that the statistical properties of the input have an impact on the prosodic shape of young children's word production. However, it is still not clear whether the effects of input statistics emerge from the frequency of prosodic structures or the frequency of individual lexical items. This issue is investigated in this…

Ota, Mitsuhiko

2006-01-01

454

Increased Lexical Activation and Reduced Competition in Second-Language Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how inaccurate phoneme processing affects recognition of partially onset-overlapping pairs like "DAFFOdil-DEFIcit" and of minimal pairs like "flash-flesh" in second-language listening. Two cross-modal priming experiments examined differences between native (L1) and second-language (L2) listeners at two stages of lexical

Broersma, Mirjam

2012-01-01

455

The SALSA Corpus: a German corpus resource for lexical semantics Aljoscha Burchardt, Katrin Erk, Anette Frank,  

E-print Network

The SALSA Corpus: a German corpus resource for lexical semantics Aljoscha Burchardt, Katrin Erk, pado, pinkal}@coli.uni-sb.de Abstract This paper describes the SALSA corpus, a large German corpus manually annotated with role-semantic information, based on the syntactically annotated TIGER newspaper

Padó, Sebastian

456

Italians Use Abstract Knowledge about Lexical Stress during Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two eye-tracking experiments in Italian, we investigated how acoustic information and stored knowledge about lexical stress are used during the recognition of tri-syllabic spoken words. Experiment 1 showed that Italians use acoustic cues to a word's stress pattern rapidly in word recognition, but only for words with antepenultimate stress.…

Sulpizio, Simone; McQueen, James M.

2012-01-01

457

Cross-Linguistic Perception and Learning of Japanese Lexical Prosody by English Listeners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this dissertation is on how language experience shapes perception of a non-native prosodic contrast. In Tokyo Japanese, fundamental frequency (F0) peak and fall are acoustic cues to lexically contrastive pitch patterns, in which a word may be accented on a particular syllable or unaccented (e.g., "tsuru" "a crane", "tsuru" "a vine",…

Shport, Irina A.

2011-01-01

458

The Independent Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Acquisition by Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research was to disentangle effects of phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, and neighbourhood density, the number of phonologically similar words, in lexical acquisition. Two-word learning experiments were conducted with 4-year-old children. Experiment 1 manipulated phonotactic probability…

Storkel, Holly L.; Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

459

Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

2005-01-01

460

Attentional Modulation of Lexical Effects on Speech Perception: Computational and Behavioral Experiments  

E-print Network

Attentional Modulation of Lexical Effects on Speech Perception: Computational and Behavioral Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Abstract A number of studies suggest that attention can modulate as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation in the context

Holt, Lori L.

461

The Development of Lexical Bundle Accuracy and Production in English Second Language Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six adult, second language (L2) English learners were observed over a period of one year to explore the development of lexical bundles (i.e., bigrams) in naturally produced, oral English. Total bigrams produced by the L2 learners over the year of observation that were shared with native speakers were compared using a frequency index to explore L2…

Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Thomas Lee

2011-01-01

462

Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the extent to which lexical bundles (LBs; i.e., frequently recurring strings of words that often span traditional syntactic boundaries) are stored and processed holistically. Three self-paced reading experiments compared sentences containing LBs (e.g., "in the middle of the") and matched control sentence fragments (e.g., "in…

Tremblay, Antoine; Derwing, Bruce; Libben, Gary; Westbury, Chris

2011-01-01

463

Computational Assessment of Lexical Differences in L1 and L2 Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how lexical differences related to cohesion and connectionist models can distinguish first language (L1) writers of English from second language (L2) writers of English. Key to this analysis is the use of the computational tool Coh-Metrix, which measures cohesion and text difficulty at…

Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

464

The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

2011-01-01

465

Reading Polymorphemic Dutch Compounds: Toward a Multiple Route Model of Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports an eye-tracking experiment with 2,500 polymorphemic Dutch compounds presented in isolation for visual lexical decision while readers' eye movements were registered. The authors found evidence that both full forms of compounds ("dishwasher") and their constituent morphemes (e.g., "dish," "washer," "er") and morphological…

Kuperman, Victor; Schreuder, Robert; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

2009-01-01

466

The Strength and Time Course of Lexical Activation of Pronunciation Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoken words undergo frequent and often predictable variation in pronunciation. One form of variation is medial \\/t\\/ deletion, in which words like center and cantaloupe are pronounced without acoustic cues indicative of syllable-initial \\/t\\/. Three experiments examined the consequences of this missing phonetic information on lexical activation. In Experiment 1, the Ganong Paradigm (W. F. Ganong, 1980) was used to

Mark A. Pitt

2009-01-01

467

Lexicality and Interference in Working Memory in Children and in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments investigated the impact of the lexical status of memory and processing stimuli on complex memory performance, with the aim of exploring mechanisms of interference in working memory. In a complex memory task, participants recalled words or nonwords while either monitoring words or nonwords for phonological content, or suppressing…

Conlin, Juliet A.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2006-01-01

468

Young Learners and Lexical Awareness: Children's Engagement with Wordlists and Concordances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sinclair (1991) found that lexical analysis can be overcomplicated, yet Johns (1994) called for investigation into whether corpus analysis can motivate beginners and near-beginners. The findings of this research suggest that young EFL learners can enjoy using corpus analysis tools (wordlists and concordances) to identify, classify, and generalize…

MacGregor, Alex

2014-01-01

469

A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

2007-01-01

470

Automatic Detection and Rating of Dementia of Alzheimer Type through Lexical Analysis of  

E-print Network

Automatic Detection and Rating of Dementia of Alzheimer Type through Lexical Analysis's University Abstract-- Current methods of assessing dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) in older adults involve of detecting dementia when compared with a control group, and we achieve 70% accuracy in rating dementia in two

Keselj, Vlado

471

LIFG-Based Attentional Control and the Resolution of Lexical Ambiguities in Sentence Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively…

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2011-01-01

472

Tasty Non-Words and Neighbours: The Cognitive Roots of Lexical-Gustatory Synaesthesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For lexical-gustatory synaesthetes, words trigger automatic, associated food sensations (e.g., for JB, the word "slope" tastes of over-ripe melon). Our study tests two claims about this unusual condition: that synaesthetic tastes are associated with abstract levels of word representation (concepts/lemmas), and that the first tastes to crystallise…

Simner, Julia; Haywood, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

473

Object Interference in Children's Colour and Position Naming: Lexical Interference or Task-Set Competition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cascade models of word production assume that during lexical access all activated concepts activate their names. In line with this view, it has been shown that naming an object's colour is facilitated when colour name and object name are phonologically related (e.g., "blue" and "blouse"). Prevor and Diamond's (2005) recent observation that…

La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke

2010-01-01

474

The Strength and Time Course of Lexical Activation of Pronunciation Variants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken words undergo frequent and often predictable variation in pronunciation. One form of variation is medial /t/ deletion, in which words like "center" and "cantaloupe" are pronounced without acoustic cues indicative of syllable-initial /t/. Three experiments examined the consequences of this missing phonetic information on lexical activation.…

Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

475

The Simultaneous Effects of Inflectional Paradigms and Classes on Lexical Recognition: Evidence from Serbian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigate the relevance of inflectional paradigms and inflectional classes for lexical processing. We provide an information-theoretical measure of the divergence in the frequency distributions of two of the paradigms to which a word simultaneously belongs: the paradigm of the stem and the more general paradigm of the nominal…

Milin, Petar; Filipovic Durdevic, Dusica; Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin

2009-01-01

476

The Interface between Phonetic and Lexical Abilities in Early Cantonese Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Cantonese Communicative Development Inventory (CCDI) is used to review the phonological preferences of younger (16-22 months) and older (23-30 month) groups of children in the lexical items they are reported to be able to say. Analogous results to those found for English emerge from the Cantonese data: the younger group display…

Fletcher, Paul; Chan, Cathy W.-Y.; Wong, Peony T.-T.; Stokes, Stephanie; Tardif, Twila; Leung, Shirley C.-S.

2004-01-01

477

Analysis of the main nuclear-physical characteristics of the interaction of proton beams with heavy metal targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the concept of relativistic heavy-nuclear energy is untenable. Using a large group of different experiments\\u000a in the proton energy range 0.25–70 GeV, it is demonstrated that the high-energy hadron transport program SHIELD, which is\\u000a based on modern nuclear models, has predictive power. The interaction of protons with energy ranging from 0.1 to 100 GeV with\\u000a a

V. F. Batyaev; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; A. Yu. Titarenko; Yu. E. Titarenko; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; B. Yu. Sharkov; N. M. Sobolevskii; V. E. Fortov; N. N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi

2008-01-01

478

The Atypical Response Regulator Protein ChxR Has Structural Characteristics and Dimer Interface Interactions That Are Unique within the OmpR/PhoB Subfamily*  

PubMed Central

Typically as a result of phosphorylation, OmpR/PhoB response regulators form homodimers through a receiver domain as an integral step in transcriptional activation. Phosphorylation stabilizes the ionic and hydrophobic interactions between monomers. Recent studies have shown that some response regulators retain functional activity in the absence of phosphorylation and are termed atypical response regulators. The two currently available receiver domain structures of atypical response regulators are very similar to their phospho-accepting homologs, and their propensity to form homodimers is generally retained. An atypical response regulator, ChxR, from Chlamydia trachomatis, was previously reported to form homodimers; however, the residues critical to this interaction have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the intra- and intermolecular interactions involved in forming a transcriptionally competent ChxR are distinct from the canonical phosphorylation (activation) paradigm in the OmpR/PhoB response regulator subfamily. To test this hypothesis, structural and functional studies were performed on the receiver domain of ChxR. Two crystal structures of the receiver domain were solved with the recently developed method using triiodo compound I3C. These structures revealed many characteristics unique to OmpR/PhoB subfamily members: typical or atypical. Included was the absence of two ?-helices present in all other OmpR/PhoB response regulators. Functional studies on various dimer interface residues demonstrated that ChxR forms relatively stable homodimers through hydrophobic interactions, and disruption of these can be accomplished with the introduction of a charged residue within the dimer interface. A gel shift study with monomeric ChxR supports that dimerization through the receiver domain is critical for interaction with DNA. PMID:21775428

Hickey, John M.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Lei; Middaugh, C. Russell; Hefty, P. Scott

2011-01-01

479

Gamma- and theta-band synchronization during semantic priming reflect local and long-range lexical-semantic networks.  

PubMed

Anterior and posterior brain areas are involved in the storage and retrieval of semantic representations, but it is not known how these areas dynamically interact during semantic processing. We hypothesized that long-range theta-band coherence would reflect coupling of these areas and examined the oscillatory dynamics of lexical-semantic processing using a semantic priming paradigm with a delayed letter-search task while recording subjects' EEG. Time-frequency analysis revealed facilitation of semantic processing for Related compared to Unrelated conditions, which resulted in a reduced N400 and reduced gamma power from 150 to 450ms. Moreover, we observed greater anterior-posterior theta coherence for Unrelated compared to Related conditions over the time windows 150-425ms and 600-900ms. We suggest that while gamma power reflects activation of local functional networks supporting semantic representations, theta coherence indicates dynamic coupling of anterior and posterior areas for retrieval and post-retrieval processing and possibly an interaction between semantic relatedness and working memory. PMID:24135132

Mellem, Monika S; Friedman, Rhonda B; Medvedev, Andrei V

2013-12-01

480

Orthographic Depth and the Interaction of Visual and  

E-print Network

equivalent. Decision reaction time was measured in three experimental conditions: (1) Clear print and clear on the interaction of orthographic and phonetic information in word perception. Native speakers of English and Serbo time to name words than to make lexical decisions in Serbo-Croatian. whereas the opposite was true

481

Putting lexical constraints in context into the visual-world paradigm  

PubMed Central

Prior eye-tracking studies of spoken sentence comprehension (Tanenhaus et al., 1995; Trueswell et al., 1999) have found that the presence of two potential referents, e.g., two frogs, could guide listeners toward a Modifier interpretation of Put the frog on the napkin… despite strong lexical biases associated with Put that support a Goal interpretation of the temporary ambiguity. This pattern is not expected under constraint-based parsing theories: cue conflict between the lexical evidence (which supports the Goal analysis) and the visuo-contextual evidence (which supports the Modifier analysis) should result in uncertainty about the intended analysis and partial consideration of the Goal analysis. We reexamined these put studies (Experiment 1) by introducing a response time-constraint and a spatial contrast between competing referents (a frog on a napkin vs. a frog in a bowl). If listeners immediately interpret on the… as the start of a restrictive modifier, then their eye movements should rapidly converge on the intended referent (the frog on something). However, listeners showed this pattern only when the phrase was unambiguously a modifier (Put the frog that's on the…). Syntactically ambiguous trials resulted in transient consideration of the Competitor animal (the frog in something). A reading study was also run on the same individuals (Experiment 2) and performance was compared between the two experiments. Those individuals who relied heavily on lexical biases to resolve a complement ambiguity in reading (The man heard/realized the story had been…) showed increased sensitivity to both lexical and contextual constraints in the put-task; i.e., increased consideration of the Goal analysis in 1-Referent scenes, but also adeptness at using spatial constraints of prepositions (in vs. on) to restrict referential alternatives in 2-Referent scenes. These findings cross-validate visual world and reading methods and support multiple-constraint theories of sentence processing in which individuals differ in their sensitivity to lexical contingencies. PMID:18279848

Novick, Jared M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Trueswell, John C.

2013-01-01

482

Interplay between morphology and frequency in lexical access: The case of the base frequency effect  

PubMed Central

A major issue in lexical processing concerns storage and access of lexical items. Here we make use of the base frequency effect to examine this. Specifically, reaction time to morphologically complex words (words made up of base and suffix, e.g., agree+able) typically reflects frequency of the base element (i.e., total frequency of all words in which agree appears) rather than surface word frequency (i.e., frequency of agreeable itself). We term these complex words decomposable. However, a class of words termed whole-word do not show such sensitivity to base frequency (e.g., serenity). Using an event-related MRI design, we exploited the fact that processing low-frequency words increases BOLD activity relative to high frequency ones, and examined effects of base frequency on brain activity for decomposable and whole-word items. Morphologically complex words, half high and half low base frequency, were compared to matched high and low frequency simple monomorphemic words using a lexical decision task. Morphologically complex words increased activation in left inferior frontal and left superior temporal cortices versus simple words. The only area to mirror the behavioral distinction between decomposable and whole-word types was the thalamus. Surprisingly, most frequency-sensitive areas failed to show base frequency effects. This variety of responses to frequency and word type across brain areas supports an integrative view of multiple variables during lexical access, rather than a dichotomy between memory-based access and on-line computation. Lexical access appears best captured as interplay of several neural processes with different sensitivities to various linguistic factors including frequency and morphological complexity. PMID:21167136

Vannest, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L.; Newman, Aaron J.; Bavelier, Daphne

2011-01-01

483

Interplay between morphology and frequency in lexical access: the case of the base frequency effect.  

PubMed

A major issue in lexical processing concerns storage and access of lexical items. Here we make use of the base frequency effect to examine this. Specifically, reaction time to morphologically complex words (words made up of base and suffix, e.g., agree+able) typically reflects frequency of the base element (i.e., total frequency of all words in which agree appears) rather than surface word frequency (i.e., frequency of agreeable itself). We term these complex words decomposable. However, a class of words termed whole-word do not show such sensitivity to base frequency (e.g., serenity). Using an event-related MRI design, we exploited the fact that processing low-frequency words increases BOLD activity relative to high frequency ones, and examined effects of base frequency on brain activity for decomposable and whole-word items. Morphologically complex words, half high and half low base frequency, were compared to match high and low frequency simple monomorphemic words using a lexical decision task. Morphologically complex words increased activation in the left inferior frontal and left superior temporal cortices versus simple words. The only area to mirror the behavioral distinction between the decomposable and the whole-word types was the thalamus. Surprisingly, most frequency-sensitive areas failed to show base frequency effects. This variety of responses to frequency and word type across brain areas supports an integrative view of multiple variables during lexical access, rather than a dichotomy between memory-based access and on-line computation. Lexical access appears best captured as interplay of several neural processes with different sensitivities to various linguistic factors including frequency and morphological complexity. PMID:21167136

Vannest, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L; Newman, Aaron J; Bavelier, Daphne

2011-02-10

484

Sun-to-Earth Characteristics of Two Coronal Mass Ejections Interacting Near 1 AU: Formation of a Complex Ejecta and Generation of a Two-step Geomagnetic Storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.; Lugaz, Noé

2014-10-01

485

Myostatin allelic status interacts with level of nutrition to affect growth, composition, and myofiber characteristics of lambs.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine if growth, carcass composition, and myofiber characteristics of lambs were affected by heterozygosity for a myostatin mutation (g+6723G>A) when offered differing allowances of feed administered with or without ractopamine. Heterozygote [MSTN A/G (n = 40)] and homozygote wildtype [MSTN G/G (n = 39)] castrate male lambs were individually fed ad libitum (HI; 1.8 × estimated ME(m)) or a restricted allowance (LO; 1.1 × estimated ME(m)) of a diet (191 g of CP/kg of DM and 12 MJ of ME/kg of DM), supplemented with (0.4 mg/kg of BW) or without the ?-adrenergic agonist ractopamine (RAC or NO RAC) for 47 d. The lambs were scanned by computed tomography at the beginning and completion of the feeding experiment to calculate composition of lean, fat, and bone in the carcass component of the body. The MSTN A/G HI intake lambs had significantly greater total daily carcass growth (P = 0.045) and loin eye depth (P = 0.022) and tended to have a greater daily growth of lean (P = 0.09) in the carcass, compared with MSTN G/G HI intake lambs. Conversely, MSTN A/G LO intake lambs tended to have less daily lean deposition (P = 0.09), significantly less total daily carcass growth (P = 0.045), and had a greater percentage of type IIX myofibers (P < 0.01) and total myofiber area (relative area) of type IIX myofibers (P = 0.013). The inclusion of RAC increased final BW (P = 0.03) and ADG (P = 0.02), percentage of type IIC (P < 0.001) and IIA (P = 0.012) myofibers, cross-sectional area of types I (P = 0.04) and IIAX (P = 0.04) fibers, and the relative area of type IIC (P = 0.003) and IIA (P = 0.01) myofibers in the LM. The experiment demonstrated that including RAC in the diet of lambs increased final BW and ADG, but not HCW, and increased proportion of type IIC and IIA myofibers and cross-sectional area of type I and IIAX myofibers. Our data suggest that RAC and the heterozygous myostatin mutation act together to increase growth of muscle on a high plane of nutrition. The experiment also demonstrated that poor nutritional background of lambs heterozygous for the myostatin mutation may negatively influence their growth rates and myofiber characteristics. PMID:21926323

Haynes, F E M; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B; Oddy, V H

2012-02-01

486

Near-field magnetostatics and Néel-Brownian interactions mediated magneto-rheological characteristics of highly stable nano-ferrocolloids.  

PubMed

Magnetic nanocolloids consisting of synthesized superparamagnetic iron(ii,iii) oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (5-15 nm) dispersed in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a nano-silica complex have been synthesized. The PEG-nano-silica complex physically encapsulates the SPIONs, ensuring that there is no phase separation under high magnetic fields (?1.2 T). Exhaustive magneto-rheological investigations have been performed to understand the structural behavior and response of the ferrocolloids. Remarkable stability and reversibility have been observed under magnetic field for concentrated systems. The results show the impact of particle concentration, size and encapsulation efficiency on parameters such as shear viscosity, yield stress, viscoelastic moduli, magneto-viscous hysteresis, and so on. Analytical models to reveal the system mechanism and mathematically predict the magneto-viscosity and magneto-yield stress have been developed. The mechanistic approach based on near-field magnetostatics and Néel-Brownian interactivities could predict the colloidal properties under the effect of the magnetic field accurately. The colloid exhibits amplified storage and loss moduli together with a highly augmented linear viscoelastic region under magnetic stimuli. The transition of the colloidal state from the fluidic phase to the soft condensed phase and its viscoelastic stimuli under the influence of a magnetic field has been explained based on the mathematical analysis. The remarkable stability, magnetic properties and accurate physical models reveal promise for the colloids in transient situations, namely, magneto-microelectromechanical/nanoelectromechanical devices, anti-seismic damping, biomedical invasive treatments, and so on. PMID:25599522

Katiyar, Ajay; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K; Nandi, Tandra

2015-02-11

487

Taking peer victimization research to the next level: complex interactions among genes, teacher attitudes/behaviors, peer ecologies, & classroom characteristics.  

PubMed

This commentary reviews research findings of the five papers in the special entitled "School-related Factors in the Development of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization", which represent critical areas that are often overlooked in the literature. First, one paper points to the complex interaction between a genetic disposition for aggression and classroom norms toward aggression. Second, an intervention paper unpacks the underlying mechanisms of an efficacious school-wide bully prevention program by opening the "black box" and testing for mediators. Third, the remaining studies employ a wide range of rigorous designs to identify how teachers' attitudes, behaviors, and classroom practices play a critical role in the prevalence of victimization and bullying in the classroom. Further, teachers' attitudes and behaviors are shown to be predictive of youth's willingness to intervene to assist a peer who is being victimized. Results are situated in what is known about bullying prevention, and how the findings from these studies could maximize the sensitivity of future prevention efforts. PMID:25345834

Espelage, Dorothy L

2015-01-01

488

Distinguishing the time-course of lexical and discourse processes through context, co-reference, and quantified expressions  

PubMed Central

How does prior context influence lexical- and discourse-level processing during real-time language comprehension? Experiment 1 examined whether the referential ambiguity introduced by a repeated, anaphoric expression had an immediate or delayed effect on lexical and discourse processing, using an eye-tracking while reading task. Eye-movements indicated facilitated recognition of repeated expressions, suggesting that prior context can rapidly influence lexical processing. However, context effects at the discourse level affected later processing, appearing in longer regression-path durations two words after the anaphor and in greater re-reading times of the antecedent expression. Experiments 2 and 3 explored the nature of this delay by examining the role of the preceding context in activating relevant representations. Off-line and on-line interpretations confirmed that relevant referents were activated following the critical context. Nevertheless, their initial unavailability during comprehension suggests a robust temporal division between lexical- and discourse-level processing. PMID:21480750

Huang, Yi Ting; Gordon, Peter C.

2011-01-01

489

A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

490

Effects of the psycholinguistic variables on the lexical decision task in Spanish: a study with 2,765 words.  

PubMed

In order to explore the role of the main psycholinguistic variables on visual word recognition, several mega-studies have been conducted in English in recent years. Nevertheless, because the effects of these variables depend on the regularity of the orthographic system, studies must also be done in other languages with different characteristics. The goal of this work was to conduct a lexical decision study in Spanish, a language with a shallow orthography and a high number of words. The influence of psycholinguistic variables on latencies corresponding to 2,765 words was assessed by means of linear mixed-effects modeling. The results show that some variables, such as frequency or age of acquisition, have significant effects on reaction times regardless of the type of words used. Other variables, such as orthographic neighborhood or imageability, were significant only in specific groups of words. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the peculiarities of each spelling system in the development of reading models. PMID:24197707

González-Nosti, María; Barbón, Analía; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Cuetos, Fernando

2014-06-01

491

Carsten Wittenberg Modeling Gender Effects in Lexical Access Using Simple  

E-print Network

: Implications for an Interactive-Activation Model PICS Publications of the Institute of Cognitive Science Volume 6-2005 #12;ISSN: 1610-5389 Series title: PICS Publications of the Institute of Cognitive Science experiments implicating the existence of an interaction between sex of a person and the course of noun gender

Kallenrode, May-Britt

492

Emotion dialogues of foster caregivers with their children: the role of the caregivers, above and beyond child characteristics, in shaping the interactions.  

PubMed

The study examined foster caregivers' sensitive guidance of conversations about emotional themes in a sample of foster caregivers living in Family Group Homes. Thirty caregivers were observed with two out of the several children under their care: one that was nominated by the Family Group Home's social worker as the most challenging child in the Family Group Home, and one that was nominated as the least challenging child. Based on attachment theory that argues that mothers possess a central role in shaping the interaction with the child by adapting their caregiving to the child's individual characteristics (Bowlby, 1982), we argued that caregivers' sensitivity will reflect the differences between the caregivers and not the differences between the children. We therefore hypothesized that the caregivers would show similar levels of sensitive guidance regarding their children, irrespective of the level of difficulty the children presented. The results supported our hypotheses by showing that caregivers' sensitive guidance of the conversations was similar across the most and least challenging children. The results highlight the importance of the caregiver in shaping the interactions with their children regardless of the degree to which the child is challenging. PMID:23186141

Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Yuval-Adler, Shira; Mor, Hila

2013-01-01

493

Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.  

PubMed

Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ? 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ? 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ? 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ? 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ? 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ? 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD increased (P ? 0.04) intake of DM, OM, starch, and CP. Starch digestibility decreased quadratically (P = 0.008) as WCGF increased; however, digestibility of CP and NDF increased (P ? 0.02) linearly as WCGF increased. The 283 g/L BD increased (P ? 0.02) starch and CP digestibility compared with 360 g/L. These data suggest that increasing WCGF in