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In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexicalcharacteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically-developing children, ages 61–78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., “chair-chain-ship”) that varied orthogonally by a phonological characteristic, sound-contrast similarity (similar vs. dissimilar), and a lexicalcharacteristic, neighborhood density (dense vs. sparse). In a subsample of the participants – those with the highest vocabularies – results were in line with a predicted interactive effect of phonological and lexicalcharacteristics on phoneme awareness performance: word sets contrasting similar sounds were less likely to yield correct responses in words from sparse neighborhoods than words from dense neighborhoods. Word sets contrasting dissimilar sounds were most likely to yield correct responses regardless of the words’ neighborhood density. Based on these findings, theories of early phoneme awareness development should consider both word-level (e.g., phonological and lexicalcharacteristics) and child-level (e.g., vocabulary knowledge) influences on phoneme awareness performance. Attention to these word-level item influences is predicted to result in more sensitive and specific measures of reading risk.
In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexicalcharacteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…
Standardized lexical analysis of verbal output has not been applied to verbal fluency tasks in schizophrenia. Performance of individuals with schizophrenia on both a letter (n=139) and semantic (n=137) fluency task was investigated. The lexicalcharacteristics (word frequency, age-of-acquisition, word length, and semantic typicality) of words produced were evaluated and compared to those produced by a healthy control group matched on age, gender, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) vocabulary scores (n=20). Overall, individuals with schizophrenia produced fewer words than healthy controls, replicating past research (see Bokat and Goldberg, 2003). Words produced in the semantic fluency task by individuals with schizophrenia were, on average, earlier acquired and more typical of the category. In contrast, no differences in lexicalcharacteristics emerged in the letter fluency task. The results are informative regarding how individuals with schizophrenia access their mental lexicons during the verbal fluency task. PMID:22809852
Juhasz, Barbara J; Chambers, Destinee; Shesler, Leah W; Haber, Alix; Kurtz, Matthew M
In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons can develop in our network when the
We describe an account of lexically guided tuning of speech perception based on interactive processing and Hebbian learning. Interactive feedback provides lexical information to prelexical levels, and Hebbian learning uses that information to retune the mapping from auditory input to prelexical representations of speech. Simulations of an extension of the TRACE model of speech perception are presented that demonstrate the efficacy of this mechanism. Further simulations show that acoustic similarity can account for the patterns of speaker generalization. This account addresses the role of lexical information in guiding both perception and learning with a single set of principles of information propagation.
MIRMAN, DANIEL; McCLELLAND, JAMES L.; HOLT, LORI L.
|The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment…
This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.
This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition. PMID:22626934
The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862
Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model analyses applied to 2 lexical decision experiments indicating that apparent additive effects can be the product of aggregating over- and underadditive interaction effects that are modulated by recent trial history, particularly the lexical status and stimulus quality of the previous trial's target. Even a simple practice effect expressed as improved response speed across trials was powerfully modulated by the nature of the previous target item. These results suggest that additivity and interaction between factors may reflect trial-to-trial variation in stimulus representations and decision processes rather than fundamental differences in processing architecture. PMID:22774856
The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1) or by visually degrading targets (Experiment 2). Although target latencies were considerably slowed by both difficulty manipulations, stimulus quality-but not nonword type-moderated priming effects, consistent with recent work by Lupker and Pexman (2010). To characterize these results in a more fine-grained manner, data were also analyzed at the level of response time (RT) distributions, using a combination of ex-Gaussian, quantile, and diffusion model analyses. The results indicate that for clear targets, priming was reflected by distributional shifting of comparable magnitude across different nonword types. In contrast, priming of degraded targets was reflected by shifting and an increase in the tail of the distribution. We discuss how these findings, along with others, can be accommodated by an embellished multistage activation model that incorporates retrospective prime retrieval and decision-based mechanisms. PMID:22612169
Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes.
De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael
Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460
People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement – the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement.
We used ERPs to investigate the time course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form processing during word recognition. Participants read sentence-embedded pseudowords that orthographically resembled a contextually supported real word (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a ceke…") or did not (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a tont…") along with nonword consonant strings (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a srdt…"). Pseudowords that resembled a contextually supported real word ("ceke") elicited an enhanced positivity at 130 msec (P130), relative to real words (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a cake…"). Pseudowords that did not resemble a plausible real word ("tont") enhanced the N170 component, as did nonword consonant strings ("srdt"). The effect pattern shows that the visual word recognition system is, perhaps, counterintuitively, more rapidly sensitive to minor than to flagrant deviations from contextually predicted inputs. The findings are consistent with rapid interactions between lexical and sublexical representations during word recognition, in which rapid lexical access of a contextually supported word (CAKE) provides top-down excitation of form features ("cake"), highlighting the anomaly of an unexpected word "ceke." PMID:21981670
The ERP experiment reported here addresses some outstanding questions regarding word processing in sentential contexts: (1) Does only the ‘message-level’ representation (the representation of sentence meaning combining lexico-semantic and syntactic constraints) affect the processing of the incoming word [J. Exp. Psychol.: Learn. Mem. Cogn. 20 (1994) 92]? (2) Is lexically specified semantic relatedness between multiple words the primary factor instead
There is a general consensus among second-language (L2) researchers today that lexical inferencing (LIF) is among the most common techniques that L2 learners use to generate meaning for unknown words they encounter in context. Indeed, claims about the salience and pervasiveness of LIF for L2 learners rely heavily upon data obtained via concurrent…
A brain-damaged patient (AP) is reported who had a strong tendency to identify nonwords as words on auditory lexical decision and to lexicalize nonwords in repetition, yet who showed a normal ability to perceive individual phonemes. It was initially hypothesized that these findings could be accounted for in terms of disrupted lexical phonological representations. This hypothesis was rejected on the
Randi C. Martin; Sarah D. Breedin; Markus F. Damian
Body-object interaction (BOI) is a semantic richness variable that measures the perceived ease with which the human body can physically interact with a word's referent. Lexical and semantic processing is facilitated when words are associated with relatively more bodily experience. To date, BOI effects have only been examined in the context of one semantic categorization task (SCT; is it imageable?). It has been argued that semantic processing is dynamic and can be modulated by context. We examined these influences by testing how task knowledge modulated BOI effects. Participants discriminated between the same sets of entity (high- and low-BOI) and action words in each of four SCTs. Task framing was manipulated: participants were told about one (is it an action? vs. is it an entity?) or both (action or entity? vs. entity or action?) categories of words in the decision task. Facilitatory BOI effects were only observed when participants knew that “entity” was part of the decision category. That BOI information was only useful when participants had expectations that entity words would be presented suggests a strong role for the decision context in lexical-semantic processing, and supports a dynamic view of conceptual knowledge.
Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., “Does xxx sound like an existing word?”) presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicalityinteraction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicalityinteraction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes.
Two new procedures were employed to investigate the effects of semantic and grammatical gender on lexical access in Italian and to investigate the interaction of gender with other factors that are known to influence lexical access in other languages. The gender-monitoring task requires a conscious deci- sion about the gender of each noun, whereas the word repetition task does not
ELIZABETH BATES; ANTONELLA DEVESCOVI; LUIGI PIZZAMIGLIO; ARTURO HERNANDEZ
Lexical bias is a well-known factor affecting phonological categorization in spoken word recognition. The current study examined the interaction between lexical bias and dialect variation in spoken word recognition in noise. The stimulus materials were real English words in two regional American English dialects. To manipulate lexical bias, target words in the word- competitor condition were selected so that predicted
Cynthia G. Clopper; Janet B. Pierrehumbert; Terrin N. Tamati
The authors examined the interaction of acoustic and lexical information in lexical access and segmentation. The cross-modal lexical priming technique was used to determine which word meanings listeners access at the offsets of oronyms (e.g., tulips or two lips) presented in connected speech. In Experiment 1, participants showed priming by the meaning of tulips when presented with two lips. In
Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…
Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.
|Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…
Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.
Two new procedures were employed to investigate the effects of semantic and grammatical gender on lexical access in Italian\\u000a and to investigate the interaction of gender with other factors that are known to influence lexical access in other languages.\\u000a The gender-monitoring task requires a conscious decision about the gender of each noun, whereas the word repetition task does\\u000a not require
Elizabeth Bates; Antonella Devescovi; Luigi Pizzamiglio; Simona D’amico; Arturo Hernandez
Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…
|Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm").…
This study investigated how lexical access in naming tasks (picture naming, naming to open-ended sentences, and naming to category exemplars) might be influenced by different lexical factors during adolescence and adulthood. Participants included 1075 individuals, ranging in age from 12 to 83 years. Lexical factors examined included word frequency and familiarity, age of acquisition, neighborhood density, and phonotactic probability. As expected, each of these factors influenced lexical access, and there was a general trend towards less accurate naming with age. More interestingly, word frequency and neighborhood density both showed larger effects for adolescents than for adults, but then showed constant effects on lexical access throughout adulthood. Phonotactic probability showed constant effects across the lifespan. Effects of word familiarity and age of acquisition interacted with age in adulthood; lexical access of older adults was more greatly affected by a word's familiarity and age of acquisition than was the lexical access of younger adults. These lexical factors impact on adult naming so that words that were learned later in life and which are judged to be less familiar are more difficult to retrieve then their counterparts (words learned earlier and judged to be more familiar) as individuals age. This suggests that age of acquisition and familiarity may play a protective role in adult naming. In contrast, word frequency and form-based properties of words appear to have similar effects throughout adulthood. Implications of these findings for theories of aging and for models of lexical access are discussed. PMID:16411502
In this paper I propose that the principles of Emergent Grammar (Hopper 1987, 1998) can be applied to lexical semantics. I discuss three instances of discourse semantics to show why an emergent view of semantics can provide a realistic account of semantics in discourse. The three cases are: 1) emergence and negotiation of meaning due to participant interaction in discourse;
Finite relation expression networks, or FreeNets, allow users to search for lexical and conceptual relationships between words or phrases. Lexical FreeNet is a network that combines semantic relations derived from WordNet (discussed in the January 30, 1998 Scout Report) with relations derived from other linguistic data. To operate Lexical FreeNet, users type in a source concept and a target concept, select the linguistic relations they would like to explore, and then choose a query option. Every query returns a mapped binary connection, showing the path of relations between the source and the target. Users will be fascinated by how ostensibly unrelated words or concepts can be connected.
Recent studies in cognitive linguistics have demonstrated that objects are conceptualised in terms of the actions they afford, i.e., in terms of their spatial-functional meaning. Since our interactions are constrained by the structure of our body, these studies view conceptualisation as essentially embodied. In this paper we argue that an object's abstract/figurative meaning is also embodied in that it is grounded in patterns of recurrent interactions with our environment, referred to as image schemas. On the basis of the spatial, relational structure of three such image schemas, two everyday products, a jug and an alarm clock, were systematically varied on form dimensions. Experiment 1 showed that participants with a background in design relate abstract characteristics to the form changes in the way predicted. To rule out the possibility that the relations uncovered are due to learned associations, a replication of the experiment was conducted with nai ve participants (experiment 2), leading to highly similar results. In experiment 3, we tested the cross-cultural consistency of our findings by performing a second replication with Brazilian participants. The results of this experiment were only partly in line with our predictions, suggesting that cultural differences in interacting with the environment to some degree affect our understanding of the abstract meaning of objects. PMID:15939029
van Rompay, Thomas; Hekkert, Paul; Saakes, Daniel; Russo, Beatriz
Lexical access, the time required to recover the meaning of a word, was measured in 12 young (mean age 24 yrs) and 12 old (mean age 73 yrs) Ss. Access time was unaffected by age, and a word-naming task. The facilitative effect of semantic associations between words was also comparable in young and old Ss. These results were obtained both
|The joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency in lexical decision were examined in 4 experiments as a function of nonword type (legal nonwords, e.g., BRONE, vs. pseudohomophones, e.g., BRANE). When familiarity was a viable dimension for word-nonword discrimination, as when legal nonwords were used, additive effects of stimulus quality…
Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Besner, Derek
|Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration…
Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina
Understanding the fine details of children's speech and gestural characteristics helps, among other things, in creating natural computer interfaces. We analyze the acoustic, lexical/non-lexical and spoken/gestural discourse characteristics of young children's speech using audio-video data gathered using a Wizard of Oz technique from 4 to 6 year old children engaged in resolving a series of age-appropriate cognitive challenges. Fundamental and formant frequencies exhibited greater variations between subjects consistent with previous results on read speech [Lee et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1455-1468 (1999)]. Also, our analysis showed that, in a given bandwidth, phonemic information contained in the speech of young child is significantly less than that of older ones and adults. To enable an integrated analysis, a multi-track annotation board was constructed using the ANVIL tool kit [M. Kipp, Eurospeech 1367-1370 (2001)]. Along with speech transcriptions and acoustic analysis, non-lexical and discourse characteristics, and child's gesture (facial expressions, body movements, hand/head movements) were annotated in a synchronized multilayer system. Initial results showed that younger children rely more on gestures to emphasize their verbal assertions. Younger children use non-lexical speech (e.g., um, huh) associated with frustration and pondering/reflecting more frequently than older ones. Younger children also repair more with humans than with computer.
Yildirim, Serdar; Montanari, Simona; Andersen, Elaine; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.
During this reporting period we continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. We completed development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the use of acoustic-phonetic knowledge in a speech recognition system. The significant achievements of this study include the development of a soft-failure procedure for lexical access and the discovery of a set of acoustic-phonetic features for verification. We completed a study of the constraints that lexical stress imposes on word recognition. We found that lexical stress information alone can, on the average, reduce the number of word candidates from a large dictionary by more than 80 percent. In conjunction with this study, we successfully developed a system that automatically determines the stress pattern of a word from the acoustic signal. We performed an acoustic study on the characteristics of nasal consonants and nasalized vowels. We have also developed recognition algorithms for nasal murmurs and nasalized vowels in continuous speech. We finished the preliminary development of a system that aligns a speech waveform with the corresponding phonetic transcription.
Theories of lexical production differ in whether they allow phonological processes to affect lexical selection directly. Whereas some accounts, such as interactive activation accounts, predict (weak) early effects of phonological processes during lexical selection via feedback connections, strictly serial architectures do not make this prediction. We present evidence from lexical selection during unscripted sentence production that lexical selection is affected by the phonological form of recently produced words. In a video description experiment, participants described scenes that were compatible with several near-meaning-equivalent verbs. We found that speakers were less likely than expected by chance to select a verb form that would result in phonological onset overlap with the subject of the sentence. Additional evidence from the distribution of disfluencies immediately preceding the verb argues that this effect is due to early effects on lexical selection, rather than later corrective processes, such as self-monitoring. Taken together, these findings support accounts that allow early feedback from phonological processes to word-level nodes, even during lexical selection. PMID:22468803
Jaeger, T Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin
In developmental lexical–gustatory synesthesia, specific words (inducers) can trigger taste perceptions (concurrents) and these synesthetic associations are generally stable. We describe a case of multilingual lexical–gustatory synesthesia for whom some synesthesias were bidirectional as some tastes also triggered auditory word associations. Evoked concurrents could be gustatory but also tactile sensations. In addition to words and pseudowords, many voices were effective
François Richer; Guillaume-Alexandre Beaufils; Sophie Poirier
|This paper discusses computer-based resources for lexical data and their uses. First, the kinds of lexical data available are described, including those related to form (spelling, pronunciation, inflection, word class), meaning (definition/equivalent, synonyms/antonyms/hyperonyms, thesaurus classification), context (grammatical collocations,…
|A lexical representational analysis of Classical Arabic is proposed that captures a generalization that McCarthy's (1979, 1981) autosegmental analysis misses, namely that idiosyncratic characteristics of the derivational binyanim in Arabic are lexical, not morphological. This analysis captures that generalization by treating all the…
|The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…
Previous studies have failed to demonstrate lexically induced delays in phoneme recognition, casting doubt on interactive models of speech perception. We present TRACE simulations that explain these failures: previously tested conditions failed to produce lexically induced delay effects because the input was too unambiguous and the control…
In four experiments we evaluated aspects of the hypothesis that word-fragment completion depends on the results of lexical but not semantic search. Experiment 1 showed that the number of meaningful associates linked to a studied word does not affect its recovery when the test cue consists of letters and spaces for missing letters. Experiments 2 and 3 showed retroactive interference effects in fragment completion when words in a second list were lexically related to words in a first list but not when the words in the second list were meaningfully related. Experiment 4 indicated that for studied words, instructions to search at the word level facilitated completion performance and that instructions to generate letters to fill missing spaces had no effect. Other findings indicated that completion was affected by the number of words lexically related to the fragment and by the number of letters missing from the fragment. In general, experimental manipulations that focused on lexicalcharacteristics were effective, and those that focused on semantic characteristics were ineffective. The findings support the conclusion that word fragments engender a lexical search process that does not depend on retrieving encoded meaning. PMID:2524544
The current study explored how factors of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition affect access to the lexical-semantic network during spoken word recognition. An auditory semantic priming lexical decision task was presented to subjects while in the MR scanner. Prime-target pairs consisted of prime words with the initial voiceless stop consonants /p/, /t/, and /k/ followed by word and nonword targets. To examine the neural consequences of lexical and sound structure competition, primes either had voiced minimal pair competitors or they did not, and they were either acoustically modified to be poorer exemplars of the voiceless phonetic category or not. Neural activation associated with semantic priming (Unrelated-Related conditions) revealed a bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal network. Within this network, clusters in the left insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left superior temporal gyrus (STG), and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) showed sensitivity to lexical competition. The pMTG also demonstrated sensitivity to acoustic modification, and the insula/IFG showed an interaction between lexical competition and acoustic modification. These findings suggest the posterior lexical-semantic network is modulated by both acoustic-phonetic and lexical structure, and that the resolution of these two sources of competition recruits frontal structures. PMID:23816958
Minicucci, Domenic; Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E
This paper describes a system for generating natural language sentences from an inter lingual representation, Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS). This system has been developed as part of a Chinese-English Machine Translation system, however, it promises ...
The role of phonology in word recognition was investigated in 6 lexical-decision experiments involving homophones (e.g., MAID–MADE). The authors’ goal was to determine whether homophone effects arise in the lexical-decision task and, if so, in what situations they arise, with a specific focus on the question of whether the presence of pseudohomophone foils (e.g., BRANE) causes homophone effects to be
Word frequency and stimulus degradation produce large and additive effects in the onset latencies of lexical decision responses. The influence of these two variables was examined in a lexical decision task where continuous arm-reaching responses were required and movement trajectories were tracked. The results yielded the typical additive pattern of word frequency and stimulus degradation on reaction time and movement duration. Importantly, however, an examination of movement trajectories revealed interactive effects of word frequency and stimulus degradation that emerged for the early part of the movement. These findings suggest that factors thought to influence early stages of stimulus identification continue to influence the dynamics of the response after response initiation, motivating a need to reevaluate current models of lexical decision performance. Moreover, this work highlights how the dynamics of naturalistic multidimensional responses provide a richer source of information about decision-making processes than do discrete unidimensional measures. PMID:22419404
Bangert, Ashley S; Abrams, Richard A; Balota, David A
The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation.
Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.
|We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…
We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…
|Phonological and lexicalcharacteristics of 30-month-old children's spontaneous language samples were examined as indicators of later reading outcome. Participants were 27 children, 10 children with reading disability and 17 children without reading disability. Of the non-disabled readers, 7 were at high familial risk for reading disability, and…
When a person standing upright raises an arm on cue, muscles of the left and right sides of the body exhibit changes prior to and specific to the responding arm. We had standing participants perform a visual lexical decision task ("is this letter string a word?"), responding yes by raising one arm and no by raising the other arm. We recorded onset of the arm movement and onset of electromyographic activity in thigh, trunk, and shoulder muscles. We observed the expected responding arm specificity and found that the onset difference favoring word decisions was evident in similar magnitude at all measurement sites, with the difference at the levels of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles available 225, 189, and 120 ms, respectively, prior to its manifestation at the level of arm movement. We discuss including (a) whole body reaction time along with event-related potentials in determining the decision-response, brain-body temporal relation and (b) response execution along with response initiation in investigating mental chronometry. PMID:21184808
Foreign language (FL) education has been marked by a monolingual principle that has favoured ‘intralingual’ methodologies. Bakhtin's view of language interillumination – that languages throw light on each other – challenges such language teaching practices radically. Using conversation analysis methods, this article examines transcripts of interactional sequences from one eighth-grade French lesson for evidence of reciprocal lexical elucidation. Analysis suggests
|A semantic priming, lexical-decision study was conducted to examine the ability of left- and right-brain damaged individuals to perceive lexical-stress cues and map them onto lexical-semantic representations. Correctly and incorrectly stressed primes were paired with related and unrelated target words to tap implicit processing of lexical…
This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in which less priming is obtained due to form similarity when the prime is a word. In the first experiment, subjects were taught the meanings of novel words that were neighbors of real words, but no PLE was observed; that is, equally strong form priming was obtained for both trained and untrained novel primes. In the second experiment, 4 training sessions were spread over 4 weeks, and under these conditions, a clear PLE was obtained in the final session. It is concluded that lexicalization requires multiple training sessions. Possible explanations of the PLE are discussed. PMID:23088548
Older adults performed three lexical information-processing tasks approximately 1.3 times slower than young adults. Consistent with general lexical slowing, slopes of regressions based on individual subjects' RTs on two of the tasks (single lexical decision and category judgment) did not differ from slopes based on the third (double lexical decision) task. Moreover, slopes based on the single lexical decision and category judgment tasks accurately predicted the size of semantic priming effects on the third (double lexical decision) task. This was true for the older group as a whole, and also for subgroups of fast, medium and slow older adults, as well as for young adult subgroups. The size of the semantic priming effects for the fast old and slow young subgroups (who differed in age but not in processing speed) were approximately equal, consistent with the idea that the effect of age on priming is entirely attributable to slowing. Across all tasks, each old subgroup (fast, medium, or slow) showed the same degree of slowing relative to the corresponding young subgroup, so that the differences in RTs observed between subgroups in the young sample were magnified in the old sample. Taken together, the present findings suggest that ability-related differences in lexical processing speed may be functionally equivalent to age-related differences and that both factors interact to determine performance on speeded lexical tasks. PMID:9210852
|Suggests a unified concept of a lexical subsystem as part of an information system to deal with lexical problems in local and network environments. The linguistic and control functions of the lexical subsystems in solving problems for large computer systems are described, and references are included. (Author/BK)|
The study of lexical semantics has produced a sys- tematic analysis of binary relationships between con- tent words that has greatly benefited lexical search tools and natural language processing algorithms. We first introduce a database system called FreeNet that facilitates the description and exploration of fi- nite binary relations. We then describe the design and implementation of Lexical FreeNet, a
Previous studies involving lexical access in anomic patients had employed regression analyses to separate the lexical variables. But it is now known that when the relevant variables are as closely related as frequency, age of acquisition (AoA), and familiarity, regression analysis loses efficacy. The aim of the present paper was to investigate which of these variables determines lexical access in
Lexical access is concerned with how the spoken or visual input of language is projected onto the mental representations of lexical forms. To date, most theories of lexical access have been based almost exclusively on studies of spoken languages and/or orthographic representations of spoken languages. Relatively few studies have examined how…
Carreiras, Manuel; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Baquero, Silvia; Corina, David
|This study suggests that Intermediate High and Advanced speakers produce aspectually valid constructions in Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) in large part because they are doing more than assigning aspect to lexical categories (Lexical aspect hypothesis), but because they are assigning lexicalized meaning to discrete verbs, for example…
A popular explanation of automatic semantic priming attributes those effects to the spreading of activation across a meaning-based network in lexical memory. A number of conflicting claims have been advanced regarding the kinds of information captured in that pre-lexical network. Lexical decision and naming experiments are reported which indicate (1) that automatic priming is supported equally well by a very
Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…
|This study sought to develop theoretical propositions for the institutional, course, instructor, and student characteristics of the learning environment where interactive learning techniques are used in college-level business courses. Using an interpretive case study method with examination of documents, observations of instructors and students,…
|Speakers reuse prior references to objects when choosing reference phrases, a phenomenon known as lexical entrainment. One explanation is that speakers want to maintain a set of previously established referential precedents. Speakers may also contrast any new referents against this previously established set, thereby avoiding applying the same…
|Speakers are regularly confronted with the choice among lexical alternatives when referring to objects, including basic-level names (e.g., car) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Beetle). Which of these names is eventually selected often depends on contextual factors. The present article reports a series of picture-word interference experiments…
Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Hantsch, Ansgar; Schriefers, Herbert
|When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain…
Text summarization addresses both the problem of selecting the most important portions of text and the problem of generating coherent summaries. We present in this paper the summarizer of the University of Lethbridge at DUC 2001, which is based on an efficient use of lexical chains.
In this paper we review models of lexical access in speech production in bilingual speakers. We focus on two major aspects of lexical access: a) how lexical selection is achieved, and b) whether lexical access involves cascaded or discrete stages of processing. We start by considering the major assumptions of how lexical access works in monolingual speakers, and then proceed
In this paper, we describe how word sense ambiguity can be resolved with the aid of lexical cohesion. By checking lexical cohesion between the current word and lexical chains in the order of the salience, in tandem with generation of lexical chains, we realize incremental word sense disambiguation based on contextual information that lexical chains, reveal. Next, we describe how
Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100-200 ms) reflections of access to lexicalcharacteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740
Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna
The paper presents a method for finding topically related words on an extended WordNet. By exploiting the information in the WordNet glosses, the connectivity between the synsets is dramatically increased. Topical relations expressed as lexical chains on extended WordNet improve the performance of a question answering system by increasing the document retrieval recall and by providing the much needed axioms
This article presents a new method that can compare lexical priming (word-word) and sentential priming (sentence-word) directly within a single paradigm. We show that it can be used to address modular theories of word comprehension, which propose that the effects of sentence context occur after lexical access has taken place. Although lexical priming and sentential priming each occur very quickly
ARTURO E. HERNANDEZ; CHRISTINE FENNEMA-NOTESTINE; CARE UDELL; ELIZABETH BATES
The role of suprasegmental information in reading processes is a growing area of interest, and sensitivity to lexical stress has been shown to explain unique variance in reading development. However, less is known about its role in skilled reading. This study aimed to investigate the acoustic features of suprasegmental information using a same/different cross-modal matching task. Sixty-four adult participants completed standardized measures of reading accuracy, reading speed, and comprehension and performed an experimental task. The experimental task required the participants to identify whether non-speech acoustic sequences matched the characteristics of written words. The findings indicated differences in responses depending on where the lexical stress was required for the word. Moreover, evidence was found to support the view that amplitude information is part of the word knowledge retrieval process in skilled reading. The findings are discussed relative to models of reading and the role of lexical stress in lexical access. PMID:23704860
The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer". PMID:2070916
Two computational models of lexical access in aphasic speakers are compared. Both are derived from an interactive two-step theory of retrieval based on spreading activation. The weight-decay model (Dell et al., 1997) associates patients with deviant values of two parameters, global connection weight and global decay rate. The new semantic-phonological model characterizes patients by two different parameters, semantic weight and
|This study used precepts of social network theory to examine the interactional and structural characteristics of communication in peer-mentoring conferences. Twelve discussion conferences were set up to support students during a teaching practicum experience. The conferences were governed by students with minimal instructor involvement. It was…
Vocabulary growth was suggested to prompt the implementation of increasingly finer-grained lexical representations of spoken words in children (e.g., [Metsala, J. L., & Walley, A. C. (1998). "Spoken vocabulary growth and the segmental restructuring of lexical representations: precursors to phonemic awareness and early reading ability." In J. L.…
Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Fernandes, Sandra; Querido, Luis; Morais, Jose
|Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…
Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment 1, exposure to a visual idiosyncrasy in ambiguous audiovisually presented target words in a lexical decision task indeed resulted in retuning of the visual category boundary based on the disambiguating lexical context. In Experiment 2 it was tested whether lexical information retunes visual categories directly, or indirectly through the generalization from retuned auditory phonetic categories. Here, participants were exposed to auditory-only versions of the same ambiguous target words as in Experiment 1. Auditory phonetic categories were retuned by lexical knowledge, but no shifts were observed for the visual phonetic categories. Lexical knowledge can therefore guide retuning of visual phonetic categories, but lexically guided retuning of auditory phonetic categories is not generalized to visual categories. Rather, listeners adjust auditory and visual phonetic categories to talker idiosyncrasies separately. PMID:23862831
van der Zande, Patrick; Jesse, Alexandra; Cutler, Anne
Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can occur within a single day. The degree to which a new spoken word (e.g., cathedruke) engaged in lexical competition with established phonological neighbors (e.g., cathedral) was employed as a marker for lexical integration. We found evidence for improvements in recognition and cued recall following a time period including sleep, but we also found lexical competition effects emerging within a single day. Spaced exposure to novel words on its own did not bring about this within-day lexical competition effect (Experiment 2), which instead occurred with either spaced or massed exposure to novel words, provided that there was also spaced exposure to the phonological neighbors (Experiments 1 and 3). Although previous studies have indicated that sleep-dependent memory consolidation may be sufficient for lexical integration, our results show it is not a necessary precondition. PMID:22774854
Phoneme identification with audiovisually discrepant stimuli is influenced by information in the visual signal (the McGurk effect). Additionally, lexical status affects identification of auditorily presented phonemes. The present study tested for lexical influences on the McGurk effect. Participants identified phonemes in audiovisually discrepant…
|The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…
|The lexical quality hypothesis (LQH) claims that variation in the quality of word representations has consequences for reading skill, including comprehension. High lexical quality includes well-specified and partly redundant representations of form (orthography and phonology) and flexible representations of meaning, allowing for rapid and…
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…
Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the target. Results showed that participants were faster in
Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the target. Results showed that participants were faster in
Lexical decision is one of the most frequently used tasks in word recognition research. Theoretical conclusions are typically derived from a linear model on the reaction times (RTs) of correct word trials only (e.g., linear regression and ANOVA). Although these models estimate random measurement error for RTs, considering only correct trials implicitly assumes that word/non-word categorizations are without noise: words receive a yes-response because they have been recognized, and they receive a no-response when they are not known. Hence, when participants are presented with the same stimuli on two separate occasions, they are expected to give the same response. We demonstrate that this not true and that responses in a lexical decision task suffer from inconsistency in participants’ response choice, meaning that RTs of “correct” word responses include RTs of trials on which participants did not recognize the stimulus. We obtained estimates of this internal noise using established methods from sensory psychophysics (Burgess and Colborne, 1988). The results show similar noise values as in typical psychophysical signal detection experiments when sensitivity and response bias are taken into account (Neri, 2010). These estimates imply that, with an optimal choice model, only 83–91% of the response choices can be explained (i.e., can be used to derive theoretical conclusions). For word responses, word frequencies below 10 per million yield alarmingly low percentages of consistent responses (near 50%). The same analysis can be applied to RTs, yielding noise estimates about three times higher. Correspondingly, the estimated amount of consistent trial-level variance in RTs is only 8%. These figures are especially relevant given the recent popularity of trial-level lexical decision models using the linear mixed-effects approach (e.g., Baayen et al., 2008).
This study investigated whether English speakers retained the lexical stress patterns of newly learned Spanish words. Participants studied spoken Spanish words (e.g., DUcha [shower], ciuDAD [city]; stressed syllables in capital letters) and subsequently performed a recognition task, in which studied words were presented with the same lexical stress pattern (DUcha) or the opposite lexical stress pattern (CIUdad). Participants were able to discriminate same- from opposite-stress words, indicating that lexical stress was encoded and used in the recognition process. Word-form similarity to English also influenced outcomes, with Spanish cognate words and words with trochaic stress (MANgo) being recognized more often and more quickly than Spanish cognate words with iambic stress (soLAR) and noncognates. The results suggest that while segmental and suprasegmental features of the native language influence foreign word recognition, foreign lexical stress patterns are encoded and not discarded in memory. PMID:23468133
Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. PMID:23635864
Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger
The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg , a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.
THIS STUDY used precepts of social network theory to examine the interactional and structural characteristics of communication\\u000a in peer-mentoring conferences. Twelve discussion conferences were set up to support students during a teaching practicum experience.\\u000a The conferences were governed by students with minimal instructor involvement. It was reasoned that because the conferences\\u000a were established as a support network discussions would exhibit
Despite national guidelines to reform K-12 science education, our students are not learning science any better. Conducted under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a symposium examined several programs where professional scientists interact with classroom teachers to improve science education. Symposium participants described their projects and discussed the factors that contribute or detract from each project's success. The events of this symposium are critically analyzed. Four themes emerged as issues that affect the successful implementation and continuation of science education reform projects: scientific literacy as a primary goal, personal characteristics and commitment of project partners, curricular change built on social and developmental goals, and the incentive/reward structures in universities and school systems. This review of the emergent themes places the opinions of the symposium participants into the larger context of a growing science education research literature to inform others about synergy between professional scientists and classroom teachers. Our aim is to help others learn about the characteristics of effective partnerships to improve science education. PMID:12189123
The present paper intends to investigate the lexical gap-filling behaviour of primary and secondary Spanish learners of English. When there is a mismatch between the learners lexical knowledge and their communicative needs, then a lexical gap arises. Learners resort to different mechanisms to compensate for that lack of lexical knowledge.…
Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words — with primary interest on rules — this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon.
The objective of this study was to compare the communicative characteristics of musical interactions with play interactions between mothers and their one-year-old infants. The characteristics were physical proximity and eye contact, mothers’ and infants’ emotional expressions, length of communication chains, synchronisation, and maternal mediation behaviours. A 10-minute musical interaction followed by a 10-minute play interaction was videotaped at each of
|Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that…
Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called “lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as “lexical" or “non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms.
In lexical decision, to date few studies in English have found a reliable pseudohomophone priming advantage with orthographically similar primes (the klip-plip effect; Frost, Ahissar, Gotesman, & Tayeb, 2003; see Rastle & Brysbaert, 2006, for a review). On the basis of the Bayseian reader model of lexical decision (Norris, 2006, 2009), we hypothesized that this was because in previous studies, lexical decisions could have been made without finding a match between the input and a unique lexical representation. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that words from dense neighborhoods showed neither an orthographic form priming effect nor a pseudohomophone priming advantage; in contrast, with words from a sparse lexical neighborhood, a sizeable orthographic form priming effect was found, and a robust pseudohomophone priming advantage, which was not limited to the overlap of onset phoneme, was also observed. Identity primes produced greater facilitation than pseudohomophone primes. We consider the implication of these findings for the role of assembled phonology in lexical access. PMID:22250912
Objective : To study if Danish children with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in their early lexicon at 18 months of age. Design : A cross-sectional study. Participants : Thirty-four children with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 35 children without cleft palate, matched for gender and age. Methods : All participants were video recorded at 18 months of age during play interaction with a parent. The video recordings were transcribed according to the International Phonetic Alphabet and an individual consonant inventory was established for each participant. The video recordings were also analyzed with respect to word productions, establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results : At 18 months of age Danish children with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months of age in a previous study of the children with cleft palate was almost perfectly reflected in their early lexicon at 18 months. The early lexicon of children with cleft palate differed from the early lexicon of their noncleft peers. Conclusions and Implications : Danish toddlers with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in the early lexicon as it has been described for English-speaking toddlers with and without cleft palate, even though some qualitative differences were found. PMID:22502962
Syntactic priming studies demonstrate that exposure to a particular syntactic structure leads speakers to reproduce the same structure in subsequent utterances. Explanations for this phenomenon rely on either the retrieval of morphosyntactic features associated with the verb in the prime sentence or the preservation of the mapping between message and word sequences in the prime sentence. Two experiments test the featural account of syntactic priming. We used single word primes to investigate the dative alternation in German (Experiment 1) and Dutch (Experiment 2). Native speakers read ditransitive verbs that are restricted either to the prepositional (dative) or double object construction, followed by pictures that can be described with either structure. We find that a single verb in isolation is sufficient to bias speakers' production preferences supporting lexically-driven accounts of syntactic priming. PMID:15925357
This work presents a connectionist model of the semantic-lexical system. Model assumes that the lexical and semantic aspects\\u000a of language are memorized in two distinct stores, and are then linked together on the basis of previous experience, using\\u000a physiological learning mechanisms. Particular characteristics of the model are: (1) the semantic aspects of an object are\\u000a described by a collection of
We present the architectural design rationale of a Sanskrit computational linguistics plat- form, where the lexical database has a cen- tral role. We explain the structuring require- ments issued from the interlinking of grammat- ical tools through its hypertext rendition.
Two naming and two lexical decision experiments examined the use of partial-word previews in visual word recognition. Replicating results of an earlier reading study, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 revealed significant benefits from position-specific beginning- and ending-letter previews. Furthermore, benefits from beginning letters were greater for words than for pseudowords. Ending-letter previews showed no corresponding lexical superiority. Experiment
Three cross-modal priming experiments examined the role of suprasegmental information in the processing of spoken words. All primes consisted of truncated spoken Dutch words. Recognition of visually presented word targets was facilitated by prior auditory presentation of the first two syllables of the same words as primes, but only if they were appropriately stressed (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by okTO-); inappropriate stress, compatible with another word (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by OCto-, the beginning of octopus), produced inhibition. Monosyllabic fragments (e.g., OC-) also produced facilitation when appropriately stressed; if inappropriately stressed, they produced neither facilitation nor inhibition. The bisyllabic fragments that were compatible with only one word produced facilitation to semantically associated words, but inappropriate stress caused no inhibition of associates. The results are explained within a model of spoken-word recognition involving competition between simultaneously activated phonological representations followed by activation of separate conceptual representations for strongly supported lexical candidates; at the level of the phonological representations, activation is modulated by both segmental and suprasegmental information. PMID:15903117
van Donselaar, Wilma; Koster, Mariëtte; Cutler, Anne
|The influence of phonological (i.e. individual sounds), lexical (i.e. whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e. meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e. positional segment average, biphone average), two…
The influence of phonological (i.e., individual sounds), lexical (i.e., whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e., meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1.4 to 2.6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e., positional segment average, biphone average), two lexical (i.e., neighborhood density, word length) and four semantic variables (i.e., semantic set size, connectivity, probability resonance, resonance strength) were computed. Regression analyses showed that more infants knew (1) words composed of low-probability sounds and sound pairs, (2) shorter words with high neighborhood density, and (3) words that were semantically related to other words, both in terms of the number and strength of semantic connections. Moreover, the effect of phonological variables was constant across age, whereas the effect of lexical and semantic variables changed across age. PMID:18761757
In this study we investigate vowel reduction and the role of some lexical factors in the production of vowels extracted from a corpus of French conversations. Vowel durations and spectral quality are examined with respect to (1) their interaction in the corpus, (2) the position of vowels in words, and (3) word frequency and word category. The analyses are conducted
Response time (RT) distributions obtained from 3 word recognition experiments were analyzed by fitting an ex-Gaussian function to the empirical data to determine the main effects and interactive influences of word frequency, repetition, and lexicality on the nature of the underlying distributions. The ex-Gaussian analysis allows one to determine if a manipulation simply shifts the response time (RT) distribution, produces
A number of studies suggest that attention can modulate the extent to which lexical processing influences phonological processing. We propose dampening of activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation in the context of an interactive model of speech perception. Simulation results from two concrete implementations of this mechanism indicate that each of the
This pilot study explored teacher characteristics as they influenced the use of "Exploring Nepal," a cognitive learning-based interactive video system for middle school students. Specifically, the study sought to narrow down a variety of teacher characteristics that may influence the quality of their interaction with the videodisk. The initial…
Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.
The patterns of semantic errors in speaking and writing are used to constrain claims about the structure of lexical access mechanisms in speech and written language production. It is argued that it is not necessary to postulate a modality-neutral level of lexical representation (lemma) that is intermediate between lexical-semantic representations and modality-specific lexical representations. A dual-stage access model is proposed
|Four experiments examined effects of lexical stress on lexical access for recently learned words. Participants learned artificial lexicons (48 words) containing phonologically similar items and were tested on their knowledge in a 4-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) referent-selection task. Lexical stress differences did not reduce confusions…
Creel, Sarah C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.
The present study concerns the effect of aging on speed of lexical access. Normative word-frequency was manipulated in a lexical decision task with older and younger adults. Three methods of comparing processing time in the lexical access stage across age groups were evaluated: the subtraction method, the analysis of covariance, and the additive-factor method. The adequacy of the subtraction method
We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambi- guity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambi- guity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., (un chat grincheux), containing the potential competitor word chagrin, was processed more slowly
Anne Christophe; Sharon Peperkamp; Christophe Pallier; Eliza Block; Jacques Mehler
Drawing on a growing database of systematic relationships between word-senses, the authors argue that a significant class of these represent Lexical Implication Rules, a set of formal rules within the domain of lexical semantics; these they distinguish from other types of semantic relation more closely dependent on metaphor and world-knowledge. Some formal properties of Lexical Implication Rules are proposed, as
|Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…
|This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…
Although lexical decision remains one of the most extensively studied cognitive tasks, very little is known about its relationship to broader linguistic performance such as reading ability. In a correlational study, several aspects of lateralized lexical decision performance were related to vocabulary and reading comprehension measures, as assessed using the Nelson–Denny Reading Test. This lateralized lexical decision task has been
Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be attributed to the typical processes accompanying older age, the typical processes
Mira Goral; Gary Libben; Loraine K. Obler; Gonia Jarema; Keren Ohayon
Previous work has shown that newborn infants categori- cally discriminate the fundamental syntactic category distinction be- tween lexical and grammatical words. In this article, we show that by the age of 6 months, infants prefer to listen to lexical over grammati- cal words. In Experiment 1, infants were habituated to a list of either lexical or grammatical words, and then
In multi-word utterances, target words need to be selected in the context of other target words. In the present study, three hypotheses were tested that differed in their assumptions about whether the lexical selection mechanism considers the activation levels of the other target lexical representations, and whether it takes into account their grammatical class properties. Participants produced adjective + noun and noun + noun utterances in response to colored word and picture + word stimulus displays. In both types of utterances, the frequency of the first and second response was manipulated. The results revealed an effect of the frequency of the second response that did not depend on the utterance type, and additive effects for the frequency of the first and the second response in both utterance types. These results are interpreted in terms of a model of lexical selection that assumes that selection is non-competitive.
This study attempted to investigate the characteristics of interaction dynamics in a group oral interaction carried out by Japanese learners of English. The relationship between the participants' language development and interactional management functions (IMFs) was also explored. Oral performance tests in a paired or a small group have recently…
|Studied the influence of lexical factors, known to impact lexical access in adults, on the word retrieval of children. Participants included 320 typical and atypical language learning children, ranging from 7 to 12 years of age. Lexical factors examined included word frequency, age of acquisition, neighborhood density, neighborhood frequency, and…
Three experiments investigated the impact of five lexical variables (instance dom- inance, category dominance, word frequency, word length in letters, and word length in syllables) on performance in three different tasks involving word rec- ognition: category verification, lexical decision, and pronunciation. Although the same set of words was used in each task, the relationship of the lexical variables to reaction
The characteristic energy loss spectrum of solids is analyzed with the aid of the dielectric formulation of the many-body problem developed by the authors. It is shown that a measurement of the angular distribution of inelastically scattered fast electrons is a direct measurement of the imaginary part of the inverse dielectric constant of the solid, at the frequency and momentum
|This literature review examines research issues in anorexia nervosa, including conceptual issues and methodological considerations. Research on the family's contribution to the disorder is reviewed. The demographic characteristics of social class, birth order, history of sexual abuse, and biological and genetic factors are examined. Individual…
Interactive activation models of lexical access assume that the presentation of a given word activates not only its lexical representation but also those corresponding to words similar in form. Current theories are based on data from oral and written languages, and therefore signed languages represent a special challenge for existing theories of word recognition and lexical access since they allow us to question what the genuine fundamentals of human language are and what might be modality-specific adaptation. The aim of the present study is to determine the electrophysiological correlates and time course of phonological processing of Spanish Sign Language (LSE). Ten deaf native LSE signers and ten deaf non-native but highly proficient LSE signers participated in the experiment. We used the ERP methodology and form-based priming in the context of a delayed lexical decision task, manipulating phonological overlap (i.e. related prime-target pairs shared either handshape or location parameters). Results showed that both parameters under study modulated brain responses to the stimuli in different time windows. Phonological priming of location resulted in a higher amplitude of the N400 component (300-500 ms window) for signs but not for non-signs. This effect may be explained in terms of initial competition among candidates. Moreover, the fact that a higher amplitude N400 for related pairs was found for signs but not for non-signs points to an effect at the lexical level. Handshape overlap produced a later effect (600-800 ms window). In this window, a more negative-going wave for the related condition than for the unrelated condition was found for non-signs in the native signers group. The findings are discussed in relation to current models of lexical access and word recognition. Finally, differences between native and non-native signers point to a less efficient use of phonological information among the non-native signers. PMID:22401990
Gutiérrez, Eva; Müller, Oliver; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel
This paper argues that near-synchrony creates interactional advantages for SMS and that these help to explain the popularity of the medium. The research included 32 interviews with adult mobile phone users, 24-hour communication diaries, and an analysis of respondents' text messages. Many of the text messages collected were short, phatic messages. These distinctive messages exploit the near-synchrony and brevity of
|We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…
Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth
This research investigated the lexical properties underlying comprehension that a word represents fact or opinion. In Experiment 1 subjects reliably identified words as either fact or opinion. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression showed that fact\\/opinion judgments were predicted primarily by ratings of the ease of verifiability of a word's referent and secondarily by the word's literalness, but not by several
|The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…
In this article we discuss different views about how information flows through the lexical system in bilingual speech production. In the first part, we focus on some of the experimental evidence often quoted in favor of the parallel activation of the bilinguals' two languages from the semantic system in the course of language production. We argue that such evidence does
|This short report draws attention to an interesting kind of configuration in the lexicon that seems to have escaped theoretical or systematic descriptive attention. These configurations, which we dub SEMPLATES, consist of an abstract structure or template, which is recurrently instantiated in a number of lexical sets, typically of different form…
|Examined the role of textual constraints, rather than previous knowledge, in resolving lexical ambiguities in second-language learning. Twenty ambiguous words with differing Portuguese translations were selected, disambiguated based on collocation, and tested with a concordancer, using a 20,000,000-word English language corpus of expository text.…
Four cross-modal priming experiments in Spanish addressed the role of suprasegmental and segmental information in the activation of spoken words. Listeners heard neutral sentences ending with word fragments (e.g., princi-) and made lexical decisions on letter strings presented at fragment offset. Responses were compared for fragment primes that fully matched the spoken form of the initial portion of target words,
Salvador Soto-Faraco; Núria Sebastián-Gallés; Anne Cutler
During this reporting period we continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. (1)We completed development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the use of acoustic-p...
Our long-term research goal is the development and implementation of speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is our conviction that proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for advanced speech recognition systems. With this in mind, we have continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. We have completed the development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the utilization of acoustic phonetic knowledge in a speech recognition system. Some of the significant development of this study includes a soft-failure procedure for lexical access, and the discovery of a set of acoustic-phonetic features for verification. We have completed a study of the constraints provided by lexical stress on word recognition. We found that lexical stress information alone can, on the average, reduce the number of word candidates from a large dictionary by more than 80%. In conjunction with this study, we successfully developed a system that automatically determines the stress pattern of a word from the acoustic signal.
|In this article we discuss different views about how information flows through the lexical system in bilingual speech production. In the first part, we focus on some of the experimental evidence often quoted in favor of the parallel activation of the bilinguals' two languages from the semantic system in the course of language production. We argue…
|Reports the results of experiments with MEDLINE that used lexical statistics such as word-frequency counts to discover hidden connections in medical literature. Discusses problems with relying on bibliographic citations or standard indexing methods to establish a relationship between topics that might profitably be explored by scientific…
This paper proposes an novel approach to annotate function tags for unparsed text. What distinguishes our work from other attempts in such task is that we assign function tags directly basing on lexical information other than on parsed trees. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of our method, we investigate two statistical models for automatic annotation, one is
|Assesses personality and family-interactioncharacteristics of 49 parents of autistic children and investigates the level of parental stress. Results suggested that the cause of the chldren's disorder is unrelated to characteristics of their parents and that an overall stress reaction may not exist. (LLL)|
This research investigates the relationship between the extent of employees' social interaction and their perceptions of job characteristics. Employees' perceptions were compared with the perceptions of task characteristics made by an outside observer, whose perceptions were not subject to the same social influence processes. The results indicated that the perceptions of employees who were more central to communication networks, boundary-spanning
The survival and success of alien plant species is determined by species traits (i.e., invasiveness) and the characteristics\\u000a of the habitats in the region of introduction (i.e., invasibility). However, little is known about species traits as related\\u000a to habitat characteristics. We assessed the characteristics of successful invaders and the interaction of environmental factors\\u000a and life-history traits for alien plant species.
|Describes a study that examined the extent to which different levels of instructional control and varied learner characteristics affected performance and time on task, using interactive video in a college biochemistry course. Prior knowledge and learner internality/externality are discussed, and interaction between learner ability and…
|Explored interface between preschoolers' socio-emotional characteristics and interactions with teachers during free play. Found that children who most frequently initiated teacher interaction behaved more aggressively than peers and were so rated by teachers. Children who most frequently received teacher initiations were more shy and anxious.…
Purpose We investigated perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody, but atypical lexical prosody production. Method 16 children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers participated in three experiments: 1. Perception of affective prosody, 2. Lexical stress perception, 3. Lexical stress production. In Experiment 1, participants labeled sad, happy, and neutral spoken sentences that were low-pass filtered, to eliminate verbal content. In Experiment 2 participants disambiguated word meanings based on lexical stress (HOTdog, vs. hotDOG). In Experiment 3 participants produced these words in a sentence completion task. Productions were analyzed using acoustic measures. Results Accuracy levels showed no group differences. Participants with HFA could determine affect from filtered sentences and disambiguate words based on lexical stress. They produced appropriately differentiated lexical stress patterns but demonstrated atypically long productions indicating reduced ability in natural prosody production. Conclusions Children with HFA were as capable as their TD peers in receptive tasks of lexical stress and affective prosody. Prosody productions were atypically long, despite accurate differentiation of lexical stress patterns. Future research should use larger samples and spontaneous vs. elicited productions.
Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency are critically dependent upon differences in the vocabulary knowledge of the participants. Specifically, across two Universities, additive effects of the two variables were observed in participants with more vocabulary knowledge, while interactive effects were observed in participants with less vocabulary knowledge. These results are discussed with reference to Borowsky and Besner’s (1993) multistage account and Plaut and Booth’s (2000) single-mechanism model. In general, the findings are also consistent with a flexible lexical processing system that optimizes performance based on processing fluency and task demands.
Although the literature on parent-child interactions in young children with autism has examined dyadic style, synchrony, and sustained engagement, the examination of parental skill in sustaining and developing play skills themselves has not been targeted. This study examined the extent to which parents of young children with autism match and scaffold their child's play. Sixteen dyads of parents and their children with autism participated in this study along with 16 matched dyads of typically developing children. Both groups were administered a structured play assessment and were observed during a 10-min free play situation. Strategies of play were examined and results revealed that parents of children with autism initiated more play schemes and suggested and commanded play acts more than parents of typical children. They also responded to their child's play acts more often with a higher level play act, while parents of typical children matched/expanded their responses to their child. Parent imitation was also related to longer sequences of play. The findings can guide further research and play intervention for parents. PMID:23382513
Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.
Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.
Interspike interval patterns of brain stem neurons that project directly or indirectly to much of the neocortex interactively influence electroencephalographically-defined states of consciousness and modulate patterns of temporal-spatial coherence, `binding,' in cortical field potential oscillations. Neurochemical classes of brain stem neurons manifest discriminable dynamical characteristics apart from the statistics of their firing rates. These sequences of interspike intervals are not well described by either harmonic functions or the Poisson statistics of renewal processes. We cast these patterns within the context of information bearing processes by using moment partitions and symbolic dynamics. We describe the expanding behavior of model and real brain stem neurons in relationship to states of resonance (the presence of complex singularities in the power spectrum with amplitudes related to the persistence of unstable fixed points in the nonexponential decay of correlations), synchronization (how closely the measure of maximal entropy comes to equaling the Sinai- Ruelle-Bowen area measure), and lexical redundancy (as repetitions of symbol subsequences).
Investigated the retrieval of words from lexical memory in 12 kindergartners, 11 1st graders, 11 3rd graders, and 11 graduate students. Ss named color slides depicting 100 stimulus pictures. Picture-naming latency was the dependent variable. Results of multiple-regression analyses indicate that the codability of pictorial representations of a concept and the frequency of the concept's label contributed to the prediction
Two procedures were used to explore the effects of semantic and grammatical gender on the recognition and processing of Bulgarian\\u000a nouns, in relation to other factors that are known to affect lexical access. This study in a three-gender language was modeled\\u000a on previous work in Italian, a two-gender language (Bates, Devescovi, Pizzamiglio, D’Amico, & Hernandez, 1995). Words were\\u000a presented auditorily
Elena Andonova; Simona D’Amico; Antonella Devescovi; Elizabeth Bates
BACKGROUND: In the present study neurophysiological correlates related to mismatching information in lexical access were investigated with a fragment priming paradigm. Event-related brain potentials were recorded for written words following spoken word onsets that either matched (e.g., kan – Kante [Engl. edge]), partially mismatched (e.g., kan – Konto [Engl. account]), or were unrelated (e.g., kan – Zunge [Engl. tongue]). Previous
Two eye-tracking experiments investigated what happens when people read pairs of sentences that have the same syntactic structure.\\u000a Previous experiments have shown priming in online sentence processing only when critical lexical material overlaps between\\u000a the prime and the target sentence. In the current study, participants were asked to read sentences containing modifier—goal ambiguities. Half of the target sentences were preceded
This study addresses the issue of cognitive slowing in the elderly by examining the time course of automatic lexical access. College-aged subjects typically show a brief rise time (300-500 msec) for lexical access. In the present study, we examine whether there are changes in rapid, automatized access routines with age. Elderly and college-aged subjects performed a lexical decision task wherein
CATHERINE STERN; PENNY PRATHER; DAVID SWINNEY; EDGAR ZURIF
Five experiments are reported that investigated whether the plausibility effect is caused by lexical priming resulting from\\u000a the higher proportion of related words in plausible than in implausible sentences. In Experiment 1, a plausibility effect\\u000a was demonstrated that was entirely attributable to the way in which lexical items were combined rather than to the properties\\u000a of individual lexical items. In
Lexical combination presents a number of intriguing problems for cognitive science. By studying the empirical phenomena of combination we can derive constraints on models of the representation of individual lexical items. One particular phenomenon that symbolic models have been unable to accommodate is `semantic interaction'. Medin & Shoben (1988) have shown that properties associated with nouns by subjects vary with the choice of adjective. For example, wooden spoons are not just made of a different material: the phrase is interpreted as denoting a `larger' object. However, the adjective wooden is not generally held to carry implications as to size. We report experimental results showing similar effects across a range of properties for a single adjective in combination with different nouns from a single semantic field. It is this more radical dependence of interpretative features on lexical partners that we term `semantic interaction'. The phenomenon described by Medin and Shoben cannot be accounted for by the Selective Modification model, the most complete model hitherto. We show that a case-based reasoning system could account for earlier data because of the particular examples chosen, but that such a model could not handle semantic interaction. A neural network system is presented that does handle semantic interaction.
As a spoken word unfolds over time, it is temporarily consistent with the acoustic forms of multiple words. Previous behavioral research has shown that, in the face of temporary ambiguity about how a word will end, multiple candidate words are briefly activated. Here, we provide neural imaging evidence that lexical candidates only temporarily consistent with the input activate perceptually based semantic representations. An artificial lexicon and novel visual environment were used to target human MT/V5 and an area anterior to it which have been shown to be recruited during the reading of motion words. Participants learned words that referred to novel objects and to motion or color/texture changes that the objects underwent. The lexical items corresponding to the change events were organized into phonologically similar pairs differing only in the final syllable. Upon hearing spoken scene descriptions in a posttraining verification task, participants showed greater activation in the left hemisphere anterior extent of MT/V5 when motion words were heard than when nonmotion words were heard. Importantly, when a nonmotion word was heard, the level of activation in the anterior extent of MT/V5 was modulated by whether there was a phonologically related competitor that was a motion word rather than another nonmotion word. These results provide evidence of activation of a perceptual brain region in response to the semantics of a word while lexical competition is in process and before the word is fully recognized.
Pirog Revill, Kathleen; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Bavelier, Daphne
It is widely assumed that prediction plays a substantial role in language processing. However, despite numerous studies demonstrating that contextual information facilitates both syntactic and lexical-semantic processing, there exists no direct evidence pertaining to the neural correlates of the prediction process itself. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), this study found that brain activity was modulated by whether or not a specific noun could be predicted, given a picture prime. Specifically, before the noun was presented, predictive contexts triggered enhanced activation in left mid-temporal cortex (implicated in lexical access), ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (previously associated with top-down processing), and visual cortex (hypothesized to index the preactivation of predicted form features), successively. This finding suggests that predictive language processing recruits a top-down network where predicted words are activated at different levels of representation, from more 'abstract' lexical-semantic representations in temporal cortex, all the way down to visual word form features. The same brain regions that exhibited enhanced activation for predictive contexts before the onset of the noun showed effects of congruence during the target word. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to directly investigate the anticipatory stage of predictive language processing. PMID:23040469
When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word-word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants' attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime-target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical-semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic-associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137
The acquisition of reading skill was studied in 503 Italian children in first to eighth grade using a task that required reading\\u000a of lists of words and non-words. Analysis of the metric characteristics of the measures indicated that reading speed but not\\u000a accuracy was normally distributed across all ages considered. The role of specific effects (length, word frequency, and lexicality)
Pierluigi Zoccolotti; Maria De Luca; Gloria Di Filippo; Anna Judica; Marialuisa Martelli
The main determinants of lexical access in speech are considered to be a word’s age of acquisition (AoA) and its frequency\\u000a of occurrence in a speaker’s experience. It is unclear whether and how these variables interact, although they are commonly\\u000a observed to be correlated, for the few studies that address the issue have reported inconsistent findings. An influential\\u000a view of
Fernando Cuetos; Bernardo Alvarez; María González-Nosti; Alain Méot; Patrick Bonin
Levelt et al. (1991) argued that modular semantic and phonological stage theories of lexical access in language production are to be preferred over interactive spreading-activation theories (e.g., Dell, 1986). As evidence, they show no mediated semantic–phonological priming during picture naming: Retrieval of sheep primes goat, but the activation of goat is not transmitted to its phonological relative, goal. This research
Reports of left-hemisphere dysfunction and abnormal interhemispheric transfer in schizophrenia are mixed. The authors used a unified paradigm, the lateralized lexical decision task, to assess hemispheric specialization in word recognition, hemispheric error monitoring, and interhemispheric transfer in male, right-handed participants with schizophrenia (n = 34) compared with controls (n = 20). Overall, performance and error monitoring were worse in patients.
Katherine L. Narr; Michael F. Green; Linda Capetillo-Cunliffe; Arthur W. Toga; Eran Zaidel
The role of lexical-semantic neighborhood is relevant to models of lexical access. Recently it has been claimed that the size of the cohort of activated competitors affects ease of lexical selection in word production as well as the effect of semantically related distractors in picture–word interference tasks. Three experiments are reported in which subjects had to name pictures from large and small semantic categories (cf. “lion,” “hammer” versus “funnel,” “cage”). In Experiment 1, naming-impaired subjects exhibited semantic errors for targets from large categories. No semantic but many omission errors occurred for targets from small categories suggesting that few competitors were available for these “low competition targets.” In contrast in two experiments with unimpaired subjects, targets were named equally fast. These experiments were sensitive enough to yield a highly significant repetition effect in Experiment 2. Contrary to the explicit predictions of a recent proposal, semantically related distractors caused interference for both groups of words in Experiment 3. The results suggest no role of neighborhood size in the naming of unimpaired individuals. Implications for models of lexical selection are discussed.
Lexical functions (LF) model relations between terms in the lexicon. These relations can be knowl- edge about the world (Napoleon was an emperor) or knowledge about the language ( is synonym of ). In this article, we show that LF instanci- ation in texts is useful both for semantic analysis (for example, resolution of lexical ambiguities or prepo- sitional attachment
|We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…
The lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) tasks are ubiquitous paradigms that employ printed word identification. They are major tools for investigating how factors like morphology, semantic information, lexical neighborhood and others affect identification. Although use of the tasks is widespread, there has been little research into how…
Katz, Leonard; Brancazio, Larry; Irwin, Julia; Katz, Stephen; Magnuson, James; Whalen, D. H.
Previous research on the effects of age of acquisition on lexical processing has relied on adult estimates of the age at which children learn words. The authors report 2 experiments in which effects of age of acquisition on lexical retrieval are demonstrated using real age-of-acquisition norms. In Experiment 1, real age of acquisition emerged as a powerful predictor of adult
There is general agreement that the effect of frequency on lexical access time is roughly logarithmic, although little attention has been given to the reason for this. The authors argue that models of lexical access that incorporate a frequency-ordered serial comparison or verification procedure provide an account of this effect and predict that the underlying function directly relates access time
There have been several reports in the literature of faster visual lexical decisions to words that are semantically ambiguous. All current models of this ambiguity advantage assume that it is the presence of multiple unrelated meanings that produce this benefit. A set of three lexical decision experiments reported here challenge this assumption. We contrast the ambiguity seen in words like
Jennifer Rodd; Gareth Gaskell; William Marslen-Wilson
Do nonselected lexical nodes activate their phonological information? Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were asked to name (a) pictures whose names are cognates in the 2 languages (words that are phonologically similar in the 2 languages) and (b) pictures whose names are noncognates in the 2 languages. If nonselected lexical nodes are phonologically encoded, naming latencies should be shorter for cognate words, and
Albert Costa; Alfonso Caramazza; Nuria Sebastian-Galles
The effects of disambiguating prior contexts upon the processing of lexical ambiguities in sentences were investigated. Subjects listened to lexically ambiguous (or unambiguous control) sentences under one of three conditions: a neutral prior context, a disambiguating context occurring immediately prior to the ambiguity, or a disambiguating context occurring in a prior sentence. Subjects monitored for phonemes which occurred immediately after
Recent studies have proposed that difficulty with accessing the lexical–semantic memory store may underpin some of the specific linguistic problems associated with formal thought disorder (FTD). We examined the consistency of name retrieval as an indicator of the ability to access lexical–semantic knowledge in patients with and without marked FTD to see if problems are specific to the former or
|Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…
Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.
lexical ambiguity can be syntactic If it involves mare than one grammatical cate- gory for a single word, or semantic If more than one meoning con be associated with a word. In thls article we discuss the application of o Boyesion-network model In the resolutlon of lexical ambiguities of both types. The network we pro- pose comprises a parsing subnetwork,
Leila M. R. Eizirik; Valmir C. Barbosa; Sueli Bandeira Teixeira Mendes
Lexical bundles--recurrent sequences of words--are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. Previous research has shown that lexical bundles are especially prevalent in university classroom teaching, where they serve three major discourse functions: stance expressions, discourse organizers, and referential…
Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…
|In addition to information about phonology, morphology and syntax, lexical entries contain semantic information about participants (e.g., Agent). However, the traditional criteria for determining how much participant information is lexically encoded have proved unreliable. We have proposed two semantic criteria (obligatoriness and selectivity)…
Theories of sentence production based on speech errors divide lexical-syntactic integration pro- cesses into two components. The first involves formulating an abstract structural representation that includes semantically specified lexical items. The second involves placing phonologically specified content words into a syntactic frame whose configuration is determined by the initial structural representation. Syntactic form thus may be influenced directly by variations
Theories of sentence production based on speech errors divide lexical-syntactic integration processes into two components. The first involves formulating an abstract structural representation that includes semantically specified lexical items. The second involves placing phonologically specified content words into a syntactic frame whose configuration is determined by the initial structural representation. Syntactic form thus may be influenced directly by variations in
Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., nurse ? doctor), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar, and unfamiliar concepts (e.g., horse ? doctor). Specifically, integrative priming occurs when a prime word can be
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of contextual constraint on lexical ambiguity resolution in the cerebral hemispheres. A cross-modal priming variant of the divided visual field task was utilized in which subjects heard sentences containing homonyms and made lexical decisions to targets semantically related to dominant and subordinate meanings. Experiment 1 showed priming in both hemispheres of dominant
There is general agreement that the effect of frequency on lexical access time is roughly logarithmic, although little attention has been given to the reason for this. The authors argue that models of lexical access that incorporate a frequency-ordered serial comparison or verification procedure provide an account of this effect and predict that…
|Lexical bundles--recurrent sequences of words--are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. Previous research has shown that lexical bundles are especially prevalent in university classroom teaching, where they serve three major discourse functions: stance expressions, discourse organizers, and referential…
|Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20…
This paper presents an ongoing task that will construct a DAML+Oil-compliant Chinese Lexical Ontology. The ontology mainly comprises three components: a hierarchical taxonomy consisting of a set of concepts and a set of relations describing the relationships among the concepts, a set of lexical entries associated with the concepts and relations, and a set of axioms describing the constraints on
The purpose of the present study was to compare the brain regions and systems that subserve lexical and sublexical processes in reading. In order to do so, three types of tasks were used: (i) silent reading of very high frequency regular words (lexical task); (ii) silent reading of nonwords (sublexical task); and, (iii) silent reading of very low frequency regular
Sven Joubert; Mario Beauregard; Nathalie Walter; Pierre Bourgouin; Gilles Beaudoin; Jean-Maxime Leroux; Sherif Karama; André Roch Lecours
The relationship between lexical diversity and overall quality of test takers' task performances is claimed, explicitly or implicitly, in rating scales of many large-scale language tests including MELAB (Michigan English Language Assessment Battery), as well as in automated evaluation systems. This paper reports an empirical study that aimed to understand the lexical diversity of MELAB test takers' writing and speaking
|A study examined the comparative effects on microteaching performance of (1) eight different methods of teacher training and (2) the interaction of method with student characteristics. Subjects, 71 enrollees in an educational psychology course, were randomly assigned to eight treatment groups (including one control group). Treatments consisted of…
Examines the relationship between family processes and children's school-based adjustment for a sample of fourth-grade (n=161) and seventh-grade (n=151) children. Analyses indicate that child characteristics demonstrated the most consistent and direct association with school social adjustment. A variety of parent-child interactions and family life…
Using electromagnetic hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations, the interaction between solar wind and a magnetized asteroid is investigated. At no or very low levels of asteroid magnetization the solar wind remains undisturbed. As the level of magnetization is increased, a phase standing whistler wake is generated which owing to its propagation characteristics remains confined to planes close to that
N. Omidi; X. Blanco-Cano; C. T. Russell; H. Karimabadi; M. Acuna
The effect of shock interaction on the aerodynamic characteristics of the tilted toroidal ballute is investigated. In order to estimate the aerodynamic characteristics of the tilted toroidal ballute, we used both Newtonian flow theory and CFD simulations. For CFD analyses, as a governing equation, we selected Navier-Stokes equation to observe the shock interaction clearly. Numerical results indicate that as the radius ratio, which is the ratio of the major radius to the minor radius, decreases, the strong shock interactions are observed inside the toroidal ballute, which enhanced the drag force especially when the ballute is tilted. The lift-to-drag ratio estimated by CFD analyses is found to be lower than that estimated by Newtonian flow theory as the radius ratio decreases.
The present study investigates how readers' representations of narratives are constrained by three sources of temporal information; grammatical aspect, lexical aspect, and the duration of intervening events. Participants read short stories in which a target event with an intrinsic endpoint or not (lexical aspect: accomplishments/activities) was described as ongoing or completed (grammatical aspect: imperfective/perfective). An intervening sentence described either a long or short duration event before the target situation was reintroduced later in the story. The electroencephalogram time-locked to the reintroduction of the target event elicited a larger N400 for perfective versus imperfective accomplishments, and this effect occurred only after short intervening events. Alternatively, the N400 to targets in the activity condition did not vary as a function of grammatical aspect or duration of intervening events. These results provide novel insight into how the temporal properties of events interact to constrain the availability of concepts in situation models. PMID:23942347
Becker, Raymond B; Ferretti, Todd R; Madden-Lombardi, Carol J
The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mah?bh?rata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devan?gar? Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.
Three measuring instruments are used in this study of 12? and 15?year?old children's passive vocabulary, active vocabulary and lexical diversity. Children are drawn from samples delimited by two social class backgrounds and by West Indian (Jamaican) background. Research was performed in north London and South Yorkshire. Highly significant differences are found in lexical access, by age, to semantic fields representative
|Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…
Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.
|This paper presents a theoretical account for how learners might draw upon L1 lexical and conceptual knowledge when making assumptions about connections between words in the L2 lexicon. It is suggested that L1 lexical knowledge can be both a help and a hindrance when forming L2 connections, particularly in respect to collocations. Furthermore,…
ABSTRACT This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty children with SLI and twenty with typical development. Children completed Saffran's statistical word segmentation task, a lexical-phonological access task (gating task), and a word definition task. Poor statistical learners were also poor at managing lexical-phonological competition during the gating task. However, statistical learning was not a significant predictor of semantic richness in word definitions. The ability to track statistical sequential regularities may be important for learning the inherently sequential structure of lexical-phonological, but not as important for learning lexical-semantic knowledge. Consistent with the procedural/declarative memory distinction, the brain networks associated with the two types of lexical learning are likely to have different learning properties. PMID:23425593
The effects of prior semantic context upon lexical access during sentence comprehension were examined in two experiments. In both studies, subjects comprehended auditorily presented sentences containing lexical ambiguities and simultaneously performed a lexical decision task upon visually presented letter strings. Lexical decisions for visual words related to each of the meanings of the ambiguity were facilitated when these words were
Two experiments are reported examining the relationship between lexical and syntactic processing during language comprehension, combining techniques common to the on-line study of syntactic ambiguity resolution with priming techniques common to the study of lexical processing. By manip- ulating grammatical properties of lexical primes, we explore how lexically based knowledge is acti- vated and guides combinatory sentence processing. Particularly, we
Two experiments are reported examining the relationship between lexical and syntactic processing during language comprehension, combining techniques common to the on-line study of syntactic ambiguity resolution with priming techniques common to the study of lexical processing. By manipulating grammatical properties of lexical primes, we explore how lexically based knowledge is activated and guides combinatory sentence processing. Particularly, we find that
The time course of lexical inferences during language comprehension is discussed according to a Lexical Inference Model (LIM). It distinguishes among three types of lexical inferences, respectively generated from semantic, conceptual, and strategic representations. Following discussion of the model, data from lexical priming studies conducted with aphasic patients as well as with Alzheimer's Disease patients are (re)considered in light of
There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.
Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their shadow responses were analyzed. It was found that participants produced the phonologically appropriate allophone most of the time based on the consonantal environments. Shadowing latencies for the voiced stimuli were faster than for the devoiced stimuli in the environment where the vowel should be voiced; while, no significant RT difference was observed between the two forms in the environment where vowel devoicing was expected. In addition, a priming effect between the devoiced and voiced stimuli emerged only in the devoicing environment. The results suggest that since vowel devoicing is very common in spoken Japanese, the devoiced form may be stored in the lexicon. The results also suggest a link between the two forms in the lexicon and a direct access between an input and a lexical representation without going through intermediate levels that usually cost extra processes. PMID:23654114
We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language. PMID:22980955
The average characteristics of the configuration interaction (CI) present the perspective, but yet little used method for the estimation and investigation of CI effects in atoms. This work is the first attempt to give the systematic view on such characteristics. Their general, but rather simple explicit expressions are presented. The application of these characteristics for the investigation of CI effects in atoms is illustrated by calculation results for practically important cases of configurations with a symmetric exchange of symmetry, (sd)N complex and some ground configurations. It is shown that the average weight of one configuration in the expansion of the wave functions of the other configuration as well the average shift of energy level of configuration due to its interaction with the levels of distant configuration present useful characteristics for the selection of wave function basis. The average characteristics can also be applied for the estimation of CI regularities in the isoelectronic and isonuclear sequences, the determination of the types of CI.
In this paper a study has been performed to investigate the effect of van der Waals interaction forces on the mode I (opening mode) fracture characteristics of a graphene sheet. Finite element based atomistic approach was employed to perform the investigation, where graphene structure was assumed to behave like a space frame structure. Few graphene sheets were modeled in finite element environment with different set of interlayer spacing. Modified virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was employed to estimate the strain energy release rate (SERR) under mode I of fracture criteria. Significant effect of van der Waals forces was observed on the mode I fracture characteristics of graphene.
Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be attributed to the typical processes accompanying older age, the typical processes accompanying first-language attrition in bilingual contexts, or both. The challenge, then, in understanding how lexical skills change in bilingual older individuals, lies in dissociating these processes. This paper addresses the difficulty of teasing apart the effects of ageing and attrition in older bilinguals and proposes some solutions. It presents preliminary results from a study of lexical processing in bilingual younger and older individuals. Processing differences were found for the older bilingual participants in their first language (L1), but not in their second language (L2). It is concluded that the lexical behaviour found for older bilinguals in this study can be attributed to L1 attrition and not to processes of ageing. These findings are discussed in the context of previous reports concerning changes in lexical skills associated with typical ageing and those associated with bilingual L1 attrition. PMID:18568793
Studies and models have suggested that color perception first involves access to semantic representations of color. This result leads to two questions: (1) is knowledge able to influence the perception of color when associated with a color? and (2) can the perception of color really involve only semantic representations? We developed an experiment where participants have to discriminate the color of a patch (yellow vs. green). The target patch is preceded either by a black-and-white line drawing or by a word representing a natural object associated with the same or a different color (banana vs. frog). We expected a priming effect for pictures because, with a 350-ms SOA, they only involve access to semantic representations of color, whereas words seem only elicit an access to lexical representations. As expected, we found a priming effect for pictures, but also for words. Moreover, we found a general slowdown of response times in the word-prime-condition suggesting the need of an additional processing step to produce priming. In a second experiment, we manipulated the SOA in order to preclude a semantic access in the word-prime-condition that could explain the additional step of processing. We also found a priming effect, suggesting that interaction with perception occurs at a lexical level and the additional step occurs at a color perception level. In the discussion, we develop a new model of color perception assuming that color perception involves access to semantic representations and then access to lexical representations. PMID:23053840
To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word-frequency (high, low), context (none, low-constraining, high-constraining), and level of English proficiency (monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals, Dutch-English bilinguals), on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context, but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraining context, and were reduced by high-constraining context only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages, and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production, but a frequency driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production.
Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith
This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactivecharacteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air–cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically
Roles played by fiber physical and chemical characteristics in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials were investigated\\u000a by analyzing the interaction between an endoglucanase complex and eucalypt kraft fibers. PFI refining was employed to create\\u000a the difference of fiber size distribution and morphology. Oxygen delignification and bleaching were employed to prepare fibers\\u000a with different lignin and pentosan contents. The enzyme accessibility
Chun-Han KoFang-Jing; Fang-Jing Chen; Jey Jau Lee; Der-Lii M. Tzou
Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and gender), would show independent and interactive effects on children's physical activity intensity. Design: Observations of physical activity intensity
Jessica S. Gubbels; Stef P. J. Kremers; Dave H. H. van Kann; Annette Stafleu; Math J. J. M. Candel; Pieter C. Dagnelie; Carel Thijs; Nanne K. de Vries
WordNet is a powerful lexical reference system that combines aspects of dictionaries and thesauri with current psycholinguistic theories of human lexical memory. It is produced by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University, under the direction of Professor George Miller. In WordNet, words are defined and grouped into various related sets of synonyms. Not only is the system valuable to the casual user as a powerful thesaurus and dictionary, but also to the researcher as one of the few freely available, lexical databases. WordNet is available via an on-line interface and also as easy-to-compile C source code for Unix.
We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation?+?Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing.
Gullifer, Jason W.; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.
We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation?+?Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing. PMID:23750141
Gullifer, Jason W; Kroll, Judith F; Dussias, Paola E
The structural characteristics of perhydrogenated carbon and boron nitride nanotubes are determined by means of quantum chemical calculations. Two families of nanotubes are systematically studied for both carbon and boron nitride, the nanotubes being derived from the perhydrogenated (110) and (111) sheets of diamond and cubic boron nitride. Single-walled perhydrogenated carbon nanotubes prefer structures analogous to the (111) sheet. In clear contrast, the single-walled perhydrogenated boron nitride nanotubes prefer structures analogous to the (110) sheet. The significantly different structural characteristics are due to the polarization of hydrogen atoms in the perhydrogenated boron nitride nanotubes. The presence of attractive electrostatic H--H interactions leads to a strong preference for multilayering of the boron nitride sheets and nanotubes. The results are expected to provide new insights into the structural characteristics of main-group binary hydrides. PMID:18830994
Tanskanen, Jukka T; Linnolahti, Mikko; Karttunen, Antti J; Pakkanen, Tapani A
Protein-protein interactions are observed in various biological processes. They are important for understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and can be potential targets for developing small-molecule regulators of such processes. Previous studies suggest that certain residues on protein-protein binding interfaces are ?hot spots?. As an extension to this concept, we have developed a residue-based method to identify the characteristicinteraction patterns (CIPs) on protein-protein binding interfaces, in which each pattern is a cluster of four contacting residues. Systematic analysis was conducted on a nonredundant set of 1,222 protein-protein binding interfaces selected out of the entire Protein Data Bank. Favored interaction patterns across different protein-protein binding interfaces were retrieved by considering both geometrical and chemical conservations. As demonstrated on two test tests, our method was able to predict hot spot residues on protein-protein binding interfaces with good recall scores and acceptable precision scores. By analyzing the function annotations and the evolutionary tree of the protein-protein complexes in our data set, we also observed that protein-protein interfaces sharing common characteristicinteraction patterns are normally associated with identical or similar biological functions. PMID:23930922
It is not known whether narrative medical text directly reflects clinical reality. We have tested the hypothesis that the pattern of distribution of lexical concept of medication intensification in narrative provider notes correlates with clinical practice as reflected in electronic medication records. Over 29,000 medication intensifications identified in narrative provider notes and 444,000 electronic medication records for 82 anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic medications were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the fraction of dose increases among all medication intensifications and therapeutic range calculated from EMR medication records was 0.39 (p = 0.0003). Correlations with therapeutic ranges obtained from two medication dictionaries, used as a negative control, were not significant. These findings provide evidence that narrative medical documents directly reflect clinical practice and constitute a valid source of medical data. PMID:23304273
Breydo, Eugene; Shubina, Maria; Shalaby, James W; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Turchin, Alexander
There has been a considerable amount of research looking at the effects of both syllable number and syllable frequency on lexical decision and word naming times. Recently, there has also been an increased interest in morphological variables, but there have been no large scale studies that have examined the role of the number of morphemes in lexical decision for nonwords. This is partly because of the difficulty of identifying morphemes in nonwords. We present a program that identifies the presence of affixes and, therefore, can be used to count the number of morpheme-like elements in a nonword. We then used the program to measure the importance of affixes/morphemes in predicting lexical decision in nonwords. The results suggested that morphemes have an important role in lexical decision for both words and nonwords. PMID:23829866
Complexity of Lexical Descriptions and its Relevance to Partial ParsingSrinivas BangaloreSupervisor: Aravind K. JoshiIn this dissertation, we have proposed novel methods for robust parsing that integrate theflexibility of linguistically motivated lexical descriptions with the robustness of statisticaltechniques. Our thesis is that the computation of linguistic structure can be localized iflexical items are associated with rich descriptions (supertags) that impose complex
People can discriminate real words from nonwords even when the latter are orthographically and phonologically word-like, presumably because words activate specific lexical and\\/or semantic information. We investigated the neural correlates of this identification process using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a visual lexical decision task under conditions that encouraged specific word identification: Nonwords were matched to words
J. R. Binder; K. A. McKiernan; M. E. Parsons; C. F. Westbury; E. T. Possing; J. N. Kaufman; L. Buchanan
Six experiments investigated repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access with 164 college students. Repetition priming effects in lexical decision tasks are stronger for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words. This frequency attenuation effect creates problems for frequency-ordered search models that assume a relatively stable frequency effect. It was posited that frequency attenuation is a product of the involvement
Techniques for managing lexical variation constitute an integral part of information retrieval systems. We report on a series of experiments aimed at evaluating LVG, a lexical variant management tool which addresses the particular problems involved in matching health related vocabularies to concepts in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. Experiments conducted on data from the Large Scale Vocabulary Test indicate the effectiveness of this approach to managing biomedical information.
WordNet, the on-line English thesaurus and lexical database developed at Princeton University b y George Miller and his colleagues (Fellbaum 1998), has proved to be an extremely important resource used in much research in computational linguis-tics where lexical knowledge of English is required. The goal of the EuroWordNet project is to create similar wordnets for other languages of Europe. The
Five homophone priming experiments were reported in which the lexicality of primes and targets were varied, so that primes and targets were either nonword homophones (keff–keph), word homophones (brake–break), pseudohomophones (brayk–braik), or of mixed lexicality (brake–brayk and brayk–break). Results showed that naming of targets was facilitated by a phonologically identical prime only when a word was in the prime–target pairing.
We examined the effect of manipulations of response programming, i.e. post-lexical decision making requirements, on lateralized lexical decision. Although response hand manipulations tend to elicit weaker laterality effects than those involving visual field of presentation, the implementation of different lateralized response strategies remains relatively unexplored. Four different response conditions were compared in a between-subjects design: (1) unimanual, (2) bimanual, (3)
This paper surveys work on applying the insights of lexicalized grammars to low-level discourse, to show the value of positing an autonomous grammar for low-level discourse in which words (or idiomatic phrases) are associated with discourse-level predicate-argument structures or modification structures that convey their syntactic-semantic meaning and scope. It starts by describing a lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar for discourse (D-LTAG).
Here we aim to evaluate the ability of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which is applied over Wernicke's area and its right homologue, to influence lexical decisions and semantic priming and establish an involvement for temporo-parietal areas in lexical and semantic processing. Thirty-two subjects (17 women) completed a lexical decision task and a semantic priming task while receiving 20 min of bilateral tDCS stimulation (right anodal/left cathodal or left anodal/right cathodal stimulation) or sham stimulation. We hypothesized that right anodal/left cathodal stimulation over temporo-parietal areas would selectively interrupt the typical lexical processing dominance of the left hemisphere and facilitate mediated priming, while left anodal/right cathodal stimulation would selectively facilitate lexical processing and direct priming. Results showed impaired lexical processing under right anodal/left cathodal stimulation in comparison with sham and left anodal/right cathodal stimulation. Results are discussed in light of previous findings and hemispheric lateralization models. PMID:23371750
The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a focused stimulation intervention focusing on lexical training has indirect, secondary effects on children's phonological abilities. Twenty-five toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays and their mothers were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The children were between 23 and 33 months of age at entry into the study and were at the single-word stage of language development. Parents of late talkers in the experimental group were trained to employ frequent, highly concentrated presentations of target words without requiring responses. Two measures of phonological diversity (i.e., syllable structure level and consonant inventory) and one measure of accuracy of production (i.e., percent consonants correct) were measured prior to and following intervention within the context of mother-child interactions. The toddlers who received intervention made treatment gains in two areas of phonological ability. They used a greater variety of complex syllable shapes and expanded their speech sound inventories to include more consonant sounds in both initial and final position. In contrast, there were no effects of language treatment on the accuracy of correct production when compared to the adult phonological system. PMID:9130202
Energy exchange between an electron beam and plasma during a beam-plasma discharge in a closed cavity excited by the electron beam is analyzed using computer simulations by the KARAT code. A method allowing one to analyze the beam-plasma interaction in the quasi-steady stage of the discharge is proposed. Qualitative characteristics of energy exchange (such as beam energy losses and the energy distributions of beam electrons and plasma particles leaving the discharge) both during spontaneous discharge excitation and in the presence of initial beam modulation by regular or noiselike signals are determined. The results obtained enable one to estimate the energy characteristics of a plasma processing reactor based on a beam-plasma discharge.
Klykov, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation); Tarakanov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for High Energy Densities, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Shustin, E. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)
To more fully understand the mechanism by which persimmon tannin (PT) inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the structural requirements of PT for the inhibition, the interactions between PLA2 and seven characteristic structural elements of PT including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), myricetin, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epicatechin-3-gallate-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epicatechin-3-gallate (A-type ECG dimer), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer), epicatechin-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epicatechin (A-type EC dimer) and epicatechin-(4? ? 8)-epicatechin (B-type EC dimer) were studied by enzymatic and spectroscopic methods. Molecular docking was also used to explore the possible residues involved in the interactions. The results revealed that A-type EGCG dimer and A-type ECG dimer showed higher inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PLA2 than monomers and B-type dimer. They induced greater conformational changes in PLA2 than other structural elements. In addition, molecular docking studies revealed that expect for lysine residues, other residues such as Trp18, Try27, Gly29, His47 and Tyr63 were involved in the interactions. We propose that A-type EGCG and ECG dimer units may be structural requirements for the interaction between PT and PLA2. Our data provide an additional structural basis for anti-PLA2 activity of persimmon tannin. PMID:23916601
Personal injury victims involved in compensation processes have a worse recovery than those not involved in compensation processes. One predictor for worse recovery is lawyer engagement. As some people argue that this negative relation between lawyer engagement and recovery may be explained by lawyers' attitude and communications to clients, it seems important to investigate lawyer-client interaction. Although procedural justice and therapeutic jurisprudence had previously discussed aspects relevant for lawyer-client interaction, the client's perspective has been rather ignored and only few empirical studies have been conducted. In this qualitative study, 21 traffic accident victims were interviewed about their experiences with their lawyer. Five desirable characteristics for lawyers were identified: communication, empathy, decisiveness, independence, and expertise. Communication and empathy corresponded with aspects already discussed in literature, whereas decisiveness, independence and expertise had been addressed only marginally. Further qualitative and quantitative research is necessary to establish preferable lawyer characteristics and to investigate what would improve the well-being of personal injury victims during the claims settlement process. PMID:22866183
Elbers, Nieke A; van Wees, Kiliaan A P C; Akkermans, Arno J; Cuijpers, Pim; Bruinvels, David J
Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of the existing word: they start at the same time point and overlap on most of their segments; and the fully embedding case (such as "lirmucktoze"), where the existing word corresponds to a smaller embedded portion of its novel competitor and is thus less noticeable. Experiment 1 (pause detection) revealed a similar performance for both cases, with no competitor effect immediately after exposure, but significant inhibition after 24 h and seven days. Experiment 2 (word spotting) produced exactly the same pattern; however, as is the case with existing word carriers (cf. McQueen, Norris, & Cutler, 1994), the inhibition was much stronger for fully embedded than for onset-aligned targets (e.g., "lirmuckt" vs. "frenzyl"). Meanwhile, explicit measures of learning, i.e., free recall and recognition, improved over time. These results cannot be explained by either consolidation of episodic traces or acquisition of new phonological/dialectal variants. We argue instead that they reflect a general trait of vocabulary learning and consolidation. PMID:22261419
Picture naming shows a cumulative semantic interference effect: Latency for naming a target picture increases as a function of the number of pictures semantically similar to the target that have previously been named (Howard, Nickels, Coltheart, & Cole-Virtue, Cognition 100:464-482, 2006). Howard and colleagues, and also Oppenheim, Dell, and Schwartz (Cognition 114:227-252, 2010), argued that this occurs because of the joint presence in the picture-naming system of three critical properties: shared activation, priming, and competition. They also discussed the possibility that whenever any cognitive system possesses these three properties, a cumulative similarity-based interference effect from repeated use of that cognitive system will occur. We investigated this possibility by looking for a cumulative lexical interference effect when the task is reading aloud: Will the latency of reading a target word aloud increase as a function of the number of words orthographically/phonologically similar to the target that have previously been read aloud? We found that this was so. This supports the general idea that cumulative similarity-based interference effects will arise whenever any cognitive system that possesses the three key properties of shared activation, priming, and competition is repeatedly used. PMID:22623265
Mulatti, Claudio; Peressotti, Francesca; Job, Remo; Saunders, Steven; Coltheart, Max
We examined onset reaction time (RT) in a word naming task using an additive factors method (AFM). The pattern of additive and over-additive joint effects on RT among Instructions (INST: name all, name words), Word Frequency (WF: log10 HAL), Semantic Neighborhood Density (SND: Inverse Ncount), and Word Type (WT: regular, exception) supported a cognitive chronometric architecture consisting of at least two cascaded stages of processing, with the orthographic lexical system as the locus of the INST × WF and the INST × SND interactions, and the phonological output system as the locus of the WF × WT and the SND × WT interactions. Additivity between INST and WT supports the notion that these variables affect separable systems, and a WF × SND interaction supports a common locus of their effects. These results support stage-like/cascaded processing models over parallel processing models of basic reading. We also examined response duration (RD) in these data by recording and hand-marking vocal responses, which provides evidence that basic reading processes are ongoing even after the initiation of a vocal response, and supports the notion that the more lexically a word is read, the shorter the RD. As such, the effects of WT and INST on RD were opposite to their effects on RT however the effects of WF and SND on RD were in the same direction as their effects on RT. Given the combination of consistent and dissociating effects between RT and RD, these results provide new challenges to all models of basic reading processes.
Two experiments investigated the joint effects of stimulus quality and repetition in the context of lexical decision. Experiment 1 yielded an interaction between repetition and stimulus quality for words (but additive effects for nonwords) when the lag was short, replicating previous reports. Experiment 2, with a much longer lag than Experiment 1, yielded main effects of stimulus quality and repetition,
This study examined profiles of change in repeated mother-child interactions over the course of a 12 week treatment period for childhood aggression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to detect the characteristic profile of change, typical for phase transitions, over the course of treatment, and whether this profile was associated with positive treatment outcomes. Entropy values were computed for six repeated real-time observations of each mother-child dyad, using a novel application of recurrence quantification analysis for categorical time series. Subsequent latent class growth curve analysis on the sequences of entropy values revealed two distinct classes of dyads, with one class showing a clear peak in entropy over the six measurement points. The latent class membership variables showed a significant systematic relationship with observed dyad improvement (as rated by clinicians). The class with the peak in entropy over the sessions consisted largely of treatment improvers. Further analysis revealed that improvers and non-improvers could not be distinguished based on content-specific changes (e.g. more positivity or less negativity during the interaction). The present study revealed a treatment-related destabilization pattern in real-time behaviors that was related to better treatment outcomes, and underlines the value of dynamic nonlinear time-series analysis (especially RQA) in the study of dyadic interactions in clinical contexts. PMID:22695153
The incorporation of clay nanoparticles into gel dosimeters shows promise for significant diffusion reduction – but to what extent does the presence of the nano-clay influence charged particle interactions and, in particular, what is the impact on water equivalence? In this work, we quantify the radiological characteristics of electron, proton and carbon ion interactions in the RIKEN dichromate nanoclay gel and specifically evaluate the water equivalence over a broad energy range. Results indicate that the radiological properties are sufficiently representative of tissues that this low-diffusion gel could readily be used for validation of complex dose distributions. Electron and proton ranges are within 1 % of those in water. Mean effective atomic numbers for electron interactions in the range 10 keV – 10 GeV are within 1 % of those of water which, coupled with the similar mass density, ultimately means the overall impact on dose distributions is not great. The range of C6+ ions in the nanoclay gel is closer to that of water (< 4 %) than a common polymer gel dosimeter (< 7 %), though experimentally measured R1 values indicate an over-response at low doses.
Taylor, M. L.; Maeyama, T.; Fukunishi, N.; Ishikawa, K. L.; Fukasaku, K.; Furuta, T.; Takagi, S.; Noda, S.; Himeno, R.; Fukuda, S.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group.
Difficulties in phonological processing in illiterates have been attributed to their limited phonological awareness, a consequence of their lack of literacy. We sought to explore the potential influence of education on auditory lexical processing above and beyond literacy per se. In order to achieve this goal, we compared a lexical decision making paradigm with a repetition paradigm using words and pseudo-words. We based this choice of tasks on previous research, which has shown that pseudo-word repetition is dependent on the phonological loop; such studies have thus demonstrated a literacy effect on repetition. Instead, lexical decision making is known to depend on the size of one's vocabulary, which is influenced by the level of education attained. Our sample comprised three groups: illiterate no education, literate/low education and literate/high education, individuals. The pattern of our findings confirmed that literacy has an effect on the capacity of the phonological loop, as our illiterate group alone had difficulty with repetition, as compared with both literate/educated groups. Also, our findings suggested an education effect on lexical decision making, as we found a gradation in the performance of the three groups. Therefore, we succeeded in dissecting the effect of literacy and education on auditory lexical processing through the application and comparison of two simple paradigms. PMID:17172182
Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki
Whether lexical selection is by competition is the subject of current debate in studies of monolingual language production. Here, I consider whether extant data from bilinguals can inform this debate. In bilinguals, theories that accept the notion of lexical selection by competition are divided between those positing competition among all lexical nodes vs. those that restrict competition to nodes in the target language only. An alternative view rejects selection by competition altogether, putting the locus of selection in a phonological output buffer, where some potential responses are easier to exclude than others. These theories make contrasting predictions about how quickly bilinguals should name pictures when non-target responses are activated. In Part 1, I establish the empirical facts for which any successful theory must account. In Part 2, I evaluate how well each theory accounts for the data. I argue that the data do not support theories that reject lexical selection by competition, and that although theories where competition for selection is restricted to the target language can be altered to fit the data, doing so would fundamentally undermine the distinctness of their position. Theories where selection is by competition throughout both target and non-target language lexicons must also be modified to account for the data, but these modifications are relatively peripheral to the theoretical impetus of the model. Throughout, I identify areas where our empirical facts are sparse, weak, or absent, and propose additional experiments that should help to further establish how lexical selection works, in both monolinguals and bilinguals.
Lexical access was examined in English–Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., ‘Click on the beans’). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with the target (e.g., ‘beetle’). Between-language lexical competitors had
Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez; Laurel Brehm; Cameron A. Brick; Sarah Brown-Schmidt; Kara Fischer; Katie Wagner
|Employed a lexical decision task to asses whether left hemisphere damaged (LHD) and right hemisphere damaged (RHD) patients are similarly sensitive to stress patterns in lexical access. Results confirmed that individuals without brain damage are influenced by stress patterns, as indicated by increased lexical decision latencies to incorrectly…
Lexical access in object naming involves the activation of a set of lexical candidates, the selection of the appropriate (or target) item, and the phonological encoding of that item. Two views of lexical access in naming are compared. From one view, the 2-stage theory, phonological activation follows selection of the target item and is restricted to that item. From the
Willem J. M. Levelt; Herbert Schriefers; Dirk Vorberg; Antje S. Meyer; Thomas Pechmann; Jaap Havinga
Lexicalization occupies a central place in the development of the lexicon of languages, as it is highly pervasive cross-linguistically. This study addresses lexicalized names and nouns in Colloquial Arabic, as the phenomenon is notably self-evident in the formation of new lexical items through borrowing from either the standard variety of Arabic or from an alien source, mainly Turkish. Taken as
Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…
ObjectiveTo evaluate a “lexically assign, logically refine” (LALR) strategy for merging overlapping healthcare terminologies. This strategy combines description logic classification with lexical techniques that propose initial term definitions. The lexically suggested initial definitions are manually refined by domain experts to yield description logic definitions for each term in the overlapping terminologies of interest. Logic-based techniques are then used to merge
Robert H Dolin; Stanley M Huff; Roberto A Rocha; Kent A Spackman; Keith E Campbell
|Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…
Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.
It is well known that the time course of lexical access is shaped by the number and nature of potential competitor items in the lexicon. While research has outlined the macrostructure of lexical processing (e.g., that during spoken word recognition, lexical candidates similar to the input are activated and compete for recognition), many questions remain about the microstructure (how exactly
James S. Magnuson; Paul D. Allopenna; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Richard N. Aslin
|We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…
Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin
Rapid, automatic access to lexical\\/semantic knowledge is critical in supporting the tight temporal constraints of on-line sentence comprehension. Based on findings of “abnormal” lexical priming in nonfluent aphasics, the question of disrupted automatic lexical activation has been the focus of many recent efforts to understand their impaired sentence comprehension capabilities. The picture that emerges from this literature is, however, unclear.
P. A. Prather; Edgar Zurif; Tracy Love; Hiram Brownell
This study used repetition priming to examine the influence of lexical processing on sentence comprehension processing. In order to do that the effect of the lexical priming of nouns and verbs on active compared to passive sentences was investigated. The results revealed that facilitating lexical access resulted in the facilitation of sentence comprehension processes. More specifically it was found that
Sharlene D. Newman; Kristen Ratliff; Tara Muratore; Thomas Burns Jr.
In this paper, we examine user adaptation to the system's lexical and syntactic choices in the context of the deployed Let's Go! dialog system. We show that in deployed dialog sys- tems with real users, as in laboratory experi- ments, users adapt to the system's lexical and syntactic choices. We also show that the sys- tem's lexical and syntactic choices,
Lexical and pictorial priming were examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in demented and nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease. Control subjects were divided into young and elderly. Lexical priming used a word?stem completion task. Pictorial priming task was based on Rey's superimposed pictures test. Elderly normal subjects demonstrated lower lexical priming scores than those of young subjects. Analysis of
|This study was an examination of the relationship of lexical richness to the quality of English as a second language (ESL) learners' oral narratives. A computational system was designed to automate the measurement of 3 dimensions of lexical richness, that is, lexical density, sophistication, and variation, using 25 different metrics proposed in…
|Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…
A widely agreed-upon feature of spoken word recognition is that multiple lexical candidates in memory are simultaneously activated in parallel when a listener hears a word, and that those candidates compete for recognition (Luce, Goldinger, Auer, & Vitevitch, Perception 62:615-625, 2000; Luce & Pisoni, Ear and Hearing 19:1-36, 1998; McClelland & Elman, Cognitive Psychology 18:1-86, 1986). Because the presence of those competitors influences word recognition, much research has sought to quantify the processes of lexical competition. Metrics that quantify lexical competition continuously are more effective predictors of auditory and visual (lipread) spoken word recognition than are the categorical metrics traditionally used (Feld & Sommers, Speech Communication 53:220-228, 2011; Strand & Sommers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130:1663-1672, 2011). A limitation of the continuous metrics is that they are somewhat computationally cumbersome and require access to existing speech databases. This article describes the Phi-square Lexical Competition Database (Phi-Lex): an online, searchable database that provides access to multiple metrics of auditory and visual (lipread) lexical competition for English words, available at www.juliastrand.com/phi-lex . PMID:23754576
Abstract We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n?=?23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n?=?24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS) and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7-9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2-4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD. PMID:23985011
Objective The objective of this experiment is to develop methods for aligning two representations of anatomy (the Foundational Model of Anatomy and GALEN) at the lexical and structural level. Methods The alignment consists of the following four steps: 1) acquiring terms, 2) identifying anchors (i.e., shared concepts) lexically, 3) acquiring explicit and implicit semantic relations, and 4) identifying anchors structurally. Results 2,353 anchors were identified by lexical methods, of which 91% were supported by structural evidence. No evidence was found for 7.5% of the anchors and 1.5% received negative evidence. Discussion The importance of taking advantage of implicit domain knowledge acquired through complementation, augmentation, and inference is discussed.
The semantic priming effect can be reduced or eliminated depending on how the prime word is processed. The experiments reported here investigate this prime task effect. Two experiments used identity and semantic priming tasks to determine whether the prime word is encoded at a lexical level under letter-search conditions. When the prime task was naming, both identity and semantic priming occurred; however, when a letter-search task was performed on the prime word, only identity priming occurred, thus supporting the argument that the search task affects activation of semantic associates rather than lexical access of the prime word. Another experiment demonstrated that this identity priming was the result of lexical processes rather than of letter-by-letter priming. A cross-modal priming technique demonstrated that the letter-search prime task does not actively suppress activation of semantic associates. The implications of these results for automaticity and for proposed mechanisms of priming are discussed. PMID:1834791
This first-attempt study quantitatively explored interactivecharacteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44. After approx. 15 cycles (30 days) acclimatization in dye-bearing cultures, P. hauseri could express its stable capability of simultaneous bioelectricity generation and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Evidently, appropriate acclimation strategy for formation of the electrochemically active anodic biofilm played a crucial role to enhance the performance of SBP&CR in MFCs. Gradually increased supplementations of C.I. reactive blue 160 resulted in progressively decreased decay rate of bioelectricity generation. That is, a dye decolorized in a faster rate would result in a lower capability for bioelectricity generation and vice versa. In addition, a reduced dye with less toxicity potency (e.g., 2-aminophenol) might work as a redox mediator of electron transport to anodic biofilm for bioelectricity generation in MFCs. PMID:20932743
In this study, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) condition was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major phlorotannins from an extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell with good linearity (r(2)>0.999). Based on this method, the seasonal variations and extraction characteristics, in terms of total extraction yield and the content of the phlorotannins, were investigated under various extraction conditions. In results, the yields and phlorotannins were increased two-to-four times in summer (June-October) and then, were decreased to normal levels in winter (November-March). In the extraction of E. bicyclis, ethanol percentage in water, extraction time and washing time significantly affected the yield of the extract and the phlorotannins, whereas the temperature and the sample/solvent ratio impacted the extraction to a lesser degree. These results will be useful information in the application of this macroalga in the commercial areas related to nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. PMID:23497901
Kim, Sang Min; Kang, Suk Woo; Jeon, Je-Seung; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kim, Woo-Ri; Kim, Chul Young; Um, Byung-Hun
In the present study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the influence of phonological and lexical properties of verbal items on the excitability of the tongue's cortical motor representation during passive listening. In particular, we aimed to clarify if the difference in tongue motor excitability found during listening to words and pseudo-words [Fadiga, L., Craighero, L., Buccino, G., Rizzolatti, G., 2002. Speech listening specifically modulates the excitability of tongue muscles: a TMS study. European Journal of Neuroscience 15, 399-402] is due to lexical frequency or to the presence of a meaning per se. In order to do this, we investigated the time-course of tongue motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) during listening to frequent words, rare words, and pseudo-words embedded with a double consonant requiring relevant tongue movements for its pronunciation. Results showed that at the later stimulation intervals (200 and 300 ms from the double consonant) listening to rare words evoked much larger MEPs than listening to frequent words. Moreover, by comparing pseudo-words embedded with a double consonant requiring or not tongue movements, we found that a pure phonological motor resonance was present only 100 ms after the double consonant. Thus, while the phonological motor resonance appears very early, the lexical-dependent motor facilitation takes more time to appear and depends on the frequency of the stimuli. The present results indicate that the motor system responsible for phonoarticulatory movements during speech production is also involved during speech listening in a strictly specific way. This motor facilitation reflects both the difference in the phonoarticulatory characteristics and the difference in the frequency of occurrence of the verbal material. PMID:18440210
Roy, Alice C; Craighero, Laila; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Fadiga, Luciano
Two related questions critical to understanding the predictive processes that come online during sentence comprehension are 1) what information is included in the representation created through prediction and 2) at what functional stage does top-down, predicted information begin to affect bottom-up word processing? We investigated these questions by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants read sentences that ended with expected words or with unexpected items (words, pseudowords, or illegal strings) that were either orthographically unrelated to the expected word or were one of its orthographic neighbors. The data show that, regardless of lexical status, attempts at semantic access (N400) for orthographic neighbors of expected words is facilitated relative to the processing of orthographically unrelated items. Our findings support a view of sentence processing wherein orthographically organized information is brought online by prediction and interacts with input prior to any filter on lexical status.
Recent studies report that the occipito-temporal N170 component of the ERP is enhanced by letter strings, relative to non-linguistic strings of similar visual complexity, with a left-lateralized distribution. This finding is consistent with underlying mechanisms that serve visual word recognition. Conclusions about the level of analysis reflected within the N170 effects, and therefore the timecourse of word recognition, have been mixed. Here, we investigated the timing and nature of brain responses to putatively low- and high-level processing difficulty. Low-level processing difficulty was modulated by manipulating letter-rotation parametrically at 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5°, and 90°. Higher-level processing difficulty was modulated by manipulating lexical status (words vs. word-like pseudowords). Increasing letter-rotation enhanced the N170 led to monotonic increases in P1 and N170 amplitude up to 67.5° but then decreased amplitude at 90°. Pseudowords enhanced the N170 over left occipital-temporal sites, relative to words. These combined findings are compatible with a cascaded, interactive architecture in which lower-level analysis (e.g., word-form feature extraction) leads higher-level analysis (e.g., lexical access) in time, but that by approximately 170 ms, the brain's response to a visual word includes parallel, interactive processing at both low-level feature extraction and higher-order lexical access levels of analysis. PMID:22784511
The characteristics of the interaction between learning success and measures of auditory operative memory were studied by psychoacoustic testing of 42 medical workers aged 20-65 years trained to work in areas new to them (information science). Three age groups were identified: 20-35 years, 36-50 years, and 51-65 years. The acoustic test consisted of a single presentation via headphones of 12 sequential target words from information science with subsequent presentation of 12 target and 12 masking words in random order. The subjects' task was to recognize the target words. Stepwise linear regression analysis identified a relationship between the efficiency with which the new material was learned and measures of auditory operative memory, whose role in learning success increased with age. Since subjects older than 35 years showed a reduction in remembering efficiency, it was suggested that age-related changes in the characteristics of auditory operative memory are one of the major reasons for degradation of the ability to learn new material. PMID:18401732
Dmitrieva, E S; Gel'man, V Ya; Zaitseva, K A; Lan'ko, S V
ABSTRACT—Do consonants,and vowels have the same im- portance during reading? Recently, it has been proposed that consonants,play a more important,rolethan vowelsfor language,acquisition and,adult speech processing. This proposal has started receiving developmental,support from studiesshowingthatinfantsarebetteratprocessingspecific consonantal,than vocalic information,while learning new words. This proposal,also received support,from,adult speechprocessing.Inourstudy,wedirectlyinvestigatedthe relative contributions of consonants,and vowels to lexical access while reading,by using a visual masked-priming lexical decision
|Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…
|Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…
|Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6-9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CVtsets [word-word (WW), nonword-nonword (NN), word-nonword (WN) and…
Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece
Picture naming requires early visual analysis, accessing stored structural knowledge, semantic activation, and lexical retrieval. We tested the effect of perceptual, lexical, and semantic variables on the performance of aphasics in picture naming and assessed prevalence of natural categories vs artifact dissociations. Forty-nine aphasics were asked to name 60 pictures, from three natural (animals, fruits, and vegetables) and three artificial categories (tools, furniture, and vehicles). For each item visual (drawing complexity, image agreement), semantic (prototypicality, concept familiarity) and lexical variables (word frequency, name agreement) were available. The effect of these variables showed individual differences; altogether, visual complexity had little influence, whereas lexical and semantic variables were more influential. Name agreement was most important, followed by word frequency. On a multiple single case analysis 10 patients (20%) showed a natural/artificial category dissociation. Five of the six subjects faring better with artifacts were males, and all of four patients faring better with natural categories were females. Interpretations of this finding are discussed. PMID:11527324
Laiacona, M; Luzzatti, C; Zonca, G; Guarnaschelli, C; Capitani, E
|Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…
We present a new model for lexical decision, REM-LD, that is based on REM theory (e.g., Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997). REM-LD uses a principled (i.e., Bayes' rule) decision process that simultaneously considers the diagnosticity of the evidence for the 'WORD' response and the 'NONWORD' response. The model calculates the odds ratio that the presented…
Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Steyvers, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G. W.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Zeelenberg, Rene
This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…
This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…
|Theories of English phonology regard syllable onset patterns as irrelevant to the assignment of lexical stress. This paper describes three studies that challenge this position. Study 1 tested whether stress patterns on a large sample of disyllabic English words varied as a function of word onset. The incidence of trochaic stress increased…
|This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…
|This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL…
A central problem in part-of-speech tagging, especially for new languages for which limited annotated resources are available, is estimating the distribution of lexical probabilities for unknown words. This paper introduces a new paradigmatic similarity measure and presents a minimally supervised learning approach combining effective selection and weighting methods based on paradigmatic and contextual similarity measures populated from large quantities of
This paper presents a novel approach to improve the OOV (Out-of-vocabulary) phrase translation by combining lexical information and web mining. We first retrieve the top relevant anchor words with source OOV phrase from search engine, and then search the translation with expanded query ¿source OOV phrase + anchor word¿ from mixed-language web pages. Finally, a ME (Maximum Entropy) model is
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that bilingualism may cause a linguistic disadvantage in lexical access even for bilinguals’ first and dominant language. To this purpose, we conducted a picture naming experiment comparing the performance of monolinguals and highly-proficient, L1-dominant bilinguals. The results revealed that monolinguals name pictures faster than bilinguals, both when bilinguals perform picture naming in
Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of language group was different for each type of task: Monolinguals and
|Four experiments support the hypothesis that syntactically relevant information about verbs is encoded in the lexicon in semantic event templates. A verb's event template represents the participants in an event described by the verb and the relations among the participants. The experiments show that lexical decision times are longer for verbs…
Theories of English phonology regard syllable onset patterns as irrelevant to the assignment of lexical stress. This paper describes three studies that challenge this position. Study 1 tested whether stress patterns on a large sample of disyllabic English words varied as a function of word onset. The incidence of trochaic stress increased…
|How do new words become established in a speech community? This dissertation documents linguistic, cognitive, and social factors that are hypothesized to affect "lexical entrenchment," the extent to which a new word becomes part of the lexicon of a speech community. First, in a longitudinal corpus study, I find that linguistic properties such as…
In this paper we show how the formal theory of context, as developedin declarative AI, can be used to represent lexical ambiguityand reason about disambiguation. We first give an introductionto the formal theory of context by briefly sketching its logic, andwe identify a new class of contexts, discourse contexts. Unlike thepreviously studied knowledge base contexts, which are characterizedonly by the
|This study examined strategy use in producing lexical collocations among freshman English majors at the Chinese Culture University. Divided into two groups by English writing proficiency, students completed three tasks: a collocation test, an optimal revision task, and a task-based structured questionnaire regarding their actions and mental…
The diffusion model for 2-choice decisions (R. Ratcliff, 1978) was applied to data from lexical decision experiments in which word frequency, proportion of high- versus low-frequency words, and type of nonword were manipulated. The model gave a good account of all of the dependent variables--accuracy, correct and error response times, and their…
J. L. Nicol and D. Swinney (1989) reported that lexical decision response times to a test word that was related to the implicit object of a verb were faster, when tested immediately after the verb, than response times to a control test word. They concluded from this result that the relation between the implicit object and the verb was understood
The generation of words in speech involves a number of processing stages. There is, first, a stage of conceptual preparation; this is followed by stages of lexical selection, phonological encoding, phonetic encoding and articulation. In addition, the speaker monitors the output and, if necessary, self-corrects. Major parts of the theory have been computer modelled. The paper concentrates on experimental reaction
Three experiments investigated the nature of the information required for the lexical access of visual words. A four-field masking procedure was used, in which the presentation of consecutive prime and target letter strings was preceded and followed by presentations of a pattern mask. This procedure prevented subjects from identifying, and thus intentionally using, prime information. Experiment I extablished the existence
Four experiments investigated the conjoint effects of word frequency and neighborhood size on performance in lexical decision, word naming, and delayed naming tasks. Neighborhood size refers to the number of words that can be created by changing one letter of a target word. Facilitatory effects of neighborhood size were observed for low- but not high-frequency words in all tasks except
The phonological modeling and lexical access components of the SUMMIT speech recognition system are described in detail. SUMMIT makes explicit use of acoustic-phonetic knowledge, embedded in a segmental framework that can be trained automatically. Performance results for the complete system on the DARPA 1000-word Naval Resource Management task are presented
Victor Zue; James Glass; David Goodine; Michael Phillips; Stephanie Seneff
A new class of A* algorithms for Viterbi phonetic decoding subject to lexical constraints is presented. This type of algorithm can be made to run substantially faster than the Viterbi algorithm in an isolated word recognizer having a vocabulary of 1600 words. In addition, multiple recognition hypotheses can be generated on demand and the search can be constrained in respect
P. Kenny; R. Hollan; V. N. Gupta; M. Lennig; P. Mermelstein; D. O'Shaughnessy
The problems of access - retrieving linguistic structure from some mental grammar - and disambiguation - choosing among these structures to correctly parse ambiguous linguistic input - are fundamental to language understanding. The literature abounds with psychological results on lexical access, the access of idioms, syntactic rule access, parsing preferences, syntactic disambiguation, and the processing of garden-path sentences. Unfortunately, it
It is quite normal for us to produce one or two million word tokens every year. Speaking is a dear occupation and producing words is at the core of it. Still, producing even a single word is a highly complex affair. Recently, Levelt, Roelofs, and Meyer (1999) reviewed their theory of lexical access in speech production, which dissects the word-producing
We create a weighted lexical network derived from the cosine similarities of financial news feeds to compare two clustering methods, Newman's Modularity method and hierarchical clustering. We find that hierarchical clustering, clustering documents according to shared unique terms, shows results that are closer to expectation.
The selection of appropriate Lexical Units (LUs) is an important issue in the development of Continuous Speech Recognition (CSR) systems. Words have been used classically as the recognition unit in most of them. However, proposals of non- word units are beginning to arise. Basque is an agglutinative language with some structure inside words, for which non-word morpheme like units could
K. López De Ipiña; Manuel Graña; Nerea Ezeiza; M. Hernández; Ekaitz Zulueta; Aitzol Ezeiza; C. Tovar
|We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…
We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…
We examine the influence of inferring interlocutors' referential intentions from their body move- ments at the early stage of lexical acquisition. By testing human participants and comparing their perfor- mances in different learning conditions, we find that those embodied intentions facilitate both word dis- covery and word-meaning association. In light of empirical findings, the main part of this article presents
|This paper presents findings from two eye-tracking studies designed to investigate the role of metrical prosody in silent reading. In Experiment 1, participants read stress-alternating noun-verb or noun-adjective homographs (e.g. "PREsent", "preSENT") embedded in limericks, such that the lexical stress of the homograph, as determined by context,…
The rationale for lexical studies rests on the assumption that the most meaningful personality attributes tend to become encoded in language as single-word descriptors. We articulate some key premises of the lexical approach and then review a number of studies that have been conducted examining the factor structure of personality descriptors extracted from dictionaries. We compare lexical studies in English and 12 other languages, with attention to delineating consistencies between the structures found in diverse languages. Our review suggests that the Anglo-Germanic Big Five is reproduced better in some languages than in others. We propose some organizing rules for lexical factor structures that may be more generalizable than the contemporary Big-Five model. And, we propose several candidate structural models that should be compared with the Big Five in future studies, including structures with one, two, and three very broad factors, an alternative five-factor structure identified in Italian and Hungarian studies, and a seven-factor structure represented in Hebrew and Philippine studies. We recommend that in future studies more attention be paid to middle-level personality constructs and to examining the effects of methodological variations on the resulting factor structures. PMID:11767821
A lexical database tool tailored for phonological res- earch is described. Database fields include transcrip- tions, glosses and hyperlinks to speech files. Database queries are expressed using HTML forms, and these permit regular expression search on any combination of fields. Regular expressions are passed directly to a Perl CGI program, enabling the full flexibility of Perl extended regular expressions. The
This study investigated whether masked priming is mediated by existing memory representations by determining whether nonwords targets would show repetition priming. To avoid the potential confound that nonword repetition priming would be obscured by a familiarity response bias, the standard lexical decision and naming tasks were modified to make targets unfamiliar. Participants were required to read a target string from
Two experiments utilizing priming procedures examined the status of semantic memory in demented and amnesic patients. In the first investigation, lexical priming was assessed in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), Huntington's Disease (HD), alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), and in intact control subjects. Subjects were first exposed to a list of words in a rating task and then
David P. Salmon; Arthur P. Shimamura; Nelson Butters; Stan Smith
This paper develops guidelines for instructional materials for advanced English as a second language students in which the objects of instruction would be: (1) the relationship between surface structures of lexical items and their underlying meanings; (2) the important aspects of structural forms; and (3) the special uses of words in the lexicon…
|In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…
Four experiments examined the role of meaning frequency (dominance) and associative strength (measured by associative norms) in the processing of ambiguous words in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to targets words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph prime. The first two experiments investigated the role of associative strength at long
Francisco Nievas; Fernando Justicia; José J. Cañas; M. Teresa Bajo
|Working from a large corpus of transcripts from secondary mathematics classrooms, we identify patterns of speech that encode interpersonal positioning. We extend our analysis from a previous article (Herbel-Eisenmann, Wagner & Cortes, Educ Stud Math, 2010, in press), in which we introduced a concept from corpus linguistics--a "lexical bundle,"…
The purpose of the present study was to determine what features associated with the macrolevel of lexical competence vary as a function of an increase in second language (L2) proficiency. The macrolevel of participants' word knowledge was described with respect to six variables that are commonly associated with three proposed macrolevel…
This paper presents a new research and development project called Papillon. It started as a French-Japanese cooperation between laboratories GETA\\/CLIPS (Grenoble, France) and NII (Tokyo, Japan). Its goal is to build a multilingual lexical database and to extract from it digital bilingual dictionaries. The database is built with monolingual dictionaries, one for each language of the database, linked to an
The general objective of this work is to convert a pre-existing monolingual lexical database into a multilingual specialized dictionary. To this end, we developed a module for Korean based on a model and a methodology primarily designed for French in the domains of computing and the Internet. We will describe the different stages of our methodology: corpus processing, term extraction,
The purpose of the present study was to compare the brain regions and systems that subserve lexical and sublexical processes in reading. In order to do so, three types of tasks were used: (i). silent reading of very high frequency regular words (lexical task); (ii). silent reading of nonwords (sublexical task); and, (iii). silent reading of very low frequency regular words (sublexical task). All three conditions were contrasted with a visual/phonological baseline condition. The lexical condition engaged primarily an area at the border of the left angular and supramarginal gyri. Activation found in this region suggests that this area may be involved in mapping orthographic-to-phonological whole word representations. Both sublexical conditions elicited significantly greater activation in the left inferior prefrontal gyrus. This region is thought to be associated with sublexical processes in reading such as grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, phoneme assembly and underlying verbal working memory processes. Activation in the left IFG was also associated with left superior and middle temporal activation. These areas are thought to be functionally correlated with the left IFG and to contribute to a phonologically based form of reading. The results as a whole demonstrate that lexical and sublexical processes in reading activate different regions within a complex network of brain structures. PMID:15010232
In Japanese, the same word can be written in either morphographic Kanji or syllabographic Hiragana and this provides a unique opportunity to disentangle a word's lexical frequency from the frequency of its visual form--an important distinction for understanding the neural information processing in regions engaged by reading. Behaviorally,…
Twomey, Tae; Duncan, Keith J. Kawabata; Hogan, John S.; Morita, Kenji; Umeda, Kazumasa; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Devlin, Joseph T.
In a study of optical cues to the visual perception of stress, three American English talkers spoke words that differed in lexical stress and sentences that differed in phrasal stress, while video and movements of the face were recorded. The production of stressed and unstressed syllables from these utterances was analyzed along many measures of facial movement, which were generally larger and faster in the stressed condition. In a visual perception experiment, 16 perceivers identified the location of stress in forced-choice judgments of video clips of these utterances (without audio). Phrasal stress was better perceived than lexical stress. The relation of the visual intelligibility of the prosody of these utterances to the optical characteristics of their production was analyzed to determine which cues are associated with successful visual perception. While most optical measures were correlated with perception performance, chin measures, especially Chin Opening Displacement, contributed the most to correct perception independently of the other measures. Thus, our results indicate that the information for visual stress perception is mainly associated with mouth opening movements. PMID:19624028
A fast coupled global climate model (CGCM) is used to study the sensitivity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) characteristics to a new interactive flux correction scheme. With no flux correction applied our CGCM reveals typical bias in the background state: for instance, the cold tongue in the tropical east Pacific becomes too cold, thus degrading atmospheric sensitivity to variations of sea surface temperature (SST). Sufficient atmospheric sensitivity is essential to ENSO. Our adjustment scheme aims to sustain atmospheric sensitivity by counteracting the SST drift in the model. With reduced bias in the forcing of the atmosphere, the CGCM displays ENSO-type variability that otherwise is absent. The adjustment approach employs a one-way anomaly coupling from the ocean to the atmosphere: heat fluxes seen by the ocean are based on full SST, while heat fluxes seen by the atmosphere are based on anomalies of SST. The latter requires knowledge of the model's climatological SST field, which is accumulated interactively in the spin-up phase ("training"). Applying the flux correction already during the training period (by utilizing the evolving SST climatology) is necessary for efficiently reducing the bias. The combination of corrected fluxes seen by the atmosphere and uncorrected fluxes seen by the ocean implies a restoring mechanism that counteracts the bias and allows for long stable integrations in our CGCM. A suite of sensitivity runs with varying training periods is utilized to study the effect of different levels of bias in the background state on important ENSO properties. Increased duration of training amplifies the coupled sensitivity in our model and leads to stronger amplitudes and longer periods of the Nino3.4 index, increased emphasis of warm events that is reflected in enhanced skewness, and more pronounced teleconnections in the Pacific. Furthermore, with longer training durations we observe a mode switch of ENSO in our model that closely resembles the observed mode switch related to the mid-1970s "climate shift".
Much research has pointed to the importance of the quality of child-care for child development. However, comparatively little research has focused on family day care. This paper examines evidence concerning the relationship between characteristics of family day care and peer interaction. Results indicate that the nature of toddler-interaction can be understood better by considering both children's child-care history and parent-child
The strength, shape, orientation, mean flow interactions, and propagation characteristics of the time-varying (eddy) flow determined from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data in the North Pacific are investigated using equivalent barotropic diagnostic calculations as presented by Hoskins et al. . Separate calculations for low- and high-pass flow fields, distinguished by periods greater than and less than 6 months, respectively, are performed and revealed a fundamental difference between the eddy characteristics of the two. The areas with largest values of surface eddy kinetic energy occur in the vicinity of the Kuroshio Extension and the subtropical front. Near the Kuroshio Extension the low-pass surface eddy kinetic energy is greater than the high-pass energy, but in the subtropical frontal area the high-pass eddy flow accounts for more energy than the low-pass flow. For both areas the values of eddy kinetic energy are larger in summer than during winter. Low-pass eddy flow tends to be aligned zonally, and the high-pass eddy flow is aligned meridionally. Near the subtropical front the ratio of major to minor axis length is typically ˜1.5?1, whereas near the Kuroshio Extension that ratio increases to values near 2:1. Along the southern boundary of the subtropical gyre the high-pass eddy flow tends to propagate eastward relative to the mean flow, tending to decrease the gyre strength. However, the low-pass eddy flow propagates westward relative to the mean flow and tends to increase the gyre strength. An additional computation of surface heat transport is used to deduce vertical propagation tendencies of the eddy flow and indicates that the low-pass flow field transports more heat than the high-pass flow with the largest eddy transports occurring near the coast of Honshu. The sign of the transport indicates a preference for upward energy propagation of the eddy flow there. Many of the characteristics, such as the orientation and propagation tendencies of the eddy flow, are similar to eddy flow in the atmosphere and accentuate a similarity between the general circulations of the atmosphere and ocean.
The ability to identify speech acts reliably is desirable in any spoken language system that interacts with humans. Minimally, such a system should be capable of distinguishing between question-bearing turns and other types of utterances. However, this is a non-trivial task, since spontaneous speech tends to have incomplete syntactic, and even ungrammatical, structure and is characterized by disfluencies, repairs and other non-linguistic vocalizations that make simple rule based pattern learning difficult. In this paper, we present a system for identifying question-bearing turns in spontaneous multi-party speech (ICSI Meeting Corpus) using lexical and prosodic evidence. On a balanced test set, our system achieves an accuracy of 71.9% for the binary question vs. non-question classification task. Further, we investigate the robustness of our proposed technique to uncertainty in the lexical feature stream (e.g. caused by speech recognition errors). Our experiments indicate that classification accuracy of the proposed method is robust to errors in the text stream, dropping only about 0.8% for every 10% increase in word error rate (WER).
Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysio-logical studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension.
Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Gordon, Peter C.
Motor activations reported during action-word understanding have raised the question as to whether the system for motor production contains semantically-relevant information. Cognitive neuropsychologists have provided compelling evidence that damage to the system for production of object-directed (transitive) actions does not necessarily lead to detrimental changes in the individuals' ability to understand the corresponding action words, and vice versa. We addressed this question focusing on intransitive symbolic gestures (emblems; e.g., waving goodbye), which are known to engage different resources, or neural representations, than object-directed actions, and are thought to enjoy a special relationship with language, due to a lexicalized relation between form (the gesture) and its meaning. We tested 12 left-damaged patients (and 17 healthy controls) on praxis (imitation and gesturing-to-verbal-command) and lexical-semantic tasks (naming and word-picture matching) involving the same emblems. With the group-level analyses, we replicated correlations between praxis and language deficits typically observed in left-damaged patients. The analyses of patients' performance at the single-case level, however, revealed double dissociations between the ability to produce emblems and the ability to retrieve and recognize their lexical-semantic definition. Double dissociations, even in the event of positive group-level correlations across tasks, imply that the motor representation of a gesture and the lexical-semantic representation of the corresponding word rely on functionally independent system. This study is the first systematic neuropsychological investigation of the relationship between the lexical-semantic and the motor representation of emblems, the closest counterpart of words in the gestural domain. PMID:23107378
The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale at 1 month (NCATS; G. Sumner & A. Spietz, 1994). They administered the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983) as an index of maternal stress experienced over the past month. Lower irritability, higher stability in skin coloration, and lower tremulousness in the neonatal period were correlated with higher levels of maternal nurturing behaviors at 1 month. Birth weight and 2 NBAS range-of-state items (peak of excitement, irritability) predicted 31% of the variance in NCATS caregiver subscale score. The NBAS autonomic stability items (tremulousness, startles, lability of skin color) predicted 31% of the variance in the NCATS child subscale score. Perceived stress and maternal sociodemographic variables (education, income, age, parity) were not associated with child, caregiver, and total scores on the NCATS. The results suggested that lack of autonomic stability in Japanese neonates might serve as an early indicator of infant frailty, negative behavioral cues, and decreased maternal responsiveness. PMID:16173671
In a blend, the interfacial interaction between the component phases can be effectively utilized to bring about homogeneous mixing and unique performances. While in conventional blends, preserving the morphology of the melt mixed state is unfeasible because of the strong thermodynamic tendency of the components to phase separate, herein, we report the intermolecular interaction of two hydrogen bonded polymers such as a barrier polymer poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) with an ionic polymer in their blends, which work symbiotically to achieve the desirable characteristics. We demonstrate the creation of a unique ellipsoid microfibrilliar morphology and melt exfoliation of one polymer in the blends through intermolecular interaction and achieve high oxygen barrier characteristics. Scanning thermal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm the presence of such unique morphology. The interfacial interaction and formation of interphase was evident from the local thermal analysis results combined with photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PA-FTIR). PA-FTIR confirms the chemical nature of the interaction, while the differential scanning calorimetry results indicate modification of the EVOH phase by the ionomer. The shift of Tg and broadening of the tan delta curve is evident from dynamic mechanical analysis confirming the interaction of the blend components. The blend B(60) with microfibrillar morphology shows fourfold drop in oxygen permeability indicating the role of interfacial interaction and desired morphology. PMID:18439030
Shelat, Kinnari J; Dutta, Naba K; Choudhury, Namita R
|Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry
|Maternal and infant interactionalcharacteristics in early infancy were investigated in order to examine their causal relationship with later attachment as assessed in the Strange Situation. Although the results of rating for maternal variables at four months of age exhibited significant differences between the set (S1) composed of attachment…
Data on the inclusive characteristics of secondary particles produced in soft p-barp-, pp- and (pi)/sup -/p interactions over 4 to 360 GeV/c momentum range have been analyzed in the framework of the Lund model (LM) which considers these collisions as a re...
B. V. Batyunya V. G. Grishin L. A. Didenko O. V. Grishina Z. V. Metreveli
Despite the health hazards, cigarette smoking is disproportionately frequent among young women. A significant contribution of genetic factors to smoking phenotypes is well established. Efforts to identify susceptibility genes do not generally take into account possible interaction with environment, life experience and psychological characteristics. We recruited 501 female Israeli students aged 20–30 years, obtained comprehensive background data and details of
L Greenbaum; K Kanyas; O Karni; Y Merbl; T Olender; A Horowitz; A Yakir; D Lancet; E Ben-Asher; B Lerer
|There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher
Cluster burners, where large numbers of burners are grouped closely together, are emerging as a new technology in the gas turbine industry. The interactions between the burners help to increase combustion stability and reduce harmful pollutant emissions. In addition to the gas turbine industry, multiple-port burners are also found in common cooking ranges, space heaters, and industrial burners. Due to the wide application of this technology, an attempt must be made to fundamentally understand the flame interaction process and to identify the physical parameters that govern it. In the work presented here, a simple apparatus consisting of three burners placed in a linear array was constructed to fundamentally study the flame interaction process. The linear array and limited number of burners allows the physics to remain tractable. Measurements of the temperature, flame structure (flame height, width, etc.) and the flame stability (lift off height and blow off velocity) characteristics of the flames under interactive modes were made as a function of Reynolds number, interburner spacing, fuel composition, and burner exit plane geometry. Also, in an attempt to validate the experimental results, a theoretical model, based on the solutions to the governing equations of mass, momentum, and species was developed for an isolated jet and was modified to include multiple burner effects. Specifically, the extrapolated multiple burner model was used to define the stages of interaction as isolated (no interaction), individual (weak to moderate interaction), group (strong interaction), and sheath (strongest interaction), similar to the terminology used in droplet combustion. Results showed that the theoretical model qualitatively predicted the magnitude and trends of the flame structure and flame stability characteristics of the isolated 2D and circular burners. Under multiple flame conditions, flame interaction increased flame height, decreased the maximum flame width to visible flame height ratio, increased blow off velocity, and increased the temperature in the interstitial space surrounding the central flame in the triple burner array.
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been employed either for diagnosis or treatment of infections caused by different pathogens. Specifically for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), numerous immunoassays have been developed for STEC diagnosis, showing variability in sensitivity and specificity when evaluated by reference laboratories, and no therapy or vaccines are currently approved. Thus, the aim of this work was the characterization of the interaction between MAbs against Stx1 and Stx2 toxins and their neutralizing abilities to enable their use as tools for diagnosis and therapy. The selected clones designated 3E2 (anti-Stx1) and 2E11 (anti-Stx2) were classified as IgG1. 3E2 recognized the B subunit of Stx1 with an affinity constant of 2.5 × 10?10 M, detected as little as 6.2 ng of Stx1 and was stable up to 50 ºC. In contrast, 2E11 recognized the A subunit of Stx2, was stable up to 70 ºC, had a high dissociation constant of 6.1 × 10?10 M, and detected as little as 12.5 ng of Stx2. Neutralization tests showed that 160 ng of 3E2 MAb inhibited 80% of Stx1 activity and 500 µg 2E11 MAb were required for 60% inhibition of Stx2 activity. These MAb amounts reversed 25 to 80% of the cytotoxicity triggered by different STEC isolates. In conclusion, these MAbs show suitable characteristics for their use in STEC diagnosis and encourage future studies to investigate their protective efficacy.
Rocha, Leticia B.; Luz, Daniela E.; Moraes, Claudia T. P.; Caravelli, Andressa; Fernandes, Irene; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.
Purpose To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject–verb–object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control participants and 8 participants with agrammatic aphasia for priming of a lexical item (direct object noun) immediately after it is initially encountered in the ongoing auditory stream and at 3 additional time points at 400-ms intervals. Results The control participants demonstrated immediate activation of the lexical item, followed by a rapid loss (decay). The participants with aphasia demonstrated delayed activation of the lexical item. Conclusion This evidence supports the hypothesis of a delay in lexical activation in people with agrammatic aphasia. The delay in lexical activation feeds syntactic processing too slowly, contributing to comprehension deficits in people with agrammatic aphasia.
Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.
This study investigated the processes underlying the effect of masked syllable priming in French with pseudoword primes and word targets. Two lexical-decision task (LDT) experiments examined whether the syllable priming effect depends on syllable frequency and might rely on a general abstract structure. The results of Experiment 1 revealed an inhibitory priming effect, with pseudoword primes and word targets sharing a high-frequency first syllable, which was not due to the abstract syllable structure. In contrast, no inhibition was observed with a low-frequency first syllable in Experiment 2. Syllable frequency appears to be an important factor determining the speed of target processing in masked priming. This is attributed to variations in the respective contributions of sublexical activation and lexical inhibition processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23914749
Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner plus noun phrase production. Few studies demonstrate gender priming effects in bare noun production (i.e., nouns in isolation). We investigated the effects of English determiner primes on bare mass and count noun production. In two experiments, participants named pictures after exposure to primes involving congruent, incongruent and neutral determiners. Facilitation of noun production by congruent and neutral determiner primes was found in both experiments. The results suggest that noun phrase syntax is activated in lexical retrieval, even when not explicitly required for production. Post hoc analysis of the relative frequency of congruent and incongruent prime-target pairs provides support for a frequency-based interpretation of the data. PMID:22411592
In Japanese, the same word can be written in either morphographic Kanji or syllabographic Hiragana and this provides a unique opportunity to disentangle a word's lexical frequency from the frequency of its visual form - an important distinction for understanding the neural information processing in regions engaged by reading. Behaviorally, participants responded more quickly to high than low frequency words and to visually familiar relative to less familiar words, independent of script. Critically, the imaging results showed that visual familiarity, as opposed to lexical frequency, had a strong effect on activation in ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Activation here was also greater for Kanji than Hiragana words and this was not due to their inherent differences in visual complexity. These findings can be understood within a predictive coding framework in which vOT receives bottom-up information encoding complex visual forms and top-down predictions from regions encoding non-visual attributes of the stimulus. PMID:22398136
Twomey, Tae; Kawabata Duncan, Keith J; Hogan, John S; Morita, Kenji; Umeda, Kazumasa; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Devlin, Joseph T
A nonlinear interactive system comprising of equipment, nonlinear isolator and travelling flexible ship excited by waves is studied from a vibratory power flow viewpoint to examine its dynamical behaviour and power flow characteristics. The mathematical model describing the dynamics of this nonlinear interactive system is developed. Dynamical interactions between equipment, nonlinear isolator, flexible foundation and water waves are addressed. The nonlinearities of the isolator are characterized by a general pth power model for damping and qth power for stiffness. A harmonic balance method is adopted to derive the steady-state harmonic response of the nonlinear system. A Newton Raphson iteration process in association with an efficient numerical algorithm is used to obtain the solutions of this nonlinear problem. Through simulations the dynamical behaviour, power flow characteristics and isolation efficiency of this complex nonlinear interaction system are investigated. For different values of power p and q, different wave excitations and flexible or rigid ship, the power transmitted to the equipment and power flow transmission ratios are calculated and analysed. The effect of the vibration source with different wave conditions of the seaway is studied through examining its vibratory power input to the overall system. The effects of the assumptions of flexible or rigid ship, the nonlinearities on the power flows in the system are examined. Nonlinear power flow phenomena and mechanisms are revealed, which provides an insight to the understanding of power flow characteristics in nonlinear systems. Practical guidelines for the design of vibration isolation systems applicable to maritime engineering are suggested.
The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both their syllables separated by a phonological phrase boundary. Ten-month-olds
In this paper, we describe both a multi-lingual, interlingual MT system (ULTRA) and a method of extracting lexical entries for it automatically from an existing machine-readable dictionary (LDOCE). We believe the latter is original and the former, although not the first interlingual MT System by any means, may be first that is symmetrically multi-lingual. It translates between English, German, Chinese,
Choosing the best lexeme to realize a meaning in natural language generation is a hard task. We investigate different tree-based stochastic models for lexical choice. Because of the difficulty of obtaining a sense-tagged corpus, we generalize the notion of synonymy. We show that a tree-based model can achieve a word-bag based accuracy of 90%, representing an improvement over the baseline.
In this paper we present a general parsing strategy that arose from the development of an Earley-type parsing algorithm for TAGs (Schabes and Joshi 1988) and from recent linguistic work in TAGs (Abeille 1988).In our approach elementary structures are associated with their lexical heads. These structures specify extended domains of locality (as compared to a context-free grammar) over which constraints
Most current morphological processing models postulate two lexical access routes, full form and morpheme-based. We explored the nature of the morpheme-based route and its relation to the full-form route by studying recognition of written Finnish nouns. True case-inflection elicited a processing cost, confirming that such forms are recognized via the more demanding morpheme-based route. A processing cost was also observed
appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i. e., retrieving a word's morphemic pho-nological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corre-sponding articulatory gestures. The theory is based on chronomet-ric measurements of spoken word production, obtained, for instance, in picture-naming tasks. The theory is largely computa-tionally implemented. It provides a handle on the analysis
Lexical semantics and knowledge representationin multilingual sentence generationManfred StedeDoctor of PhilosophyGraduate Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Toronto1996This thesis develops a new approach to automatic language generation that focuses on the needto produce a range of different paraphrases from the same input representation. One novelty ofthe system is its solidly grounding representations of word meaning in a background knowledgebase, which enables
Recent research in cerebellar cognitive and linguistic functions makes plausible the idea that the cerebellum is involved\\u000a in processing temporally contiguous linguistic input. In order to assess this hypothesis, a simple lexical decision task was\\u000a constructed to study whether the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on two different cerebellar sites would have\\u000a a selective impact on associative as opposed to
A word-fragment completion task was used to assess long-term, non-associative lexical priming in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age- and education-matched elderly normal control (NC) subjects. Despite equivalent baseline performance, the AD patients exhibited less facilitation in their ability to complete word fragments from having previously read the intact words than did the NC subjects. The AD patients
William C. Heindel; Deborah A. Cahn; David P. Salmon
The hypothesis that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have a disturbance in semantic processing was tested using a new lexical-priming task, threshold oral reading. Healthy elderly controls showed significant effects of priming for word pairs that are associatively related (words that reliably co-occur in word association tests) and for word pairs that are semantically related (high-frequency exemplars that belong to
Semantic memory impairment was investigated in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a threshold oral word reading task to assess priming of different lexical relationships. Healthy elderly controls showed significant priming for associatively related nouns (tempest-teapot) and also for nouns semantically related either because both designate basic-level exemplars of a common superordinate category (cousin-nephew) or because the target names
Guila Glosser; Rhonda B. Friedman; Patrick K. Grugan; Jefferson H. Lee; Murray Grossman
Text summarization addresses the problem of selecting the most important portions of the text and the problem of producing\\u000a coherent summaries. The goal of this paper is to show how these objectives can be achieved through an efficient use of lexical cohesion. The method addresses both generic and query-based summaries. We present an approach for identifying the most important portions
The early visual system is a model for understanding the roles of cell populations in parallel processing. Cells in this system can be classified according to their responsiveness to different stimuli; a prominent example is the division between cells that respond to stimuli of opposite contrasts (ON vs OFF cells). These two cell classes display many asymmetries in their physiological characteristics (including temporal characteristics, spatial characteristics, and nonlinear characteristics) that, individually, are known to have important roles in population coding. Here we describe a novel distinction between the information that ON and OFF ganglion cell populations carry in mouse-that OFF cells are able to signal motion information about both light and dark objects, while ON cells have a selective deficit at signaling the motion of dark objects. We found that none of the previously reported asymmetries in physiological characteristics could account for this distinction. We therefore analyzed its basis via a recently developed linear-nonlinear-Poisson model that faithfully captures input/output relationships for a broad range of stimuli (Bomash et al., 2013). While the coding differences between ON and OFF cell populations could not be ascribed to the linear or nonlinear components of the model individually, they had a simple explanation in the way that these components interact. Sensory transformations in other systems can likewise be described by these models, and thus our findings suggest that similar interactions between component properties may help account for the roles of cell classes in population coding more generally. PMID:24027295
Nichols, Zachary; Nirenberg, Sheila; Victor, Jonathan
This paper deals with algorithms for producing and ordering lexical and nonlexical sequences of a given degree. The notion\\u000a of “elementary operations” on positive ?-sequences is introduced. Our main theorem answers the question of when two lexical\\u000a sequences are adjacent. Given any lexical sequence, ? ? L\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a , we can produce its adjacent successor as follows; apply one elementary
Abstract Drawing on a growing database of systematic relationships between word-senses, the authors argue that a significant class of these represent Lexical Implication Rules, a set of formal rules within the domain of lexical semantics; these they distinguish from,other types of semantic,relation more,closely dependent,on metaphor,and world-knowledge. Some formal properties of Lexical Implication Rules are proposed, as evidence of their linguistic,
The time course of lexical access in fluent Portuguese-English bilinguals and in English speaking monolinguals was examined\\u000a during the on-line processing of spoken sentences using the phoneme-triggered lexical decision task (Blank, 1980). The bilinguals\\u000a were tested in two distinct speech modes: a monolingual, English or Portuguese, speech mode, and a bilingual, code-switching,\\u000a speech mode. Although the bilingual’s lexical decision response
The main purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the approach to lexical diversity assessment known as the measure\\u000a of textual lexical diversity (MTLD). The index for this approach is calculated as the mean length of word strings that maintain\\u000a a criterion level of lexical variation. To validate the MTLD approach, we compared it against the performances
EDBL (Euskararen Datu-Base Lexikala) is a general-purpose lexical database used in Basque text-processing tasks. It is a large repository of lexical knowledge (currently around 80,000 entries) that acts as basis and support in a number of different NLP tasks, thus providing lexical information for several language tools: morphological analysis, spell checking and correction, lemmatization and tagging, syntactic analysis, and so
I. Aldezabal; O. Ansa; B. Arrieta; X. Artola; A. Ezeiza; G. Hernández; M. Lersundi
This paper presents an optimized lexical post-processing designed for handwritten word recognition. The aim of this work is to correct recognition and segmentation errors using lexical information from a lexicon. The presented lexical post-processing is based on two phases: in the first phase a lexicon organization is made to reduce the search space into sub-lexicons during the recognition process. The
We report the case of patient BH, who misspelled about half of the words she attempted and showed the characteristic features of “graphemic buffer disorder” (an effect of letter length on spelling accuracy, errors involving the substitution, omission, addition, and movement of letters that affect the middles more than the ends of words). Speech comprehension and production were good. Reading
This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…
|This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…
With the advent of prosody annotation standards such as tones and break indices (ToBI), speech technologists and linguists alike have been interested in automatically detecting prosodic events in speech. This is because the prosodic tier provides an additional layer of information over the short-term segment-level features and lexical representation of an utterance. As the prosody of an utterance is closely tied to its syntactic and semantic content in addition to its lexical content, knowledge of the prosodic events within and across utterances can assist spoken language applications such as automatic speech recognition and translation. On the other hand, corpora annotated with prosodic events are useful for building natural-sounding speech synthesizers. In this paper, we build an automatic detector and classifier for prosodic events in American English, based on their acoustic, lexical, and syntactic correlates. Following previous work in this area, we focus on accent (prominence, or "stress") and prosodic phrase boundary detection at the syllable level. Our experiments achieved a performance rate of 86.75% agreement on the accent detection task, and 91.61% agreement on the phrase boundary detection task on the Boston University Radio News Corpus. PMID:19122857
Ananthakrishnan, Sankaranarayanan; Narayanan, Shrikanth S
Purpose To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical–semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive vocabulary matches (VM) generated 3 associations to each of 48 words. Associations were coded as semantic (e.g., dog–pet), clang (e.g., cow–how), or erroneous (e.g., spoon–Disney). Results Relative to the AM children, children with SLI produced fewer semantic responses, more clangs, and more errors. Relative to the VM children, fewer semantic responses and more errors in the children with SLI were found in by-item analyses. Across elicitation trials, semantic responses decreased in the AM and VM children but remained stable in the SLI children. Examination of individual performance in the SLI group revealed that poor semantic performance was associated with a deficit in expressive vocabulary and a gap between receptive and expressive vocabularies. Conclusions Significant variability in lexical–semantic organization skills exists among children with SLI. Deficits in lexical–semantic organization were demonstrated by a subgroup of children with SLI who likely had concomitant word-finding difficulties.
Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.
The present study investigated the visual and lexical knowledge of vegetables in children. The purpose of this was to identify both liked and disliked familiar vegetables which will be used in a further study. We explored children's lexical knowledge with a free listing test and their visual knowledge with a picture's sorting test. 145 children between the ages of 8 and 11 years from various living environments of the Rhône-Alpes Region, France, completed both tests. Overall, 54 vegetables were cited, 16 of which were cited by more than 9% of the sample. Carrots, tomatoes and lettuce were the most named vegetables and the best visually recognized by children. Lexical knowledge increased gradually with age. Children from rural areas named significantly more vegetables than those from urban areas. However, visual recognition of vegetables did not change as a function of age or living environment. This suggests that visual categorization allows easier accessing to semantic knowledge than verbal questioning. Finally, the data showed a relation between visual familiarity and liking: the majority of raw vegetables recognized visually were also classified as "liked vegetables". In addition, children declared that they did not want to try most of the unknown vegetables. PMID:21540067
Many recent studies demonstrate that both languages are active when bilinguals and second language (L2) learners are reading, listening, or speaking one language only. The parallel activity of the two languages has been hypothesized to create competition that must be resolved. Models of bilingual lexical access have proposed an inhibitory control mechanism to effectively limit attention to the intended language (e.g., Green, 1998). Critically, other recent research suggests that a lifetime of experience as a bilingual negotiating the competition across the two languages confers a set of benefits to cognitive control processes more generally (e.g., Bialystok, Craik, Klein, & Viswanathan, 2004). However, few studies have examined the consequences of individual differences in inhibitory control for performance on language processing tasks. The goal of the present work was to determine whether there is a relation between enhanced executive function and performance for L2 learners and bilinguals on lexical comprehension and production tasks. Data were analyzed from two studies involving a range of language processing tasks, a working memory measure, and also the Simon task, a nonlinguistic measure of inhibitory control. The results demonstrate that greater working memory resources and enhanced inhibitory control are related to a reduction in cross-language activation in a sentence context word naming task and a picture naming task, respectively. Other factors that may be related to inhibitory control are identified. The implications of these results for models of bilingual lexical comprehension and production are discussed.
Linck, Jared A.; Hoshino, Noriko; Kroll, Judith F.
Recent activation studies have suggested different neural correlates for processing concrete and abstract words. However, the precise localization is far from being defined. One reason for the heterogeneity of these results could lie in the extreme variability of experimental paradigms, ranging from explicit semantic judgments to lexical decision tasks (auditory and/or visual). The present study explored the processing of abstract/concrete nouns by using repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and a lexical decision paradigm in neurologically-unimpaired subjects. Four sites were investigated: left inferior frontal, bilaterally posterior-superior temporal and left posterior-inferior parietal. An interference on accuracy was found for abstract words when rTMS was applied over the left temporal site, while for concrete words accuracy decreased when rTMS was applied over the right temporal site. Accuracy for abstract words, but not for concrete words, decreased after frontal stimulation as compared to the sham condition. These results suggest that abstract lexical entries are stored in the posterior part of the left temporal superior gyrus and possibly in the left frontal inferior gyrus, while the regions involved in storing concrete items include the right temporal cortex. It cannot be excluded, however, that additional areas, not tested in this experiment, are involved in processing both, concrete and abstract nouns. PMID:19368832
Papagno, Costanza; Fogliata, Arianna; Catricalà, Eleonora; Miniussi, Carlo
Psychophysical and fMRI studies have indicated that visual processing of global symmetry has distinctive scaling properties, and proceeds more slowly than analysis of contrast, spatial frequency, and texture. We therefore undertook a visual evoked potential (VEP) study to directly compare the dynamics of symmetry and texture processing, and to determine the extent to which they interact. Stimuli consisted of interchange between structured and random black-and-white checkerboard stimuli. For symmetry, structured stimuli were colored with 2-fold symmetry (horizontal or vertical mirror), 4-fold symmetry (both mirror axes), and 8-fold symmetry (oblique mirror axes added). For texture, structured stimuli were colored according to the "even" isodipole texture [Julesz, B., Gilbert, E. N., & Victor, J. D. (1978). Visual discrimination of textures with identical third-order statistics. Biological Cybernetics, 31, 137-140]. Thus, all stimuli had the same contrast, and check size, but differed substantially in correlation structure. To separate components of the VEP related to symmetry and texture from components that could be generated by local luminance and contrast changes, we extracted the odd-harmonic components of the VEP (recorded at C(z)-O(z), C(z)-O(1), C(z)-O(2), C(z)-P(z)) elicited by structured-random interchange. Responses to symmetry were largest for the 8-fold patterns, and progressively smaller for 4-fold, vertical, and horizontal symmetry patterns. Eightfold patterns were therefore used in the remainder of the study. The symmetry response is shifted to larger checks and lower temporal frequencies compared to the response to texture, and its temporal tuning is broader. Processing of symmetry makes use of neural mechanisms with larger receptive fields, and slower, more sustained temporal tuning characteristics than those involved in the analysis of texture. Sparse stimuli were used to dissociate check size and check density. VEP responses to sparse symmetry stimuli showed that there is no difference between first- and second-order symmetry for densities less than 12.5%. We discuss these findings in relation to local and global visual processes. PMID:17604074
Oka, Sadanori; Victor, Jonathan D; Conte, Mary M; Yanagida, Toshio
|This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard
G. W. Humphreys, D. Besner, and P. T. Quinlan (1988) found that form-primes (e.g., contrast–CONTRACT) were effective only with masked primes. C. Veres (1986) obtained the same effect for word primes but found that nonword primes (e.g., controct) were effective regardless of masking. In a lexical-decision task, the present study failed to find any priming with word primes but only
An emulsion chamber was used to study the characteristics of high energy nuclear interactions from the production spectra\\u000a of?-rays. The emulsion chamber, which comprised of two parts, namely the detector and the graphite producer unit, was exposed\\u000a to cosmic rays for about 7 hr at an atmospheric depth of 10 g cm?2 at Hyderabad (geomagnetic latitude 7·6°N). 720 electromagnetic cascades
|To examine the implications of paternal occupational conditions for the quality of father-infant interactions, home visits, including interviews and videotaped observations of father-infant interactions, were conducted with 446 fathers living in six low-income, nonmetropolitan counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania. When a variety of…
Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.
This paper presents a behavioral model which proposes that operants are organized and regulated into systems of responding. Multi-operant theory proposes that operants are organized into response systems that interact to adapt behavior to the complexities of the environment. The operant is the interaction between behavior and the environment which includes the conditions under which responses may occur, the class
Oxygen and sulfur nuclei with energies of 200 GeV/nucleon from CERN (experiment EMU07) interacted in nuclear emulsions, which were scanned with minimum bias criteria so that essentially all the interactions are detected. Approximately 1000 interactions of each projectile have been analyzed. Results on the multiplicity distributions of produced particles and their pseudorapidity distributions are presented. The mean number of intranuclear collisions occurring in each interaction, calculated from a superposition model, provides a useful parameter to organize the data. No significant deviations are found, even at these energies, from models such as the Venus'' model, of the nucleus---nucleus interactions as being the superposition of individual nucleon-nucleon collisions.
Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kawiory 26A, 30-055 Krakow (Poland)); Cherry, M.L.; Jones, W.V.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, J.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)); Freier, P.S.; Waddington, C.J. (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)); The KLM Collaboration
The effect of influence of different material parameters and structure design on IV-characteristic of RTD is considered in the paper. Special attention was paid to analysis of the interaction between classical and quantum-mechanical RTD regions. The combined numerical model of a resonant-tunneling diode, based on self-consistent solution of the Schroedinger and Poisson equations is presented. The interface charge was added to the Poisson equation and its approximation is also given. The simulation of IV-characteristics of RTD on In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs and GaAs/AlAs was carried out by using the combined model and model modifications. As a confirmation of accuracy and adequacy of the proposed model there was achieved a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. The effect of interface charge and sizes of the active regions on IV-characteristics of RTDs was also studied.
Abramov, I. I.; Goncharenko, Igor A.; Kolomejtseva, N. V.
This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess their parenting attitudes and behaviours, as well as their five-year-old child's (202 boys, 177
Daniel C. Kopala-Sibley; David C. Zuroff; Richard Koestner
This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess their parenting attitudes and behaviours, as well as their five-year-old child's (202 boys, 177
Daniel C. Kopala-Sibley; David C. Zuroff; Richard Koestner
For lexical-gustatory synaesthetes, words trigger automatic, associated food sensations (e.g., for JB, the word slope tastes of over-ripe melon). Our study tests two claims about this unusual condition: that synaesthetic tastes are associated with abstract levels of word representation (concepts/lemmas), and that the first tastes to crystallise in early development are those triggered by food-names (e.g., apple tastes of apple; Simner & Ward, 2006). This concept/lemma-based proposal is difficult to immediately reconcile with the finding that non-words may also generate tastes (Ward, Simner, & Auyeung, 2005), since non-words have no concept/lemma representations. We manipulated the characteristics of non-words to provide three types of evidence that non-word tastes in fact stem from real word neighbours: Non-words with neighbours (e.g., keach) are more likely to generate tastes than those with no neighbours (e.g., vilps); pseudo-homophone non-words that are orthographically close to real words (e.g., peeple) are more likely to generate tastes than those that are more distant (baybee); and finally, the tastes of non-words are less consistent, and less intense, than those of real words. Additionally, we test the hypothesis that synaesthetic tastes develop initially from food-names by showing that non-words are more intensely flavoured if they are homophonic with food-names (e.g., toffie) versus non-foods (e.g., peeple). From this we conclude that synaesthetic tastes develop from food-names, and that tasty non-words do not challenge a concept/lemma-based account of lexical-gustatory synaesthesia. PMID:19101668
Previous picture-word interference (PWI) fMRI-paradigms revealed ambiguous mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition in healthy subjects. Lexical distractors revealed increased (enhancement) or decreased (suppression) activation in language and monitoring/control areas. Performing a secondary examination and data analysis, we aimed to illuminate the relation between behavioral and neural interference effects comparing target-related distractors (REL) with unrelated distractors (UNREL). We hypothesized that interference involves both (A) suppression due to priming and (B) enhancement due to simultaneous distractor and target processing. Comparisons to UNREL should remain distractor unspecific even at a low threshold. (C) Distractor types with common characteristics should reveal overlapping brain areas. In a 3T MRI scanner, participants were asked to name pictures while auditory words were presented (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = –200 msec). Associatively and phonologically related distractors speeded responses (facilitation), while categorically related distractors slowed them down (inhibition) compared to UNREL. As a result, (A) reduced brain activations indeed resembled previously reported patterns of neural priming. Each target-related distractor yielded suppressions at least in areas associated with vision and conflict/competition monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), revealing least priming for inhibitors. (B) Enhancements concerned language-related but distractor-unspecific regions. (C) Some wider brain regions were commonly suppressed for combinations of distractor types. Overlapping areas associated with conceptual priming were found for facilitatory distractors (inferior frontal gyri), and areas related to phonetic/articulatory processing (precentral gyri and left parietal operculum/insula) for distractors sharing feature overlap. Each distractor with semantic relatedness revealed nonoverlapping suppressions in lexical-phonological areas (superior temporal regions). To conclude, interference combines suppression of areas well known from neural priming and enhancement of language-related areas caused by dual activation from target and distractor. Differences between interference and priming need to be taken into account. The present interference paradigm has the potential to reveal the functioning of word-processing stages, cognitive control, and responsiveness to priming at the same time.
Abel, Stefanie; Dressel, Katharina; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter
Background Event Related Potential (ERP) studies have highlighted some measures, notably P3 amplitude, that are associated with both state and trait deficits in alcoholism, while studies examining N400 amplitude in alcoholism are few. The present study aims to examine changes in the N400 component, an electrophysiological correlate of semantic priming, in event-related potentials from a lexical decision task in 87 alcohol dependent subjects and 57 community controls. Method Each subject was presented with 300 stimuli sequentially in a quasi-randomized design, where 150 stimuli were words and 150 were non-words. The subjects made a lexical decision indicating the word/nonword status with a button press. Among the words, 50 words (primed) were always preceded by their antonyms (prime, n=50), whereas the remaining 50 words were unrelated. N400 amplitude and latency measures were compiled from ERPs to the primed and unprimed words. Corresponding reaction time and response characteristics were also analyzed. Results Control subjects revealed a significant attenuation of the N400 response to the primed word when compared to the unprimed word. Significantly less attenuation was observed in alcohol dependent subjects. No significant group differences were seen for latency and behavioral measures. All subjects had slower RT for unprimed words compared to primed words; however significantly less reaction time savings between the unprimed and primed condition was noted for alcoholics. Conclusion These results suggest a reduced flexibility in the cognitive networks and a lack of resource optimization in alcoholics. The reduced attenuation of N400 during the primed condition in the alcohol dependent subjects may reflect an inability to engage similar neuronal substrates associated with semantic relatedness as seen in the controls. As diminished N400 attenuation during priming is observed in both alcoholics and high risk subjects, it may be a marker of risk and a good endophenotype for alcoholism.
A comprehensive modeling strategy including detailed chemistry, soot and radiation models coupled with state-of-the-art closures for turbulence–chemistry interactions and turbulence–radiation interactions is applied to various luminous turbulent jet flames. Six turbulent jet flames are simulated with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15,000, two fuel types (pure ethylene, 90% methane–10% ethylene blend) and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream
Twenty high energy nuclear interactions produced in the graphite units of an emulsion chamber were recorded. The emulsion\\u000a chamber was exposed to cosmic rays at an atmospheric depth of 10 g cm?2 for about 7 hr over Hyderabad, India. Fourteen interactions which radiated energy? E\\u000a r?1000 GeV in the form of?-rays were analysed in detail. The median energy ?? E
The interaction between styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) film and the ions from C2S and C3S hydration of Portland cement mortar composites has been evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and the morphology of the composites characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimen used was cured for 28 days. FTIR spectrum supports the interaction of SBR with cement in the
B. B. Konar; Arpita Das; Prabir K. Gupta; Mausumi Saha
Background Verbal working memory is an essential component of many language functions, including sentence comprehension and word learning. As such, working memory has emerged as a domain of intense research interest both in aphasiology and in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. The integrity of verbal working memory encoding relies on a fluid interaction between semantic and phonological processes. That is, we encode verbal detail using many cues related to both the sound and meaning of words. Lesion models can provide an effective means of parsing the contributions of phonological or semantic impairment to recall performance. Methods and Procedures We employed the lesion model approach here by contrasting the nature of lexicality errors incurred during recall of word and nonword sequences by 3individuals with progressive nonfluent aphasia (a phonological dominant impairment) compared to that of 2 individuals with semantic dementia (a semantic dominant impairment). We focused on psycholinguistic attributes of correctly recalled stimuli relative to those that elicited a lexicality error (i.e., nonword ? word OR word ? nonword). Outcomes and results Patients with semantic dementia showed greater sensitivity to phonological attributes (e.g., phoneme length, wordlikeness) of the target items relative to semantic attributes (e.g., familiarity). Patients with PNFA showed the opposite pattern, marked by sensitivity to word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and imageability. Conclusions We interpret these results in favor of a processing strategy such that in the context of a focal phonological impairment patients revert to an over-reliance on preserved semantic processing abilities. In contrast, a focal semantic impairment forces both reliance upon and hypersensitivity to phonological attributes of target words. We relate this interpretation to previous hypotheses about the nature of verbal short-term memory in progressive aphasia.
Reilly, Jamie; Troche, Joshua; Chatel, Alison; Park, Hyejin; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Martin, Nadine
Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self-esteem than adolescents from the other two regions.
|This article evaluates 2 competing models that address the decision-making processes mediating word recognition and lexical decision performance: a hybrid 2-stage model of lexical decision performance and a random-walk model. In 2 experiments, nonword type and word frequency were manipulated across 2 contrasts (pseudohomophone-legal nonword and…
Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Cortese, Michael J.; Watson, Jason M.
|Describes the Consortium for Lexical Research (CLR), a cooperative archive of electronic materials (e.g., software programs, research reports) for lexical research available through the Internet. Discussion covers CLR membership, archive administration, using the facility, types of materials stored, and documentation on materials. Samples of CLR…
In this paper, we describe a method of extracting information from an on-line resource for the construction of lexical entries for a multi-lingual, interlingual MT system (ULTRA). We have been able to automatically generate lexical entries for interlingual concepts corresponding to nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Although several features of these entries continue to be supplied manually we have greatly
We investigated the ability to learn new words in a group of 22 adults with developmental dyslexia\\/dysgraphia and the relationship between their learning and spelling problems. We identified a deficit that affected the ability to learn both spoken and written new words (lexical learning deficit). There were no comparable problems in learning other kinds of representations (lexical\\/semantic and visual) and
Recent studies of handwriting have shown that linguistic variables, such as phonology or lexicality, influence various aspects of the production of letter sequences. Following a previous experiment, in which a facilitation effect of words over pseudowords has been documented both in children and in adults, an experiment is reported concerning the effect of lexicality and of trigram frequency on handwriting
Pascal Zesiger; Pierre Mounoud; Claude-Alain Hauert
Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…
|The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…
Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.
|This study investigates Swedish learners' lexical richness in French and Italian L2. A frequency-based measure was used to compare the lexical richness of learners at different proficiency levels to that of native speakers. Frequency bands based on oral L1 data were created for both languages to serve as a benchmark. For French, the results show…
Lindqvist, Christina; Bardel, Camilla; Gudmundson, Anna
|To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic…
Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith
|This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…
|This study explores the roles of depth and breadth of lexical repertoire in L2 lexical inferencing success and incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Students read a graded reader containing 13 pseudo-words and attempted to infer the meanings of underlined target words. The Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) and the Vocabulary…
|We describe a leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model of the lexical decision task that can be used as a response/decision module for any computational model of word recognition. The LCA model uses evidence for a word, operationalized as some measure of lexical activity, as input to the "YES" decision node. Input to the "NO" decision node is…
Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan; Ziegler, Johannes C.
The question of whether lexical access for proper names is more impaired by ageing than lexical acess for other words is controversial. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of age on proper and common name retrieval in long-term memory. The word retrieval paradigm used to achieve this goal consisted of the naming of photographs representing
In order to test the frequent assumption that lexical access in visual word recognition would proceed independent of central attention, the overlapping task paradigm has recently been employed with somewhat contradictory results. Here we combined overlapping tasks with the recording of event-related brain potentials to assess task load dependent modulations of lexical access in more detail. The study was carried
Milena Rabovsky; Carlos J. Álvarez; Annette Hohlfeld; Werner Sommer
Introduction: This study addressed the relationship of both semantic priming and slowed lexical access to the symptoms of schizophrenia, and evaluated their association with other neurocognitive deficits. Methods: 57 outpatients with schizophrenia and 20 nonpsychiatric control subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task (LDT), and a brief neuropsychological battery. The schizophrenia group was also assessed with an extended Positive
Michael Minzenberg; John Poole; Sophia Vinogradov; Gregory Shenaut; Beth Ober
How word production unfolds remains controversial. Serial models posit that phonological encoding begins only after lexical node selection, whereas cascade models hold that it can occur before selection. Both models were evaluated by testing whether unselected lexical nodes influence phonological encoding in the picture-picture interference paradigm. English speakers were shown pairs of superimposed pictures and were instructed to name one
Two hypotheses concerning the nature of lexical access, the exhaustive access and the terminating ordered search hypotheses, were examined in two separate studies using a cross modal lexical priming task. In this task, subjects listened to sentences that were biased toward either the primary interpretation (a meaning occurring 75% or more of the time) or a secondary interpretation (a meaning
An experiment was conducted to address age-related differences in lexical access, spreading activa- tion, and pronunciation. Both young and older adults participated in a delayed pronunciation task to trace the time course of lexical access and a semantic priming task to trace the time course of spreading activation. In the delayed pronunciation task, subjects were presented a word and then,
Experimental evidence from picture-naming tasks suggests that lexical access in speech production (lexicalisation) occurs in two non-overlapping stages. Semantic information is used to access an abstract lexical form; only when this stage is complete does phonological realisation begin. Such experimental data are interpreted as evidence against connectionist models of lexicalisation. This paper argues that, counterintuitively, connectionist models are not inconsistent
Previously the authors analyzed sets of words used in emotion Stroop experiments and found little evidence of automatic vigilance, for example, slower lexical decision time (LDT) or naming speed for negative words after controlling for lexical features. If there is a slowdown evoked by word negativity, most studies to date overestimate the effect because word negativity is often confounded with
Randy J. Larsen; Kimberly A. Mercer; David A. Balota; Michael J. Strube
|The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we…
Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.
In this paper we are proposing a contribution scheme for multilingual (preterminology). Preterminology is a lexical resource of unconfirmed terminology. We are explaining the difficulties of building lexical resources collaboratively. And we suggest a scheme of active and passive contributions that will ease the process and satisfy the Contribution Factors. We experimented our passive and active approaches with the Digital
Mohammad DAOUD; K. Kageura; C. Boitet; A. Kitamoto; D. Daoud
When listening to modified speech, either naturally or artificially altered, the human perceptual system rapidly adapts to it. There is some debate about the nature of the mechanisms underlying this adaptation. Although some authors propose that listeners modify their prelexical representations, others assume changes at the lexical level. Recently, Larsson, Vera, Sebastian-Galles, and Deco [Lexical plasticity in early bilinguals does
Nuria Sebastian-Galles; Johan P. Larsson; Albert Costa; Gustavo Deco
EDBL (Euskararen Datu-Base Lexikala) is a lexical database(LDB) for Basque. Seen as a large repository of lexicalinformation, it acts as the basis for different tasks inautomatic processing: it must be both source and support forthe lexicons needed in different applications. Besidesproviding for multiple applications, the lexical database isintended to be neutral in relation to the different linguisticformalisms, flexible and open
I Aduriz; I Aldezabal; O Ansa; X Artola; Díaz De Ilarraza A; J Insausti
The present study investigated whether lexical codes contribute to retention of verbal information in working memory. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded while participants were performing a serial recall task to show differences in brain activity during retention of words or pseudowords. The effects of lexical status and memory load (task difficulty) upon ERP activity during retention also differed,
Daniel S. Ruchkin; Rita S. Berndt; Ray Johnson; Jordan Grafman; Walter Ritter; Howard L. Canoune
This analysis evaluates the receptive tests of targeted lexical knowledge in the written medium, which are typically used in empirical research into lexical acquisition from reading foreign/second language texts. Apart from the types of second language cues or prompts, and the language of the responses, the main issues revolve around: (a) the…
|The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196…
The extent to which impartial readers take into account lexical richness and lexical errors when assigning a quality score to compositions written by learners in an intensive English program is discussed in this article. For placement purposes into both ESL programs and academic programs, the writing of these students is often assessed by anonymous readers who base their judgments on
Is the structure of lexical representations universal, or do languages vary in the fundamental ways in which they represent lexical information? Here, we consider a touchstone case: whether Semitic languages require a special morpheme, the consonantal root. In so doing, we explore a well-known constraint on the location of identical consonants that has often been used as motivation for root
Is the structure of lexical representations universal, or do languages vary in the fundamental ways in which they represent lexical information? Here, we consider a touchstone case: whether Semitic languages require a special morpheme, the consonantal root. In so doing, we explore a well-known constraint on the location of identical consonants…
The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…
This paper presents three naming experiments designed to investigate whether the activation levels of syntactic features associated with lexical items, specifically part-of-speech information, can influence lexical processes. Naming preferences for orthographically ambiguous but phonologically distinct English nouns and verbs, such as "convict"…
This research indicates that recent exposure to a similar combination (e.g., oil moisturizer or surgery treatment) influences the processing of a subsequent combination (e.g., oil treatment) by increasing the availability of the lexical entries for the modifier and head noun, and by altering the availability of the relation used to link the two nouns. The amount of lexical and relational
Exploration of the role of listening comprehension in facilitating second-language learning includes discussion of the auditory perception of language, listening disadvantages for second-language learners, the need to concentrate on lexical knowledge rather than ear training, minimum word knowledge requirements, and lexical ignorance as a major…
Successful language acquisition involves generalization, but learners must balance this against the acquisition of lexical constraints. Such learning has been considered problematic for theories of acquisition: if learners generalize abstract patterns to new words, how do they learn lexically-based exceptions? One approach claims that learners use…
|This study combined artificial language learning (ALL) with conventional experimental techniques to test whether statistical speech segmentation outputs are integrated into adult listeners' mental lexicon. Lexicalization was assessed through inhibitory effects of novel neighbors (created by the parsing process) on auditory lexical decisions to…
Fernandes, Tania; Kolinsky, Regine; Ventura, Paulo
|Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the fast priming…
Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.
This paper introduces an unsupervised method to acquire the lexical semantics of action verbs. The eventual goal of the presented method is allowing a robot to acquire language under realistic conditions. The method acquires lexical semantics by forming association sets that contain general perceptual symbols associated with a certain concept as well as perceptual symbols of the utterances of the
J. S. Adelman and G. D. A. Brown (2008) provided an extensive analysis of the form of word frequency and contextual diversity effects on lexical decision time. In this reply, the current authors suggest that their analysis provides a valuable tool for the evaluation of models of lexical access and that the results they report are broadly…
|A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory…
|Recent research on bilingualism has shown that lexical access in visual word recognition by bilinguals is not selective with respect to language. In the present study, the authors investigated language-independent lexical access in bilinguals reading sentences, which constitutes a strong unilingual linguistic context. In the first experiment,…
Duyck, Wouter; Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Hartsuiker, Robert J.
When listening to modified speech, either naturally or artificially altered, the human perceptual system rapidly adapts to it. There is some debate about the nature of the mecha- nisms underlying this adaptation. Although some authors propose that listeners modify their prelexical representations, others assume changes at the lexical level. Recently, Larsson, Vera, Sebastian-Galles, and Deco (Lexical plasticity in early bi-
Núria Sebastián-Gallés; Fátima Vera Constán; Johan P. Larsson; Albert Costa; Gustavo Deco
|This study investigated the effects of an instructional procedure which incorporated lexical cohesion and macrorules to promote main idea comprehension of Thai EFL students. One hundred and six undergraduate students taking a reading module were randomly assigned to one of three teaching conditions: the combined use of lexical cohesion and…
One of the questions frequently asked in second language (L2) lexical research is how L2 learners' patterns of lexical organization compare to those of native speakers (NSs). A growing body of research addresses this question by using word association (WA) tests. However, little research has been done on the role of language proficiency in the…
The NLP team of LIRMM currently works on thematic and lexical disambiguation text analysis (Lafourcade, 2001). We built a sys- tem, with automated learning capabilities, based on conceptual vectors for meaning representation. Vectors are supposed to encode ideas as- sociated to words or expressions. In the framework of Acception Based Lexical Database (instantiated through the Papillon project), we devise some
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to make measurements in vacuum, air, and water. The method is able to gather information about intermolecular interaction forces at the level of single molecules. This review encompasses experimental and theoretical data on the characterization of ligand-receptor interactions by AFM. The advantage of AFM in comparison with other methods developed for the characterization of single molecular interactions is its ability to estimate not only rupture forces, but also thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the rupture of a complex. The specific features of force spectroscopy applied to ligand-receptor interactions are examined in this review from the stage of the modification of the substrate and the cantilever up to the processing and interpretation of the data. We show the specificities of the statistical analysis of the array of data based on the results of AFM measurements, and we discuss transformation of data into thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (kinetic dissociation constant, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy). Particular attention is paid to the study of polyvalent interactions, where the definition of the constants is hampered due to the complex stoichiometry of the reactions. PMID:23379527
In this work, computations of density functional theory (DFT) were carried out to investigate the nature of interactions in solid 2,6-dibromo-4-nitroaniline (DBNA). This system was selected to mimic the hydrogen/halogen bonding found within crystal structures as well as within biological molecules. DFT (M06-2X/6-311++G**) calculations indicated that the binding energies for different of interactions lie in the range between -1.66 and -9.77 kcal mol(-1). The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was applied to provide more insight into the nature of these interactions. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) analysis indicated that stability of the Br···Br halogen bonds is predicted to be attributable mainly to dispersion, while electrostatic forces, which have been widely believed to be responsible for these types of interactions, play a smaller role. Our results indicate that, for those nuclei participating in hydrogen/halogen bonding interactions, nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters exhibit considerable changes on going from the isolated molecule model to crystalline DBNA. PMID:23224836
|Purpose: Accurate production of lexical stress within English polysyllabic words is critical for intelligibility and is affected in many speech-language disorders. However, models of speech production remain underspecified with regard to lexical stress. In this study, the authors report a large-scale acoustic investigation of lexical stress…
Ballard, Kirrie J.; Djaja, Danica; Arciuli, Joanne; James, Deborah G. H.; van Doorn, Jan
The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of Christma? should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous demonstrations can be explained without invoking lexical feedback. In particular, we show that one
Individuals of Arab descent have increasingly experienced prejudice and employment discrimination. This study used the social identity paradigm to investigate whether greater Arab identification of applicants led to hiring discrimination and whether job characteristics and raters' prejudice moderated this effect. One hundred forty-one American and 153 Dutch participants rated résumés on job suitability. Résumés with Arab name and affiliations negatively
Thirty-six families with a preteenage behavior problem child were assessed on measures of marital discord, parental psychopathology, and three parental cognitive factors: knowledge of behavioral principles, tolerance for child deviancy, and expectations regarding their child's behavior. Nine nonproblem families with demographic characteristics similar to the problem families were also assessed. Correlational analyses across all families revealed a strong association between
Andrew Christensen; Susan Phillips; Russell E. Glasgow; Steven M. Johnson
The appearance of static regular components of the noise spectrum was studied for the self-excitation of an O-type BWT with premodulation of the electron beam by a microwave signal. The collector potential is found to play a double role in variations of ion density in the interaction space: it controls longitudinal ion drift and changes the ion concentration by changing the number of slow secondary electrons. The development of ion-plasma oscillations is explained by a two-beam mechanism for the interaction of secondary electrons and ions.
We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords>words) and the Frequency effect (low>high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In both groups, both Lexicality effect and Frequency effect involved Broca's region (areas 44 and 45). Whereas the effects were stronger for dyslexic than normal readers in area 44, area 45 showed the reverse pattern. These findings mimic recent results from an fMRI study on dyslexic primary school children, indicating that lexical access to written stimuli poses increased and enduring difficulties on dyslexic readers, at least in a language with a transparent orthography. Additionally, data from four compensated adult dyslexics are reported and discussed, which hint at the importance of both Broca's and Wernicke's region for recovery from childhood dyslexia. PMID:22230039
Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin
Due to the phonetic, morphological, and lexical complexity of Sanskrit, the automatic analysis of this language is a real challenge in the area of natural language processing. The paper describes a series of tests that were performed to assess the accuracy of the tagging program SanskritTagger. To our knowlegde, it offers the first reliable benchmark data for evaluating the quality of taggers for Sanskrit using an unrestricted dictionary and texts from different domains. Based on a detailed analysis of the test results, the paper points out possible directions for future improvements of statistical tagging procedures for Sanskrit.
Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Impaired perceptual priming, as assessed by naming reaction times and accuracy, for briefly presented contour-deleted pictures\\u000a under lorazepam has been documented in several studies but whether the nature of this impairment is visual versus conceptual\\/lexical\\u000a is not clear. We used a previously developed paradigm to examine whether lorazepam affects visual processes involved in the\\u000a coding of contour information
Muriel Boucart; Irving Biederman; Christine Cuervo; Jean-Marie Danion; Johan Wagemans
The influences of maternal characteristics, infant characteristics, and paternal support on maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation were examined over time in 59 mothers and their medically fragile infants using an ecological framework. Higher maternal education was associated with greater maternal positive involvement. More maternal depressive symptoms, more infant technological dependence, and lower birthweights were associated with less maternal positive involvement at 6 months but greater involvement at 12 months. Higher paternal helpfulness facilitated positive involvement in mothers with low depressive symptoms but not in those with elevated symptoms. Higher maternal education and more depressive symptoms were associated with more developmental stimulation. Thus, maternal interactive behaviors are affected by maternal, infant, and environment factors, and these effects change over time. PMID:17243105
Lee, Tzu-Ying; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret Shandor
Development of allosteric inhibitors into efficient drugs is hampered by their indirect mode-of-action and complex structure-kinetic relationships. To enable the design of efficient allosteric drugs targeting the polymerase of hepatitis C virus (NS5B), the interactioncharacteristics of three non-nucleoside compounds (filibuvir, VX-222, and tegobuvir) inhibiting HCV replication via NS5B have been analyzed. Since there was no logical correlation between the anti-HCV replicative and enzyme inhibitory effects of the compounds, surface plasmon resonance biosensor technology was used to resolve the mechanistic, kinetic, thermodynamic and chemodynamic features of their interactions with their target and their effect on its interaction with RNA. Tegobuvir could not be seen to interact with NS5B at all while filibuvir interacted in a single reversible step (except at low temperatures) and VX-222 in two serial steps, interpreted as an induced fit mechanism. Both filibuvir and VX-222 interfered with the interaction between NS5B and RNA. They competed for binding to the enzyme, suggesting that they had a common inhibition mechanism and identical or overlapping binding sites. The greater anti-HCV replicative activity of VX-222 over filibuvir is hypothesized to be due to a greater allosteric conformational effect, resulting in the formation of a less catalytically competent complex. In addition, the induced fit mechanism of VX-222 gives it a kinetic advantage over filibuvir, exhibited as a longer residence time. These insights have important consequences for the selection and optimization of new allosteric NS5B inhibitors. PMID:23305851
Winquist, Johan; Abdurakhmanov, Eldar; Baraznenok, Vera; Henderson, Ian; Vrang, Lotta; Danielson, U Helena
Published data concerning the interaction layer (IL) formed between U-xMo fuel alloy and aluminum (Al)-based matrix or cladding materials was reviewed, including the effects of silicon (Si) content in the matrix\\/cladding, molybdenum (Mo) content in the fuel, pre irradiation thermal treatments, irradiation, and test temperature. The review revealed that tests conducted in the laboratory produce results different from those conducted
The relationships governing nonlinear transient transmission and reflection of ultrashort resonant laser radiation pulses with rectangular and Gaussian profiles by a thin semiconductor film were investigated taking into account the exciton-photon interaction and the concentration enhancement of the dipole moment of the exciton transition. It is shown that the transmission of a Gaussian pulse is characterised by the formation of two subpulses with identical areas, which are separated in time and have different profiles. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Khadzhi, P I; Fedorov, L V [Department of Physics and Mathematics, T.G. Shevchenko Pridnestrie State University (Moldova, Republic of)
An elastic multiple shell model is used for the vibration analysis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The van der Waals (vdW) interaction between any two layers of the MWCNT is modeled as the radius-dependent function. Based on the simplified Donnell shell equations, explicit formulas are obtained for the radial-dominated natural frequencies and mode shapes of double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes.
Conducted a short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddler and preschool age children. Initial analyses centered on 2 groups: one composed of younger and more severely delayed children (aged 1.8–6.6 yrs) and the other consisting of older and more mildly delayed children (aged 2.4–6.8 yrs). Observers coded a wide range of social and play
This study examined whether people would interpret and respond to verbal (text) and non-verbal cues (posture) of personality in interactive characters just as they interpret cues from a person. In a balanced, between-subjects experiment (N=40), introverted and extroverted participants were randomly paired with one of two types of consistent computer characters: (1) matched participants' personality with both verbal and non-verbal
We observed mother–child interactions, at baseline, in 136 families of 7–10-year-old boys with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were part of a large clinical trial, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD. Independent coders rated stylistic aspects of maternal behavior and factor analyses revealed a responsiveness factor that included overall responsiveness and sensitivity to the child, warmth and acceptance, and
Charlotte Johnston; Candice Murray; Stephen P. Hinshaw; William E. Pelham Jr; Betsy Hoza
Longitudinal bulk acoustic waves, generated over the frequency region from 200 MHz to 1.0 GHz by coaxially sputter deposited zinc oxide (ZnO) transducers on 80 micron diameter optical fibers, were used to experimentally characterize the acoustooptic (AO) phase shift interaction in single-mode fibers with 830 nm guided wave light. Mach-Zehnder and Fabry-Perot test sets were used to measure the phase shift of the light with both cw and pulsed signal inputs to the transducers in the range of 1 to 500 milliwatts. Maximum phase shifts were observed at average frequency separations of 67 MHz, corresponding to the standing bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonance conditions in the fiber. The interaction length was varied from 30 mm to 6 mm to determine the effects on the AO phase shift. A maximum phase shift of 1.7 radians was observed at a frequency of 317 MHz with a 30 mm interaction length and 150 mW pulsed input. Linear modulation efficiencies in the range of 0.2 to 0.3 radians per square root of mW input power were observed at resonant frequencies in the 200 to 400 MHz region corresponding to acoustic wavelengths on the order of the core dimensions of the optical fiber.
Three sentence production experiments investigate the relationship between lexical and structural processing scope. Speakers generated sentences with varying phrase structures in response to visual displays (e.g., The dog and the hat move above the fork and the tree/The dog moves above the hat and the fork and the tree). On half of the trials, one of the pictures in the arrays was previewed. Filler sentences varied preview position and sentence structure from trial to trial. When speakers could not anticipate the position of the previewed picture in the upcoming sentence (Experiment 1), preview benefit for pictures corresponding to the second noun to be produced was limited to pictures that fell within the sentence-initial phrase. When the linear position of the previewed picture was predictable, preview benefits were observed for the second noun to be produced, irrespective of phrase position (Experiment 2). However, no preview benefits were observed for the third noun to be produced (Experiment 3). In contrast, significant effects of initial phrase structure were observed in all experiments, with latencies increasing with initial phrase length. The results are consistent with speakers operating a phrasal scope for structural planning within which the scope of lexical access can vary. PMID:23286440
Wheeldon, Linda; Ohlson, Natalie; Ashby, Aimee; Gator, Sophie
Words with higher token frequencies tend to have more reduced acoustic realizations than lower frequency words (e.g., Hay, 2000; Bybee, 2001; Jurafsky et al., 2001). This study documents frequency effects for regressive voice assimilation (obstruents are voiced before voiced plosives) in Dutch morphologically complex words in the subcorpus of read-aloud novels in the corpus of spoken Dutch (Oostdijk et al., 2002). As expected, the initial obstruent of the cluster tends to be absent more often as lexical frequency increases. More importantly, as frequency increases, the duration of vocal-fold vibration in the cluster decreases, and the duration of the bursts in the cluster increases, after partialing out cluster duration. This suggests that there is less voicing for higher-frequency words. In fact, phonetic transcriptions show regressive voice assimilation for only half of the words and progressive voice assimilation for one third. Interestingly, the progressive voice assimilation observed for higher-frequency complex words renders these complex words more similar to monomorphemic words: Dutch monomorphemic words typically contain voiceless obstruent clusters (Zonneveld, 1983). Such high-frequency complex words may therefore be less easily parsed into their constituent morphemes (cf. Hay, 2000), favoring whole word lexical access (Bertram et al., 2000).
Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, Harald
Broca's area is classically associated with speech production. Recently, Broca's area has also been implicated in speech perception and non-linguistic information processing. With respect to the latter function, Broca's area is considered to be a central area in a network constituting the human mirror system, which maps observed or heard actions onto motor programs to execute analogous actions. These mechanisms share some similarities with Liberman's motor theory, where objects of speech perception correspond to listener's intended articulatory gestures. The aim of the current series of behavioral, TMS and fMRI studies was to test if Broca's area is indeed implicated in such audio-motor transformations. More specifically, using a classical phonological rhyme priming paradigm, we investigated whether the role of Broca's area could be purely phonological or rather, is lexical in nature. In the behavioral baseline study, we found a large priming effect in word prime/target pairs (W-W) and no effect for pseudo-words (PW-PW). Online TMS interference of Broca's area canceled the priming difference between W-W and PW-PW by enhancing the effects for PW-PW. Finally, the fMRI study showed activation of Broca's area for W-W pairs, but not for PW-PW pairs. Our data show that Broca's area plays a significant role in speech perception strongly linked to the lexicality of a stimulus. PMID:19698980
Kotz, S A; D'Ausilio, A; Raettig, T; Begliomini, C; Craighero, L; Fabbri-Destro, M; Zingales, C; Haggard, P; Fadiga, L
The formation of corium debris as the result of fuel-coolant interaction (energetic or not) has been studied experimentally in the FARO and KROTOS facilities operated at JRC-Ispra between 1991 and 1999. Experiments were performed with 3–177kg of UO2–ZrO2 and UO2–ZrO2–Zr melts, quenched in water at depth between 1 and 2m, and pressure between 0.1 and 5.0MPa. The effect of various
The combustion behaviors and kinetic parameters of three parent coals (A1, A2, and A3) and their blends (A1\\/A2 and A2\\/A3)\\u000a have been evaluated under oxidizing atmosphere (O2 and N2 mixtures), using a non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The aim of this study is to investigate the interaction between\\u000a the blended components during the process of co-combustion, and the effects of blending ratio
Xiaoming Zhang; Yinhe Liu; Chang’an Wang; Defu Che
1. ?2-Macroglobulin is known to bind and inhibit a number of serine proteinases. We show that it binds thiol and carboxyl proteinases, and there is now reason to believe that ?2-macroglobulin can bind essentially all proteinases. 2. Radiochemically labelled trypsin, chymotrypsin, cathepsin B1 and papain are bound by ?2-macroglobulin in an approximately equimolar ratio. Equimolar binding was confirmed for trypsin by activesite titration. 3. Pretreatment of ?2-macroglobulin with a saturating amount of one proteinase prevented the subsequent binding of another. We conclude that each molecule of ?2-macroglobulin is able to react with one molecule of proteinase only. 4. ?2-Macroglobulin did not react with exopeptidases, non-proteolytic hydrolases or inactive forms of endopeptidases. 5. The literature on binding and inhibition of proteinases by ?2-macroglobulin is reviewed, and from consideration of this and our own work several general characteristics of the interaction can be discerned. 6. A model is proposed for the molecular mechanism of the interaction of ?2-macroglobulin with proteinases. It is suggested that the enzyme cleaves a peptide bond in a sensitive region of the macroglobulin, and that this results in a conformational change in the ?2-macroglobulin molecule that traps the enzyme irreversibly. Access of substrates to the active site of the enzyme becomes sterically hindered, causing inhibition that is most pronounced with large substrate molecules. 7. The possible physiological importance of the unique binding characteristics of ?2-macroglobulin is discussed. ImagesPLATE 1
In this paper, we present characteristics of precipitating energetic ions/electrons associated with the wave-particle interaction in the plasmaspheric plume during the geomagnetic storm on July 18, 2005 with observations of the NOAA15 NOAA16, IMAGE satellites and Finnish network of search coil magnetometers. Conjugate observations of the NOAA15 satellite and the Finnish network of search coil magnetometers have demonstrated that a sharp enhancement of the precipitating ion flux is a result of ring current (RC) ions scattered into the loss cone by EMIC waves. Those precipitating RC ions lead to a detached subauroral proton arc observed by the IMAGE FUV. In addition, with observations of NOAA15 and NOAA16, the peak of precipitating electron flux was equatorward to that of precipitating proton flux, which is in agreement with the region separation of ELF hiss and EMIC waves observed by the Cluster C1 in the Yuan et al. (2012) companion paper. In combination with the result of the companion paper, we demonstrate the link between the wave activities (ELF hiss, EMIC waves) in plasmaspheric plumes and energetic ion/electron precipitation at ionospheric altitudes. Therefore, it is an important characteristic of the plasmaspheric plumes-RC-ionosphere interaction during a geomagnetic storm that the precipitation of energetic protons is latitudinally separated from that of energetic electrons.
In a group of adult dyslexics word reading and, especially, word spelling are predicted more by what we have called lexical learning (tapped by a paired-associate task with pictures and written nonwords) than by phonological skills. Nonword reading and spelling, instead, are not associated with this task but they are predicted by phonological tasks. Consistently, surface and phonological dyslexics show opposite profiles on lexical learning and phonological tasks. The phonological dyslexics are more impaired on the phonological tasks, while the surface dyslexics are equally or more impaired on the lexical learning tasks. Finally, orthographic lexical learning explains more variation in spelling than in reading, and subtyping based on spelling returns more interpretable results than that based on reading. These results suggest that the quality of lexical representations is crucial to adult literacy skills. This is best measured by spelling and best predicted by a task of lexical learning. We hypothesize that lexical learning taps a uniquely human capacity to form new representations by recombining the units of a restricted set. PMID:18781498
Romani, Cristina; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Tsouknida, Effie; Olson, Andrew
Performance characteristics of a prototype matcher in a lexical access system based on landmarks and distinctive features are analyzed. A database of 16 CONV files containing spontaneous American English utterances produced by 8 female speakers is annotated with words, and phone sequences derived from the word sequences are generated using the CMU phone-based dictionary. Predicted landmark and distinctive feature sequences are then generated using context-dependent rules from the phone sequences. These labels are used to map back to a lexicon which is also represented in terms of landmarks and distinctive features. The results for using core lexicons consisting of words within a CONV file show an average match rate of about 23% using only manner-class-related landmarks, and about 93% using the distinctive feature labels. Using an expanded lexicon combining all core lexicons lowers average match rates, by about 7% using landmark labels, and by 4% using the distinctive feature labels. These results provide characteristic rates for using linguistically motivated features to match to a lexicon, for both the landmark labels and for the more detailed distinctive feature labels. PMID:24181908
Varying degrees of plasticity in different subsystems of language have been demonstrated by studies showing that some aspects of language are processed similarly by native speakers and late-learners whereas other aspects are processed differently by the two groups. The study of speech segmentation provides a means by which the ability to process different types of linguistic information can be measured within the same task, because lexical, syntactic, and stress-pattern information can all indicate where one word ends and the next begins in continuous speech. In this study, native Japanese and native Spanish late-learners of English (as well as near-monolingual Japanese and Spanish speakers) were asked to determine whether specific sounds fell at the beginning or in the middle of words in English sentences. Similar to native English speakers, late-learners employed lexical information to perform the segmentation task. However, non-native speakers did not use syntactic information to the same extent as native English speakers. Although both groups of late-learners of English used stress pattern as a segmentation cue, the extent to which this cue was relied upon depended on the stress-pattern characteristics of their native language. These findings support the hypothesis that learning a second language later in life has differential effects on subsystems within language.
Sanders, Lisa D.; Neville, Helen J.; Woldorff, Marty G.
The interaction of plasmas with propellants (solids and liquids) may lead to augmented chemical burn rates in electrothermal-chemical (ETC) guns. The plasma generator for many plasma-propellant reaction concepts is an electrothermal source. The 'pipe' experiment is a device that injects a low-temperature (1-3 eV), high density (10(exp 25) - 10(exp 26))/cu m plasma to the surface of either a solid or a liquid propellant. The ET source injects the plasma into the propellant that is placed on a test stand, followed by a material test stand to expose material surfaces to the plasma under combustion conditions. Various diagnostics are arranged to measure the plasma parameters, absolute pressure, stress distribution, high heat flux calorimetry, velocity, and burn rates.
Edwards, Charles M.; Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.
Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes. PMID:22229058
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry
ELF-VLF (0.3-30 kHz) wave data measured at ground-based observatories for 250 sudden commencements were analyzed for amplitude and spectral modifications and correlated with magnetic field and precipitating particle observations. Changes in ELF-VLF wave activity at high-latitude stations were observed in 50-60% of the events studied and for approximately 80% of the events when the observing station was on the dayside. Characteristic, well-defined modifications of both coherent and incoherent ELF-VLF wave emissions were observed, including wave growth of the order of 20 dB, increases in the upper frequency limit of the waves, and enhanced triggering of discrete emissions. Wave growth generally occurred first at lower frequencies and with increasing delay at upper frequencies. The growth rate for the incoherent wave emissions (0.3-2.7 dB/s) was found to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than known growth rates for coherent waves. Measurable particle precipitation inferred from cosmic noise signal absorption was observed to begin simultaneous to within 5 s of the wave growth onset in a significant number of cases, suggesting that at least a part of the observed precipitation results from wave-induced scattering.
Gail, W.B.; Inan, U.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Carpenter, D.L. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Krishnaswamy, S.; Rosenberg, T.J. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Lanzerotti, L.J. (Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))
In concurrent-speech recognition, performance is enhanced when either the glottal pulse rate (GPR) or the vocal tract length (VTL) of the target speaker differs from that of the distracter, but relatively little is known about the trading relationship between the two variables, or how they interact with other cues such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper presents a study in which listeners were asked to identify a target syllable in the presence of a distracter syllable, with carefully matched temporal envelopes. The syllables varied in GPR and VTL over a large range, and they were presented at different SNRs. The results showed that performance is particularly sensitive to the combination of GPR and VTL when the SNR is 0 dB. Equal-performance contours showed that when there are no other cues, a two-semitone difference in GPR produced the same advantage in performance as a 20% difference in VTL. This corresponds to a trading relationship between GPR and VTL of 1.6. The results illustrate that the auditory system can use any combination of differences in GPR, VTL, and SNR to segregate competing speech signals.
Vestergaard, Martin D.; Fyson, Nicholas R. C.; Patterson, Roy D.
Milled rice (Oryza sativa L.) is composed of approximately 90% starch. The properties of starch have considerable effects on cooked rice palatability and consumer acceptability. Starch pasting viscosity parameters serve as important indices in the estimation of eating, cooking, and processing qualities of rice. In the present study, four cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines and eight restorer (R) lines have been used in an incomplete diallel cross to analyze seed effects, cytoplasmic effects, maternal gene effects, and their genotype x environment (GE) effects on the following starch pasting viscosity parameters: breakdown (BD), consistency (CS), and setback (SB). The results demonstrated that the total main genetic variances (V(G)) accounted for over 64% of the total genetic variance (V(G) +V(GE)) for the three traits, indicating that these traits were mainly controlled by the main genetic effects in addition to the GE interaction effects. The estimated total narrow-sense heritability were 67.8%, 79.5%, and 79.5% for BD, CS, and SB, respectively. The general heritability (h(2)(G)) accounted for over 75% of the total heritability (h(2)(G) +h(2)(GE)), indicating that early selection would be effective for those traits and the selection efficiencies were relatively stable in different environments. PMID:17112972
Abstract This article explores the effect that words from different lexical categories have on disfluency in 12 Persian children, ten boys and two girls, who stutter. They were aged 7 years 5 months to 10 years 6 months. Words from the participants' narrative and reading samples (sub-tests of the Reading and Dyslexia Test validated for Persian school-aged children) were categorized as content, function, or content-function, and stuttering-like disfluencies were coded in each speech sample. Content and content-function words were significantly more likely to show stuttering-like disfluencies than function words. The distribution of symptom types over content and content-function words was similar, and differed from the distribution seen in function words. The symptom type analysis also supported the view that whole-word repetitions should not be grouped with other stuttering-like disfluencies. PMID:23941107
Vahab, Maryam; Zandiyan, Azadeh; Falahi, Mohammad Hadi; Howell, Peter
Many sources of segmentation information are available in speech. Previous research has shown that one or another segmentation cue is used by listeners under certain circumstances. However, it has also been shown that none of the cues are absolutely reliable. Therefore, it is likely that people use a combination of segmentation cues when listening to normal speech. This study addresses the issue of how young adults use multiple segmentation cues (lexical, syntactic, and stress-pattern) in combination to break up continuous speech. Evidence that people use more than one cue at a time was found. Furthermore, the results suggest that people can use segmentation cues flexibly such that remaining cues are relied upon more heavily when other information is missing.
The purpose of this study was to test whether the content and function word dichotomy of speech disfluency found in English-speaking adults who stutter (AWS) was evident in a language other than English. A group of adult Arabic-speaking AWS were sampled across spontaneous speaking, oral reading, and single-word naming tasks. Moments of disfluency were identified and examined in regard to lexical category. Results indicated no significant differences in the amount of disfluency occurring on content and function words. The production of combined content-function words, a unique feature of the Arabic language, was associated with a high level of disfluency. The linguistic bases of stuttering are discussed in regard to language-specific influences. PMID:20030554
Abdalla, Fauzia; Robb, Michael P; Al-Shatti, Tareq
In this article, we present a new lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic: Aralex. Based on a contemporary text corpus of 40 million words, Aralex provides information about (1) the token frequencies of roots and word patterns, (2) the type frequency, or family size, of roots and word patterns, and (3) the frequency of bigrams, trigrams in orthographic forms, roots, and word patterns. Aralex will be a useful tool for studying the cognitive processing of Arabic through the selection of stimuli on the basis of precise frequency counts. Researchers can use it as a source of information on natural language processing, and it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists. Aralex is distributed under a GNU-like license, allowing people to interrogate it freely online or to download it from www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk:8081/aralex.online/login.jsp. PMID:20479179
Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually-irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern.
Hyperspace analog to language (HAL) is a high-dimensional model of semantic space that uses the global co-occurrence frequency of words in a large corpus of text as the basis for a representation of semantic memory. In the original HAL model, many parameters were set without any a priori rationale. We have created and publicly released a computer application, the High Dimensional Explorer (HiDEx), that makes it possible to systematically alter the values of these parameters to examine their effect on the co-occurrence matrix that instantiates the model. We took an empirical approach to understanding the influence of the parameters on the measures produced by the models, looking at how well matrices derived with different parameters could predict human reaction times in lexical decision and semantic decision tasks. New parameter sets give us measures of semantic density that improve the model's ability to predict behavioral measures. Implications for such models are discussed. PMID:20479171
We characterized the effects of drugs on the uptake of [3H]neurotransmitter by and the binding of [125I](3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([125I]RTI-55) to the recombinant human dopamine (hDAT), serotonin (hSERT), or norepinephrine (hNET) transporters stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. RTI-55 had similar affinity for the hDAT and hSERT and lower affinity for hNET (Kd = 1. 83, 0.98, and 12.1 nM, respectively). Kinetic analysis of [125I]RTI-55 binding indicated that the dissociation rate (k-1) was significantly lower for hSERT and the association rate (k+1) was significantly lower for hNET compared with the hDAT. The potency of drugs at blocking [3H]neurotransmitter uptake was highly correlated with potency at blocking radioligand binding for hDAT and hSERT. Substrates were more potent at the inhibition of [3H]neurotransmitter uptake than radioligand binding. The potency of drugs was highly correlated between displacement of [3H]nisoxetine (Kd = 6.0 nM) and [125I]RTI-55 from the hNET, suggesting that these radioligands recognize similar sites on the transporter protein. The correlation observed between inhibitory potency for uptake and binding of either ligand at the hNET was lower than correlations between uptake and binding for hDAT and hSERT. The present results indicate that the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55 has unique binding properties at each of the transporters and that the use of recombinant transporters expressed by a single cell type can provide a powerful screening tool for drugs interacting with biogenic amine transporters, such as possible cocaine antagonists. PMID:10215666
Eshleman, A J; Carmolli, M; Cumbay, M; Martens, C R; Neve, K A; Janowsky, A
Interaction of calcium with casein submicelles was investigated in CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers and with synthetic milk salt solutions using the technique of analytical affinity chromatography. Micelles that had been prepared by size exclusion chromatography with glycerolpropyl controlled-pore glass from fresh raw skim milk that had never been cooled, were dialyzed at room temperature against calcium-free imidazole buffer, pH 6.7. Resulting submicelles were covalently immobilized on succinamidopropyl controlled-pore glass (300-nm pore size). Using 45Ca to monitor the elution retardation, the affinity of free Ca2+ and calcium salt species was determined at temperatures of 20 to 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 to 7.5. Increasing the pH in this range or increasing the temperature strengthened the binding of calcium to submicelles, similar to previous observations with individual caseins. However, the enthalpy change obtained from the temperature dependence was considerably greater than that reported for alpha s1- and beta-caseins. Furthermore, the elution profiles for 45Ca in milk salt solutions were decidedly different from those in CaCl2 or calcium phosphate buffers and the affinities were also greater. For example, at pH 6.7 and 30 degrees C the average dissociation constant for the submicelle-calcium complex is 0.074 mM for CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers, vs 0.016 mM for the milk salt solution. The asymmetric frontal boundaries and higher average affinities observed with milk salts may be due to binding of calcium salts with greater affinity in addition to the binding of free Ca2+ in these solutions.
Jang, H.D.; Swaisgood, H.E. (North Carolina State Univ. (USA))
We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.
Smith, D. R.; Pooler, P. S.; Loveland, R. E.; Botton, M. L.; Michels, S. F.; Weber, R. G.; Carter, D. B.
The expression of selected nitrogen fixation (nif) genes from Klebsiella pneumoniae in foreign hosts provides an approach to determine the pathway, minimal genetic requirements, and host dependence of nitrogenase assembly. In this study, we investigated the assembly of the alpha 2 beta 2 MoFe protein, responsible for substrate binding and reduction, by introducing nifD and nifK (encoding respectively, the alpha and beta subunits) into Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In E. coli, both genes were expressed from the nifHDKY operon; in yeast, the genes, separately fused to the yeast ADH1 promoter, were introduced on two different plasmids. Denaturing immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of significant amounts of NifD and NifK in both hosts. In E. coli, the level or perhaps modification of NifD depended on the growth medium of the bacteria. Nondenaturing, anaerobic immunoblot assays revealed in E. coli, nif-specific antigens of lower electrophoretic mobility than Kp1, which may represent assembly intermediates. In yeast, no putative assembled products were evident, and the predominant antigens corresponded to the monomeric forms of the polypeptides. These results indicate that, unlike NifH, the Fe protein subunit (Berman, J., Gershoni, J. M., and Zamir, A. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5240-5243), NifD and NifK are insufficient for the assembly of an electrophoretically Kp1-like structure. Homodimerization of nifK and probably of nifD primary gene products does not appear to occur spontaneously and hence is unlikely to represent the initial step in the assembly. The difference between the two hosts suggests that the cellular environment or mode of expression could affect the interaction between the two subunits. PMID:3298241
Holland, D; Zilberstein, A; Govezensky, D; Salomon, D; Zamir, A
In a lexical decision task, faster reaction times (RTs) for old than new items is taken as evidence for an implicit memory involvement in this task. In contrast, the present study shows the involvement of both implicit and explicit memory in repetition priming. We propose a dual route model, in which lexical decisions can be made using one of two parallel processing routes: a lexical route, in which the lexical properties of the stimulus are used to determine whether it is a word or not, and a strategic route that builds on the inherent correlation between "wordness" and "oldness" in the experiment. Eliminating the strategic route by removing this correlation diminishes the priming effect at the slow end of the RT distribution, but not at the fast end. This dissociation is interpreted as evidence for the involvement of both implicit and explicit memory in repetition priming. PMID:23126377
The goal of the present study is a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in child segmentation of words in liaison context, where the boundary between a word1 and a word2 is ambiguous. In a priming experiment in prereaders aged 5–6 years, we examined the nature of the lexical representations, using a picture-naming task (deux ours). Targets were preceded by lexically
This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared the neuronal implementation of word and pseudoword processing during two commonly used word recognition tasks: lexical decision and reading aloud. In the lexical decision task, participants made a finger-press response to indicate whether a visually presented letter string is a word or a pseudoword (e.g., paple). In the reading-aloud task, participants read aloud
Manuel Carreiras; Andrea Mechelli; Adelina Estévez; Cathy J. Price
Although lexical ambiguity resolution has been examined extensively in the sentence processing literature, questions still remain as to why some cross-modal studies found that context influenced lexical access (i.e., Onifer & Swinney 1981), while others did not (i.e., Tabossi & Zardon 1993). In this study, the length of presentation time of the visual target at the ambiguity is manipulated (300ms,
Many studies involving lexical access in picture-naming tasks have been undertaken at a point in time, mainly focusing on\\u000a age of acquisition (AoA). To identify the real determinates of lexical access in recovery and their traces in the brain, we\\u000a carried out a longitudinal study on a Chinese pure anomic patient using multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that\\u000a AoA
The competitive nature of the lexical selection process during spoken word production is well established in monolinguals. In this paper we explore the implication of this process for spoken word production in bilinguals. A cross-language semantic competitor priming effect was demonstrated, which shows that cross-language lexical competition is a feature of the word production system of the unbalanced English-French bilinguals
The question of whether or not lexical information is accessed directly from a visual code or by a process of phonetic mediation\\u000a was investigated in three lexical decision experiments. Phonetic similarity influenced decisions about visually presented\\u000a words only when they were to be discriminated from orthographically regular nonwords. When consonant strings or random letter\\u000a strings were used as nonwords, phonetic
Harvey G. Shulman; Rosemary Hornak; Elizabeth Sanders
In order to determine whether small within-category differences in voice onset time (VOT) affect lexical access, eye movements were monitored as participants indicated which of four pictures was named by spoken stimuli that varied along a 0–40 ms VOT continuum. Within-category differences in VOT resulted in gradient increases in fixations to cross-boundary lexical competitors as VOT approached the category boundary.
Bob McMurray; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Richard N. Aslin
The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children.\\u000a It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However,\\u000a it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of critical items (irregular words),\\u000a so
The reading skills of a girl with Williams Syndrome are assessed by a timed word-naming task. To test the efficiency of lexical\\u000a and nonlexical reading, we considered four marker effects: Lexicality (better reading of words than nonwords), frequency (better\\u000a reading of high than low frequency words), length (better reading of short than long words), and contextuality (better reading\\u000a of words
Laura Barca; Arianna Bello; Virginia Volterra; Cristina Burani
A corpus of nearly 150,000 maternal word-tokens used by 53 low-income mothers in 263 mother–child conversations in 5 settings (e.g., play, mealtime, and book readings) was studied. Ninety-nine percent of maternal lexical input consisted of the 3,000 most frequent words. Children's vocabulary performance in kindergarten and later in 2nd grade related more to the occurrence of sophisticated lexical items than