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1

Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

2010-01-01

2

Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

2014-01-01

3

Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2014-01-01

4

Lexical and Articulatory Interactions in Children's Language Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e. a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in…

Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara

2010-01-01

5

Task dependent lexicality effects support interactive models of reading: a meta-analytic neuroimaging review.  

PubMed

Models of reading must explain how orthographic input activates a phonological representation, and elicits the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory. Comparisons between tasks that theoretically differ with respect to the degree to which they rely on connections between orthographic, phonological and semantic systems during reading can thus provide valuable insight into models of reading, but such direct comparisons are not well-represented in the literature. An ALE meta-analysis explored lexicality effects directly contrasting words and pseudowords using the lexical decision task and overt or covert naming, which we assume rely most on the semantic and phonological systems, respectively. Interactions between task and lexicality effects demonstrate that different demands of the lexical decision and naming tasks lead to different manifestations of lexicality effects. PMID:25524364

McNorgan, Chris; Chabal, Sarah; O'Young, Daniel; Lukic, Sladjana; Booth, James R

2015-01-01

6

Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

Ardila, Alfredo

2012-06-01

7

Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

2013-01-01

8

Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

Hamilton, Stephen T; Freed, Erin M; Long, Debra L

2013-01-01

9

Writing nonsense: the interaction between lexical and sublexical knowledge in the priming of nonword spelling.  

PubMed

The task of spelling nonwords to dictation necessarily requires the operation of a sublexical or assembled sound-to-spelling conversion process. We report an experiment that shows a clear lexical priming effect on nonword spelling (e.g., /vi:m/ was spelled as VEME more often following the prime word "theme" and as VEAM more often following "dream"), which was larger for lexically low-probability (or low-contingency) than for common (or high-contingency) spellings. Priming diminished when an unrelated word intervened between the prime word and target nonword and did so more for the production of low- than for high-contingency spellings. We interpret these results within an interactive model of spelling production that proposes feedback from the graphemic level to both the lexical and assembled spelling processes. PMID:22565615

Martin, Daisy H; Barry, Christopher

2012-08-01

10

Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

2011-01-01

11

Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of Web multimodality plus dialogical interactions in the acquisition and retention of novel lexical items among EFL students under a social constructionist framework. The lexical acquisition of 107 1st-year English majors at the University of Costa Rica was analyzed through…

Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

2013-01-01

12

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

13

Rapid interactions between lexical semantic and word form analysis during word recognition in context: evidence from ERPs.  

PubMed

We used ERPs to investigate the time course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form processing during word recognition. Participants read sentence-embedded pseudowords that orthographically resembled a contextually supported real word (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a ceke…") or did not (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a tont…") along with nonword consonant strings (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a srdt…"). Pseudowords that resembled a contextually supported real word ("ceke") elicited an enhanced positivity at 130 msec (P130), relative to real words (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a cake…"). Pseudowords that did not resemble a plausible real word ("tont") enhanced the N170 component, as did nonword consonant strings ("srdt"). The effect pattern shows that the visual word recognition system is, perhaps, counterintuitively, more rapidly sensitive to minor than to flagrant deviations from contextually predicted inputs. The findings are consistent with rapid interactions between lexical and sublexical representations during word recognition, in which rapid lexical access of a contextually supported word (CAKE) provides top-down excitation of form features ("cake"), highlighting the anomaly of an unexpected word "ceke." PMID:21981670

Kim, Albert; Lai, Vicky

2012-05-01

14

Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

2013-01-01

15

Observer Bias: An Interaction of Temperament Traits with Biases in the Semantic Perception of Lexical Material  

PubMed Central

The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of “background emotionality” and a “projection through capacities” were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study of stable individual differences. PMID:24475048

Trofimova, Ira

2014-01-01

16

Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material.  

PubMed

The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of "background emotionality" and a "projection through capacities" were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study of stable individual differences. PMID:24475048

Trofimova, Ira

2014-01-01

17

Interactive effects of age-of-acquisition and repetition priming in the lexical decision task. A multiple-loci account.  

PubMed

The analysis of the interaction between repetition priming and age of acquisition may be used to shed further light on the question of which stages of elaboration are affected by this psycholinguistic variable. In the present study we applied this method in the context of two versions of a lexical decision task that differed in the type of non-words employed at test. When the non-words were illegal and unpronounceable, repetition priming was primarily based on the analysis of orthographic information, while phonological processes were additionally recruited only when using legal pronounceable non-words. The results showed a significant interaction between repetition priming and age of acquisition in both conditions, with priming being greater for late- than for early-acquired words. These findings support a multiple-loci account, indicating that age of acquisition influences implicit memory by facilitating the retrieval of both the orthographic and the phonological representations of studied words. PMID:23422658

Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia; Saraulli, Daniele; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

2013-01-01

18

Lexical effects on speech production and intelligibility in Parkinson's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have speech deficits that lead to reduced speech intelligibility. Previous research provides a rich database regarding the articulatory deficits associated with PD including restricted vowel space (Skodda, Visser, & Schlegel, 2011) and flatter formant transitions (Tjaden & Wilding, 2004; Walsh & Smith, 2012). However, few studies consider the effect of higher level structural variables of word usage frequency and the number of similar sounding words (i.e. neighborhood density) on lower level articulation or on listeners' perception of dysarthric speech. The purpose of the study is to examine the interaction of lexical properties and speech articulation as measured acoustically in speakers with PD and healthy controls (HC) and the effect of lexical properties on the perception of their speech. Individuals diagnosed with PD and age-matched healthy controls read sentences with words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Acoustic analysis was performed to compare second formant transitions in diphthongs, an indicator of the dynamics of tongue movement during speech production, across different lexical characteristics. Young listeners transcribed the spoken sentences and the transcription accuracy was compared across lexical conditions. The acoustic results indicate that both PD and HC speakers adjusted their articulation based on lexical properties but the PD group had significant reductions in second formant transitions compared to HC. Both groups of speakers increased second formant transitions for words with low frequency and low density, but the lexical effect is diphthong dependent. The change in second formant slope was limited in the PD group when the required formant movement for the diphthong is small. The data from listeners' perception of the speech by PD and HC show that listeners identified high frequency words with greater accuracy suggesting the use of lexical knowledge during the recognition process. The relationship between acoustic results and perceptual accuracy is limited in this study suggesting that listeners incorporate acoustic and non-acoustic information to maximize speech intelligibility.

Chiu, Yi-Fang

19

Processing Interactions and Lexical Access during Word Recognition in Continuous Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments, a shadowing task and a mispronunciation-detection task, were performed to investigate the interactions between the data-driven primary speech perception process and the knowledge-driven word recognition process in the comprehension of continuous speech. Results are applied to an active direct access model of word recognition.…

Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Welsh, Alan

1978-01-01

20

The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2011-01-01

21

Lexical is as lexical does: computational approaches to lexical representation  

PubMed Central

In much of neuroimaging and neuropsychology, regions of the brain have been associated with ‘lexical representation’, with little consideration as to what this cognitive construct actually denotes. Within current computational models of word recognition, there are a number of different approaches to the representation of lexical knowledge. Structural lexical representations, found in original theories of word recognition, have been instantiated in modern localist models. However, such a representational scheme lacks neural plausibility in terms of economy and flexibility. Connectionist models have therefore adopted distributed representations of form and meaning. Semantic representations in connectionist models necessarily encode lexical knowledge. Yet when equipped with recurrent connections, connectionist models can also develop attractors for familiar forms that function as lexical representations. Current behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence shows a clear role for semantic information, but also suggests some modality- and task-specific lexical representations. A variety of connectionist architectures could implement these distributed functional representations, and further experimental and simulation work is required to discriminate between these alternatives. Future conceptualisations of lexical representations will therefore emerge from a synergy between modelling and neuroscience.

Woollams, Anna M.

2015-01-01

22

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

23

Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection  

PubMed Central

Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

2010-01-01

24

V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

2013-01-01

25

The Relationship between Negotiated Interaction, Learner Uptake, and Lexical Acquisition in Task-Based Computer-Mediated Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study builds on recent uptake research (Ellis, Basturkmen, & Loewen, 2001a, 2001b; Lyster & Ranta, 1997) by exploring the relationship between negotiated interaction, a type of focus on form episode, and learner uptake. The study explores whether a negotiation routine's complexity affects learner uptake and if this uptake affects…

Smith, Bryan

2005-01-01

26

Speech recognition: Acoustic phonetic and lexical knowledge representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this program is to develop a speech data base facility under which the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds in various contexts can be studied conveniently; investigate the phonological properties of a large lexicon of, say 10,000 words, and determine to what extent the phontactic constraints can be utilized in speech recognition; study the acoustic cues that are used to mark work boundaries; develop a test bed in the form of a large-vocabulary, IWR system to study the interactions of acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge; and develop a limited continuous speech recognition system with the goal of recognizing any English word from its spelling in order to assess the interactions of higher-level knowledge sources.

Zue, V. W.

1983-02-01

27

Speech recognition: Acoustic phonetic and lexical knowledge representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this program is to develop a speech data base facility under which the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds in various contexts can be studied conveniently; investigate the phonological properties of a large lexicon of, say 10,000 words and determine to what extent the phonotactic constraints can be utilized in speech recognition; study the acoustic cues that are used to mark work boundaries; develop a test bed in the form of a large-vocabulary, IWR system to study the interactions of acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge; and develop a limited continuous speech recognition system with the goal of recognizing any English word from its spelling in order to assess the interactions of higher-level knowledge sources.

Zue, V. W.

1984-02-01

28

Reading and Spelling in Adults: Are There Lexical and Sub-Lexical Subtypes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dual-route model of reading proposes distinct lexical and sub-lexical procedures for word reading and spelling. Lexically reliant and sub-lexically reliant reader subgroups were selected from 78 university students on the basis of their performance on lexical (orthographic) and sub-lexical (phonological) choice tests, and on irregular and…

Burt, Jennifer S.; Heffernan, Maree E.

2012-01-01

29

Lexical and Robert Mailhammer  

E-print Network

histories 1 Robert Mailhammer Towards a framework of contact etymology 9 Harold Koch and Luise HercusLexical and Structural Etymology Edited by Robert Mailhammer #12;Table of contents Contact details and affiliations of contributors v Abbreviations vii Robert Mailhammer Introduction: Etymology beyond word

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.  

PubMed

Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2014-05-01

31

Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories  

PubMed Central

Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2014-01-01

32

Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

Johnston, Trevor

2012-01-01

33

The Influence of Lexical Status and Neighborhood Density on Children's Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical status and neighborhood density of constituent syllables on children's nonword repetition and interactions with nonword length. Lexical status of the target syllable impacted repetition accuracy for the longest nonwords. In addition, children made more errors that changed a nonword syllable to a word syllable…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Chisholm, Gina M.

2010-01-01

34

Predicting prosodic words from lexical words - a first step towards predicting prosody from text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much remains unsolved in how to predict prosody from text for unlimited Mandarin Chinese TTS. The interactions and the rules between syntactic structure and prosodic structure are still unresolved challenges. By using part-of-speech (POS) tagging, for which text lexical information is required, we aim to find significant patterns of word grouping from analyzing real speech data and such lexical information.

Hua-jui Peng; Chi-ching Chen; Chiu-yu Tseng; Keh-jiann Chen

2004-01-01

35

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

36

How does emotional content affect lexical processing?  

PubMed

Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

Vinson, David; Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

2014-01-01

37

An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition on access to the lexical-semantic network  

PubMed Central

The current study explored how factors of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition affect access to the lexical-semantic network during spoken word recognition. An auditory semantic priming lexical decision task was presented to subjects while in the MR scanner. Prime-target pairs consisted of prime words with the initial voiceless stop consonants /p/, /t/, and /k/ followed by word and nonword targets. To examine the neural consequences of lexical and sound structure competition, primes either had voiced minimal pair competitors or they did not, and they were either acoustically modified to be poorer exemplars of the voiceless phonetic category or not. Neural activation associated with semantic priming (Unrelated–Related conditions) revealed a bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal network. Within this network, clusters in the left insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left superior temporal gyrus (STG), and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) showed sensitivity to lexical competition. The pMTG also demonstrated sensitivity to acoustic modification, and the insula/IFG showed an interaction between lexical competition and acoustic modification. These findings suggest the posterior lexical-semantic network is modulated by both acoustic-phonetic and lexical structure, and that the resolution of these two sources of competition recruits frontal structures. PMID:23816958

Minicucci, Domenic; Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2013-01-01

38

Lexical alignment in triadic communication.  

PubMed

Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one's interlocutor's lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants' lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

2015-01-01

39

Lexical alignment in triadic communication  

PubMed Central

Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment.

Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

2015-01-01

40

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

41

Contextually-Dependent Lexical Semantics   

E-print Network

This thesis is an investigation of phenomena at the interface between syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, with the aim of arguing for a view of semantic interpretation as lexically driven yet contextually dependent. I ...

Verspoor, Cornelia M

42

ACOUSTIC CORRELATES OF LEXICAL STRESS IN NATIVE SPEAKERS OF UYGHUR AND L2 LEARNERS  

E-print Network

Some syllables are louder, longer and stronger than other syllables at the lexical level. These prominent prosodic characteristics of certain syllables are captured by suprasegmental features including fundamental frequency, ...

Yakup, Mahire

2013-05-31

43

Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

2013-01-01

44

Accessing lexical ambiguity: Effects of context and dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the effects of sentential context and frequency of meaning (dominance) on the lexical access of ambiguous words. Two experiments were carried out using Swinney's (1979) cross-modal paradigm. The sentential contexts were constructed in such a way as to make salient the most characteristic features of either the dominant (Experiment 1) or the secondary (Experiment 2) meaning of

Patrizia Tabossi; Lucia Colombo; Remo Job

1987-01-01

45

Lexical ambiguity resolution  

SciTech Connect

This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

1987-01-01

46

Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals.  

PubMed

Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production. PMID:25071614

Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

2014-01-01

47

Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals  

PubMed Central

Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production. PMID:25071614

Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

2014-01-01

48

http://pub.hal3.name#daume-lexicalized The Importance of Lexicalized Syntax Models  

E-print Network

http://pub.hal3.name#daume-lexicalized The Importance of Lexicalized Syntax Models for Natural The parsing community has long recog- nized the importance of lexicalized mod- els of syntax. By contrast in NLG, we show that a lexicalized model of syntax improves the performance of a statistical text compres

Daume III, Hal

49

Effects of Lexical Prosody and Word Familiarity on Lexical Access of Spoken Japanese Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical prosody (e.g., stress and pitch accent) has been shown to constrain lexical activation of spoken words in various languages. In the present study, whether or not the constraint of lexical prosody is affected by word familiarity in lexical access of Japanese words was examined using a cross-modal priming task. The stimuli were pairs of…

Sekiguchi, Takahiro

2006-01-01

50

Lexical Expertise and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing of Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lexical quality hypothesis assumes that skilled readers rely on high quality lexical representations that afford autonomous lexical retrieval and reduce the need to rely on top-down context. This experiment investigated this hypothesis by comparing the performance of adults classified on reading comprehension and spelling performance. "Lexical…

Andrews, Sally; Bond, Rachel

2009-01-01

51

First Language Activation during Second Language Lexical Processing: An Investigation of Lexical Form, Meaning, and Grammatical Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study places the predictions of the bilingual interactive activation model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 1998) and the revised hierarchical model (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) in the same context to investigate lexical processing in a second language (L2). The performances of two groups of native English speakers, one less proficient and the other more…

Sunderman, Gretchen; Kroll, Judith F.

2006-01-01

52

Building lexical resources: towards programmable contributive platforms  

E-print Network

. Concerning the data, a serious game has been launched in order to collect precious lexical information such resources. The third part will focus on new ways to collect lexical data via serious games. In the last part

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Whole Body Lexical Decision  

PubMed Central

When a person standing upright raises an arm on cue, muscles of the left and right sides of the body exhibit changes prior to and specific to the responding arm. We had standing participants perform a visual lexical decision task (“is this letter string a word?”), responding yes by raising one arm and no by raising the other arm. We recorded onset of the arm movement and onset of electromyographic activity in thigh, trunk, and shoulder muscles. We observed the expected responding arm specificity and found that the onset difference favoring word decisions was evident in similar magnitude at all measurement sites, with the difference at the levels of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles available 225, 189, and 120 ms, respectively, prior to its manifestation at the level of arm movement. We discuss including (a) whole body reaction time along with event-related potentials in determining the decision-response, brain-body temporal relation, and (b) response execution along with response initiation in investigating mental chronometry. PMID:21184808

Moreno, Miguel A.; Stepp, Nigel; Turvey, M. T.

2013-01-01

54

Lexical Processing in Spanish Sign Language (LSE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access is concerned with how the spoken or visual input of language is projected onto the mental representations of lexical forms. To date, most theories of lexical access have been based almost exclusively on studies of spoken languages and/or orthographic representations of spoken languages. Relatively few studies have examined how…

Carreiras, Manuel; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Baquero, Silvia; Corina, David

2008-01-01

55

Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2013-01-01

56

Acception Based Approach for Multilingual Lexical Databases  

E-print Network

multilingual lexical database management system: NADIA. With this approach, the interlingual lexicon the management of a multilingual lexical database. Moreover, it handles the management of the interlingual Databases Management System, Lexical Databases, Interlingua, Acceptions. hal-00966437,version1-26Mar2014

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Lexicalized Aspectual Usage in Oral Proficiency Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study suggests that Intermediate High and Advanced speakers produce aspectually valid constructions in Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) in large part because they are doing more than assigning aspect to lexical categories (Lexical aspect hypothesis), but because they are assigning lexicalized meaning to discrete verbs, for example "govorit"…

Robin, Richard M.

2012-01-01

58

Lexical Entrainment and Lexical Differentiation in Reference Phrase Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers reuse prior references to objects when choosing reference phrases, a phenomenon known as lexical entrainment. One explanation is that speakers want to maintain a set of previously established referential precedents. Speakers may also contrast any new referents against this previously established set, thereby avoiding applying the same…

Van Der Wege, Mija M.

2009-01-01

59

Consistent Grammar Development Using Partial-Tree Descriptions for Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAn important characteristic of an FB-LTAG isthat it is lexicalized, i.e., each lexical item is anchoredto a tree structure that encodes subcategorizationinformation. Trees with the samecanonical subcategorizations are grouped intotree families. The reuse of tree substructures,such as wh-movement, in many different treescreates redundancy, which poses a problem forgrammar development and maintenance (VijayShankerand Schabes, 1992). To consistentlyimplement a change in...

Fei Xia; Martha Palmer; K. Vijay-shanker; Joseph Rosenzweig

1998-01-01

60

Traversing the Lexical Cohesion Minefield  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain aspects…

McGee, Iain

2009-01-01

61

Developmental Trends in Lexical Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses issues in measuring lexical diversity, before outlining an approach based on mathematical modelling that produces a measure, D, designed to address these problems. The procedure for obtaining values for D directly from transcripts using software (vocd) is introduced, and then applied to thirty-two children from the Bristol…

Duran, Pilar; Malvern, David; Richards, Brian; Chipere, Ngoni

2004-01-01

62

Automatic processing of unattended lexical information in visual oddball presentation: neurophysiological evidence  

PubMed Central

Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740

Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna

2013-01-01

63

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

2014-01-01

64

Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language  

E-print Network

Appendix E Links to comic strips used as prompts for dialogical interactions ....................... 141 Appendix F Web preference survey ......................................................................................... 144 Appendix G Informed...

Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

2013-05-31

65

Lexical expertise and reading skill: bottom-up and top-down processing of lexical ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lexical quality hypothesis assumes that skilled readers rely on high quality lexical representations that afford autonomous\\u000a lexical retrieval and reduce the need to rely on top-down context. This experiment investigated this hypothesis by comparing\\u000a the performance of adults classified on reading comprehension and spelling performance. ‘Lexical experts’, defined by above\\u000a average performance on both measures, were compared with individuals

Sally Andrews; Rachel Bond

2009-01-01

66

Sharing Science: Characteristics of Effective Scientist-Teacher Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite national guidelines to reform K-12 science education, our students are not learning science any better. Conducted under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a symposium examined several programs where professional scientists interact with classroom teachers to improve science education. Symposium participants described their projects and discussed the factors that contribute or detract from each projectÂ?s success. The events of this symposium are critically analyzed. Four themes emerged as issues that affect the successful implementation and continuation of science education reform projects: scientific literacy as a primary goal, personal characteristics and commitment of project partners, curricular change built on social and developmental goals, and the incentive/reward structures in universities and school systems. This review of the emergent themes places the opinions of the symposium participants into the larger context of a growing science education research literature to inform others about synergy between professional scientists and classroom teachers. Our aim is to help others learn about the characteristics of effective partnerships to improve science education.

PhD Nancy J. Pelaez (California State University Fullerton Department of Biological Science, MH282)

2002-09-01

67

Interactional and Structural Characteristics of Communication and Social Interactions during Computer-Mediated Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS STUDY used precepts of social network theory to examine the interactional and structural characteristics of communication\\u000a in peer-mentoring conferences. Twelve discussion conferences were set up to support students during a teaching practicum experience.\\u000a The conferences were governed by students with minimal instructor involvement. It was reasoned that because the conferences\\u000a were established as a support network discussions would exhibit

William J. Gibbs; Ronas S. Bernas

2008-01-01

68

The communicative characteristics of musical interactions compared with play interactions between mothers and their one-year-old infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare the communicative characteristics of musical interactions with play interactions between mothers and their one-year-old infants. The characteristics were physical proximity and eye contact, mothers’ and infants’ emotional expressions, length of communication chains, synchronisation, and maternal mediation behaviours. A 10-minute musical interaction followed by a 10-minute play interaction was videotaped at each of

Orit Mualem; Pnina S. Klein

2012-01-01

69

Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.  

PubMed

Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate online probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621583

Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2015-04-01

70

Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science  

PubMed Central

Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. PMID:24269488

Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

2013-01-01

71

Modeling the Lexical Morphology of Western Handwritten Signatures  

PubMed Central

A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures. PMID:25860942

Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Ferrer, Miguel A.; Morales, Aythami

2015-01-01

72

Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Dysarthria in Greek with a Focus on Lexical Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of motor speech disorders in Greek is substantially underresearched. Additionally, acoustic studies on lexical stress in dysarthria are generally very rare (Kim et al. 2010). This dissertation examined the acoustic and perceptual effects of Greek dysarthria focusing on lexical stress. Additional possibly deviant speech characteristics were acoustically analyzed. Data from three dysarthric participants and matched controls was analyzed using a case study design. The analysis of lexical stress was based on data drawn from a single word repetition task that included pairs of disyllabic words differentiated by stress location. This data was acoustically analyzed in terms of the use of the acoustic cues for Greek stress. The ability of the dysarthric participants to signal stress in single words was further assessed in a stress identification task carried out by 14 naive Greek listeners. Overall, the acoustic and perceptual data indicated that, although all three dysarthric speakers presented with some difficulty in the patterning of stressed and unstressed syllables, each had different underlying problems that gave rise to quite distinct patterns of deviant speech characteristics. The atypical use of lexical stress cues in Anna's data obscured the prominence relations of stressed and unstressed syllables to the extent that the position of lexical stress was usually not perceptually transparent. Chris and Maria on the other hand, did not have marked difficulties signaling lexical stress location, although listeners were not 100% successful in the stress identification task. For the most part, Chris' atypical phonation patterns and Maria's very slow rate of speech did not interfere with lexical stress signaling. The acoustic analysis of the lexical stress cues was generally in agreement with the participants' performance in the stress identification task. Interestingly, in all three dysarthric participants, but more so in Anna, targets stressed on the 1st syllable were more impervious to error judgments of lexical stress location than targets stressed on the 2nd syllable, although the acoustic metrics did not always suggest a more appropriate use of lexical stress cues in 1st syllable position. The findings contribute to our limited knowledge of the speech characteristics of dysarthria across different languages.

Papakyritsis, Ioannis

73

Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

2014-01-01

74

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

75

Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

2012-01-01

76

A Lexical Universe for Verbal Reasoning Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of a "lexical universe" in the development of verbal reasoning tests was studied. The lexical universe, which is a comprehensive listing of words and their frequencies based on a collection of machine-readable texts exceeding 14 million words of running text, is an outcome of a 1987 College Board study of the language in materials…

Breland, Hunter M.; Jones, Robert J.

77

Individual Differences in the Joint Effects of Semantic Priming and Word Frequency Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses: The Role of Lexical Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the…

Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

2009-01-01

78

Lexical Gap-Filling Mechanisms in Foreign Language Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper intends to investigate the lexical gap-filling behaviour of primary and secondary Spanish learners of English. When there is a mismatch between the learners lexical knowledge and their communicative needs, then a lexical gap arises. Learners resort to different mechanisms to compensate for that lack of lexical knowledge.…

Llach, M[a]. Pilar Agustin

2010-01-01

79

The Algebra of Lexical Semantics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

Kornai, András

80

His Lips Are Moving: Pinocchio Effect and Other Lexical Indicators of Political Deceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the software program LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count), this study used political statements classified as truths and lies by website Politifact.com and examined lexical differences between statement type (lie or truth) and the setting (interactive or scripted) in which the statement was given. In interactive settings (where…

Braun, Michael T.; Van Swol, Lyn M.; Vang, Lisa

2015-01-01

81

Characteristics of quercetin interactions with liposomal and vacuolar membranes.  

PubMed

Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is claimed to exert many beneficial health effects. With application of (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) techniques, quercetin interaction with liposomes formed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was analyzed. Patch-clamp technique was employed to study quercetin effects at single channel level of vacuolar membranes in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Light and electron microscopy were applied to study quercetin effects on human negroid cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). Enzymatic measurements along with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) bioassay were performed to investigate the influence of quercetin on antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inclusion of quercetin to the membrane exerted pronounced ordering effect on the motional freedom of lipids in the head group region as manifested by broadening of the (1)H NMR spectral line representing the choline groups. FTIR analysis revealed quercetin incorporation into DPPC liposomes via hydrogen bonding between its own hydroxyl groups and lipid polar head groups in the C-O-P-O-C segment. Both, FTIR and NMR techniques indicated also quercetin spectral effects in the region corresponding to alkyl chains. Patch-clamp experiments showed that quercetin stabilizes tonoplast and promotes a close state of SV channels. Microscopic observations of HeLa cells revealed characteristic changes in ultrastructure and morphology of the examined cells in comparison to control cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cells with quercetin alleviated H2O2-induced cell injury by improving redox balance as indicated by the increase in glutathione content and SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels as well as by the decrease in ROS level. \\In conclusion, the incorporation, distribution and the changes of biophysical properties of the membranes are very important for the effectiveness of phenolic compounds as antioxidant and anticancer factors. PMID:24001508

Pawlikowska-Pawl?ga, Bo?ena; Dziubi?ska, Halina; Król, El?bieta; Tr?bacz, Kazimierz; Jarosz-Wilko?azka, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Gawron, Antoni; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

2014-01-01

82

Lexical knowledge without a lexicon?  

PubMed Central

Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words — with primary interest on rules — this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon. PMID:22069438

Elman, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

83

Sub- and Supralexical Information in Early Phases of Lexical Access  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated sub- and supralexical effects in morphological processing for inflected and pseudo complex words and pseudo words in lexical decision with masked and cross-modal priming. The results showed that the early stage of morphological processing is not only sensitive to whether the orthographic string can be segmented into an existing stem and affix, but also whether the full form is an existing word the meaning of which differs from the meaning of the segmented stem. It is thus likely that from early on morphological processing is probably not governed by morpho-orthographic processes alone, but is most likely sensitive to top-down information, perhaps originating from supralexical semantic connections between the words morphological family members. In addition, whereas semantic interpretability has a clear advantage later in processing, this stage seems to be sensitive to bottom-up form information as well. In a detailed theoretical discussion we show how these findings, along with earlier findings, are explained by a model that assumes that morphological information is represented at two interactive levels, corresponding to sublexical form (orthographic) and supralexical (semantic) information mediated by a lexical level. This allows supralexical (semantic) effects to feed top-down, predicting differences between regular inflected and pseudo complex words at the lexical level, affecting the early phases of processing for these words. PMID:22046167

Järvikivi, Juhani; Pyykkönen, Pirita

2011-01-01

84

Acoustic and Lexical Representations for Affect Prediction in Spontaneous Conversations.  

PubMed

In this article we investigate what representations of acoustics and word usage are most suitable for predicting dimensions of affect|AROUSAL, VALANCE, POWER and EXPECTANCY|in spontaneous interactions. Our experiments are based on the AVEC 2012 challenge dataset. For lexical representations, we compare corpus-independent features based on psychological word norms of emotional dimensions, as well as corpus-dependent representations. We find that corpus-dependent bag of words approach with mutual information between word and emotion dimensions is by far the best representation. For the analysis of acoustics, we zero in on the question of granularity. We confirm on our corpus that utterance-level features are more predictive than word-level features. Further, we study more detailed representations in which the utterance is divided into regions of interest (ROI), each with separate representation. We introduce two ROI representations, which significantly outperform less informed approaches. In addition we show that acoustic models of emotion can be improved considerably by taking into account annotator agreement and training the model on smaller but reliable dataset. Finally we discuss the potential for improving prediction by combining the lexical and acoustic modalities. Simple fusion methods do not lead to consistent improvements over lexical classifiers alone but improve over acoustic models. PMID:25382936

Cao, Houwei; Savran, Arman; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

2015-01-01

85

Emergence of Characteristic Landscape Scales Through Hillslope-Channel Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of high-resolution topography reveals that many landscapes contain characteristic spatial scales. These scales appear to have emerged from the erosion and sediment transport processes that have shaped the landscape. In fluvially dissected terrain, for example, the trend in surface slope with increasing drainage area often reaches a maximum at a characteristic drainage area that corresponds approximately to the transition

J. T. Perron; J. W. Kirchner; W. E. Dietrich

2009-01-01

86

Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing  

PubMed Central

Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

2014-01-01

87

Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing.  

PubMed

Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime-target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel ("almond") and manDAT ("mandate"; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime-target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B C; Friedrich, Claudia K

2014-09-01

88

Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments  

PubMed Central

Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

Nation, Kate

2014-01-01

89

Design of a Lexical Database for Sanskrit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the architectural design rationale of a Sanskrit computational linguistics plat- form, where the lexical database has a cen- tral role. We explain the structuring require- ments issued from the interlinking of grammat- ical tools through its hypertext rendition.

Gerard Huet

90

Presupposition in Lexical Analysis and Discourse  

E-print Network

Recent research in linguistic analysis of presuppositions has provided numerous indications of the role of presupposition in lexical analysis. Still others have argued there is no distinction between meaning and the ...

Bullwinkle, Candace L.

91

Developmental Differences in the Effects of Phonological, Lexical and Semantic Variables on Word Learning by Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of phonological (i.e. individual sounds), lexical (i.e. whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e. meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e. positional segment average, biphone average), two…

Storkel, Holly L.

2009-01-01

92

A Study of Technical Signs in Science: Implications for Lexical Database Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both classroom instruction and lexical database development stand to benefit from applied research on sign language, which takes into consideration American Sign Language rules, pedagogical issues, and teacher characteristics. In this study of technical science signs, teachers' experience with signing and, especially, knowledge of content, were…

Lang, Harry G.; Hupper, Mary LaPorta; Monte, Denise A.; Brown, Scott W.; Babb, Ivar; Scheifele, Pete M.

2007-01-01

93

Age of acquisition and lexical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a brief history of age of acquisition (AoA) research and consideration of measures of AoA, this review examines AoA effects in lexical processing tasks (such as object naming, word reading, and word recognition in the lexical decision task), and in object recognition and semantic processing tasks. It also considers AoA effects in: Memory tasks; face processing tasks; multiple-task studies;

Robert A. Johnston; Christopher Barry

2006-01-01

94

Mandarin Lexical Tone Recognition: The Gating Paradigm  

E-print Network

Mandarin Lexical Tone Recognition: The Gating Paradigm Yuwen Lai and Jie Zhang University of Kansas Abstract Research on spoken word recognition in Indo-European languages often does not incorporate prosody. In Mandarin Chinese..., however, lexical prosody is used extensively and has been shown to affect word processing in previous studies. The present study uses the gating paradigm to investigate the processing of the four Mandarin tones as well as the role of the initial segment...

Lai, Yuwen; Zhang, Jie

2008-01-01

95

Lexical learning and lexical diffusion: studies on dispersion, social factors, and cultural consumption  

E-print Network

Lexical learning and lexical diffusion: studies on dispersion, social factors, and cultural a cognitive perspective, not from a social network perspective This talk: examine social factors involved and quantitative techniques Study Word type Techniques Dispersion Borrowings Linear regression, ran- dom forest

96

Pseudohomophone Priming in Lexical Decision Is Not Fragile in a Sparse Lexical Neighborhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In lexical decision, to date few studies in English have found a reliable pseudohomophone priming advantage with orthographically similar primes (the "klip-plip effect"; Frost, Ahissar, Gotesman, & Tayeb, 2003; see Rastle & Brysbaert, 2006, for a review). On the basis of the Bayseian reader model of lexical decision (Norris, 2006, 2009), we…

Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

2012-01-01

97

The effects of lexical neighbors on stop consonant articulation.  

PubMed

Lexical neighbors (words sharing phonological structure with a target word) have been shown to influence the expression of phonetic contrasts for vowels and initial voiceless consonants. Focusing on minimal pair neighbors (e.g., bud-but), this research extends this work by examining the production of voiced as well as voiceless stops in both initial and final syllable/word position. The results show minimal pair neighbors can result both in enhancement and reduction of voicing contrasts (in initial vs final position), and differentially affect voiced vs voiceless consonants. These diverse effects of minimal pair neighbors serve to constrain interactive theories of language processing. PMID:23927221

Goldrick, Matthew; Vaughn, Charlotte; Murphy, Amanda

2013-08-01

98

Lexical and Structural Items as Predictors of Readability for High and Low Ability Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cloze technique was used to investigate differences among subjects at different levels of reading difficulty and differences between levels of readability. In addition, differences among lexical, structural, and nth deletion cloze responses were studied. It was hypothesized that an interaction exists between type of deletion and levels of…

Jefferson, George L., Jr.

99

The Selection of Dendrite Tip Characteristics by Array Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a unique solution to the well known indeterminacy for the single dendrite Ivantsov similarity solution by considering the interaction between individual members of an array of dendrites undergoing directional solidification. Slender body theory is used to obtain an integral equation for the dendrite shape which has a solvability condition that selects a unique shape and tip undercooling for

Brian Spencer; Herbert Huppert

1996-01-01

100

Parent--Child Interactions in Autism: Characteristics of Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the literature on parent-child interactions in young children with autism has examined dyadic style, synchrony, and sustained engagement, the examination of parental skill in sustaining and developing play skills themselves has not been targeted. This study examined the extent to which parents of young children with autism match and…

Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie

2013-01-01

101

Characteristics of the Partially Premixed Interacting Jet Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that the blowout velocity of interacting non- premixed jet flames could be increased up to the choking velocity by the arrangement of the nozzles and this enhancement is related to the burnt gas recirculation. In this research, experiments were extended to the partially premixed cases. The main targets of this study are to improve the stability

B.-J. Lee

102

Lexical Access in Bilingual Speakers: What's the (Hard) Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of bilingual speech production generally assume that translation equivalent lexical nodes share a common semantic representation. Though this type of architecture is highly desirable on both theoretical and empirical grounds, it could create difficulty at the point of lexical selection. If two translation equivalent lexical nodes are…

Finkbeiner, Matthew; Gollan, Tamar H.; Caramazza, Alfonso

2006-01-01

103

On the Use of Lexical Stress in Reading Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates whether or not lexical stress is used for lexical access in Spanish. A lexical decision task and a masking priming procedure were used to compare correctly-versus-incorrectly stressed words (e.g., "tecla-TECLA vs. tecla-TECLA"). SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was manipulated at 33, 66, 100, and 143 ms. The results showed…

Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Palma-Reyes, Alfonso

2008-01-01

104

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

2004-01-01

105

Effects of Lexical Tone Contour on Mandarin Sentence Intelligibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…

Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi

2014-01-01

106

The speed of lexical activation is altered in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbed comprehension of complex noncanonical sentences in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to dopamine depletion and delayed lexical retrieval. The aim of the present study was to replicate findings of delayed lexical activation in PD patients with noncanonical sentence processing difficulties, and investigate the influence of dopamine depletion on these changes to lexical access. In the first experiment, 20

Anthony J. Angwin; Helen J. Chenery; David A. Copland; Bruce E. Murdoch; Peter A. Silburn

2007-01-01

107

Effect of Surface Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials on Interaction with Osteoblast Cells , English, L1  

E-print Network

Effect of Surface Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials on Interaction with Osteoblast Cells of osteoblast cells. A more comprehensive understanding of such relationships can lead to better biomaterial Waals Lewis acid-base interaction model.1 Results: Surface free energies of biomaterials ranged from 35

Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

108

The Interaction Between Learner Characteristics and Two Methods of College Instruction: Conventional and Mastery Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether conventional instruction and mastery-based auto-tutorial instruction interacted with learning characteristics that were found to be instruction-interactive in previous research. Conventional instruction consisted of lecture with discussion and laboratory periods. The mastery-based auto-tutorial…

Root, Jon R.; Gall, Meredith D.

109

WordNet An Electronic Lexical Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

WordNet, an electronic lexical database, is considered to be the most\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009important resource available to researchers in computational linguistics,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009text analysis, and many related areas. Its design is inspired by\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009current psycholinguistic and computational theories of human lexical\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are organized\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009into synonym sets, each representing one underlying lexicalized concept.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Different relations link the

Christiane Fellbaum

1998-01-01

110

Characterization of intermolecular interaction between two substances when one substance does not possess any characteristic peak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether it is possible to use 2D correlation spectrum to characterize intermolecular interactions between two solutes dissolved in the same solution when one substance does not possesses any characteristic peak. We demonstrate that the interaction can be manifested by characteristic cross peaks in 2D asynchronous correlated spectrum. The above cross peaks reflect the subtle spectral variations on the characteristic peak of another solute under intermolecular interaction. On the other hand, 2D synchronous spectrum is not suitable to characterize intermolecular interaction since the cross peaks contain irremovable interfering parts. The terbium-chloride/benzamide/methanol system is used to demonstrate that this approach is applicable in the real chemical system.

Li, Xiaopei; Fan, Xiaokun; Huang, Kun; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Ying; Wei, Yongju; Liu, Cuige; Xu, Yizhuang; Noda, Isao; Wu, Jinguang

2014-07-01

111

Parent-child interactions in autism: characteristics of play.  

PubMed

Although the literature on parent-child interactions in young children with autism has examined dyadic style, synchrony, and sustained engagement, the examination of parental skill in sustaining and developing play skills themselves has not been targeted. This study examined the extent to which parents of young children with autism match and scaffold their child's play. Sixteen dyads of parents and their children with autism participated in this study along with 16 matched dyads of typically developing children. Both groups were administered a structured play assessment and were observed during a 10-min free play situation. Strategies of play were examined and results revealed that parents of children with autism initiated more play schemes and suggested and commanded play acts more than parents of typical children. They also responded to their child's play acts more often with a higher level play act, while parents of typical children matched/expanded their responses to their child. Parent imitation was also related to longer sequences of play. The findings can guide further research and play intervention for parents. PMID:23382513

Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie

2013-03-01

112

Spectro-temporal correlates of lexical access during auditory lexical decision.  

PubMed

Lexical access during speech comprehension comprises numerous computations, including activation, competition, and selection. The spatio-temporal profile of these processes involves neural activity in peri-auditory cortices at least as early as 200 ms after stimulation. Their oscillatory dynamics are less well understood, although reports link alpha band de-synchronization with lexical processing. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether these alpha-related oscillations reflect the speed of lexical access, as would be predicted if they index lexical activation. In an auditory semantic priming protocol, monosyllabic nouns were presented while participants performed a lexical decision task. Spatially-localizing beamforming was used to examine spectro-temporal effects in left and right auditory cortex time-locked to target word onset. Alpha and beta de-synchronization (10-20 Hz ERD) was attenuated for words following a related prime compared to an unrelated prime beginning about 270 ms after stimulus onset. This timing is consistent with how information about word identity unfolds incrementally in speech, quantified in information-theoretic terms. These findings suggest that alpha de-synchronization during auditory word processing is associated with early stages of lexical access. PMID:24769280

Brennan, Jonathan; Lignos, Constantine; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P L

2014-06-01

113

Stress priming in reading and the selective modulation of lexical and sub-lexical pathways.  

PubMed

Four experiments employed a priming methodology to investigate different mechanisms of stress assignment and how they are modulated by lexical and sub-lexical mechanisms in reading aloud in Italian. Lexical stress is unpredictable in Italian, and requires lexical look-up. The most frequent stress pattern (Dominant) is on the penultimate syllable [laVOro (work)], while stress on the antepenultimate syllable [MAcchina (car)] is relatively less frequent (non-Dominant). Word and pseudoword naming responses primed by words with non-dominant stress--which require whole-word knowledge to be read correctly--were compared to those primed by nonwords. Percentage of errors to words and percentage of dominant stress responses to nonwords were measured. In Experiments 1 and 2 stress errors increased for non-dominant stress words primed by nonwords, as compared to when they were primed by words. The results could be attributed to greater activation of sub-lexical codes, and an associated tendency to assign the dominant stress pattern by default in the nonword prime condition. Alternatively, they may have been the consequence of prosodic priming, inducing more errors on trials in which the stress pattern of primes and targets was not congruent. The two interpretations were investigated in Experiments 3 and 4. The results overall suggested a limited role of the default metrical pattern in word pronunciation, and showed clear effect of prosodic priming, but only when the sub-lexical mechanism prevailed. PMID:19787062

Colombo, Lucia; Zevin, Jason

2009-01-01

114

Lexical Semantics and Its Philosophical Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical semantics is the field of cognitive science which attempts to explain how speakers learn to use and accept sentences like "She filled the glass with water" but avoid and reject sentences like "She poured the glass with water," often with poor or impoverished evidence. In order to explain why some verbs alternate in…

Leben, Derek

2012-01-01

115

Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

Jarvis, Scott

2013-01-01

116

The Dynamics of Bilingual Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we discuss different views about how information flows through the lexical system in bilingual speech production. In the first part, we focus on some of the experimental evidence often quoted in favor of the parallel activation of the bilinguals' two languages from the semantic system in the course of language production. We argue…

Costa, Albert; Heij, Wido La; Navarrete, Eduardo

2006-01-01

117

Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

Ogasawara, Naomi

2013-01-01

118

Speech Errors (Review) Issues in Lexicalization  

E-print Network

AND phonologically · Word selection must happen after the grammatical class of the target has been determined ­ Nouns & Affix Morphemes · A New Yorker A New Yorkan (American) · Seem to occur prior to lexical insertion · Morphological rules of word formation engaged during speech production #12;Stranding Errors · Nouns & Verbs

Coulson, Seana

119

Textual Constraints in L2 Lexical Disambiguation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the role of textual constraints, rather than previous knowledge, in resolving lexical ambiguities in second-language learning. Twenty ambiguous words with differing Portuguese translations were selected, disambiguated based on collocation, and tested with a concordancer, using a 20,000,000-word English language corpus of expository text.…

Leffa, Vilson J.

1998-01-01

120

Bilingual Lexical Activation in Sentence Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the cognitive nature of second language (L2) lexical processing in sentence context. We examined bilinguals' L2 word recognition performance for language-ambiguous words [cognates (e.g., "piano") and homographs (e.g., "pan")] in two sentence context experiments with highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals living…

Schwartz, Ana I.; Kroll, Judith F.

2006-01-01

121

Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

122

Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

Comer, William J.

2012-01-01

123

Literature-Based Discovery by Lexical Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of experiments with MEDLINE that used lexical statistics such as word-frequency counts to discover hidden connections in medical literature. Discusses problems with relying on bibliographic citations or standard indexing methods to establish a relationship between topics that might profitably be explored by scientific research.…

Lindsay, Robert K.; Gordon, Michael D.

1999-01-01

124

Lexical Frequency Profiles and Zipf's Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laufer and Nation (1995) proposed that the Lexical Frequency Profile (LFP) can estimate the size of a second-language writer's productive vocabulary. Meara (2005) questioned the sensitivity and the reliability of LFPs for estimating vocabulary sizes, based on the results obtained from probabilistic simulations of LFPs. However, the underlying…

Edwards, Roderick; Collins, Laura

2011-01-01

125

Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

2004-01-01

126

Effect of initial consonant intensity on the speed of lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the effect of the initial consonant intensity on lexical decisions. Amplification was selectively applied to the initial consonant of monosyllabic words. In Experiment 1, young adults with normal hearing completed an auditory lexical decision task with words that either had the natural or amplified initial consonant. Results demonstrated faster reaction times for amplified words when listeners randomly heard words spoken by two unfamiliar talkers. The same pattern of results was found when comparing words in which the initial consonant was naturally higher in intensity compared to low intensity consonants, across all amplification conditions. In Experiment 2, listeners were familiarized with the talkers and tested on each talker in separate blocks to minimize talker uncertainty. The effect of initial consonant intensity was reversed, with faster reaction times obtained for natural consonants compared to amplified consonants. In Experiment 3, non-linguistic processing of the amplitude envelope was assessed using noise modulated by the word envelope. Results again demonstrated faster reaction times for natural versus amplified words. Across all experiments, results suggest that the acoustic-phonetic structure of the word influences the speed of lexical decisions and interacts with the familiarity and predictability of the talker. In unfamiliar and less predictable listening contexts, initial consonant amplification increases lexical decision speed, even if sufficient audibility is available without amplification. In familiar contexts with adequate audibility, an acoustic match of the stimulus with the stored mental representation of the word is more important, possibly along with general auditory properties related to loudness perception. PMID:24435901

Fogerty, Daniel; Montgomery, Allen A.; Crass, Kimberlee A.

2014-01-01

127

Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody, but atypical lexical prosody production. Method 16 children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers participated in three experiments: 1. Perception of affective prosody, 2. Lexical stress perception, 3. Lexical stress production. In Experiment 1, participants labeled sad, happy, and neutral spoken sentences that were low-pass filtered, to eliminate verbal content. In Experiment 2 participants disambiguated word meanings based on lexical stress (HOTdog, vs. hotDOG). In Experiment 3 participants produced these words in a sentence completion task. Productions were analyzed using acoustic measures. Results Accuracy levels showed no group differences. Participants with HFA could determine affect from filtered sentences and disambiguate words based on lexical stress. They produced appropriately differentiated lexical stress patterns but demonstrated atypically long productions indicating reduced ability in natural prosody production. Conclusions Children with HFA were as capable as their TD peers in receptive tasks of lexical stress and affective prosody. Prosody productions were atypically long, despite accurate differentiation of lexical stress patterns. Future research should use larger samples and spontaneous vs. elicited productions. PMID:20530388

Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

2012-01-01

128

The Influence of Learner Characteristics on Satisfaction with Interactive Televised Courses in Florida Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a pilot project designed to explore the influence of particular personality and demographic characteristics on community college student satisfaction with distance learning, specifically interactive telecommunications (ITV) courses. The study used the Telecourse Evaluation Questionnaire (TEQ) and the Sixteen Personality…

Bower, Beverly L.; Kamata, Akihito; Smith, Kathleen Shea

129

Social Interaction and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A Case Study in Authentic Enterprise Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper is an empirical study which aims to investigate the development of social interaction and their impacts on developing learners' entrepreneurial characteristics throughout their participation in an authentic enterprise activity. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of this study was drawn from the participants of an…

Yu, Christina W. M.; Man, Thomas W. Y.

2009-01-01

130

Child Characteristics, Home Social-Contextual Factors, and Children's Academic Peer Interaction Behaviors in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addressed questions about the relations between personal characteristics and aspects of home environments and young children's subsequent academically relevant peer interaction behaviors in kindergarten in a sample of 108 preschool-age children (57 males, 51 females) from 2 Midwest cities and neighboring communities. A year prior to the…

Neitzel, Carin

2009-01-01

131

Task-Dependent Viscoelasticity of Human Multijoint Arm and Its Spatial Characteristics for Interaction with Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human arm viscoelasticity is important in stabilizing posture, movement, and in interacting with objects. Viscoelastic spatial characteristics are usually indexed by the size, shape, and orientation of a hand stiffness ellipse. It is well known that arm posture is a dominant factor in determining the properties of the stiffness ellipse. However, it is still unclear how much joint stiffness can

Hiroaki Gomi; Rieko Osu

132

Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

2005-01-01

133

Nonresonant perturbation measurements on dispersion and interaction impedance characteristics of helical slow-wave structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonresonant perturbation (NRP) theory is developed from first principles for the measurement of dispersion and interaction impedance characteristics of a helical slow-wave structure (SWS). The phase of the reflected signal from a test helical structure varies when a perturber, also in the form of a helix, is moved along the axis of the test structure. The variation of phase

S. J. Rao; S. Ghosh; P. K. Jain; B. N. Basu

1997-01-01

134

HumanWildlife Interactions 4(2):213231, Fall 2010 Survival and harvest characteristics of  

E-print Network

Human­Wildlife Interactions 4(2):213­231, Fall 2010 Survival and harvest characteristics of giant and Parks, 5850 E. Hwy 12, Aberdeen, SD 57401, USA Abstract: The population of giant Canada geese (Branta survival, harvest, and recovery rates of giant Canada geese. We captured and leg-banded Canada geese in 7

135

Lexical and grammatical development in a child with cochlear implant and attention deficit: A case study.  

PubMed

This is the first study to explore lexical and grammatical development in a deaf child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive sub-type (ADHD/I). The child, whose family language was Spanish, was fitted with a cochlear implant (CI) when she was 18 months old. ADHD/I, for which she was prescribed medication, was diagnosed 3;6 years later. Speech samples were videotaped over the first 4 years of CI use and during a follow-up session 1 year later. Samples were transcribed according to CHAT conventions and several measures of expressive language were obtained. Receptive language was evaluated with standardized tests. Results show that while some aspects of her development seemed relatively positive (e.g., acquisition of verbal morphemes at the same auditory age as typical children), other characteristics were atypical for a CI user: (1) preference for paralexical expressions in early lexicon; (2) lexical errors in colours and other abstract words; and (3) low MLU and varied grammatical errors including disorganized discourse. Medication had a positive effect on all these characteristics, providing evidence of a link with ADHD/I. This study concludes that ADHD/I had a direct impact on the lexical and grammatical development in this child, as well as an indirect influence over her communicative style. More studies are needed to explore language characteristics of children with CI and ADHD. PMID:20645855

Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Torres, Santiago; Santana, Rafael

2010-09-01

136

Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:25786956

Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

2015-03-01

137

Lexical competition in young children’s word learning  

PubMed Central

In two experiments, 1.5 year olds were taught novel words whose sound patterns were phonologically similar to familiar words (novel neighbors) or were not (novel nonneighbors). Learning was tested using a picture fixation task. In both experiments, children learned the novel nonneighbors but not the novel neighbors. In addition, exposure to the novel neighbors impaired recognition performance on familiar neighbors. Finally, children did not spontaneously use phonological differences to infer that a novel word referred to a novel object. Thus, lexical competition—inhibitory interaction among words in speech comprehension—can prevent children from using their full phonological sensitivity in judging words as novel. These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word. PMID:17054932

Swingley, Daniel; Aslin, Richard N.

2008-01-01

138

Lexical Training through Modeling and Elicitation Procedures with Late Talkers Who Have Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and…

Kouri, Theresa A.

2005-01-01

139

Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words  

PubMed Central

Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented. PMID:22518273

Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

2011-01-01

140

Refining Ensembles of Predicted Gene Regulatory Networks Based on Characteristic Interaction Sets  

PubMed Central

Different ensemble voting approaches have been successfully applied for reverse-engineering of gene regulatory networks. They are based on the assumption that a good approximation of true network structure can be derived by considering the frequencies of individual interactions in a large number of predicted networks. Such approximations are typically superior in terms of prediction quality and robustness as compared to considering a single best scoring network only. Nevertheless, ensemble approaches only work well if the predicted gene regulatory networks are sufficiently similar to each other. If the topologies of predicted networks are considerably different, an ensemble of all networks obscures interesting individual characteristics. Instead, networks should be grouped according to local topological similarities and ensemble voting performed for each group separately. We argue that the presence of sets of co-occurring interactions is a suitable indicator for grouping predicted networks. A stepwise bottom-up procedure is proposed, where first mutual dependencies between pairs of interactions are derived from predicted networks. Pairs of co-occurring interactions are subsequently extended to derive characteristic interaction sets that distinguish groups of networks. Finally, ensemble voting is applied separately to the resulting topologically similar groups of networks to create distinct group-ensembles. Ensembles of topologically similar networks constitute distinct hypotheses about the reference network structure. Such group-ensembles are easier to interpret as their characteristic topology becomes clear and dependencies between interactions are known. The availability of distinct hypotheses facilitates the design of further experiments to distinguish between plausible network structures. The proposed procedure is a reasonable refinement step for non-deterministic reverse-engineering applications that produce a large number of candidate predictions for a gene regulatory network, e.g. due to probabilistic optimization or a cross-validation procedure. PMID:24498260

Windhager, Lukas; Zierer, Jonas; Küffner, Robert

2014-01-01

141

Lexical Access During Sentence Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research characterizes how the mental lexicon functions during sentence processing. In sentence processing, access of meaning is seen to be dependent on interaction between syntactic and semantic information within the sentence. It had been previously thought that meaning had been located in an independent mental lexicon. Three experiments…

Coker, Pamela L.; Crain, Stephen

142

Intercrystalline magnetic interaction and hysteresis characteristics of high-coercivity cobalt-based alloy coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

?M(H) curves and the time dependences of the magnetization and the rotational hysteresis losses are used to analyze the effect\\u000a of intercrystalline magnetic interaction on the magnetization reversal and the hysteresis characteristics of nanostructured\\u000a cobalt-based alloy coatings, which manifest themselves in a change in the relations between the rotation and displacement\\u000a of reversible and irreversible processes and between thermally activated

V. G. Shadrov; A. E. Dmitrieva; L. V. Nemtsevich

2011-01-01

143

Lexical Bundles in University Spoken and Written Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical bundles--recurrent sequences of words--are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. Previous research has shown that lexical bundles are especially prevalent in university classroom teaching, where they serve three major discourse functions: stance expressions, discourse organizers, and referential…

Biber, Douglas; Barbieri, Federica

2007-01-01

144

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

2010-01-01

145

The Passive as a Lexical Rule Stefan Mller  

E-print Network

The Passive as a Lexical Rule Stefan Müller Language Technology Lab DFKI GmbH Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 and Sag, 1987, p. 214­218) and in LFG (Bres- nan, 1982), the passive is analyzed as a lexical rule. For German many authors fol- lowed Haider (1986a) and analyzed the passive as object

Kuhn, Jonas

146

Lexical Diversity in Writing and Speaking Task Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between lexical diversity and overall quality of test takers' task performances is claimed, explicitly or implicitly, in rating scales of many large-scale language tests including MELAB (Michigan English Language Assessment Battery), as well as in automated evaluation systems. This paper reports an empirical study that aimed to understand the lexical diversity of MELAB test takers' writing and speaking

Guoxing Yu

2010-01-01

147

Project 1: Lexical Analysis CSC 4351, Spring 2014  

E-print Network

a lexical analyzer for the Tiger language. You can find the description for this project on pages 34 and 35 of the first edition of the textbook. The specification of the lexical tokens is in the Tiger Language export TIGER=${CS4351}/tiger export CLASSPATH=.:..:${CS4351}/classes/${PROG}:${CS4351}/classes

Baumgartner, Gerald

148

Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

Acharya, Jayaraj

1990-01-01

149

Effects of prior context upon lexical access during sentence comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of disambiguating prior contexts upon the processing of lexical ambiguities in sentences were investigated. Subjects listened to lexically ambiguous (or unambiguous control) sentences under one of three conditions: a neutral prior context, a disambiguating context occurring immediately prior to the ambiguity, or a disambiguating context occurring in a prior sentence. Subjects monitored for phonemes which occurred immediately after

DAVID A. SWINNEY; DAVID T. HAKES

1976-01-01

150

What Lexical Decision and Naming Tell Us about Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) tasks are ubiquitous paradigms that employ printed word identification. They are major tools for investigating how factors like morphology, semantic information, lexical neighborhood and others affect identification. Although use of the tasks is widespread, there has been little research into how…

Katz, Leonard; Brancazio, Larry; Irwin, Julia; Katz, Stephen; Magnuson, James; Whalen, D. H.

2012-01-01

151

Zebedee: a lexical description model for Sign Language Michael Filhol  

E-print Network

Zebedee: a lexical description model for Sign Language synthesis Michael Filhol Email michael, the lexical units of sign languages, in view of Sign Language (SL) processing applications, in particular SL work is Sign Language modelling, specically in this paper Sign Language gener- ation. We address

Filhol, Michael

152

Long Tail in Weighted Lexical Networks Mathieu Lafourcade Alain Joubert  

E-print Network

such relations by means of online serious games as other classical approaches seems impractical. Indeed for instance serious games. What is a long tail in a lexical network? A lexical/semantic network (thereafter TAIL, GAME WITH A PURPOSE, TIP OF THE TONGUE SOFTWARE, TYPED RELATIONS, WEIGHTED RELATIONS, WSD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

The Role of Embodied Intention in Early Lexical Acquisition  

E-print Network

cognitive skills in lexical acquisition. Keywords: Language acquisition; Computational model; Machine problems that children need to solve as they acquire their native language: (a) segmenting the speechThe Role of Embodied Intention in Early Lexical Acquisition Chen Yua , Dana H. Ballardb , Richard N

Mooney, Raymond J.

154

The Effect of Lexical Tones on Voice Onset Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to examine the influence of lexical tone upon voice onset time (VOT) in Mandarin and Hakka. Examination of VOT values for Mandarin and Hakka word-initial stops in different lexical tones revealed a significant influence. In Mandarin, stops' VOTs, ordering from the longest to the shortest, are in Tone 2, 3, 1, and 4, which conforms to Liu

Li-mei Chen; Jui-Feng Peng; Kuan-Yi Chao

2009-01-01

155

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

156

Effects of Prior Context upon Lexical Access during Sentence Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of disambiguating prior contexts upon processing of lexical ambiguities in sentences were investigated. Subjects listened to lexically ambiguous sentences after a neutral or a disambiguating prior contest, and monitored for phonemes occurring immediately after each ambiguous word. Reaction times were significnatly longer following…

Swinney, David A.; Hakes, David T.

1976-01-01

157

Neural Correlates of Lexical and Sublexical Processes in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to compare the brain regions and systems that subserve lexical and sublexical processes in reading. In order to do so, three types of tasks were used: (i) silent reading of very high frequency regular words (lexical task); (ii) silent reading of nonwords (sublexical task); and, (iii) silent reading of very low…

Joubert, Sven; Beauregard, Mario; Walter, Nathalie; Bourgouin, Pierre; Beaudoin, Gilles; Leroux, Jean-Maxime; Karama, Sherif; Lecours, Andre Roch

2004-01-01

158

What Is Said As Lexical Meaning Isidora Stojanovic  

E-print Network

. While the dominant view identifies the notion of semantic content with the notion of what is said graduated in math. Mere lexical knowledge of what the words uttered mean does not enable you to figure outWhat Is Said As Lexical Meaning Isidora Stojanovic CNRS/Institut Jean-Nicod, 1bis avenue Lowendal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Deriving Verbal and Compositional Lexical Aspect for NLP Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal and compositional lexical aspect provide the underlying temporal structure of events. Knowledge of lexical aspect, e.g., (a)telicity, is therefore required for interpreting event sequences in discourse (Dowty, 1986; Moens and Steedman, 1988; Passoneau, 1988), interfacing to temporal databases (Androutsopoulos, 1996), processing temporal modifiers (Antonisse, 1994), describing allowable alternations and their semantic effects (Resnik, 1996; Tenny, 1994), and selecting tense

Bonnie J. Dorr; Mari Broman Olsen

1997-01-01

160

On the Nature of Semantic Constraints on Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…

Weber, Andrea; Crocker, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

161

Lexical Access Without Attention? Explorations Using Dichotic Priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used lexical decision in a dichotic listening situation and measured identity priming across channels to explore whether unattended stimuli can be processed lexically. In 6 experiments, temporal synchronization of prime and target words was manipulated, and acoustic saliency of the unattended prime was varied by embedding it in a carrier sentence or in babble speech. When the prime

Emmanuel Dupoux; Sid Kouider; Jacques Mehler

2003-01-01

162

Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

2012-01-01

163

RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mah?bh?rata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mah?bh?rata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devan?gar? Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

Mani, Diwakar

164

Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

2013-01-01

165

Hemispheric Sensitivities to Lexical and Contextual Information: Evidence from Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the manner in which both hemispheres utilize prior semantic context and relative meaning frequency during the processing of homographs. Participants read sentences biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meaning of their final homograph, or unbiased neutral sentences, and performed a lexical decision task on…

Peleg, Orna; Eviatar, Zohar

2008-01-01

166

Segregation of lexical and sub-lexical reading processes in the left perisylvian cortex.  

PubMed

A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is the existence of two major, sub-lexical and lexical, reading processes and their possible segregation in the left posterior perisylvian cortex. Using cortical electrostimulation mapping, we identified the cortical areas involved on reading either orthographically irregular words (lexical, "direct" process) or pronounceable pseudowords (sublexical, "indirect" process) in 14 right-handed neurosurgical patients while video-recording behavioral effects. Intraoperative neuronavigation system and Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates were used to identify the localization of stimulation sites. Fifty-one reading interference areas were found that affected either words (14 areas), or pseudo-words (11 areas), or both (26 areas). Forty-one (80%) corresponded to the impairment of the phonological level of reading processes. Reading processes involved discrete, highly localized perisylvian cortical areas with individual variability. MNI coordinates throughout the group exhibited a clear segregation according to the tested reading route; specific pseudo-word reading interferences were concentrated in a restricted inferior and anterior subpart of the left supramarginal gyrus (barycentre x?=?-68.1; y?=?-25.9; z?=?30.2; Brodmann's area 40) while specific word reading areas were located almost exclusively alongside the left superior temporal gyrus. Although half of the reading interferences found were nonspecific, the finding of specific lexical or sublexical interferences is new evidence that lexical and sublexical processes of reading could be partially supported by distinct cortical sub-regions despite their anatomical proximity. These data are in line with many brain activation studies that showed that left superior temporal and inferior parietal regions had a crucial role respectively in word and pseudoword reading and were core regions for dyslexia. PMID:23226349

Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Jucla, Mélanie; Réhault, Emilie; Reddy, Marion; Démonet, Jean-François

2012-01-01

167

Lexical Selection and Verbal Self-Monitoring: Effects of Lexicality, Context, and Time Pressure in Picture-Word Interference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current views of lexical selection in language production differ in whether they assume lexical selection by competition or not. To account for recent data with the picture-word interference (PWI) task, both views need to be supplemented with assumptions about the control processes that block distractor naming. In this paper, we propose that such…

Dhooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2012-01-01

168

Structure and Function in the Lexical System: Insights from Distributed Models of Word Reading and Lexical Decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view of the lexical system stipulates word-speciéc representations and separate pathways for regular and exception words. An alternative approach views lexical knowledge as developing from general learning principles applied to mappings among distributed representations of written and spoken words and their meanings. On this distributed account, distinctions among words, and between words and nonwords, are not reié ed

David C. Plaut

1997-01-01

169

Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

2010-01-01

170

Code-Switching as Indexical of Native Language Lexical Deficiency in Mauritania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between French instruction and the phenomena of discontinued lexical development, lexical attrition, and lexical deficiency in the speech of Mauritanians. Findings indicate native-language lexical deficiency was reflected in code switching, and subjects (Ss) with low native-language fluency code switched more than Ss…

Sounkalo, Jiddou

1995-01-01

171

Impact of Visual, Vocal, and Lexical Cues on Judgments of Counselor Qualities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate students (N=130) rated Carl Rogers via visual, lexical, vocal, or vocal-lexical communication channels. Lexical cues were more important in creating favorable impressions among females. Subsequent exposure to combined visual-vocal-lexical cues resulted in warmer and less distant ratings, but not on a consistent basis. (Author)

Strahan, Carole; Zytowski, Donald G.

1976-01-01

172

Argument structure frames: a lexical complexity metric?  

PubMed

The number of semantic argument structure frames associated with a verb has been reported to influence ease of processing during language comprehension. The present experiments tested the generality of the argument structure complexity effect with three dependent measures: eye-fixation times, naming latencies, and lexical decision latencies. Two eye-movement experiments and two experiments using cross-modal tasks failed to provide evidence supporting the argument structure complexity effect. The present experiments indicated that results reflecting verbs' argument structure complexity are not generalizable. PMID:1826732

Schmauder, A R

1991-01-01

173

Interaction and Representational Integration: Evidence from Speech Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated…

Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa

2011-01-01

174

Energy characteristics of beam-plasma interaction in a closed volume  

SciTech Connect

Energy exchange between an electron beam and plasma during a beam-plasma discharge in a closed cavity excited by the electron beam is analyzed using computer simulations by the KARAT code. A method allowing one to analyze the beam-plasma interaction in the quasi-steady stage of the discharge is proposed. Qualitative characteristics of energy exchange (such as beam energy losses and the energy distributions of beam electrons and plasma particles leaving the discharge) both during spontaneous discharge excitation and in the presence of initial beam modulation by regular or noiselike signals are determined. The results obtained enable one to estimate the energy characteristics of a plasma processing reactor based on a beam-plasma discharge.

Klykov, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation); Tarakanov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for High Energy Densities, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Shustin, E. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

175

Lexical-perceptual integration influences sensorimotor adaptation in speech.  

PubMed

A combination of lexical bias and altered auditory feedback was used to investigate the influence of higher-order linguistic knowledge on the perceptual aspects of speech motor control. Subjects produced monosyllabic real words or pseudo-words containing the vowel [?] (as in "head") under conditions of altered auditory feedback involving a decrease in vowel first formant (F1) frequency. This manipulation had the effect of making the vowel sound more similar to [I] (as in "hid"), affecting the lexical status of produced words in two Lexical-Change (LC) groups (either changing them from real words to pseudo-words: e.g., less-liss, or pseudo-words to real words: e.g., kess-kiss). Two Non-Lexical-Change (NLC) control groups underwent the same auditory feedback manipulation during the production of [?] real- or pseudo-words, only without any resulting change in lexical status (real words to real words: e.g., mess-miss, or pseudo-words to pseudo-words: e.g., ness-niss). The results from the LC groups indicate that auditory-feedback-based speech motor learning is sensitive to the lexical status of the stimuli being produced, in that speakers tend to keep their acoustic speech outcomes within the auditory-perceptual space corresponding to the task-related side of the word/non-word boundary (real words or pseudo-words). For the NLC groups, however, no such effect of lexical status is observed. PMID:24860460

Bourguignon, Nicolas J; Baum, Shari R; Shiller, Douglas M

2014-01-01

176

Lexical-perceptual integration influences sensorimotor adaptation in speech  

PubMed Central

A combination of lexical bias and altered auditory feedback was used to investigate the influence of higher-order linguistic knowledge on the perceptual aspects of speech motor control. Subjects produced monosyllabic real words or pseudo-words containing the vowel [?] (as in “head”) under conditions of altered auditory feedback involving a decrease in vowel first formant (F1) frequency. This manipulation had the effect of making the vowel sound more similar to [I] (as in “hid”), affecting the lexical status of produced words in two Lexical-Change (LC) groups (either changing them from real words to pseudo-words: e.g., less—liss, or pseudo-words to real words: e.g., kess—kiss). Two Non-Lexical-Change (NLC) control groups underwent the same auditory feedback manipulation during the production of [?] real- or pseudo-words, only without any resulting change in lexical status (real words to real words: e.g., mess—miss, or pseudo-words to pseudo-words: e.g., ness—niss). The results from the LC groups indicate that auditory-feedback-based speech motor learning is sensitive to the lexical status of the stimuli being produced, in that speakers tend to keep their acoustic speech outcomes within the auditory-perceptual space corresponding to the task-related side of the word/non-word boundary (real words or pseudo-words). For the NLC groups, however, no such effect of lexical status is observed. PMID:24860460

Bourguignon, Nicolas J.; Baum, Shari R.; Shiller, Douglas M.

2014-01-01

177

Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

1984-01-01

178

When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context  

PubMed Central

We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation?+?Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing. PMID:23750141

Gullifer, Jason W.; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.

2013-01-01

179

Non-local sub-characteristic zones of influence in unsteady interactive boundary-layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of incompressible, unsteady, interactive, boundary layers are examined for a model hypersonic boundary layer and internal flow past humps or, equivalently, external flow past short-scaled humps. Using a linear high frequency analysis, it is shown that the domains of dependence within the viscous sublayer may be a strong function of position within the sublayer and may be strongly influenced by the pressure displacement interaction, or the prescribed displacement condition. Detailed calculations are presented for the hypersonic boundary layer. This effect is found to carry over directly to the fully viscous problem as well as the nonlinear problem. In the fully viscous problem, the non-local character of the domains of dependence manifests itself in the sub-characteristics. Potential implications of the domain of dependence structure on finite difference computations of unsteady boundary layers are briefly discussed.

Rothmayer, A. P.

1992-01-01

180

Interaction of characteristic structural elements of persimmon tannin with Chinese cobra PLA2.  

PubMed

To more fully understand the mechanism by which persimmon tannin (PT) inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the structural requirements of PT for the inhibition, the interactions between PLA2 and seven characteristic structural elements of PT including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), myricetin, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epicatechin-3-gallate-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epicatechin-3-gallate (A-type ECG dimer), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer), epicatechin-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epicatechin (A-type EC dimer) and epicatechin-(4? ? 8)-epicatechin (B-type EC dimer) were studied by enzymatic and spectroscopic methods. Molecular docking was also used to explore the possible residues involved in the interactions. The results revealed that A-type EGCG dimer and A-type ECG dimer showed higher inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PLA2 than monomers and B-type dimer. They induced greater conformational changes in PLA2 than other structural elements. In addition, molecular docking studies revealed that expect for lysine residues, other residues such as Trp18, Try27, Gly29, His47 and Tyr63 were involved in the interactions. We propose that A-type EGCG and ECG dimer units may be structural requirements for the interaction between PT and PLA2. Our data provide an additional structural basis for anti-PLA2 activity of persimmon tannin. PMID:23916601

Zhang, Ying; Zhong, Li; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Jin-yu; Li, Chun-mei

2013-11-01

181

WordNet: A Lexical Database for English  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WordNet is a powerful lexical reference system that combines aspects of dictionaries and thesauri with current psycholinguistic theories of human lexical memory. It is produced by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University, under the direction of Professor George Miller. In WordNet, words are defined and grouped into various related sets of synonyms. Not only is the system valuable to the casual user as a powerful thesaurus and dictionary, but also to the researcher as one of the few freely available, lexical databases. WordNet is available via an on-line interface and also as easy-to-compile C source code for Unix.

182

Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection  

PubMed Central

Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

2011-01-01

183

Academic Self-Efficacy, Faculty-Student Interactions, and Student Characteristics as Predictors of Grade Point Average  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to explore student characteristics, academic self-efficacy, and faculty-student interactions as predictors of grade point average for upper-division (college level third and fourth year) education students at a public 4-year degree-granting community college. The study examined the effects of student characteristics…

Gosnell, Joan C.

2012-01-01

184

A model of grounded language acquisition: Sensorimotor features improve lexical  

E-print Network

A model of grounded language acquisition: Sensorimotor features improve lexical and grammatical Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Language acquisition; Features; Semantics; SRN; Neural network a considerable effect on the processes of language acquisition (Lakoff, 1987; Mandler, 1992; Smith & Jones, 1993

Haykin, Simon

185

Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context  

PubMed Central

Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

Biggio, Gianluca

2013-01-01

186

Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context.  

PubMed

Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

Biggio, Gianluca; Cortese, Claudio G

2013-01-01

187

Micromotors with step-motor characteristics by controlled magnetic interactions among assembled components.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the control of the rotation dynamics of an innovative type of rotary micromotors with desired performances by tuning the magnetic interactions among the assembled micro/nanoscale components. The micromotors are made of metallic nanowires as rotors, patterned magnetic nanodisks as bearings and actuated by external electric fields. The magnetic forces for anchoring the rotors on the bearings play an essential role in the rotation dynamics of the micromotors. By varying the moment, orientation, and dimension of the magnetic components, distinct rotation behaviors can be observed, including repeatable wobbling and rolling in addition to rotation. We understood the rotation behaviors by analytical modeling, designed and realized micromotors with step-motor characteristics. The outcome of this research could inspire the development of high-performance nanomachines assembled from synthetic nanoentities, relevant to nanorobotics, microfluidics, and biomedical research. PMID:25536023

Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Xu, Xiaobin; Fan, Donglei Emma

2015-01-27

188

Determination of major phlorotannins in Eisenia bicyclis using hydrophilic interaction chromatography: seasonal variation and extraction characteristics.  

PubMed

In this study, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) condition was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major phlorotannins from an extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell with good linearity (r(2)>0.999). Based on this method, the seasonal variations and extraction characteristics, in terms of total extraction yield and the content of the phlorotannins, were investigated under various extraction conditions. In results, the yields and phlorotannins were increased two-to-four times in summer (June-October) and then, were decreased to normal levels in winter (November-March). In the extraction of E. bicyclis, ethanol percentage in water, extraction time and washing time significantly affected the yield of the extract and the phlorotannins, whereas the temperature and the sample/solvent ratio impacted the extraction to a lesser degree. These results will be useful information in the application of this macroalga in the commercial areas related to nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. PMID:23497901

Kim, Sang Min; Kang, Suk Woo; Jeon, Je-Seung; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kim, Woo-Ri; Kim, Chul Young; Um, Byung-Hun

2013-06-15

189

The interactive effect of blame attribution with characteristics of child sexual abuse on posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

The present study examined the role of attributions of blame for child sexual abuse (CSA) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The interactive effects of attribution of blame with characteristics of abuse on PTSD were studied. A sample of 151 female victims of CSA participated in the study. Self-blame and family blame were related to higher PTSD scores, whereas perpetrator blame was not related to PTSD. The strength of the relationship between blame and PTSD score was higher in cases of more severe, isolated, and extrafamilial abuse. The findings suggest that diminishing self-blame attributions may be particularly advantageous in cases of isolated and extrafamilial CSA, whereas diminishing family blame would be more advantageous in cases of severe abuse. PMID:22456587

Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

2012-04-01

190

Compressive characteristics of single walled carbon nanotube with water interactions investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with surrounding water interactions are studied using molecular dynamics simulation technique. The compressive loading characteristic of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a fluidic medium such as water is critical for its role in determining the lifetime and stability of CNT based nano-fluidic devices. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effect of geometry, chirality and density of encapsulated water on the elastic properties of SWCNT. Our studies show that defect density and distribution can strongly impact the compressive resistance of SWCNTs in water. Further studies were conducted on capped SWCNTs with varying densities of encapsulated water, which is necessary to understand the strength of CNT as a potential drug carrier. The results obtained from this paper will help determining the potential applications of CNTs in the field of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) such as nano-biological and nano-fluidic devices.

Wong, C. H.; Vijayaraghavan, V.

2014-01-01

191

An Interactive Method of Characteristics Java Applet to Design and Analyze Supersonic Aircraft Nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Method of Characteristics (MOC) is a classic technique for designing supersonic nozzles. An interactive computer program using MOC has been developed to allow engineers to design and analyze supersonic nozzle flow fields. The program calculates the internal flow for many classic designs, such as a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle, an ideal 2D or axisymmetric nozzle, or a variety of plug nozzles. The program also calculates the plume flow produced by the nozzle and the external flow leading to the nozzle exit. The program can be used to assess the interactions between the internal, external and plume flows. By proper design and operation of the nozzle, it may be possible to lessen the strength of the sonic boom produced at the rear of supersonic aircraft. The program can also calculate non-ideal nozzles, such as simple cone flows, to determine flow divergence and nonuniformities at the exit, and its effect on the plume shape. The computer program is written in Java and is provided as free-ware from the NASA Glenn central software server.

Benson, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

192

The cognitive chronometric architecture of reading aloud: semantic and lexical effects on naming onset and duration  

PubMed Central

We examined onset reaction time (RT) in a word naming task using an additive factors method (AFM). The pattern of additive and over-additive joint effects on RT among Instructions (INST: name all, name words), Word Frequency (WF: log10 HAL), Semantic Neighborhood Density (SND: Inverse Ncount), and Word Type (WT: regular, exception) supported a cognitive chronometric architecture consisting of at least two cascaded stages of processing, with the orthographic lexical system as the locus of the INST × WF and the INST × SND interactions, and the phonological output system as the locus of the WF × WT and the SND × WT interactions. Additivity between INST and WT supports the notion that these variables affect separable systems, and a WF × SND interaction supports a common locus of their effects. These results support stage-like/cascaded processing models over parallel processing models of basic reading. We also examined response duration (RD) in these data by recording and hand-marking vocal responses, which provides evidence that basic reading processes are ongoing even after the initiation of a vocal response, and supports the notion that the more lexically a word is read, the shorter the RD. As such, the effects of WT and INST on RD were opposite to their effects on RT however the effects of WF and SND on RD were in the same direction as their effects on RT. Given the combination of consistent and dissociating effects between RT and RD, these results provide new challenges to all models of basic reading processes. PMID:23125825

Gould, Layla; Cummine, Jacqueline; Borowsky, Ron

2012-01-01

193

Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?  

PubMed Central

A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models. PMID:18942035

Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2009-01-01

194

Lexical Context Effects on Speech Perception in Chinese People with Autistic Traits   

E-print Network

One theory (weak central coherence) that accounts for a different perceptual-cognitive style in autism may suggest the possibility that individuals with autism are less likely to be affected by lexical knowledge on speech perception. This lexical...

Huang, Hui-Chun

2007-11-28

195

Are Children’s Syntactic Representations Facilitated By A Rapidly Decaying Lexical Boost?   

E-print Network

The present study explores whether 4 year old children have abstract syntactic representations and if so whether they are facilitated by repetition of lexical items. A lexical boost, elicited by repetition, has been shown to facilitate the magnitude...

Garry, Neil William

2010-06-30

196

Tracing characteristic perturbations resulting from Planet-Disk and Binary-Disk interaction in protoplanetary disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perturbation by an additional, gravitating component (planet, binary star) within a protoplanetary disk induces characteristic large-scale structures in the disk density profile. We investigate the observability of these perturbations. On the basis of a large number of (M)HD and SPH simulations, we calculate synthetic scattered and polarized light images as well as thermal re-emission maps of these models and predict the observational results for different instruments from the optical to the (sub)mm wavelength range with a special focus on ALMA. In the first study (A) (Ruge et al., 2013a,c) we investigate the observability of the planet-disk interaction for different star-disk-planet configurations. We predict that ALMA is able to observe planet-induced gaps around stars of various types and for a large range of disk masses. Besides this, we find that ALMA can trace small, local perturbations indicating zonal flows in the disk. The detectability of gaps in scattered light is limited to a range of total disk masses between 1e-4 M_sun and 1e-6 M_sun. Gap detections in both wavelength ranges are feasible for M_disk ~ 1e-4 M_sun. In our second study (B) (Ruge et al. 2013b) we investigate the observability of perturbations in young circumbinary disks for several orbital elements of the binary system. We find that ALMA will allow one to trace characteristic AU-sized spiral arm features in disks in face-on orientation and also to detect binary-induced perturbations in the edge-on brightness profiles. We find that the technique of differential polarimetry offers the potential for significantly clearer detections of these disk structures than imaging in scattered light alone.

Ruge, Jan Philipp; Wolf, Sebastian; Uribe, Ana; Demidova, Tatiana; Klahr, Hubert; Grinin, Vladimir

2013-07-01

197

Lexical and prosodic effects on syntactic ambiguity resolution in aphasia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song." Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

DeDe, Gayle

2012-10-01

198

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

199

Alpha phase determines successful lexical decision in noise.  

PubMed

Psychophysical target detection has been shown to be modulated by slow oscillatory brain phase. However, thus far, only low-level sensory stimuli have been used as targets. The current human electroencephalography (EEG) study examined the influence of neural oscillatory phase on a lexical-decision task performed for stimuli embedded in noise. Neural phase angles were compared for correct versus incorrect lexical decisions using a phase bifurcation index (BI), which quantifies differences in mean phase angles and phase concentrations between correct and incorrect trials. Neural phase angles in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz) over right anterior sensors were approximately antiphase in a prestimulus time window, and thus successfully distinguished between correct and incorrect lexical decisions. Moreover, alpha-band oscillations were again approximately antiphase across participants for correct versus incorrect trials during a later peristimulus time window (?500 ms) at left-central electrodes. Strikingly, lexical decision accuracy was not predicted by either event-related potentials (ERPs) or oscillatory power measures. We suggest that correct lexical decisions depend both on successful sensory processing, which is made possible by the alignment of stimulus onset with an optimal alpha phase, as well as integration and weighting of decisional information, which is coupled to alpha phase immediately following the critical manipulation that differentiated words from pseudowords. The current study constitutes a first step toward characterizing the role of dynamic oscillatory brain states for higher cognitive functions, such as spoken word recognition. PMID:25698760

Strauß, Antje; Henry, Molly J; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas

2015-02-18

200

Bilingual Picture–Word Studies Constrain Theories of Lexical Selection  

PubMed Central

Whether lexical selection is by competition is the subject of current debate in studies of monolingual language production. Here, I consider whether extant data from bilinguals can inform this debate. In bilinguals, theories that accept the notion of lexical selection by competition are divided between those positing competition among all lexical nodes vs. those that restrict competition to nodes in the target language only. An alternative view rejects selection by competition altogether, putting the locus of selection in a phonological output buffer, where some potential responses are easier to exclude than others. These theories make contrasting predictions about how quickly bilinguals should name pictures when non-target responses are activated. In Part 1, I establish the empirical facts for which any successful theory must account. In Part 2, I evaluate how well each theory accounts for the data. I argue that the data do not support theories that reject lexical selection by competition, and that although theories where competition for selection is restricted to the target language can be altered to fit the data, doing so would fundamentally undermine the distinctness of their position. Theories where selection is by competition throughout both target and non-target language lexicons must also be modified to account for the data, but these modifications are relatively peripheral to the theoretical impetus of the model. Throughout, I identify areas where our empirical facts are sparse, weak, or absent, and propose additional experiments that should help to further establish how lexical selection works, in both monolinguals and bilinguals. PMID:22232610

Hall, Matthew L.

2011-01-01

201

Maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and mother-child interactions in families of children with externalizing disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and observed mother-child interactions were examined in a sample of 40 4- to 12-year-old children with externalizing disorders. Mothers and children were observed in a task interaction and mothers provided self-reports of depressed mood, parenting self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, and life stress. Child behavior was rated by both mothers and teachers.

Charlotte Johnston; William E. Pelham

1990-01-01

202

The Importance of Lexicalized Syntax Models for Natural Language Generation Tasks  

E-print Network

The Importance of Lexicalized Syntax Models for Natural Language Generation Tasks Hal Daum´e III recog- nized the importance of lexicalized mod- els of syntax. By contrast, these models do not appear that a lexicalized model of syntax improves the performance of a statistical text compres- sion system, and show

Marcu, Daniel

203

Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically…

Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

2013-01-01

204

Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

2013-01-01

205

Effects of Nonlinguistic Auditory Variations on Lexical Processing in Broca's Aphasics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, the effect of white noise distortion and talker variation on lexical access in normal and Broca's aphasic participants was examined using an auditory lexical decision paradigm. Masking the prime stimulus in white noise resulted in reduced semantic priming for both groups, indicating that lexical access is degraded by…

Kittredge, Audrey; Davis, Lissa; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2006-01-01

206

Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

2010-01-01

207

Effects of Lexicality and Word Frequency on Brain Activation in Dyslexic Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…

Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2013-01-01

208

Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody but atypical lexical prosody production. Method: Sixteen children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers…

Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

2010-01-01

209

Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2008-01-01

210

Program in C for studying characteristic properties of two-body interactions in the framework of spectral distribution theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a program in C that employs spectral distribution theory for studies of characteristic properties of a many-particle quantum-mechanical system and the underlying few-body interaction. In particular, the program focuses on two-body nuclear interactions given in a JT-coupled harmonic oscillator basis and calculates correlation coefficients, a measure of similarity of any two interactions, as well as Hilbert-Schmidt norms specifying interaction strengths. An important feature of the program is its ability to identify the monopole part (centroid) of a 2-body interaction, as well as its 'density-dependent' one-body and two-body part, thereby providing key information on the evolution of shell gaps and binding energies for larger nuclear systems. As additional features, we provide statistical measures for 'density-dependent' interactions, as well as a mechanism to express an interaction in terms of two other interactions. This, in turn, allows one to identify, e.g., established features of the nuclear interaction (such as pairing correlations) within a general Hamiltonian. The program handles the radial degeneracy for 'density-dependent' one-body interactions and together with an efficient linked list data structure, facilitates studies of nuclear interactions in large model spaces that go beyond valence-shell applications.

Launey, K. D.; Sarbadhicary, S.; Dytrych, T.; Draayer, J. P.

2014-01-01

211

Sensitivity of ENSO characteristics to a new interactive flux correction scheme in a coupled GCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast coupled global climate model (CGCM) is used to study the sensitivity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) characteristics to a new interactive flux correction scheme. With no flux correction applied our CGCM reveals typical bias in the background state: for instance, the cold tongue in the tropical east Pacific becomes too cold, thus degrading atmospheric sensitivity to variations of sea surface temperature (SST). Sufficient atmospheric sensitivity is essential to ENSO. Our adjustment scheme aims to sustain atmospheric sensitivity by counteracting the SST drift in the model. With reduced bias in the forcing of the atmosphere, the CGCM displays ENSO-type variability that otherwise is absent. The adjustment approach employs a one-way anomaly coupling from the ocean to the atmosphere: heat fluxes seen by the ocean are based on full SST, while heat fluxes seen by the atmosphere are based on anomalies of SST. The latter requires knowledge of the model's climatological SST field, which is accumulated interactively in the spin-up phase ("training"). Applying the flux correction already during the training period (by utilizing the evolving SST climatology) is necessary for efficiently reducing the bias. The combination of corrected fluxes seen by the atmosphere and uncorrected fluxes seen by the ocean implies a restoring mechanism that counteracts the bias and allows for long stable integrations in our CGCM. A suite of sensitivity runs with varying training periods is utilized to study the effect of different levels of bias in the background state on important ENSO properties. Increased duration of training amplifies the coupled sensitivity in our model and leads to stronger amplitudes and longer periods of the Nino3.4 index, increased emphasis of warm events that is reflected in enhanced skewness, and more pronounced teleconnections in the Pacific. Furthermore, with longer training durations we observe a mode switch of ENSO in our model that closely resembles the observed mode switch related to the mid-1970s "climate shift".

Kröger, Jürgen; Kucharski, Fred

2011-01-01

212

Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

1979-01-01

213

Lexical Variation and Change in British Sign Language  

PubMed Central

This paper presents results from a corpus-based study investigating lexical variation in BSL. An earlier study investigating variation in BSL numeral signs found that younger signers were using a decreasing variety of regionally distinct variants, suggesting that levelling may be taking place. Here, we report findings from a larger investigation looking at regional lexical variants for colours, countries, numbers and UK placenames elicited as part of the BSL Corpus Project. Age, school location and language background were significant predictors of lexical variation, with younger signers using a more levelled variety. This change appears to be happening faster in particular sub-groups of the deaf community (e.g., signers from hearing families). Also, we find that for the names of some UK cities, signers from outside the region use a different sign than those who live in the region. PMID:24759673

Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas; Woll, Bencie; Cormier, Kearsy

2014-01-01

214

Electrophysiological evidence that inhibition supports lexical selection in picture naming.  

PubMed

We investigated the neural basis of inhibitory control during lexical selection. Participants overtly named pictures while response times (RTs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The difficulty of lexical selection was manipulated by using object and action pictures with high name agreement (few response candidates) versus low name agreement (many response candidates). To assess the involvement of inhibition, we conducted delta plot analyses of naming RTs and examined the N2 component of the ERP. We found longer mean naming RTs and a larger N2 amplitude in the low relative to the high name agreement condition. For action naming we found a negative correlation between the slopes of the slowest delta segment and the difference in N2 amplitude between the low and high name agreement conditions. The converging behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggests that selective inhibition is engaged to reduce competition during lexical selection in picture naming. PMID:25219485

Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Acheson, Daniel J; Meyer, Antje S

2014-10-24

215

Lexical profiles of bilingual children with primary language impairment.  

PubMed

This study used lexical tasks to examine associations between languages, tasks, and age in bilingual children with primary language impairment. Participants (n = 41, mean age 8;8 years) lived in the United States, spoke primarily Spanish (L1) at home and English (L2) at school, and were identified with moderate to severe impairments in both languages. A total of eight tasks (four in each language) measured breadth of vocabulary knowledge (receptive and expressive vocabulary) and aspects of lexical processing (rapid automatic naming and nonword repetition). Correlational analyses revealed older children outperformed younger children on lexical tasks in L2 but not L1, as well as relative L2 dominance for most individuals and tasks. Positive associations were found between languages on processing-based tasks but not vocabulary measures. Findings were consistent with literature on typical bilingual learners, albeit with a notable increased risk of plateau in L1 growth. Results are interpreted within a Dynamic Systems framework. PMID:25404865

Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

2014-10-01

216

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims The study aims were (a) to explore the differences between the oral language samples of PWA and NIA in terms of LD as measured by dedicated computer software (voc-D), (b) to determine whether PWA are sensitive to discourse elicitation task in terms of LD, and (c) to identify whether differences between PWA and NIA vary in magnitude as a function of discourse task. Method & Procedures Oral language samples from 25 PWA and 27 NIA were analysed. Participants completed three commonly used discourse elicitation tasks (single pictures, sequential pictures, story telling) and voc-D was used to obtain estimates of their LD. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA revealed a significant group task interaction that was followed by an investigation of simple main effects and tetrad×comparisons. Different patterns of LD were uncovered for each group. For the NIA group results were consistent with previous findings in the literature according to which LD varies as a function of elicitation technique. However, for PWA sequential pictures and story telling elicited comparable estimates of LD. Conclusions Results indicated that LD is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by elicitation task and the presence of aphasia. These findings have important implications for modelling lexical diversity and selecting and interpreting results from different discourse elicitation tasks. PMID:23125474

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris

2012-01-01

217

Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

2011-01-01

218

Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

2011-01-01

219

Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders’ Word Reading Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic × Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field

Carol McDonald Connor; Frederick J. Morrison; Christopher Schatschneider; Jessica R. Toste; Erin Lundblom; Elizabeth C. Crowe; Barry Fishman

2011-01-01

220

Influence of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the effects of photoperiod, light intensity and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers in 2 trials. In each trial, 540 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled rooms (30 males/30 females chicks...

221

Author's personal copy An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical Lexical competition Acoustic-phonetic competition FMRI Middle temporal gyrus a b s t r a c t The current study explored how factors of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition affect access to the lexical

222

Mismatch responses to lexical tone, initial consonant, and vowel in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers.  

PubMed

The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball paradigm. The data showed the coexistence of MMN and P-MMR in the same age group when responding to the three types of syllabic features in Mandarin. The transition from a predominantly positive response to a predominantly negative response supported the multiple MMN mechanisms. Congruent with the phonological saliency hypothesis and the phonetic acquisition order of Mandarin in behavioral studies, for the compulsory elements of Mandarin syllables, lexical tones, and vowels, the larger deviants elicited adult-like MMNs, whereas the smaller deviants elicited P-MMRs. The optional elements of the Mandarin syllables, the initial consonant, only elicited P-MMR in preschoolers. These findings suggest that MMN and P-MMR index different functional characteristics and may provide information on when and how children's speech perception becomes automatic at different developmental stages. PMID:22981563

Lee, Chia-Ying; Yen, Huei-Ling; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Cheng, Ying-Ying; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Chi

2012-12-01

223

Lexical use in emotional autobiographical narratives of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls.  

PubMed

Language dysfunction has long been described in schizophrenia and most studies have focused on characteristics of structure and form. This project focuses on the content of language based on autobiographical narratives of five basic emotions. In persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls, we employed a comprehensive automated analysis of lexical use and we identified specific words and semantically or functionally related words derived from dictionaries that occurred significantly more often in narratives of either group. Patients employed a similar number of words but differed in lower expressivity and complexity, more self-reference and more repetitions. We developed a classification method for predicting subject status and tested its accuracy in a leave-one-subject-out evaluation procedure. We identified a set of 18 features that achieved 65.7% accuracy in predicting clinical status based on single emotion narratives, and 74.4% accuracy based on all five narratives. Subject clinical status could be determined automatically more accurately based on narratives related to anger or happiness experiences and there were a larger number of lexical differences between the two groups for these emotions compared to other emotions. PMID:25480546

Hong, Kai; Nenkova, Ani; March, Mary E; Parker, Amber P; Verma, Ragini; Kohler, Christian G

2015-01-30

224

Exploring medical diagnostic performance using interactive, multi-parameter sourced receiver operating characteristic scatter plots.  

PubMed

Determining diagnostic criteria for specific disorders is often a tedious task that involves determining optimal diagnostic thresholds for symptoms and biomarkers using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. To help this endeavor, we developed softROC, a user-friendly graphic-based tool that lets users visually explore possible ROC tradeoffs. The software requires MATLAB installation and an Excel file containing threshold symptoms/biological measures, with corresponding gold standard diagnoses for a set of patients. The software scans the input file for diagnostic and symptom/biomarkers columns, and populates the graphical-user-interface (GUI). Users select symptoms/biomarkers of interest using Boolean algebra as potential inputs to create diagnostic criteria outputs. The software evaluates subtests across the user-established range of cut-points and compares them to a gold standard in order to generate ROC and quality ROC scatter plots. These plots can be examined interactively to find optimal cut-points of interest for a given application (e.g. sensitivity versus specificity needs). Split-set validation can also be used to set up criteria and validate these in independent samples. Bootstrapping is used to produce confidence intervals. Additional statistics and measures are provided, such as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). As a testing set, softROC is used to investigate nocturnal polysomnogram measures as diagnostic features for narcolepsy. All measures can be outputted to a text file for offline analysis. The softROC toolbox, with clinical training data and tutorial instruction manual, is provided as supplementary material and can be obtained online at http://www.stanford.edu/~hyatt4/software/softroc or from the open source repository at http://www.github.com/informaton/softroc. PMID:24561350

Moore, Hyatt E; Andlauer, Olivier; Simon, Noah; Mignot, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

225

Interactive power flow characteristics of an integrated equipment—nonlinear isolator—travelling flexible ship excited by sea waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear interactive system comprising of equipment, nonlinear isolator and travelling flexible ship excited by waves is studied from a vibratory power flow viewpoint to examine its dynamical behaviour and power flow characteristics. The mathematical model describing the dynamics of this nonlinear interactive system is developed. Dynamical interactions between equipment, nonlinear isolator, flexible foundation and water waves are addressed. The nonlinearities of the isolator are characterized by a general pth power model for damping and qth power for stiffness. A harmonic balance method is adopted to derive the steady-state harmonic response of the nonlinear system. A Newton-Raphson iteration process in association with an efficient numerical algorithm is used to obtain the solutions of this nonlinear problem. Through simulations the dynamical behaviour, power flow characteristics and isolation efficiency of this complex nonlinear interaction system are investigated. For different values of power p and q, different wave excitations and flexible or rigid ship, the power transmitted to the equipment and power flow transmission ratios are calculated and analysed. The effect of the vibration source with different wave conditions of the seaway is studied through examining its vibratory power input to the overall system. The effects of the assumptions of flexible or rigid ship, the nonlinearities on the power flows in the system are examined. Nonlinear power flow phenomena and mechanisms are revealed, which provides an insight to the understanding of power flow characteristics in nonlinear systems. Practical guidelines for the design of vibration isolation systems applicable to maritime engineering are suggested.

Xiong, Y. P.; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.

2005-10-01

226

Sensitivity analysis of window characteristics and their interactions on thermal performance in residential buildings  

E-print Network

24 25 26 29 30 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Method of Analysis Denver Miami Minneapolis Phoenix Seattle Washington DC V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCES APPENDICES . VITA Page 33 33 34 54... Interaction Effects for Two Parameter Changes in Denver . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4. 2 Interaction Effects for Two Parameter Changes in Miami . . . . . , . . . . . . 70 4. 3 Interaction Effects for Two Parameter Changes in Minneapolis 87 4. 4 Interaction...

George, Julie N

1996-01-01

227

Reading Words in Discourse: The Modulation of Lexical Priming Effects by Message-Level Context  

PubMed Central

Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysio-logical studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension. PMID:16891554

Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Gordon, Peter C.

2006-01-01

228

The relationship between neonatal characteristics and three-month mother-infant interaction in high-risk infants.  

PubMed

The behavior of 4 groups of infants--healthy term, healthy preterm, sick preterm, and sick full-term--was assessed in the neonatal period using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). At 3 months postterm, infants and their mothers were observed and videotaped in a free-play session. Both the NBAS and mother-infant interaction data were analyzed to assess the effects of maturity (term vs. preterm), illness (sick vs. healthy), and their interaction. Results revealed that illness of the infant affected both NBAS performance and maternal behavior during the interaction at 3 moths. Infants who were ill performed poorly on the NBAS orientation dimension; this dimension was found to be significantly associated with maternal and infant behaviors at 3 months. These data demonstrate an association between early infant characteristics and subsequent mother and child interactive behaviors. They also identify postnatal illness as an important influence on the development of the mother-infant dyad. PMID:6354634

Greene, J G; Fox, N A; Lewis, M

1983-10-01

229

Syllable Frequency in Lexical Decision and Naming of English Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of phonological syllables in recognition and pronunciation of visual words has been demonstrated in languages with a high degree of spelling-sound correspondence. In Spanish, multisyllabic words with frequent first syllables are named more quickly than those with less frequent first syllables, but receive slower lexical decisions.…

Macizo, Pedro; Van Petten, Cyma

2007-01-01

230

Research Report Perceptual and lexical effects in letter identification  

E-print Network

, the mechanisms by which higher levels impact upon lower levels (i.e., `top-down' processes) remain largely recognition are modulated by top-down lexical effects. We studied the identification of letters embedded-shape information. In addition, we show that this facilitatory top-down effect is sensitive to stimulus exposure

Institut des Sciences Cognitives, CNRS

231

Speech Perception and Lexical Effects in Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6-9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CVtsets [word-word (WW), nonword-nonword (NN), word-nonword (WN) and…

Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

2013-01-01

232

Appraising Lexical Bundles in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: Obligation and Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working from a large corpus of transcripts from secondary mathematics classrooms, we identify patterns of speech that encode interpersonal positioning. We extend our analysis from a previous article (Herbel-Eisenmann, Wagner & Cortes, Educ Stud Math, 2010, in press), in which we introduced a concept from corpus linguistics--a "lexical bundle,"…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David

2010-01-01

233

Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

234

The Effects of Prohibiting Gestures on Children's Lexical Retrieval Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two alternative accounts have been proposed to explain the role of gestures in thinking and speaking. The Information Packaging Hypothesis (Kita, 2000) claims that gestures are important for the conceptual packaging of information before it is coded into a linguistic form for speech. The Lexical Retrieval Hypothesis (Rauscher, Krauss & Chen, 1996)…

Pine, Karen J.; Bird, Hannah; Kirk, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

235

Stress Matters: Effects of Anticipated Lexical Stress on Silent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from two eye-tracking studies designed to investigate the role of metrical prosody in silent reading. In Experiment 1, participants read stress-alternating noun-verb or noun-adjective homographs (e.g. "PREsent", "preSENT") embedded in limericks, such that the lexical stress of the homograph, as determined by context,…

Breen, Mara; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

2011-01-01

236

Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

2007-01-01

237

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

2004-01-01

238

Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

2012-01-01

239

Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

1997-01-01

240

Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

2010-01-01

241

A Corpus-Based Assessment of French CEFR Lexical Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French CEFR vocabulary profiles as presented in the "Référentiels"--while a valuable resource for a wide range of applications focused on lexical content--result from introspection, intuition-based judgements, and unquantifiable experience. The result is a specification of vocabulary that has been largely untested from a…

Kusseling, Françoise; Lonsdale, Deryle

2013-01-01

242

Lexical Category Acquisition as an Incremental Process Afra Alishahi  

E-print Network

@lsv.uni-saarland.de Spoken Language Systems Saarland University, Germany The Acquisition of Lexical Categories for this purpose. The process of learning word categories by children is nec- essarily incremental. Human language in children (e.g. the order of acquisition of different categories). How- ever, their fully Bayesian

Alishahi, Afra

243

Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

2009-01-01

244

A Lexical-Functional Analysis of Predicate Topicalization in German  

E-print Network

as (parts of) lexical representations. To this end we motivate a revision of Functional Uncertainty assume with the original formulation of this principle that topicalized elements share values, develop a formal apparatus called Functional Uncertainty (FU) which accounts for these dependencies

245

The Impact of Lexical Simplification by Verbal Paraphrases for  

E-print Network

The Impact of Lexical Simplification by Verbal Paraphrases for People with and without Dyslexia Luz simplification are people with dyslexia. One of the alterna- tives for text simplification is the use of verbal im- pact the readability and the comprehension of people with and without dyslexia dyslexia

246

Nonparametric Bayesian Models of Lexical Acquisition Sharon J. Goldwater  

E-print Network

Nonparametric Bayesian Models of Lexical Acquisition by Sharon J. Goldwater Sc. B., Brown. Providence, Rhode Island May 2007 #12;c Copyright 2007 by Sharon J. Goldwater #12;This dissertation by Sharon J. Goldwater is accepted in its present form by the Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences

Edinburgh, University of

247

Primary School Children's Interpretations of Lexical Ambiguity in Mathematical Descriptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how children interpret lexical ambiguity in written descriptions of mathematical relationships. Finds that subjects are more likely to identify incorrectly the synonym of the dominant sense when the ambiguous word is used in its mathematical meaning than they are to identify the subordinate, mathematical sense when the ambiguous word…

Durkin, Kevin; Shire, Beatrice

1991-01-01

248

Some Pragmatic Features of Lexical Ambiguity and Simple Riddles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a category of riddles based on lexical ambiguity and uses category theory to illustrate the function of the accessibility hierarchy in riddling. A discussion of riddles and parallelism (the tendency to stay on the same syntactic, semantic, pragmatic track while processing language) shows how parallelism partially accounts for how the…

Weiner, E. Judith; DePalma, Paul

1993-01-01

249

Parafoveal lexical activation depends on skilled reading proficiency.  

PubMed

The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., sped), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor (seed), a nonword neighbor (sted), or an all-letter-different nonword (glat). Ninety-four skilled adult readers were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability. The results showed that null effects of preview lexical status in the average data obscured systematic differences on the basis of proficiency and target neighborhood density. For targets from dense neighborhoods, inhibition from a higher frequency neighbor preview occurred among highly proficient readers, and particularly those with superior spelling ability, in early fixation measures. Poorer readers showed inhibition only in second-pass reading of the target. These data suggest that readers with precise lexical representations are more likely to extract lexical information from a word before it is fixated. The implications for computational models of eye movements in reading are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068856

Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

2015-03-01

250

The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

2014-01-01

251

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

252

LEXICAL MARKUP FRAMEWORK (LMF) FOR NLP MULTILINGUAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

LEXICAL MARKUP FRAMEWORK (LMF) FOR NLP MULTILINGUAL RESOURCES Gil Francopoulo1 , Nuria Bel2 , Monte impacting Natural Language Processing (NLP). A second aspect involves optimizing the process leading- tion on multilingual lexicons can be a useful aid for the various NLP actors. Within ISO, one purpose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Lexical descriptions for Vietnamese language processing Thanh Bon Nguyen  

E-print Network

Lexical descriptions for Vietnamese language processing Thanh Bon Nguyen IFI, Hanoi ntbon recently have Vietnamese re- searchers begun to be involved in the do- main of Natural Language Processing and easily exploit- able for the automatic processing of Vietnamese. In this paper, we propose an extensible

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2004-01-01

255

Hidden Markov model for Mandarin lexical tone recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of lexical tone recognition for Mandarin speech is discussed using a combination of vector quantization and hidden Markov modelling techniques. The observation sequence was a sequence of vectorized parameters consisting of a logarithmic pitch interval and its first derivative. The vector quantization was applied to convert the observation sequence into a symbol sequence for Hidden Markov modeling. The

WU-JI YANG; JYH-CHYANG LEE; YUEH-CHIN CHANG; HSIAO-CHUAN WANG

1988-01-01

256

Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While…

DeDe, Gayle

2012-01-01

257

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

Kilickaya, Ferit

2007-01-01

258

Lexical Access Problems Lead to Disfluencies in Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

A picture naming experiment in Dutch tested whether disfluencies in speech can arise from difficulties in lexical access. Speakers described networks consisting of line drawings and paths connecting these drawings, and we manipulated picture name agreement. Consistent with our hypothesis, there were more pauses and more self-corrections in the low name agreement condition than the high name agreement condition, but

Robert J. Hartsuiker; Lies Notebaert

2009-01-01

259

An automatic Chinese collocation extraction algorithm based on lexical statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an automatic Chinese collocation extraction system using lexical statistics and syntactical knowledge. This system extracts collocations from manually segmented and tagged Chinese news corpus in three stages. First, the bidirectional bigram statistical measures, including bidirectional strength and spread, and ?2 test value, are employed to extract candidate two-word pairs. These candidate word pairs are then used to extract

Ruifeng Xu; Qin Lu; Yin Li

2003-01-01

260

Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

Jangjamras, Jirapat

2011-01-01

261

Syntactic priming without lexical overlap in reading comprehension.  

PubMed

Syntactic priming without lexical overlap is well-documented in language production. In contrast, reading-time comprehension studies, which typically use locally ambiguous sentences, generally find syntactic priming only with lexical overlap. This asymmetry has led some researchers to propose that distinct mechanisms underlie the comprehension and production of syntactic structure. Instead, we propose that methodological differences in how priming is assessed are largely responsible for the asymmetry: in comprehension, lexical biases in a locally ambiguous target sentence may overwhelm the influence of syntactic priming effects on a reader's interpretation. We addressed these issues in a self-paced reading study by (1) using target sentences containing global attachment ambiguities, (2) examining a syntactic structure which does not involve an argument of the verb, and (3) factoring out the unavoidable lexical biases associated with the target sentences in a mixed-effects regression model. Under these conditions, syntactic priming affected how ambiguous sentences were parsed, and facilitated reading times when target sentences were parsed using the primed structure. This resolves discrepancies among previous findings, and suggests that the same mechanism underlies syntactic priming in comprehension and production. PMID:25102605

Kim, Christina S; Carbary, Kathleen M; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2014-06-01

262

Modern Spanish-based Lexical Items in English  

Microsoft Academic Search

¡Since the Renaissance, English speakers have adopted large numbers of lexical items from Spanish; and the voluminous scholarship has included Bentley's dated, booklength dictionary (1932). Following the voyages of Columbus to the New World and the subsequent Hispanicization of almost all of what is now Central and South America plus parts of the Antilles, items from the vocabularies of the

Garland Cannon

1994-01-01

263

Lexical and Semantic Binding in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semantic dementia patients make numerous phoneme migration errors in their immediate serial recall of poorly comprehended words. In this study, similar errors were induced in the word recall of healthy participants by presenting unpredictable mixed lists of words and nonwords. This technique revealed that lexicality, word frequency, imageability,…

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Frankish, Clive R.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

2006-01-01

264

Lexicalized ontology for a business rules management platform  

E-print Network

Lexicalized ontology for a business rules management platform: An automotive use case Nouha Omrane Management Systems (BRMSs) are used to update and query business rules of an automotive use case. They rely, domain ontology, semantic annotation 1 Introduction Business Rules Management Systems (BRMSs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

On the Generality of Thesaurally derived Lexical Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohesion is that property of a text that allows it to be read as a unified entity rather than a series of unconnected sentences. Lexical cohesion may be detected using an external thesaurus and the resulting representation used in a variety of language processing tasks. Our particular interest is in determining whether texts of different genres are similar in meaning.

Jeremy Ellman; John Tait

2000-01-01

266

Lexical and Default Stress Assignment in Reading Greek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greek is a language with lexical stress that marks stress orthographically with a special diacritic. Thus, the orthography and the lexicon constitute potential sources of stress assignment information in addition to any possible general default metrical pattern. Here, we report two experiments with secondary education children reading aloud…

Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana; Alexandri, Stella

2006-01-01

267

Lexical Access during the Production of Idiomatic Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments we test the assumption that idioms have their own lexical entry, which is linked to its constituent lemmas (Cutting & Bock, 1997). Speakers produced idioms or literal phrases (Experiment 1), completed idioms (Experiment 2), or switched between idiom completion and naming (Experiment 3). The results of Experiment 1 show that…

Sprenger, Simone A.; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Kempen, Gerard

2006-01-01

268

The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

2004-01-01

269

The Impact of Sonority on Onset-Rime and Peak-Coda Lexical Decision and Naming of Lexical Items by Children with Different Spelling Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used the lexical decision (making YES/NO decision) and the vocalization (naming) paradigms in two reaction time experiments to examine the cohesiveness of onset-rime and peak-coda in the syllable structure of English lexical items. The aim was to study the effect of sonority hierarchy of liquids, nasals and obstruents on the…

Leong, Che Kan

2008-01-01

270

Characteristics of Interactive Oral and Computer-Mediated Peer Group Talk and Its Influence on Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a functional and qualitative study of interactive oral and computer-mediated communication (CMC)-generated (Norton "Connect") peer response group talk and its influence on revision. Finds the interactive peer groups in both environments talked primarily about their writing; however, the talk had different qualities when students used…

Hewett, Beth L.

2000-01-01

271

Measurement of dispersion and interaction impedance characteristics of slow-wave structures by resonance methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of dispersion and interaction impedance of slow-wave structures from cold tests using resonance methods is described. The theory behind the measurements is given, stressing the assumptions made. Some of the shortcomings of the simple perturbation theory of interaction impedance measurement are explained. This simple theory is then developed to take account of two complicating factors which are often

A. W. Horsley; A. Pearson

1966-01-01

272

Lava-ice interaction: A database describing characteristics and known examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of past lava-ice interaction is accomplished using specific features, such as: 1) the presence of fractures that indicate of rapid cooling, the penetration of water, and/or the presence of non-horizontal cooling surfaces; and 2) unusually great lava flow thicknesses that show confinement or ponding against now non-existent walls (implied to have been glacial walls). In addition to helping reconstruct the physical parameters during specific volcanic events, the recognition of lava-ice interaction provides important information regarding the climate and local environment at the time of eruption. To aid in the identification of lava-ice interaction and paleoclimatological studies, a comprehensive database has been created of examples from around the world. The examples of lava-ice interaction come from publications of field studies, personal observations and personal communications. This database includes descriptions, photos, detailed locations, lava compositions and ages as available and will be available on the World Wide Web. The database currently contains over 200 examples of lava-ice interaction, representing more than 125 volcanoes. Lava-ice interaction examples range from subglacial to englacial to emergent and include eruptions associated with both ice sheets and valley glaciers. The database also includes descriptions and photos from more than 17 historic volcanic eruptions that experienced lava and ice interaction.

Lescinsky, D. T.

2005-12-01

273

Do magnitude estimation and lexical decision tap similar processes?  

PubMed

Young adults (n = 54 for Exp. 1, n = 50 for Exp. 2) and elderly adults (the same n = 40 in each experiment) participated in studies that required nonspeeded magnitude estimation scaling in response to words that varied in frequency and number of meanings. Across both experiments and across both groups, subject and item analyses indicated significant word frequency effects (low-frequency words were judged more difficult to process than high-frequency words) and significant word meaning effects (unambiguous words were judged to be more difficult to process than ambiguous words). Mean magnitude estimate values were significantly and positively correlated with mean lexical-decision task values obtained from the same subjects on the same stimuli based on data from a previous experiment. Results suggest that processes required for magnitude estimation are similar to those measured with the lexical decision task in word-recognition studies involving young and elderly adults. PMID:10052082

Ferraro, F R; Bohlman, D; Whetham, T; Arnt, S; Anderson, M; Westerlund, A

1998-12-01

274

Norwegian Words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.  

PubMed

All words have properties linked to form, meaning and usage patterns which influence how easily they are accessed from the mental lexicon in language production, perception and comprehension. Examples of such properties are imageability, phonological and morphological complexity, word class, argument structure, frequency of use and age of acquisition. Due to linguistic and cultural variation the properties and the values associated with them differ across languages. Hence, for research as well as clinical purposes, language specific information on lexical properties is needed. To meet this need, an electronically searchable lexical database with more than 1600 Norwegian words coded for more than 12 different properties has been established. This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching. PMID:25588015

Lind, Marianne; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

2015-04-01

275

Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self-esteem than adolescents from the other two regions. PMID:23172992

Klarin, Mira; Pororokovi?, Ana; Šaši?, Slavica Šimi?; Arnaudova, Violeta

2012-01-01

276

The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

277

Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS),…

Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

2014-01-01

278

Using Lexical tools to convert Unicode characters to ASCII.  

PubMed

Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. It is widely used in multilingual NLP (natural language processing) projects. On the other hand, there are some NLP projects still only dealing with ASCII characters. This paper describes methods of utilizing lexical tools to convert Unicode characters (UTF-8) to ASCII (7-bit) characters. PMID:18998787

Lu, Chris J; Browne, Allen C; Divita, Guy

2008-01-01

279

Lexical semantic and associative priming in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic memory impairment was investigated in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a threshold oral word reading task to assess priming of different lexical relationships. Healthy elderly controls showed significant priming for associatively related nouns (tempest-teapot) and also for nouns semantically related either because both designate basic-level exemplars of a common superordinate category (cousin-nephew) or because the target names

Guila Glosser; Rhonda B. Friedman; Patrick K. Grugan; Jefferson H. Lee; Murray Grossman

1998-01-01

280

Lexical access and the spelling-to-sound regularity effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of investigators have reported that words that follow spelling-to-sound rules can be recognized faster than words\\u000a that violate such rules (the “regularity” effect). On occasion, the absence of a regularity effect is reported, however. The\\u000a first two experiments of the present paper report that a regularity effect can be obtained in a lexical decision task with\\u000a word sets

David W. Bauer; Keith E. Stanovich

1980-01-01

281

Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

Zhao, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpzhao@nwpu.edu.cn; Song, Kun [Smart Materials Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, 710129 (China)

2014-10-15

282

Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

Zhao, Xiaopeng; Song, Kun

2014-10-01

283

Perceptual learning of a talker resolves lexical ambiguity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.

Piorkowski, Rebecca L.; Badecker, William

2005-09-01

284

Automatic Prosodic Event Detection Using Acoustic, Lexical, and Syntactic Evidence  

PubMed Central

With the advent of prosody annotation standards such as tones and break indices (ToBI), speech technologists and linguists alike have been interested in automatically detecting prosodic events in speech. This is because the prosodic tier provides an additional layer of information over the short-term segment-level features and lexical representation of an utterance. As the prosody of an utterance is closely tied to its syntactic and semantic content in addition to its lexical content, knowledge of the prosodic events within and across utterances can assist spoken language applications such as automatic speech recognition and translation. On the other hand, corpora annotated with prosodic events are useful for building natural-sounding speech synthesizers. In this paper, we build an automatic detector and classifier for prosodic events in American English, based on their acoustic, lexical, and syntactic correlates. Following previous work in this area, we focus on accent (prominence, or “stress”) and prosodic phrase boundary detection at the syllable level. Our experiments achieved a performance rate of 86.75% agreement on the accent detection task, and 91.61% agreement on the phrase boundary detection task on the Boston University Radio News Corpus. PMID:19122857

Ananthakrishnan, Sankaranarayanan; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

2008-01-01

285

Speech perception and lexical effects in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6–9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CV/t/sets [word–word (WW), nonword–nonword (NN), word–nonword (WN) and nonword–word (NW)] were edited to create four 12-step continua. Both groups used duration as an identification cue but it was a weaker cue for children with SLI. For NN, WN and NW continua, children with SLI demonstrated certainty at shorter vowel durations than their TLD peers. Except for the WN continuum, children with SLI demonstrated category boundaries at shorter vowel durations. Both groups exhibited lexical effects, but they were stronger in the SLI group. Performance on the WW continuum indicated adequate perception of fine-grained duration differences. Strong lexical effects indicated reliance on familiar words in speech perception. PMID:23635335

Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

2014-01-01

286

Perceptual and lexical knowledge of vegetables in preadolescent children.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the visual and lexical knowledge of vegetables in children. The purpose of this was to identify both liked and disliked familiar vegetables which will be used in a further study. We explored children's lexical knowledge with a free listing test and their visual knowledge with a picture's sorting test. 145 children between the ages of 8 and 11 years from various living environments of the Rhône-Alpes Region, France, completed both tests. Overall, 54 vegetables were cited, 16 of which were cited by more than 9% of the sample. Carrots, tomatoes and lettuce were the most named vegetables and the best visually recognized by children. Lexical knowledge increased gradually with age. Children from rural areas named significantly more vegetables than those from urban areas. However, visual recognition of vegetables did not change as a function of age or living environment. This suggests that visual categorization allows easier accessing to semantic knowledge than verbal questioning. Finally, the data showed a relation between visual familiarity and liking: the majority of raw vegetables recognized visually were also classified as "liked vegetables". In addition, children declared that they did not want to try most of the unknown vegetables. PMID:21540067

Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Masse, Pierre; Combris, Pierre; Giboreau, Agnès

2011-08-01

287

Lexical–Semantic Organization in Children With Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical–semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive vocabulary matches (VM) generated 3 associations to each of 48 words. Associations were coded as semantic (e.g., dog–pet), clang (e.g., cow–how), or erroneous (e.g., spoon–Disney). Results Relative to the AM children, children with SLI produced fewer semantic responses, more clangs, and more errors. Relative to the VM children, fewer semantic responses and more errors in the children with SLI were found in by-item analyses. Across elicitation trials, semantic responses decreased in the AM and VM children but remained stable in the SLI children. Examination of individual performance in the SLI group revealed that poor semantic performance was associated with a deficit in expressive vocabulary and a gap between receptive and expressive vocabularies. Conclusions Significant variability in lexical–semantic organization skills exists among children with SLI. Deficits in lexical–semantic organization were demonstrated by a subgroup of children with SLI who likely had concomitant word-finding difficulties. PMID:20150406

Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

2012-01-01

288

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

289

Identification of Parent-Child Interaction Characteristics of High and Low Achieving Elementary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to identify parent-child interaction patterns that might differentiate bright from below average elementary students in order to test the hypothesis that environmental processes related to regulation of executive processes influence both children's learning and developmental level. Thirty-two mother-child dyads (16…

Portes, Pedro R.; And Others

290

Biological interactions in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles of different characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have recently received growing attention for various biomedical applications, including use as therapeutic or carrier for drug delivery and/or imaging. For the above applications, the NPs necessitate administration into the body leading to their systemic exposure. To better anticipate the safety, make risk assessment, and be able to interpret the future preclinical and clinical safety data, it is important to systematically understand the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences of such interaction, and the mechanisms associated with the toxicity induction, with the important components with which the NPs are expected to be in contact after systemic exposure. In this context, we report here a detailed study on the biological interactions in vitro of the ZnO NPs with healthy human primary lymphocytes as these are the important immune components and the first systemic immune contact, and with the whole human blood. Additionally, the influence, if any, of the NPs shape (spheres and rods) on the biological interaction has been evaluated. The ZnO NPs caused toxicity (30% at 12.5 ?g ml-1 spheres and 10.5 ?g ml-1 rods; 50% at 22 ?g ml-1 spheres and 19.5 ?g ml-1 rods) to the lymphocytes at molecular and genetic level in a dose-dependent and shape-dependent manner, while the interaction consequences with the blood and blood components such as RBC, platelets was only dose-dependent and not shape-dependent. This is evident from the decreased RBC count due to increased %Hemolysis (5.3% in both the spheres- and rods-treated blood) and decreased platelet count due to increased %platelet aggregation (28% in spheres-treated and 33% in rods-treated platelet-rich plasma). Such in-depth understanding of the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences, and the associated mechanisms in vitro could be expected to allow anticipating the NP safety for risk assessment and for interpretation of the preclinical and clinical safety data when available.

Aula, Sangeetha; Lakkireddy, Samyuktha; AVN, Swamy; Kapley, Atya; Jamil, Kaiser; Rao Tata, Narasinga; Hembram, Kaliyan

2014-09-01

291

Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry applied to IL-23 interaction characteristics: potential impact for therapeutics.  

PubMed

IL-23 is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Adnectins are targeted protein therapeutics that are derived from domain III of human fibronectin and have a similar protein scaffold to antibodies. Adnectin 2 was found to bind to IL-23 and compete with the IL-23/IL-23R interaction, posing a potential protein therapeutic. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and computational methods were applied to probe the binding interactions between IL-23 and Adnectin 2 and to determine the correlation between the two orthogonal methods. This review summarizes the current structural knowledge about IL-23 and focuses on the applicability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to investigate the higher order structure of proteins, which plays an important role in the discovery of new and improved biotherapeutics. PMID:25711416

Iacob, Roxana E; Krystek, Stanley R; Huang, Richard Y-C; Wei, Hui; Tao, Li; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E; Doyle, Michael L; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Engen, John R; Chen, Guodong

2015-04-01

292

Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

2014-01-01

293

Implications of the progeny x environment interaction in selection index involving characteristics of the common bean.  

PubMed

Breeders normally select simultaneously for several traits in various environments. We investigated the effects of the progeny x environment interaction on success in selection for several traits. The population used was obtained from a cross between the CVIII-85-11 line, which has a semi-erect to prostrate plant architecture and a cream with brown streaks bean type, and the BRS-Supremo cultivar, which has an erect plant architecture and black grains. In experiments conducted in the field, 47 progenies F(4:6) and F(4:7) were evaluated for two seasons for grain yield, plant architecture and grain type score. The variables were standardized and we obtained the sum of Z. The components of genetic variance in the average of the two environments were nil due to the progeny x environment interaction, which would hinder successful simultaneous selection of characters. PMID:23079982

Lima, L K; Ramalho, M A P; Abreu, A F B

2012-01-01

294

Characteristics of the Region of Interaction between the Interplanetary Plasma and the Geomagnetic Field: Pioneer 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the magnetic fields in the distant geomagnetic cavity and in the region of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere are described. These measurements were' Obtained on March 11, 1960, with instruments aboard the interplanetary probe Pioneer 5 in the'region between 5.2 and 15.4 Re and between 1500 and 1700 local time. The observations obtained between 5.2

Paul J. Coleman

1964-01-01

295

Responsiveness in Interactions of Mothers and Sons with ADHD: Relations to Maternal and Child Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed mother–child interactions, at baseline, in 136 families of 7–10-year-old boys with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were part of a large clinical trial, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD. Independent coders rated stylistic aspects of maternal behavior and factor analyses revealed a responsiveness factor that included overall responsiveness and sensitivity to the child, warmth and acceptance, and

Charlotte Johnston; Candice Murray; Stephen P. Hinshaw; William E. Pelham Jr; Betsy Hoza

2002-01-01

296

An Exploratory Analysis of Network Characteristics and Quality of Interactions among Public Health Collaboratives  

PubMed Central

While the benefits of collaboration have become widely accepted and the practice of collaboration is growing within the public health system, a paucity of research exists that examines factors and mechanisms related to effective collaboration between public health and their partner organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the structural and organizational characteristics of public health collaboratives. Design and Methods. Using both social network analysis and traditional statistical methods, we conduct an exploratory secondary data analysis of 11 public health collaboratives chosen from across the United States. All collaboratives are part of the PARTNER (www.partnertool.net) database. We analyze data to identify relational patterns by exploring the structure (the way that organizations connect and exchange relationships), in relation to perceptions of value and trust, explanations for varying reports of success, and factors related to outcomes. We describe the characteristics of the collaboratives, types of resource contributions, outcomes of the collaboratives, perceptions of success, and reasons for success. We found high variation and significant differences within and between these collaboratives including perceptions of success. There were significant relationships among various factors such as resource contributions, reasons cited for success, and trust and value perceived by organizations. We find that although the unique structure of each collaborative makes it challenging to identify a specific set of factors to determine when a collaborative will be successful, the organizational characteristics and interorganizational dynamics do appear to impact outcomes. We recommend a quality improvement process that suggests matching assessment to goals and developing action steps for performance improvement. Acknowledgements the authors would like to thank the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Public Health Program for funding for this research. PMID:25170462

Varda, Danielle M.; Retrum, Jessica H.

2012-01-01

297

Characteristics of alpha projectile fragments emission in interaction of nuclei with emulsion  

E-print Network

The properties of the relativistic alpha fragments produced in interactions of 84^Kr at around 1 A GeV in nuclear emulsion are investigated. The experimental results are compared with the similar results obtained from various projectiles with emulsion interactions at different energies. The total, partial nuclear cross-sections and production rates of alpha fragmentation channels in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and their dependence on the mass number and initial energy of the incident projectile nucleus are investigated. The yields of multiple alpha fragments emitted from the interactions of projectile nuclei with the nuclei of light, medium and heavy target groups of emulsion-detector are discussed and they indicate that the projectile-breakup mechanism seems to be free from the target mass number. It is found that the multiplicity distributions of alpha fragments are well described by the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling presentation. The mean multiplicities of the freshly produced newly created charged secondary particles, normally known as shower and secondary particles associated with target in the events where the emission of alpha fragments were accompanied by heavy projectile fragments having Z value larger than 4 seem to be constant as the alpha fragments multiplicity increases, and exhibit a behavior independent of the alpha fragments multiplicity.

M. K. Singh; Ramji Pathak; V. Singh

2010-08-12

298

The Characteristics of the Acoustooptic Interaction in Single-Mode Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal bulk acoustic waves, generated over the frequency region from 200 MHz to 1.0 GHz by coaxially sputter deposited zinc oxide (ZnO) transducers on 80 micron diameter optical fibers, were used to experimentally characterize the acoustooptic (AO) phase shift interaction in single-mode fibers with 830 nm guided wave light. Mach-Zehnder and Fabry-Perot test sets were used to measure the phase shift of the light with both cw and pulsed signal inputs to the transducers in the range of 1 to 500 milliwatts. Maximum phase shifts were observed at average frequency separations of 67 MHz, corresponding to the standing bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonance conditions in the fiber. The interaction length was varied from 30 mm to 6 mm to determine the effects on the AO phase shift. A maximum phase shift of 1.7 radians was observed at a frequency of 317 MHz with a 30 mm interaction length and 150 mW pulsed input. Linear modulation efficiencies in the range of 0.2 to 0.3 radians per square root of mW input power were observed at resonant frequencies in the 200 to 400 MHz region corresponding to acoustic wavelengths on the order of the core dimensions of the optical fiber.

Hickernell, Fred

1999-10-01

299

Training Production of Lexical Stress in Typically Developing Children Using Orthographically Biased Stimuli and Principles of Motor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Impaired lexical stress production characterizes multiple pediatric speech disorders. Effective remediation strategies are not available, and little is known about the normal process of learning to assign and produce lexical stress. This study examined whether typically developing (TD) children can be trained to produce lexical stress on…

van Rees, Lauren J.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; McCabe, Patricia; Macdonald-D'Silva, Anita G.; Arciuli, Joanne

2012-01-01

300

Consequences of Lexical Stress on Learning an Artificial Lexicon Sarah C. Creel, Michael K. Tanenhaus, and Richard N. Aslin  

E-print Network

-selection task. Lexical stress differences did not reduce confusions between cohort items: KAdazu and kaConsequences of Lexical Stress on Learning an Artificial Lexicon Sarah C. Creel, Michael K. Tanenhaus, and Richard N. Aslin University of Rochester Four experiments examined effects of lexical stress

Aslin, Richard N.

301

Developmental Trajectory for Production of Prosody: Lexical Stress Contrastivity in Children Ages 3 to 7 Years and in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Accurate production of lexical stress within English polysyllabic words is critical for intelligibility and is affected in many speech-language disorders. However, models of speech production remain underspecified with regard to lexical stress. In this study, the authors report a large-scale acoustic investigation of lexical stress…

Ballard, Kirrie J.; Djaja, Danica; Arciuli, Joanne; James, Deborah G. H.; van Doorn, Jan

2012-01-01

302

Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning  

PubMed Central

Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle was negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production. PMID:24478675

Crowther, Jason E.; Martin, Randi C.

2014-01-01

303

[Lexical fields of predictive and personalized medicine].  

PubMed

After human genome mapping, omics revolution and empowering sequencing technologies developed at the turn of the century, new deals are to switch from population medicine to individual therapies, from curing the disease to preventing it. This review by the pharmacogenetics and predictive medicine working group of the French clinical biology society (SFBC) aims at placing into perspective the notions of tailored medicine, pharmacogenetics, genetics and genomics, emphasizing their interactions and discussing their signifiance according to researchers and to clinicians. PMID:23207809

Mathieu, Thierry; Bermont, Laurent; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Versuyft, Céline; Evrard, Alexandre; Cuvelier, Isabelle; Couderc, Remy; Peoc'h, Katell

2012-01-01

304

An fMRI study of visual lexical decision in patients with schizophrenia and clinical high-risk individuals.  

PubMed

Disturbances in semantic and phonological aspects of language processing are indicated in patients with schizophrenia, and in high-risk individuals for schizophrenia. To uncover neural correlates of the disturbances, a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a visual lexical decision task in block design reported less leftward lateralization in the inferior frontal cortices, in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with high genetic risk for psychosis compared with normal control subjects. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has investigated contrasts between word and non-word processing that allow dissociation between semantic and phonological processing using event-related design visual lexical decision fMRI tasks in subjects with ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) and patients with schizophrenia. In the current study, 20 patients with schizophrenia, 11 UHR, and 20 demographically matched controls underwent lexical decision fMRI tasks. Compared with controls, both schizophrenia and UHR groups showed significantly decreased activity in response to non-words compared with words in the inferior frontal regions. Additionally, decreased leftward lateralization in the non-word compared with word activity contrast was found in subjects with UHR compared with controls, which was not evident in patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest neural correlates of difficulty in phonological aspects of language processing during non-word processing in contrast to word, which at least partially commonly underlies the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and UHR. Together with a previous study in genetic high-risk subjects, the current results also suggest that reduced functional lateralization in the language-related frontal cortex may be a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia. Furthermore, the current result may suggest that the genetic basis of psychosis is presumed to be related to the evolution of the language capacity characteristic of humans. PMID:24893907

Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Yahata, Noriaki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Koike, Shinsuke; Gonoi, Wataru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

2014-08-01

305

Characteristics of corium debris bed generated in large-scale fuel-coolant interaction experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of corium debris as the result of fuel-coolant interaction (energetic or not) has been studied experimentally in the FARO and KROTOS facilities operated at JRC-Ispra between 1991 and 1999. Experiments were performed with 3–177kg of UO2–ZrO2 and UO2–ZrO2–Zr melts, quenched in water at depth between 1 and 2m, and pressure between 0.1 and 5.0MPa. The effect of various

D. Magallon

2006-01-01

306

Spectra of hadrons and muons in the atmosphere: primary spectra, characteristics of hadron-air interactions  

E-print Network

Self-consistency of interaction models QGSJET 01, SIBYLL 2.1, NEXUS 3.97 and QGSJET II is checked in terms of their ability to reproduce simultaneously experimental data on fluxes of muons and hadrons. From this point of view SIBYLL 2.1 gives the most acceptable, though not quite satisfactory, results. Analysis of the situation for muons supports our previous conclusions, that high-energy muon deficit is due both to underestimation of primary light nuclei fluxes in direct emulsion chamber experiments and to softness of $p+A\\to\\pi^\\pm,K^\\pm+X$ inclusive spectra in fragmentation region, especially prominent in case of QGSJET 01 model.

A. V. Yushkov; A. A. Lagutin

2006-12-01

307

Detection of Lexical and Morphological Anomalies by Children with and without Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The abilities of 5-year-old children with and without language impairment (LI) to detect anomalies involving lexical items and grammatical morphemes in stories were compared. The influence of sentence versus discourse context on lexical anomaly detection rates was explored. Method: The participants were read 3 story scripts and asked to…

Pawlowska, Monika; Robinson, Sarah; Seddoh, Amebu

2014-01-01

308

Lexical Enrichment of a Human Anatomy Ontology using WordNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with lexical enrichment of ontolo- gies, i.e. how to enrich a given ontology with lexical entries derived from a semantic lexicon. We present an approach towards the integration of both types of resources, in particular for the human anatomy domain as represented by the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). The paper describes our approach on combining

Nils Reiter; Paul Buitelaar

309

Lexical Bundle Analysis in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: The Significance of Stance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we introduce the lexical bundle, defined by corpus linguists as a group of three or more words that frequently recur together, in a single group, in a particular register (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, & Finegan, 2006; Cortes, "English for Specific Purposes" 23:397-423, 2004). Attention to lexical bundles helps to explore…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David; Cortes, Viviana

2010-01-01

310

"If you look at" ...: Lexical Bundles in University Teaching and Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the use of multi-word sequences in two important university registers: classroom teaching and textbooks. Following Biber et al. (1999), we take a frequency driven approach to the identification of multi-word sequences, referred to as "lexical bundles". We compare the lexical bundles in classroom teaching and textbooks to…

Biber, Douglas; Conrad, Susan; Cortes, Viviana

2004-01-01

311

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

312

Lexical Bundles in the Academic Writing of Advanced Chinese EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the use of lexical bundles in the academic writing of advanced Chinese EFL learners. A corpus of doctoral dissertations by the learners and a corpus of published journal articles by professional writers were collected for the study. Four-word lexical bundles in the two corpora were identified and analysed. Results…

Wei, Yaoyu; Lei, Lei

2011-01-01

313

"The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

Cortes, Viviana

2013-01-01

314

English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

2009-01-01

315

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

316

How Bad Do You Spell?: The Lexical Quality of Social Media  

E-print Network

knowledge there are no similar studies for other classes of social media Web sites. On thHow Bad Do You Spell?: The Lexical Quality of Social Media Ricardo Baeza-Yates Yahoo! Research Barcelona, Spain Abstract In this study we present an analysis of the lexical quality of social media

317

Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

2013-01-01

318

Lexical Stress Modeling for Improved Speech Recognition of Spontaneous Telephone Speech in the JUPITER Domain1  

E-print Network

greatly reduce the number of com- peting word candidates [4]. Clearly, lexical stress contains use- ful on the recognition of stress patterns to reduce word candidates for large-vocabulary isolated word recognition [4, 5Lexical Stress Modeling for Improved Speech Recognition of Spontaneous Telephone Speech

319

Feature and Model Level Compensation of Lexical Content for Facial Emotion Recognition  

E-print Network

Feature and Model Level Compensation of Lexical Content for Facial Emotion Recognition Soroosh Mariooryad and Carlos Busso Abstract-- Along with emotions, modulation of the lexical content is an integral variability for solving the facial emotion recognition problem, especially in continuous frame

Busso, Carlos

320

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2012-01-01

321

The Role of Lexical Frequency in Syntactic Variability: Variable Subject Personal Pronoun Expression in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much recent work argues that lexical frequency plays a central explanatory role in linguistic theory, but the status, predicted effects, and methodological treatment of frequency are controversial, especially so in the less-investigated area of syntactic variation. This article addresses these issues in a case study of lexical frequency effects on…

Erker, Daniel; Guy, Gregory R.

2012-01-01

322

Longitudinal Relationships between Lexical and Grammatical Development in Typical and Late-Talking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal relationships between lexical and grammatical development in typically developing (TD) and late-talking children for the purposes of testing the single-mechanism account of language acquisition and comparing the developmental trajectories of lexical and grammatical development in late-talking and TD…

Moyle, Maura Jones; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Evans, Julia L.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

2007-01-01

323

Automatic Sign Language Analysis: A Survey and the Future beyond Lexical Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in automatic analysis of sign language has largely focused on recognizing the lexical (or citation) form of sign gestures, as they appear in continuous signing, and developing algorithms that scale well to large vocabularies. However, successful recognition of lexical signs is not sufficient for a full understanding of sign language communication. Nonmanual signals and grammatical processes, which result in

Sylvie C. W. Ong; Surendra Ranganath

2005-01-01

324

Kinematic Properties of Lexical and Transitional Movements in Sign Language of the Netherlands: A  

E-print Network

Kinematic Properties of Lexical and Transitional Movements in Sign Language of the Netherlands of the lexical sign movements versus those of the transitional movements between signs in signed languages the phonetic movement of the fingers of signers of Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT). Changes across

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

325

Lexical Encoding of L2 Tones: The Role of L1 Stress, Pitch Accent and Intonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native language prosodic structure is known to modulate the processing of non-native suprasegmental information. It has been shown that native speakers of French, a language without lexical stress, have difficulties storing non-native stress contrasts. We investigated whether the ability to store lexical tone (as in Mandarin Chinese) also depends…

Braun, Bettina; Galts, Tobias; Kabak, Baris

2014-01-01

326

Age-related differences in lexical access, spreading activation, and simple pronunciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to address age-related differences in lexical access, spreading activa- tion, and pronunciation. Both young and older adults participated in a delayed pronunciation task to trace the time course of lexical access and a semantic priming task to trace the time course of spreading activation. In the delayed pronunciation task, subjects were presented a word and then,

David A. Balota; Janet M. Duchek

1988-01-01

327

Disambiguating Form and Lexical Frequency Effects in MEG Responses Using Homonyms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an MEG study of homonym recognition in reading, identifying effects of a semantic measure of homonym ambiguity. This measure sheds light on two competing theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing; and the "late access" theory, which…

Simon, Dylan Alexander; Lewis, Gwyneth; Marantz, Alec

2012-01-01

328

Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

2009-01-01

329

Meaning Selection and the Subcortex: Evidence of Reduced Lexical Ambiguity Repetition Effects Following Subcortical Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research indicates that individuals with nonthalamic subcortical (NS) lesions can experience difficulties processing lexical ambiguities in a variety of contexts. This study examined how prior processing of a lexical ambiguity influences subsequent meaning activation in 10 individuals with NS lesions and 10 matched healthy controls.…

Copland, David A.

2006-01-01

330

Distinguishing the Time Course of Lexical and Discourse Processes through Context, Coreference, and Quantified Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does prior context influence lexical and discourse-level processing during real-time language comprehension? Experiment 1 examined whether the referential ambiguity introduced by a repeated, anaphoric expression had an immediate or delayed effect on lexical and discourse processing, using an eye-tracking-while-reading task. Eye movements…

Huang, Yi Ting; Gordon, Peter C.

2011-01-01

331

Part-of-Speech Persistence: The Influence of Part-of-Speech Information on Lexical Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents three naming experiments designed to investigate whether the activation levels of syntactic features associated with lexical items, specifically part-of-speech information, can influence lexical processes. Naming preferences for orthographically ambiguous but phonologically distinct English nouns and verbs, such as "convict"…

Melinger, Alissa; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

332

Lexical Generalisation for Word-level Matching in Plagiarism Detection Miranda Chong  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing (NLP) in automatic plagiarism detection. The hy- pothesis is that by enhancing. This paper investigates the use of pre- processing, morphological and lexical semantics techniques fromLexical Generalisation for Word-level Matching in Plagiarism Detection Miranda Chong University

Specia, Lucia

333

Rater Sensitivity to Lexical Accuracy, Sophistication and Range when Assessing Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although raters can be trained to evaluate the lexical qualities of student essays, the question remains as to what extent raters follow the "lexis" scale descriptors in the rating scale when evaluating or rate according to their own criteria. The current study examines the extent to which 27 trained university EFL raters take various lexical…

Fritz, Erik; Ruegg, Rachael

2013-01-01

334

How to Say "No" to a Nonword: A Leaky Competing Accumulator Model of Lexical Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model of the lexical decision task that can be used as a response/decision module for any computational model of word recognition. The LCA model uses evidence for a word, operationalized as some measure of lexical activity, as input to the "YES" decision node. Input to the "NO" decision node is…

Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan; Ziegler, Johannes C.

2012-01-01

335

Optical Phonetics and Visual Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress in English  

E-print Network

Optical Phonetics and Visual Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress in English Patricia Keating of Bristol, England ** House Ear Institute, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Three male American English talkers spoke words that differed in lexical stress, and sentences that differed in phrasal stress, while video and movements

Alwan, Abeer

336

Bootstrapping a Unified Model of Lexical and Phonetic Acquisition Micha Elsner  

E-print Network

Bootstrapping a Unified Model of Lexical and Phonetic Acquisition Micha Elsner melsner0@gmail early language acquisition, infants must learn both a lexicon and a model of phonet- ics that explains evidence suggests infants acquire lexical and phonetic knowledge simultaneously. We present a Bayesian

Edinburgh, University of

337

Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

2013-01-01

338

Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu  

E-print Network

Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu National Taiwan Using Mandarin Chinese, a "tone language" in which the pitch contours of syllables differentiate words to lexical tones. Sixteen Mandarin-speaking mothers were recorded while addressing their infants

339

On Lexicalized Valency and the Valency of (New) Complex Verbal Formations in Slovenian  

E-print Network

] (lexical semantic feature) vi [you] / delati [to do] (word-formational SF) vi [you] > vikati [to address someone formally], iti [to go] (lexical SF) kot štorklja [as a stork] / delati [to do] (word-formational SF) kot štorklja [as a stork] > štorkljati...

Žele, Andreja

2013-01-01

340

A Method to Generate Large Common-Sense Knowledge Bases from Online Lexical Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general method to automati- cally build large knowledge bases from online lexical resources. While our experiments were limited to gen- erate a knowledge base from WordNet, an online lexi- cal database, the method is applicable to any type of dictionary organized around the elementary structure lexical entry - denition(s) . The advantages of using WordNet, or

Vasile Rus

2005-01-01

341

"Heating up" or "Cooling up" the Brain? MEG Evidence that Phrasal Verbs Are Lexical Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a considerable linguistic debate on whether phrasal verbs (e.g., "turn up," "break down") are processed as two separate words connected by a syntactic rule or whether they form a single lexical unit. Moreover, views differ on whether meaning (transparency vs. opacity) plays a role in determining their syntactically-connected or lexical…

Cappelle, Bert; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

2010-01-01

342

Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of "Random"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words that are part of colloquial English but used differently in a technical domain may possess lexical ambiguity. The use of such words by instructors may inhibit student learning if incorrect connections are made by students between the technical and colloquial meanings. One fundamental word in statistics that has lexical ambiguity for students…

Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

2014-01-01

343

Testing for Lexical Competition during Reading: Fast Priming with Orthographic Neighbors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the fast priming…

Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

344

BALANCING BILINGUALS: LEXICAL-SEMANTIC PRODUCTION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN CHILDREN  

E-print Network

BALANCING BILINGUALS: LEXICAL-SEMANTIC PRODUCTION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN CHILDREN LEARNING Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92092-0526 or via electronic mail at: kkohnert@crl.ucsd.edu. #12;2 BALANCING BILINGUALS: LEXICAL-SEMANTIC PRODUCTION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN CHILDREN LEARNING SPANISH AND ENGLISH

345

Brief Report: An Exploratory Study of Lexical Skills in Bilingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying lexical diversity in bilingual children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can contribute important information to our understanding of language development in this diverse population. In this exploratory study, lexical comprehension and production and overall language skills were investigated in 14 English-Chinese bilingual and 14…

Petersen, Jill M.; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Mirenda, Pat

2012-01-01

346

Inter- and Intralingual Lexical Influences in Advanced Learners' French L3 Oral Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates lexical inter- and intralingual influences in the oral production of 14 very advanced learners of French L3. Lexical deviances are divided into two main categories: formal influence and meaning-based influence. The results show that, as predicted with respect to advanced learners, meaning-based influence is the most…

Lindqvist, Christina

2010-01-01

347

Effects of Lexical Cohesion and Macrorules on EFL Students' Main Idea Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of an instructional procedure which incorporated lexical cohesion and macrorules to promote main idea comprehension of Thai EFL students. One hundred and six undergraduate students taking a reading module were randomly assigned to one of three teaching conditions: the combined use of lexical cohesion and…

Wilawan, Sujunya

2011-01-01

348

Evidence for an Activation Locus of the Word-Frequency Effect in Lexical Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report a lexical decision experiment designed to determine whether activation is the locus of the word-frequency effect. K. R. Paap and L. S. Johansen (1994) reported that word frequency did not affect lexical decisions when exposure durations were brief; they accounted for this by proposing that data-limited conditions prevented…

Allen, Philip A.; Smith, Albert F.; Lien, Mei-Ching; Grabbe, Jeremy; Murphy, Martin D.

2005-01-01

349

The Role of Low-Spatial Frequencies in Lexical Decision and Masked Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial frequency filtering was used to test the hypotheses that low-spatial frequency information in printed text can: (1) lead to a rapid lexical decision or (2) facilitate word recognition. Adult proficient readers made lexical decisions in unprimed and masked repetition priming experiments with unfiltered, low-pass, high-pass and notch…

Boden, C.; Giaschi, D.

2009-01-01

350

A FAST LEXICALLY CONSTRAINED VITERBI ALGORITHM FOR ON-LINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

A FAST LEXICALLY CONSTRAINED VITERBI ALGORITHM FOR ON- LINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION ALAIN LIFCHITZ.maire@qut.edu.au Abstract : Most on-line cursive handwriting recognition systems use a lexical constraint to help improve are also applicable to Handwriting Recognition (HWR), which shares many features with ASR especially

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Nonword Repetition Priming in Lexical Decision Reverses as a Function of Study Task and Speed Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argue that nonword repetition priming in lexical decision is the net result of 2 opposing processes. First, repeating nonwords in the lexical decision task results in the storage of a memory trace containing the interpretation that the letter string is a nonword; retrieval of this trace leads to an increase in performance for repeated…

Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Shiffrin, Richard M.

2004-01-01

352

Gefitinib Induces Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Dimers Which Alters the Interaction Characteristics with 125I-EGF  

PubMed Central

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib inhibits growth in some tumor types by targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Previous studies show that the affinity of the EGF-EGFR interaction varies between hosting cell line, and that gefitinib increases the affinity for some cell lines. In this paper, we investigate possible mechanisms behind these observations. Real-time interaction analysis in LigandTracer® Grey revealed that the HER2 dimerization preventing antibody pertuzumab clearly modified the binding of 125I-EGF to EGFR on HER2 overexpressing SKOV3 cells in the presence of gefitinib. Pertuzumab did not affect the binding on A431 cells, which express low levels of HER2. Cross-linking measurements showed that gefitinib increased the amount of EGFR dimers 3.0–3.8 times in A431 cells in the absence of EGF. In EGF stimulated SKOV3 cells the amount of EGFR dimers increased 1.8–2.2 times by gefitinib, but this effect was cancelled by pertuzumab. Gefitinib treatment did not alter the number of EGFR or HER2 expressed in tumor cell lines A431, U343, SKOV3 and SKBR3. Real-time binding traces were further analyzed in a novel tool, Interaction Map, which deciphered the different components of the measured interaction and supports EGF binding to multiple binding sites. EGFR and HER2 expression affect the levels of EGFR monomers, homodimers and heterodimers and EGF binds to the various monomeric/dimeric forms of EGFR with unique binding properties. Taken together, we conclude that dimerization explains the varying affinity of EGF – EGFR in different cells, and we propose that gefitinib induces EGFR dimmers, which alters the interaction characteristics with 125I-EGF. PMID:21931838

Björkelund, Hanna; Gedda, Lars; Barta, Pavel; Malmqvist, Magnus; Andersson, Karl

2011-01-01

353

Rotor wake characteristics relevant to rotor-stator interaction noise generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mean and turbulent wake properties at three axial locations behind the rotor of an aerodynamically loaded 1.2 pressure ratio fan were measured using a stationary cross film anemometer in an anechoic wind tunnel. Wake characteristics at four radial immersions across the duct at four different fan speeds were determined utilizing a signal enhancement technique. The shapes of the waveforms of the mean rotor relative and mean upwash velocities were shown to change significantly across the span of the blades. In addition, an increase in fan rotational speed caused an increase in the maximum wake turbulence intensity levels near the hub and tip. Spectral analysis was used to described the complex nature of the rotor wake.

Shaw, L. M.; Balombin, J. R.

1981-01-01

354

Study on the interaction characteristics of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching in combination with UV-Vis spectroscopic method under near physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching rate constants and binding constants for BSA-cefamandole system were determined at different temperatures. The fluorescence quenching of BSA by cefamandole is due to static quenching and energy transfer. The results of thermodynamic parameters, ?H (-268.0 kJ mol-1), ?S (-810.0 J mol-1 K-1) and ?G (-26.62 to -8.52 kJ mol-1), indicated that van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding played a major role for cefamandole-BSA association. The competitive experiments demonstrated that the primary binding site of cefamandole on BSA was located at site III in sub-domain IIIA of BSA. The distance between cefamandole and a tryptophane unit was estimated to be 1.18 nm based on the Förster resonance energy transfer theory. The binding constant (KA) of BSA-cefamandole at 298 K was 2.239 × 104 L mol-1. Circular dichroism spectra, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence studies showed that the presence of cefamandole could change the conformation of BSA during the binding process.

Wang, Qian; Liu, Xuyang; Su, Ming; Shi, Zhihong; Sun, Hanwen

2015-02-01

355

Study on the interaction characteristics of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic technique.  

PubMed

The interaction of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching in combination with UV-Vis spectroscopic method under near physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching rate constants and binding constants for BSA-cefamandole system were determined at different temperatures. The fluorescence quenching of BSA by cefamandole is due to static quenching and energy transfer. The results of thermodynamic parameters, ?H (-268.0 kJ mol(-1)), ?S (-810.0 J mol(-1) K(-1)) and ?G (-26.62 to -8.52 kJ mol(-1)), indicated that van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding played a major role for cefamandole-BSA association. The competitive experiments demonstrated that the primary binding site of cefamandole on BSA was located at site III in sub-domain IIIA of BSA. The distance between cefamandole and a tryptophane unit was estimated to be 1.18 nm based on the Förster resonance energy transfer theory. The binding constant (KA) of BSA-cefamandole at 298 K was 2.239×10(4) L mol(-1). Circular dichroism spectra, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence studies showed that the presence of cefamandole could change the conformation of BSA during the binding process. PMID:25448935

Wang, Qian; Liu, Xuyang; Su, Ming; Shi, Zhihong; Sun, Hanwen

2015-02-01

356

Flocculating characteristic of activated sludge flocs: interaction between Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances.  

PubMed

Aluminum flocculant can enhance the flocculating performance of activated sludge. However, the binding mechanism of aluminum ion (Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge is unclear due to the complexity of EPS. In this work, three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM), fluorescence quenching titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to explore the binding behavior and mechanism between Al(3+) and EPS. The results showed that two fluorescence peaks of tyrosine- and tryptophan-like substances were identified in the loosely bound-extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), and three peaks of tyrosine-, tryptophan- and humic-like substances were identified in the tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS). It was found that these fluorescence peaks could be quenched with Al(3+) at the dosage of 3.0 mg/L, which demonstrated that strong interactions took place between the EPS and Al(3+). The conditional stability constants for Al(3+) and EPS were determined by the Stern-Volmer equation. As to the binding mechanism, the -OH, N-H, C=O, C-N groups and the sulfur- and phosphorus-containing groups showed complexation action, although the groups in the LB-EPS and TB-EPS showed different behavior. The TB-EPS have stronger binding ability to Al(3+) than the LB-EPS, and TB-EPS play an important role in the interaction with Al(3+). PMID:24218821

Ruan, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

2013-05-01

357

The Interplay of Teacher and Student Characteristics that Affect Student Learning, Attitudes, and Coping Skills. Final Report of the Teaching-Learning Interaction Study. Volumes I-III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teaching-Learning Interaction Study tested the separate and interactive effects of teacher and student entry characteristics on their subsequent classroom behavior, and the effect of that behavior on students' regressed gain, over a school year, in achievement, attitudes toward school, self-esteem, and coping skills. Fifty-three tri-ethnic…

Peck, Robert F.; And Others

358

Immediate Auditory Repetition of Words and Nonwords: An ERP Study of Lexical and Sublexical Processing  

PubMed Central

ERPs were elicited to (1) words, (2) pseudowords derived from these words, and (3) nonwords with no lexical neighbors, in a task involving listening to immediately repeated auditory stimuli. There was a significant early (P200) effect of phonotactic probability in the first auditory presentation, which discriminated words and pseudowords from nonwords; and a significant somewhat later (N400) effect of lexicality, which discriminated words from pseudowords and nonwords. There was no reliable effect of lexicality in the ERPs to the second auditory presentation. We conclude that early sublexical phonological processing differed according to phonotactic probability of the stimuli, and that lexically-based redintegration occurred for words but did not occur for pseudowords or nonwords. Thus, in online word recognition and immediate retrieval, phonological and/or sublexical processing plays a more important role than lexical level redintegration. PMID:24642662

Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Riddell, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

359

ILexicOn: toward an ECD-compliant interlingual lexical ontology described with semantic web formalisms  

E-print Network

We are interested in bridging the world of natural language and the world of the semantic web in particular to support natural multilingual access to the web of data. In this paper we introduce a new type of lexical ontology called interlingual lexical ontology (ILexicOn), which uses semantic web formalisms to make each interlingual lexical unit class (ILUc) support the projection of its semantic decomposition on itself. After a short overview of existing lexical ontologies, we briefly introduce the semantic web formalisms we use. We then present the three layered architecture of our approach: i) the interlingual lexical meta-ontology (ILexiMOn); ii) the ILexicOn where ILUcs are formally defined; iii) the data layer. We illustrate our approach with a standalone ILexicOn, and introduce and explain a concise human-readable notation to represent ILexicOns. Finally, we show how semantic web formalisms enable the projection of a semantic decomposition on the decomposed ILUc.

Lefrançois, Maxime

2012-01-01

360

The effects of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine on life history characteristics of flat-headed mayflies (Heptageniidae) and aquatic resource interactions.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical pollutants are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems around the world and have biological effects on aquatic organisms. However, current understanding of the influence this contaminant class has on freshwater communities and ecosystems is lacking. Recently the scientific community has called for research focusing on certain pharmaceuticals due to their ubiquity and potential toxicity. Carbamazepine is one of these pharmaceuticals. To better understand the effect carbamazepine has on life history characteristics of aquatic organisms and consumer-resource interactions, we quantified the influence of carbamazepine on the development, growth and behavior of mayfly nymphs (Stenonema sp.) and the alterations in food consumer-resource interactions between Stenonema and algae (Chaetophora). Microcosms were assembled in a factorial design containing algae and mayfly nymphs native to central Indiana and dosed with environmentally relevant concentrations of carbamazepine. From this ecotoxicological experiment we were able to infer that carbamazepine at 2,000 ng/L influenced the development and behavior of Stenonema nymphs and the body dimensions of adult individuals. However, it appears that carbamazepine does not influence consumer-resource interactions at concentrations found in surface waters. The pharmaceutical carbamazepine may influence the behavior, growth and development of mayflies, which could have significant consequences at the population, community and ecosystem level. PMID:25130701

Jarvis, Amanda L; Bernot, Melody J; Bernot, Randall J

2014-11-01

361

Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

Erickson, Gary E.

1991-01-01

362

Spacetime is Locally Inertial at Points of General Relativistic Shock Wave Interaction between Shocks from Different Characteristic Families  

E-print Network

We prove that spacetime is locally inertial at points of shock wave collision in General Relativity. The result applies for collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. We give a constructive proof that there exist coordinate transformations which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from $C^{0,1}$ to $C^{1,1}$ in a neighborhood of such points of shock wave interaction, and a $C^{1,1}$ metric regularity suffices for locally inertial frames to exist. This result corrects an error in our earlier RSPA-publication, which led us to the wrong conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to $C^{1,1}$, cannot exist. Our result here proves that regularity singularities, (a type of mild singularity introduced in our RSPA-publication), do \\emph{not exist} at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes, and this generalizes Israel's famous 1966 result to the case of such shock wave interactions. The strategy of proof here is an extension of the strategy outlined in our RSPA-paper, but differs fundamentally from the method used by Israel. The question whether regularity singularities exist in more complicated shock wave solutions of the Einstein Euler equations still remains open.

Moritz Reintjes

2014-09-17

363

Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders’ Word Reading Achievement  

PubMed Central

Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes. PMID:22229058

Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry

2011-01-01

364

Lexical fields of predictive and personalized medicine.  

PubMed

With human genome mapping, the omics revolution and the empowering sequencing technologies developed at the turn of the century, the new goals in medicine are to switch from population medicine to individualized therapies, not only to cure diseases but also to prevent them. The purpose of this review by the pharmacogenetics and predictive medicine working group of the French clinical biology society (SFBC) is to situate in their correct context the notions of personalized medicine, pharmacogenetics, genetics and genomics, emphasizing their interactions and discussing their significance for researchers and clinicians. PMID:23740683

Mathieu, Thierry; Bermont, Laurent; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Versuyft, Céline; Evrard, Alexandre; Cuvelier, Isabelle; Couderc, Remy; Peoc'h, Katell

2013-01-01

365

Characteristics and regulation of interaction of avian retrovirus pp12 protein with viral RNA.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the interaction of the avian retrovirus pp12 protein with viral RNA to assess its possible role in virion assembly. Using chemical modification techniques, we found that reagents specific for lysine or arginine residues inactivated the RNA-binding capacity of the protein. The binding of pp12 to 60S viral RNA was also strongly affected by pH (pKapp of 5.5); the affinity for viral RNA decreased by as much as 40-fold after protonation of one or more titratable groups on the protein. When the protein was cleaved by cyanogen bromide, each of the two polypeptide products bound to RNA (with low affinity), but pH dependence was lost. Thus, an intact protein was required for this effect. Since histidine and phosphoserine residues have pKa values close to the pKapp of the pp12-RNA interaction, they were studied to determine whether they were involved in this process. Each of the two histidyl residues in pp12 had pKa values of 6.2, as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance titrations, values too high to account for the pKapp of binding. The involvement of phosphoserine residues, which have pKa values similar to the pKapp, was investigated by removal of phosphate from pp12. When phosphate groups were chemically or enzymatically removed from the avian myeloblastosis virus, Rous sarcoma virus (Pr-C), and PR-E 95C virus pp12 proteins, the Kapp for binding 60S viral RNA was reduced 100-fold at pH 7.5. Thus, it seems possible that phosphorylation of the pp12 protein could favor viral nucleocapsid formation by increasing its affinity for the viral RNA genome. Dephosphorylation could provide for its release from the viral RNA during reverse transcription after viral infection of cells. Images PMID:6312093

Leis, J; Jentoft, J

1983-01-01

366

Magellan Aerodynamic Characteristics During the Termination Experiment Including Thruster Plume-Free Stream Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Magellan spacecraft during the October 1994 Termination Experiment, including the effects of the thruster engine exhaust plumes upon the molecular free stream around the spacecraft and upon the aerodynamics coefficients. As Magellan passed through the Venusian atmosphere, the solar arrays were turned in opposite directions relative to the free stream creating a torque on the spacecraft. The spacecraft control system was programmed to counter the effects of this torque with attitude control engines to maintain an inertially fixed attitude. The orientation and reaction engine telemetry returned from Magellan are used to create a model of the aerodynamic torques. Geometric models of the Magellan spacecraft are analyzed with the aid of both free molecular and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes. The simulated aerodynamic torques determined are compared to the measured torques. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is also used to model the attitude engine exhaust plumes, the free stream disturbance caused by these plumes, and the resulting torques acting on the spacecraft compared to no-exhaust plume cases. The effect of the exhaust plumes was found to be sufficiently large that thrust reversal is possible.

Cestero, Francisco J.; Tolson, Robert H.

1998-01-01

367

Characteristics of sarcoplasmic proteins and their interaction with surimi and kamaboko gel.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of adding common carp sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp- P) on the gel characteristics of threadfin bream surimi and kamaboko while maintaining constant moisture and myofibrillar levels. Based on the temperature sweep test, which is involved in heating of surimi gel from 10 to 80 degrees C to monitor the viscoelastic properties, at temperature range of 40 to 50 degrees C, the decrease level (depth of valley) in storage modulus (G') thermograph was in proportion to the concentration of added Sp- P. Storage modulus (G') showed greater elasticity after adding Sp- P compared with the control without Sp- P. Furthermore, the breaking force and distance and consequently gel strength of the resultant kamaboko were improved significantly (P > 0.05). Thus, added Sp- P did not interfere with myofibrillar proteins during sol-gel transition phase but associated with textural quality enhancement of resultant kamaboko; however, addition of Sp- P from the dark muscle of the carp decreased the whiteness of the resultant surimi. Furthermore, according to the SEM micrographs, the gel strength could not be associated with either the number of polygonal structures/mm(2) or the area of the polygonal structures in the kamaboko gel microstructure. PMID:19200110

Jafarpour, A; Gorczyca, E M

2009-01-01

368

Lexical orthography acquisition: Is handwriting better than spelling aloud?  

PubMed Central

Lexical orthography acquisition is currently described as the building of links between the visual forms and the auditory forms of whole words. However, a growing body of data suggests that a motor component could further be involved in orthographic acquisition. A few studies support the idea that reading plus handwriting is a better lexical orthographic learning situation than reading alone. However, these studies did not explore which of the cognitive processes involved in handwriting enhanced lexical orthographic acquisition. Some findings suggest that the specific movements memorized when learning to write may participate in the establishment of orthographic representations in memory. The aim of the present study was to assess this hypothesis using handwriting and spelling aloud as two learning conditions. In two experiments, fifth graders were asked to read complex pseudo-words embedded in short sentences. Immediately after reading, participants had to recall the pseudo-words' spellings either by spelling them aloud or by handwriting them down. One week later, orthographic acquisition was tested using two post-tests: a pseudo-word production task (spelling by hand in Experiment 1 or spelling aloud in Experiment 2) and a pseudo-word recognition task. Results showed no significant difference in pseudo-word recognition between the two learning conditions. In the pseudo-word production task, orthography learning improved when the learning and post-test conditions were similar, thus showing a massive encoding-retrieval match effect in the two experiments. However, a mixed model analysis of the pseudo-word production results revealed a significant learning condition effect which remained after control of the encoding-retrieval match effect. This later finding suggests that orthography learning is more efficient when mediated by handwriting than by spelling aloud, whatever the post-test production task. PMID:24575058

Bosse, Marie-Line; Chaves, Nathalie; Valdois, Sylviane

2014-01-01

369

Performance of a Lexical and POS Tagger for Sanskrit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the phonetic, morphological, and lexical complexity of Sanskrit, the automatic analysis of this language is a real challenge in the area of natural language processing. The paper describes a series of tests that were performed to assess the accuracy of the tagging program SanskritTagger. To our knowlegde, it offers the first reliable benchmark data for evaluating the quality of taggers for Sanskrit using an unrestricted dictionary and texts from different domains. Based on a detailed analysis of the test results, the paper points out possible directions for future improvements of statistical tagging procedures for Sanskrit.

Hellwig, Oliver

370

The Arabic Lexical Contributions to the English Language  

E-print Network

lengua espa?ola (1902); Fraser Mackenzie treated French and English in Les relations de I 'Angleterre et de la France d'apr?s Ie vocabulaire (1939); Ernest Garnillscheg treated French in Etymologisches W?rterbuch der franz?sischen Sprache (1969); and T... in the English vocabulary (1939), Charles Barrett Brown's Contribution of Greek to English (1942) and Contribution of Latin to English (1946), Mimi Chan and Helen Kwok's Study of lexical borrowing from Chinese into English with special reference to Hong Kong...

Cannon, Garland; Kaye, Alan S.

2007-03-05

371

Investigation of interactions between limb-manipulator dynamics and effective vehicle roll control characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed-base simulation was performed to identify and quantify interactions between the pilot's hand/arm neuromuscular subsystem and such features of typical modern fighter aircraft roll rate command control system mechanization as: (1) force sensing side-stick type manipulator; (2) vehicle effective role time constant; and (3) flight control system effective time delay. The simulation results provide insight to high frequency pilot induced oscillations (PIO) (roll ratchet), low frequency PIO, and roll-to-right control and handling problems previously observed in experimental and production fly-by-wire control systems. The simulation configurations encompass and/or duplicate actual flight situations, reproduce control problems observed in flight, and validate the concept that the high frequency nuisance mode known as roll ratchet derives primarily from the pilot's neuromuscular subsystem. The simulations show that force-sensing side-stick manipulator force/displacement/command gradients, command prefilters, and flight control system time delays need to be carefully adjusted to minimize neuromuscular mode amplitude peaking (roll ratchet tendency) without restricting roll control bandwidth (with resulting sluggish or PIO prone control).

Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

1986-01-01

372

Myoblast alignment on 2D wavy patterns: dependence on feature characteristics and cell-cell interaction.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate the effects of micron-scale surface patterns on the alignment of individual cells and groups of cells. Using a simple replication molding process we produce a number of micron-scale periodic wavy patterns with different pitch and depth. We observe C2C12 cells as they grow to confluence on these patterns and find that, for some geometries, cell-cell interaction leads to global alignment in a confluent culture when individual cells would not align on the same pattern. Three types of alignment behavior are thus defined: no alignment, immediate alignment, and alignment upon confluence. To further characterize this response, we introduce a non-dimensional parameter that describes the aligning power of a periodic pattern based on its geometry. The three types of alignment behavior can be distinguished by the value of the alignment parameter, and we identify values at which the transitions in alignment behavior occur. Applying this parameter to data from the current and several earlier studies reveals that the parameter successfully describes substrate aligning power over a wide range of length scales for both wavy and grooved features. PMID:24643546

Grigola, Michael S; Dyck, Casey L; Babacan, Derin S; Joaquin, Danielle N; Hsia, K Jimmy

2014-08-01

373

Surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash particles after interaction with seawater under natural deep sea conditions  

SciTech Connect

The surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash (CFA) before and after interaction with Mediterranean deep seawater was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Significantly lower values of Si, Ca, and S and higher values of Mg and Cl were found in the retrieved CFA as compared to fresh CFA. It is suggested that hydrolysis of the oxide matrixes results in an alkaline environment which rapidly leads to several chemical reactions. The two most important are (a) dissolution of the amorphous silicate and the calcium phases and (b) precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2}-brucite. A depth profile of the retrieved CFA was measured by both line-shape analysis of the XPS spectra and by consecutive cycle of sputtering. The thickness of the brucite layer is estimated to be 1.3 nm.

Brami, Y.; Shemesh, A.; Cohen, H. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)] [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Herut, B. [National Inst. of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)] [National Inst. of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

1999-01-15

374

Liquid lithium divertor characteristics and plasma-material interactions in NSTX high-performance plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. The LLD consisted of a copper-backed structure with a porous molybdenum front face. Nominal Li filling levels by the end of the run campaign exceeded the porosity void fraction by 150%. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. In addition, no substrate line emission was observed after achieving lithium-melt temperatures indicating the lithium wicks and provides a protective coating on the molybdenum porous layer. Impurity emission from the divertor suggests that the plasma is interacting with oxygen-contaminated lithium whether diverted on the LLD or not. A database of LLD discharges is analysed to consider whether there is a net effect on the discharges over the range of total deposited lithium in the machine. Examination of H-97L indicates that performance was constant throughout the run, consistent with the hypothesis that it is the quality of the surface layers of the lithium that impact performance. The accumulation of impurities suggests a fully flowing liquid lithium system to obtain a steady-state PFC on timescales relevant to NSTX.

Jaworski, M. A.; Abrams, T.; Allain, J. P.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Menard, J.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stotler, D. P.; the NSTX Team

2013-08-01

375

Speech Segmentation by Native and Non-Native Speakers: The Use of Lexical, Syntactic, and Stress-Pattern Cues  

PubMed Central

Varying degrees of plasticity in different subsystems of language have been demonstrated by studies showing that some aspects of language are processed similarly by native speakers and late-learners whereas other aspects are processed differently by the two groups. The study of speech segmentation provides a means by which the ability to process different types of linguistic information can be measured within the same task, because lexical, syntactic, and stress-pattern information can all indicate where one word ends and the next begins in continuous speech. In this study, native Japanese and native Spanish late-learners of English (as well as near-monolingual Japanese and Spanish speakers) were asked to determine whether specific sounds fell at the beginning or in the middle of words in English sentences. Similar to native English speakers, late-learners employed lexical information to perform the segmentation task. However, non-native speakers did not use syntactic information to the same extent as native English speakers. Although both groups of late-learners of English used stress pattern as a segmentation cue, the extent to which this cue was relied upon depended on the stress-pattern characteristics of their native language. These findings support the hypothesis that learning a second language later in life has differential effects on subsystems within language. PMID:12069004

Sanders, Lisa D.; Neville, Helen J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

2008-01-01

376

CNVs-microRNAs Interactions Demonstrate Unique Characteristics in the Human Genome. An Interspecies in silico Analysis  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and copy number variations (CNVs) represent two classes of newly discovered genomic elements that were shown to contribute to genome plasticity and evolution. Recent studies demonstrated that miRNAs and CNVs must have co-evolved and interacted in an attempt to maintain the balance of the dosage sensitive genes and at the same time increase the diversity of dosage non-sensitive genes, contributing to species evolution. It has been previously demonstrated that both the number of miRNAs that target genes found in CNV regions as well as the number of miRNA binding sites are significantly higher than those of genes found in non-CNV regions. These findings raise the possibility that miRNAs may have been created under evolutionary pressure, as a mechanism for increasing the tolerance to genome plasticity. In the current study, we aimed in exploring the differences of miRNAs-CNV functional interactions between human and seven others species. By performing in silico whole genome analysis in eight different species (human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, chicken, dog and cow), we demonstrate that miRNAs targeting genes located within CNV regions in humans have special functional characteristics that provide an insight into the differences between humans and other species. PMID:24312536

Dweep, Harsh; Georgiou, George D.; Gretz, Norbert; Deltas, Constantinos; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Felekkis, Kyriacos

2013-01-01

377

Lexical access in sign language: a computational model  

PubMed Central

Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition. PMID:24860539

Caselli, Naomi K.; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

2014-01-01

378

Children's use of language context in lexical ambiguity resolution.  

PubMed

Lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in children aged 7 to 10 years and adults. In Experiment 1, participants heard sentences supporting one (or neither) meaning of a balanced ambiguous word in a cross-modal naming paradigm. Naming latencies for context-congruent versus context-incongruent targets and judgements of the relatedness of targets to the sentence served as indices of appropriate context use. While younger children were faster to respond to related targets regardless of the sentence context, older children and adults showed priming only for context-appropriate targets. In Experiment 2, only a single-word context preceded the homophone, and in contrast to Experiment 1, all groups showed contextual sensitivity. Individual working-memory span and inhibition ability were also measured in Experiment 2, and more mature executive function abilities were associated with greater contextual sensitivity. These findings support a developmental model whereby sentential context use for lexical ambiguity resolution increases with age, cognitive processing capacity, and reading skill. PMID:19424907

Khanna, Maya M; Boland, Julie E

2010-01-01

379

Lexical frequency and voice assimilation in complex words in Dutch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Words with higher token frequencies tend to have more reduced acoustic realizations than lower frequency words (e.g., Hay, 2000; Bybee, 2001; Jurafsky et al., 2001). This study documents frequency effects for regressive voice assimilation (obstruents are voiced before voiced plosives) in Dutch morphologically complex words in the subcorpus of read-aloud novels in the corpus of spoken Dutch (Oostdijk et al., 2002). As expected, the initial obstruent of the cluster tends to be absent more often as lexical frequency increases. More importantly, as frequency increases, the duration of vocal-fold vibration in the cluster decreases, and the duration of the bursts in the cluster increases, after partialing out cluster duration. This suggests that there is less voicing for higher-frequency words. In fact, phonetic transcriptions show regressive voice assimilation for only half of the words and progressive voice assimilation for one third. Interestingly, the progressive voice assimilation observed for higher-frequency complex words renders these complex words more similar to monomorphemic words: Dutch monomorphemic words typically contain voiceless obstruent clusters (Zonneveld, 1983). Such high-frequency complex words may therefore be less easily parsed into their constituent morphemes (cf. Hay, 2000), favoring whole word lexical access (Bertram et al., 2000).

Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, Harald

2001-05-01

380

Lexical bundles in an advanced INTOCSU writing class and engineering texts: A functional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the functions of lexical bundles in two corpora: a corpus of engineering academic texts and a corpus of IEP advanced writing class texts. This study is concerned with the nature of formulaic language in Pathway IEPs and engineering texts, and whether those types of texts show similar or distinctive formulaic functions. Moreover, the study looked into lexical bundles found in an engineering 1.26 million-word corpus and an ESL 65000-word corpus using a concordancing program. The study then analyzed the functions of those lexical bundles and compared them statistically using chi-square tests. Additionally, the results of this investigation showed 236 unique frequent lexical bundles in the engineering corpus and 37 bundles in the pathway corpus. Also, the study identified several differences between the density and functions of lexical bundles in the two corpora. These differences were evident in the distribution of functions of lexical bundles and the minimal overlap of lexical bundles found in the two corpora. The results of this study call for more attention to formulaic language at ESP and EAP programs.

Alquraishi, Mohammed Abdulrahman

381

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid.  

PubMed

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

382

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid  

PubMed Central

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

383

Investigating Accommodation in Language Proficiency Interviews Using a New Measure of Lexical Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of teenage learners of French, the aspect of teachers' language that was found to be most responsive to the ability of their students was lexical diversity. Focuses on this finding using a new measure. (Author/VWL)

Malvern, David; Richards, Brian

2002-01-01

384

Semi-Automatic Sign Language Corpora Annotation using Lexical Representations of Signs  

E-print Network

Semi-Automatic Sign Language Corpora Annotation using Lexical Representations of Signs Matilde Nowadays many researches focus on the automatic recognition of sign language. High recognition rates approach. Keywords: Sign Language, Annotation, Zeebede 1. Introduction Sign Languages (SL) are visual

Filhol, Michael

385

Stochastic Lexicalized Inversion Transduction Grammar for Alignment Hao Zhang and Daniel Gildea  

E-print Network

that are responsible for generating word pairs: X e/f and binary production rules in two forms that are responsibleStochastic Lexicalized Inversion Transduction Grammar for Alignment Hao Zhang and Daniel Gildea

Gildea, Daniel

386

What's in a sentence? The crucial role of lexical content in sentence production in nonfluent aphasia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of lexical content on sentence production in nonfluent aphasia. Five participants with nonfluent aphasia, four with fluent aphasia, and eight controls were asked to describe pictured events in subject-verb-object sentences. Experiment 1 manipulated speed of lexical retrieval by varying the frequency of sentence nouns. Nonfluent participants' accuracy was consistently higher for sentences commencing with a high- than with a low-frequency subject noun, even when errors on those nouns were themselves excluded. This was not the case for the fluent participants. Experiment 2 manipulated the semantic relationship between subject and object nouns. The nonfluent participants produced sentences less accurately when they contained related than when they contained unrelated lexical items. The fluent participants exhibited the opposite trend. We propose that individuals with nonfluent aphasia are disproportionately reliant on activated conceptual-lexical representations to drive the sentence generation process, an idea we call the content drives structure (COST) hypothesis. PMID:24512548

Speer, Paula; Wilshire, Carolyn E

2013-01-01

387

The Time-Course of Lexical Access and the Role of Context  

E-print Network

and neurologically unimpaired populations which speak to the behavioral processes and neural substrates involved of lexical processes in agram- matic aphasia. The third author joined this team a few years later. None techniques utilized to examin

388

Lexical Access and Dual-Task Performance: Determining the Locus of the Bottleneck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the two years of funding for NASA Grant "NCC21325, Lexical access and dual-task performance: Determining the locus of the bottleneck," we completed three experiments involving the psychological refractory period (PRP) and word frequency.

Allen, Phil

2004-01-01

389

Interpreting Chicken-Scratch: Lexical Access for Handwritten Words  

PubMed Central

Handwritten word recognition is a field of study that has largely been neglected in the psychological literature, despite its prevalence in society. Whereas studies of spoken word recognition almost exclusively employ natural, human voices as stimuli, studies of visual word recognition use synthetic typefaces, thus simplifying the process of word recognition. The current study examined the effects of handwriting on a series of lexical variables thought to influence bottom-up and top-down processing, including word frequency, regularity, bidirectional consistency, and imageability. The results suggest that the natural physical ambiguity of handwritten stimuli forces a greater reliance on top-down processes, because almost all effects were magnified, relative to conditions with computer print. These findings suggest that processes of word perception naturally adapt to handwriting, compensating for physical ambiguity by increasing top-down feedback. PMID:20695708

Barnhart, Anthony S.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

390

Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually-irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern. PMID:21175671

Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

2010-01-01

391

Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms.  

PubMed

Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting a decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern. PMID:21175671

Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D

2011-07-01

392

Interpreting chicken-scratch: lexical access for handwritten words.  

PubMed

Handwritten word recognition is a field of study that has largely been neglected in the psychological literature, despite its prevalence in society. Whereas studies of spoken word recognition almost exclusively employ natural, human voices as stimuli, studies of visual word recognition use synthetic typefaces, thus simplifying the process of word recognition. The current study examined the effects of handwriting on a series of lexical variables thought to influence bottom-up and top-down processing, including word frequency, regularity, bidirectional consistency, and imageability. The results suggest that the natural physical ambiguity of handwritten stimuli forces a greater reliance on top-down processes, because almost all effects were magnified, relative to conditions with computer print. These findings suggest that processes of word perception naturally adapt to handwriting, compensating for physical ambiguity by increasing top-down feedback. PMID:20695708

Barnhart, Anthony S; Goldinger, Stephen D

2010-08-01

393

The influence of amplitude envelope information on resolving lexically ambiguous spoken words.  

PubMed

Prior studies exploring the contribution of amplitude envelope information to spoken word recognition are mixed with regard to the question of whether amplitude envelope alone, without spectral detail, can aid isolated word recognition. Three experiments show that the amplitude envelope will aid word identification only if two conditions are met: (1) It is not the only information available to the listener and (2) lexical ambiguity is not present. Implications for lexical processing are discussed. PMID:25324106

Szostak, Christine M; Pitt, Mark A

2014-10-01

394

Syntactic and sub-lexical features for Turkish discriminative language models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates syntactic and sub-lexical feature s in Turk- ish discriminative language models (DLMs). DLM is a feature- based language modeling approach. It reranks the ASR output with discriminatively trained feature parameters. Syntactic i nformation is incorporated into DLM as part-of-speech (PoS) tag n-gram fea- tures and head-to-head dependency relations. Sub-lexical units are first utilized as language modeling units

Ebru Arisoy; Murat Saraclar; Brian Roark; Izhak Shafran

2010-01-01

395

Lexical effects and lexical properties associated with National Adult Reading Test (NART) stimuli in healthy young adults and healthy elderly adults.  

PubMed

Fifty healthy younger adults and 45 healthy elderly adults performed a speeded lexical decision task (LDT). Stimuli consisted of 57 National Adult Reading Test (NART) words (the NART consists of "irregular" words that violate standard spelling-to-sound correspondence rules) and 57 pronounceable pseudowords (e.g., blant). Both groups displayed statistically equivalent lexicality (PW-W) effects, and error rates were lower in elderly adults. With groups equated on vocabulary ability, lexicality effects remained the same and error rates did not differ across either group. Correlational analyses confirmed the role played by word frequency and word familiarity in latencies to NART stimuli. Results are discussed regarding the importance of obtaining speeded latency measures for age-related word recognition comparisons. PMID:9696107

Ferraro, F R; Sturgill, D

1998-08-01

396

Interactions between rootstock, inter-stem and scion xylem vessel characteristics of peach trees growing on rootstocks with contrasting size-controlling characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The primary physiological mechanism influencing tree vigour in size-controlling rootstocks of peach has been related to the hydraulic conductance of the rootstock. Differences in rootstock hydraulic conductance are a function of rootstock xylem vessel characteristics. The present research examined whether the vigour and xylem vessel characteristics of the rootstock influence the xylem characteristics of the scion. We tested whether using a size-controlling rootstock genotype as an inter-stem influences the xylem vessel characteristics of either the rootstock below the inter-stem or the scion above it and vice versa. Methodology Anatomical measurements (diameter and frequency) of xylem vessels were determined above and below the graft unions of the trunks of peach trees with differing scion/rootstock combinations. The three peach rootstocks were ‘Nemaguard’ (vigorous), ‘P30-135’ (intermediate vigour) and ‘K146-43’ (dwarfing). The vigorous scion cultivar was ‘O'Henry’. The inter-stem experiment involved trees with ‘Nemaguard’ (vigorous) as the rootstock, ‘K146-43’ (dwarfing) as the inter-stem and ‘O'Henry’ as the scion. Based on anatomical measurements, we calculated the theoretical axial xylem conductance of each stem piece and rootstock genotype with the Hagen–Poiseuille law. Principal results Xylem vessel dimensions of rootstocks varied in conjunction with tree vigour. Scion xylem vessel dimensions of different scion/rootstock combinations were only marginally affected by rootstock genotype. The inter-stem sections from the dwarfing genotype (‘K146-43’) had narrower vessels and a lower calculated hydraulic conductance than the xylem from either the vigorous rootstock below (‘Nemaguard’) or the scion above (‘O'Henry’). Conclusions Rootstock genotype only marginally affected scion xylem vessel characteristics. Thus the xylem vessel characteristics of the dwarfing rootstock genotypes appear to influence tree growth directly rather than through an effect on the xylem characteristics of the scion. A dwarfing rootstock genotype used as an inter-stem appeared to work as a physical restriction to water movement, reducing potential xylem flow and conductance of the whole tree. PMID:22476071

Tombesi, Sergio; Johnson, R. Scott; Day, Kevin R.; DeJong, Theodore M.

2010-01-01

397

Do work relationships matter? Characteristics of workplace interactions that enhance or detract from employee perceptions of well-being and health behaviors  

PubMed Central

This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health – an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The study also offers human resource development professionals with evidence supporting interventions aimed at minimizing workplace incivility. Interventions designed to improve employee engagement could minimize financial and human costs of negative interactions. The bottom line is that workplaces should be physically, emotionally, and psychologically safe for well-being and healthy behaviors to flourish.

Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia

2014-01-01

398

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among words. While children with SLI have well documented memory difficulties, it is not clear whether these language knowledge factors also influence recall in this population. Methods & Procedures 16 children with SLI (mean age 10;2) and CAM controls recalled lists of words differing in phonological similarity, word frequency, and phonotactic pattern frequency. While previous studies used a small set of words appearing in multiple word lists, the current study used a larger set of words, without replacement, so that children could not gain practice with individual test items. Outcomes & Results All main effects were significant. Interactions revealed that children with SLI were affected by similarity, but less so than their peers, comparably affected by word frequency, and unaffected by phonotactic pattern frequency. Conclusions Results due to phonological similarity suggest that children with SLI use less efficient encoding, while results due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency were mixed. Children with SLI used coarse-grained language knowledge (word frequency) comparably to peers, but were less able to use fine-grained knowledge (phonotactic pattern frequency). Paired with phonological similarity results, this suggests that children with SLI have difficulty establishing robust phonological knowledge for use in language tasks. PMID:23472955

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

399

Individual aptitude in Mandarin lexical tone perception predicts effectiveness of high-variability training  

PubMed Central

Although the high-variability training method can enhance learning of non-native speech categories, this can depend on individuals’ aptitude. The current study asked how general the effects of perceptual aptitude are by testing whether they occur with training materials spoken by native speakers and whether they depend on the nature of the to-be-learned material. Forty-five native Dutch listeners took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified bisyllabic Mandarin pseudowords (e.g., asa) pronounced with different lexical tone combinations. The training materials were presented to different groups of listeners at three levels of variability: low (many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker), medium (fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by three speakers), and high (similar to medium but with five speakers). Overall, variability did not influence learning performance, but this was due to an interaction with individuals’ perceptual aptitude: increasing variability hindered improvements in performance for low-aptitude perceivers while it helped improvements in performance for high-aptitude perceivers. These results show that the previously observed interaction between individuals’ aptitude and effects of degree of variability extends to natural tokens of Mandarin speech. This interaction was not found, however, in a closely matched study in which native Dutch listeners were trained on the Japanese geminate/singleton consonant contrast. This may indicate that the effectiveness of high-variability training depends not only on individuals’ aptitude in speech perception but also on the nature of the categories being acquired. PMID:25505434

Sadakata, Makiko; McQueen, James M.

2014-01-01

400

Lexical training through modeling and elicitation procedures with late talkers who have specific language impairment and developmental delays.  

PubMed

Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and developmental disabilities. Children were randomly assigned to either a mand-elicited imitation (MEI) condition in which elicitations and imitative prompts were used or to a modeling with auditory bombardment (Mod-AB) condition in which auditory bombardment and play modeling were incorporated with no response demands on participants. Lexical production of target vocabulary words already comprehended was measured during a 10-session training period and then during two 50-min play interactions with a parent/caretaker in the home after treatment was completed. Results indicated that the MEI procedure was relatively more effective in facilitating frequency and rate of target word learning in the treatment setting, but no significant differences were found between conditions in the number or percentage of target words generalized to the home setting. Mod-AB children produced more target words that were limited to the home setting than did MEI children, whose productivity was more balanced across settings. Treatment by aptitude regression analyses indicated that none of the preintervention language, cognitive, or total development aptitude scores were predictive of child performance in 1 treatment condition or the other, although Battelle Developmental Inventory communication scores and sizes of preintervention lexicons were predictive of child performance across conditions. Empirical and clinical issues pertaining to the efficacy of modeling- and elicitation-based procedures for late-talking preschoolers are discussed. PMID:15934450

Kouri, Theresa A

2005-02-01

401

Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Wolfgang Christian

402

Multimodal lexical processing in auditory cortex is literacy skill dependent.  

PubMed

Literacy is a uniquely human cross-modal cognitive process wherein visual orthographic representations become associated with auditory phonological representations through experience. Developmental studies provide insight into how experience-dependent changes in brain organization influence phonological processing as a function of literacy. Previous investigations show a synchrony-dependent influence of letter presentation on individual phoneme processing in superior temporal sulcus; others demonstrate recruitment of primary and associative auditory cortex during cross-modal processing. We sought to determine whether brain regions supporting phonological processing of larger lexical units (monosyllabic words) over larger time windows is sensitive to cross-modal information, and whether such effects are literacy dependent. Twenty-two children (age 8-14 years) made rhyming judgments for sequentially presented word and pseudoword pairs presented either unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) or cross-modally (audiovisual). Regression analyses examined the relationship between literacy and congruency effects (overlapping orthography and phonology vs. overlapping phonology-only). We extend previous findings by showing that higher literacy is correlated with greater congruency effects in auditory cortex (i.e., planum temporale) only for cross-modal processing. These skill effects were specific to known words and occurred over a large time window, suggesting that multimodal integration in posterior auditory cortex is critical for fluent reading. PMID:23588185

McNorgan, Chris; Awati, Neha; Desroches, Amy S; Booth, James R

2014-09-01

403

From gr8 to great: Lexical Access to SMS Shortcuts  

PubMed Central

Many contemporary texts include shortcuts, such as cu or phones4u. The aim of this study was to investigate how the meanings of shortcuts are retrieved. A primed lexical decision paradigm was used with shortcuts and the corresponding words as primes. The target word was associatively related to the meaning of the whole prime (cu/see you – goodbye), to a component of the prime (cu/see you – look), or unrelated to the prime. In Experiment 1, primes were presented for 57?ms. For both word and shortcut primes, responses were faster to targets preceded by whole-related than by unrelated primes. No priming from component-related primes was found. In Experiment 2, the prime duration was 1000?ms. The priming effect seen in Experiment 1 was replicated. Additionally, there was priming from component-related word primes, but not from component-related shortcut primes. These results indicate that the meanings of shortcuts can be retrieved without translating them first into corresponding words. PMID:22654775

Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Krott, Andrea; Meyer, Antje S.

2012-01-01

404

Inhibitory effects of first syllable-frequency in lexical decision: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological correlates of the behaviorally well-documented inhibitory effect of first syllable-frequency during lexical access are presented. In a lexical decision task, response times to words with high-frequency first syllables were longer than those to words with low-frequency first syllables and resulted in more negative event-related potentials (ERPs) in an early time window from 190 ms to 280 ms and in the N400 component. The onset of the observed first syllable-frequency effect was prior to the onset of the effect of lexicality (i.e., the first reliable differentiation in ERP waveforms in response to words and pseudowords, a potential marker of lexical access). The present study's results support Barber et al.'s [Neuroreport 15 (2004) 545] notion of the prelexical nature of the first syllable-frequency effect by (A) providing evidence for electrophysiological correlates of first syllable-frequency in another, non-Romance orthography (i.e., German), (B) relating the onset of the first syllable-frequency effect to the onset of the lexicality effect and (C) strengthening this pattern of results by means of a novel item-based analysis of ERP data. Implications of the prelexical nature of the inhibitory first syllable-frequency effect for computational models of reading, specifically for Ans et al.'s [Psychol. Rev. 105 (1998) 678] multiple-trace memory (MTM) model of reading are discussed. PMID:15542236

Hutzler, Florian; Bergmann, Jürgen; Conrad, Markus; Kronbichler, Martin; Stenneken, Prisca; Jacobs, Arthur M

2004-12-01

405

An eye movement based reading intervention in lexical and segmental readers with acquired dyslexia.  

PubMed

Due to their brain damage, aphasic patients with acquired dyslexia often rely to a greater extent on lexical or segmental reading procedures. Thus, therapy intervention is mostly targeted on the more impaired reading strategy. In the present work we introduce a novel therapy approach based on real-time measurement of patients' eye movements as they attempt to read words. More specifically, an eye movement contingent technique of stepwise letter de-masking was used to support sequential reading, whereas fixation-dependent initial masking of non-central letters stimulated a lexical (parallel) reading strategy. Four lexical and four segmental readers with acquired central dyslexia received our intensive reading intervention. All participants showed remarkable improvements as evident in reduced total reading time, a reduced number of fixations per word and improved reading accuracy. Both types of intervention led to item-specific training effects in all subjects. A generalisation to untrained items was only found in segmental readers after the lexical training. Eye movement analyses were also used to compare word processing before and after therapy, indicating that all patients, with one exclusion, maintained their preferred reading strategy. However, in several cases the balance between sequential and lexical processing became less extreme, indicating a more effective individual interplay of both word processing routes. PMID:24813563

Ablinger, Irene; von Heyden, Kerstin; Vorstius, Christian; Halm, Katja; Huber, Walter; Radach, Ralph

2014-01-01

406

The role of lexical status on the phonetic categorization of speech in aphasia.  

PubMed

Recent results with normal subjects have shown that the locus of the phonetic boundary of a speech continuum may change as a function of the word/nonword status of the endpoint stimuli. This so-called lexical effect in phonetic categorization has been used as evidence for the role of top-down processing in speech perception. This study investigated whether aphasic patients show a similar influence of lexical status on phonetic categorization. Two test continua were created varying in voice-onset time: in one continuum, the two endpoint stimuli were word/nonword, i.e., "duke"--"tuke," and in the other continuum, they were nonword/word, i.e., "doot"--"toot." Twelve aphasic patients were tested including 6 Broca's aphasics and 6 Wernicke/Conduction aphasics. The subject's task was to determine whether the first sound of the stimulus was a "d" or "t." Broca's aphasics showed a large lexical effect, with the magnitude of the effect being greater than that for normals. These results suggest that the Broca's aphasics place a heavier reliance on a heuristic strategy than on the perceptual information embedded in the test stimuli in making a phonetic categorization. In contrast, Wernicke/Conduction aphasics did not show a lexical effect, suggesting that these patients are less likely than either normals or Broca's aphasics to use heuristic strategies in lexical processing. The overall results are considered in relation to current views on language-processing deficits in aphasia. PMID:8137141

Blumstein, S E; Burton, M; Baum, S; Waldstein, R; Katz, D

1994-02-01

407

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2011-01-01

408

ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency  

PubMed Central

The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2013-01-01

409

Parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined parent-child interactions and parent characteristics in families of nonproblem children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with lower (ADHD-LOD) and higher (ADHD-HOD) levels of oppositional-defiant behavior. Families of ADHD children were recruited from a parent training program. Observed and parent-reported child behavior problems were highest in the ADHD-HOD group. Observed parent behavior revealed few differences, but

Charlotte Johnston

1996-01-01

410

The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

2010-01-01

411

No Lexical-Prelexical Feedback during Speech Perception or: Is It Time to Stop Playing Those Christmas Tapes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of "Christma?" should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous…

McQueen, James M.; Jesse, Alexandra; Norris, Dennis

2009-01-01

412

The Crucial Role of Thiamine in the Development of Syntax and Lexical Retrieval: A Study of Infantile Thiamine Deficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effect of thiamine deficiency during early infancy on the development of syntax and lexical retrieval. We tested syntactic comprehension and production, lexical retrieval abilities and conceptual abilities of 59 children aged 5-7 years who had been fed during their first year of life with a thiamine-deficient milk…

Fattal, Iris; Friedmann, Naama; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

2011-01-01

413

Event-Related Potential Evidence for the Early Activation of Literal Meaning during Comprehension of Conventional Lexical Metaphors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among different types of metaphors, lexical metaphors are special in that they have been highly lexicalized and often suggested to be processed like non-metaphorical words. The present study examined two types of Chinese metaphorical words which are conceptualized through body parts. One has both a metaphorical meaning and a literal meaning…

Lu, Aitao; Zhang, John X.

2012-01-01

414

Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

2014-01-01

415

Durational Properties of Lexical Stress and Grammatical Stress in Nanchang Chinese and Their Implications for Tonal Contrasts  

E-print Network

that the tonal inventory is reduced in lexically stressless syllables, which have shorter rhyme duration. Nanchang is a Gan dialect spoken by about 4 million people in the city of Nanchang in Southeast China (Li 1995). There are five lexical tones in Nanchang...

Liu, Jiang

2010-03-11

416

Processing lexical ambiguity in sentential context: Eye-tracking data from brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged individuals.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to identify general and syndrome-specific deficits in the lexical processing of individuals with non-fluent and fluent aphasia compared to individuals without cognitive, neurological or language impairments. The time course of lexical access, as well as lexical selection and integration was studied using a visual-world paradigm in three groups of Russian speakers: 36 individuals in the control group, 15 individuals with non-fluent aphasia and eight individuals with fluent aphasia. Participants listened to temporarily ambiguous sentences wherein the context biased the interpretation of an ambiguous word toward one of its two meanings. In half of the experimental sentences, a reanalysis was needed upon encountering the disambiguating phrase. The effect of the length of the intervening material between the ambiguous word and the disambiguation point was additionally monitored. All groups of participants showed intact lexical access under slowed speech rate, but non-fluent participants experienced difficulties with timely activation of multiple referents. At later stages of lexical processing, they additionally demonstrated a specific impairment of reanalysis. The deficit in participants with fluent aphasia was not focalized at any specific stage of lexical processing. Rather, the breakdown of lexical processes in fluent aphasia was likely related to difficulties with the inhibition of irrelevant lexical activation, which is further supported by the finding that increased phonological distance between the ambiguous word and ambiguity resolution was influential to the offline performance in this group. PMID:25281888

Laurinavichyute, A K; Ulicheva, A; Ivanova, M V; Kuptsova, S V; Dragoy, O

2014-10-01

417

An fMRI Study of Sentence-Embedded Lexical-Semantic Decision in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical-semantic knowledge is a core language component that undergoes prolonged development throughout childhood and is therefore highly amenable to developmental studies. Most previous lexical-semantic functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been limited to single-word or word-pair tasks, outside a sentence context. Our objective was to investigate…

Moore-Parks, Erin Nicole; Burns, Erin L.; Bazzill, Rebecca; Levy, Sarah; Posada, Valerie; Muller, Ralph-Axel

2010-01-01

418

Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

2013-01-01

419

Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well documented nor well understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound…

Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

2008-01-01

420

Low-Pitch Regions as Dialog Signals? Evidence from Dialog-Act and Lexical Correlates in Natural Conversation  

E-print Network

Low-Pitch Regions as Dialog Signals? Evidence from Dialog-Act and Lexical Correlates in Natural of low pitch as a prosodic feature which seems to bear the dialog function of encouraging back-occurs with semantic, pragmatic, and lexical events. Both subjective analysis and statistical analysis suggest that low-pitch

Ward, Nigel

421

From flexibility to constraint: the contrastive use of lexical tone in early word learning.  

PubMed

Infants must develop both flexibility and constraint in their interpretation of acceptable word forms. The current experiments examined the development of infants' lexical interpretation of non-native variations in pitch contour. Fourteen-, 17-, and 19-month-olds (Experiments 1 and 2, N = 72) heard labels for two novel objects; labels contained the same syllable produced with distinct pitch contours (Mandarin lexical tones). The youngest infants learned the label-object mappings, but the older groups did not, despite being able to discriminate pitch differences in an object-free task (Experiment 3, N = 14). Results indicate that 14-month-olds remain flexible regarding what sounds make meaningful distinctions between words. By 17-19 months, experience with a nontonal native language constrains infants' interpretation of lexical tone. PMID:25041105

Hay, Jessica F; Graf Estes, Katharine; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R

2015-01-01

422

Facilitated lexical ambiguity processing by transcranial direct current stimulation over the left inferior frontal cortex.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that the left inferior frontal cortex is involved in the resolution of lexical ambiguities for language comprehension. In this study, we hypothesized that processing of lexical ambiguities is improved when the excitability of the left inferior frontal cortex is enhanced. To test the hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We investigated the effect of anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex on behavioral indexes for semantic judgment on lexically ambiguous and unambiguous words within a context. Supporting the hypothesis, the RT was shorter in the anodal tDCS session than in the sham session for ambiguous words. The results suggest that controlled semantic retrieval and contextual selection were facilitated by anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex. PMID:25208744

Ihara, Aya S; Mimura, Takanori; Soshi, Takahiro; Yorifuji, Shiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Yoshinime, Toshiki; Umehara, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Norio

2015-01-01

423

When a Stone Tries to Climb up a Slope: The Interplay between Lexical and Perceptual Animacy in Referential Choices  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that referential choices are influenced by animacy. On the one hand, animate referents are more likely to be mentioned as subjects than inanimate referents. On the other hand, animate referents are more frequently pronominalized than inanimate referents. These effects have been analyzed as effects of conceptual accessibility. In this paper, we raise the question whether these effects are driven only by lexical concepts, such that referents described by animate lexical items (e.g., “toddler”) are more accessible than referents described by inanimate lexical items (e.g., “shoe”), or can also be influenced by context-derived conceptualizations, such that referents that are perceived as animate in a particular context are more accessible than referents that are not. In two animation-retelling experiments, conducted in Dutch, we investigated the influence of lexical and perceptual animacy on the choice of referent and the choice of referring expression. If the effects of animacy are context-dependent, entities that are perceived as animate should yield more subject references and more pronouns than entities that are perceived as inanimate, irrespective of their lexical animacy. If the effects are tied to lexical concepts, entities described with animate lexical items should be mentioned as the subject and pronominalized more frequently than entities described with inanimate lexical items, irrespective of their perceptual animacy. The results show that while only lexical animacy appears to affect the choice of subject referent, perceptual animacy may overrule lexical animacy in the choice of referring expression. These findings suggest that referential choices can be influenced by conceptualizations based on the perceptual context. PMID:23554600

Vogels, Jorrig; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons

2013-01-01

424

Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information  

PubMed Central

During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on “kept in mind” rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions. PMID:23785341

Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E.; Aboitiz, Francisco

2013-01-01

425

Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms  

PubMed Central

Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA) named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls) in both Chinese and English. Participants’ response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005). For English, bilinguals’ names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals’ language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English) native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals’ L2 picture naming responses. PMID:25386149

Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Ameel, Eef; Li, Ping

2014-01-01

426

Building Specialized Multilingual Lexical Graphs Using Community Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are describing methods for compiling domain-dedicated multilingual terminological data from various resources. We focus on collecting data from online community users as a main source, therefore, our approach depends on acquiring contributions from volunteers (explicit approach), and it depends on analyzing users' behaviors to extract interesting patterns and facts (implicit approach). As a generic repository that can handle the collected multilingual terminological data, we are describing the concept of dedicated Multilingual Preterminological Graphs MPGs, and some automatic approaches for constructing them by analyzing the behavior of online community users. A Multilingual Preterminological Graph is a special lexical resource that contains massive amount of terms related to a special domain. We call it preterminological, because it is a raw material that can be used to build a standardized terminological repository. Building such a graph is difficult using traditional approaches, as it needs huge efforts by domain specialists and terminologists. In our approach, we build such a graph by analyzing the access log files of the website of the community, and by finding the important terms that have been used to search in that website, and their association with each other. We aim at making this graph as a seed repository so multilingual volunteers can contribute. We are experimenting this approach with the Digital Silk Road Project. We have used its access log files since its beginning in 2003, and obtained an initial graph of around 116000 terms. As an application, we used this graph to obtain a preterminological multilingual database that is serving a CLIR system for the DSR project.

Daoud, Mohammad; Boitet, Christian; Kageura, Kyo; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Mangeot, Mathieu; Daoud, Daoud

427

N400 to Lexical Ambiguity and Semantic Incongruity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Our previous work showed a semantic bias in interpreting ambiguous words in schizophrenia, with disproportionate misinterpretation of subordinate meanings (toast at a wedding). We proposed pre-selection in schizophrenia of dominant meaning networks at points of lexical ambiguity, thereby misleading thought. This selection bias may be due to semantic memory hyper-priming causing strong associates to dominate cognition. Alternately, later access verbal memory maintenance failure may cause weaker associates to fade more quickly than stronger associates from memory due to less initial activation. To further examine this semantic bias, patients and controls were presented short 4 word long sentences (The toast was buttered). The second word was a homograph or unambiguous noun. The last word disambiguated homographs (dominant or subordinate meaning) or was congruent or incongruent with unambiguous nouns. Previously, we showed increasingly larger N400 from unambiguous associates to dominate associates to subordinate associates to unambiguous non-associates in controls. Pre-selection of dominant meanings predicts schizophrenia patients would show small N400 to dominant associates and as large N400 to subordinate associates as to incongruous endings. Here, controls again showed graded N400 amplitudes. Patients with schizophrenia showed small N400 to congruent and dominant endings and large N400 to subordinate and incongruous endings. These data suggest early pre-selection of dominant associates in schizophrenia. This effect is unlikely solely due to verbal memory maintenance failure, as patients were able to detect incongruity, albeit with a smaller N400 effect, and generally larger N400 to all stimuli. These results suggest alterations in semantic memory associative networks coupled with verbal working memory maintenance decay in schizophrenia. PMID:19819269

Salisbury, Dean

2009-01-01

428

N400 to lexical ambiguity and semantic incongruity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Our previous work showed a semantic bias in interpreting ambiguous words in schizophrenia, with disproportionate misinterpretation of subordinate meanings (toast at a wedding). We proposed pre-selection in schizophrenia of dominant-meaning networks at points of lexical ambiguity, thereby misleading thought. This selection bias may be due to semantic memory hyper-priming causing strong associates to dominate cognition. Alternately, later verbal memory maintenance failure may cause weaker associates to fade more quickly than stronger associates from memory due to less initial activation. To further examine this semantic bias, patients and controls were presented short 4 word long sentences (The toast was buttered). The second word was a homograph or unambiguous noun. The last word disambiguated homographs (dominant or subordinate meaning) or was congruent or incongruent with unambiguous nouns. Previously, we showed increasingly larger N400 from unambiguous associates to dominate associates to subordinate associates to unambiguous non-associates in controls. Pre-selection of dominant meanings predicts that schizophrenia patients would show small N400 to dominant associates and as large N400 to subordinate associates as to incongruous endings. Here, controls again showed graded N400 amplitudes. Patients with schizophrenia showed small N400 to congruent and dominant endings and large N400 to subordinate and incongruous endings. These data suggest early pre-selection of dominant associates in schizophrenia. This effect is unlikely solely due to verbal memory maintenance failure, as patients were able to detect incongruity, albeit with a smaller N400 effect, and displayed generally larger N400 to all stimuli. These results suggest alterations in semantic memory associative networks coupled with verbal working memory maintenance decay in schizophrenia. PMID:19819269

Salisbury, Dean

2010-02-01

429

Competition and cooperation among similar representations: Toward a unified account of facilitative and inhibitory effects of lexical neighbors  

PubMed Central

One of the core principles of how the mind works is the graded, parallel activation of multiple related or similar representations. Parallel activation of multiple representations has been particularly important in the development of theories and models of language processing, where co-activated representations (“neighbors”) have been shown to exhibit both facilitative and inhibitory effects on word recognition and production. Researchers generally ascribe these effects to interactive activation and competition, but there is no unified explanation for why the effects are facilitative in some cases and inhibitory in others. We present a series of simulations of a simple domain-general interactive activation and competition model that is broadly consistent with more specialized domain-specific models of lexical processing. The results showed that interactive activation and competition can indeed account for the complex pattern of reversals. Critically, the simulations revealed a core computational principle that determines whether neighbor effects will be facilitative or inhibitory: strongly active neighbors exert a net inhibitory effect and weakly active neighbors exert a net facilitative effect. PMID:22352357

Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

2012-01-01

430

Resolving the EGF-EGFR interaction characteristics through a multiple-temperature, multiple-inhibitor, real-time interaction analysis approach  

PubMed Central

Overexpression and aberrant activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been observed in various cancer types, rendering it an important target in oncology research. The interaction between EGF and its receptor (EGFR), as well as subsequent internalization, is complex and may be affected by various factors including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). By combining real-time binding curves produced in LigandTracer® with internalization assays conducted at different temperatures and with different TKIs, the processes of ligand binding, internalization and excretion was visualized. SKOV3 cells had a slower excretion rate compared to A431 and U343 cells, and the tested TKIs (gefitinib, lapatinib, AG1478 and erlotinib) reduced the degree of internalization. The kinetic analysis of the binding curves further demonstrated TKI-dependent balances of EGFR monomer and dimer populations, where lapatinib promoted the monomeric form, while the other TKIs induced dimers. The dimer levels were found to be associated with the apparent affinity of the EGF-EGFR interaction, with EGF binding stronger to EGFR dimers compared to monomers. This study analyzed how real-time molecular interaction analysis may be utilized in combination with perturbations in order to understand the kinetics of a ligand-receptor interaction, as well as some of its associated intracellular processes. Our multiple-temperature and -inhibitor assay setup renders it possible to follow the EGFR monomer, dimer and internalized populations in a detailed manner, allowing for a new perspective of the EGFR biology. PMID:24649173

BJÖRKELUND, HANNA; GEDDA, LARS; MALMQVIST, MAGNUS; ANDERSSON, KARL

2013-01-01

431

The Effectiveness of Social Stories[TM] to Develop Social Interactions with Adults with Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research into the effectiveness of Social Stories has focused on children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examines the use of Social Stories with four adults with learning disabilities and social communication impairments characteristic of ASD. This study employed an N = 1 multiple-baseline, across-participant, AB design with…

Samuels, Rachel; Stansfield, Jois

2012-01-01

432

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

433

It's not what you say but the way that you say it: an fMRI study of differential lexical and non-lexical prosodic pitch processing  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to identify the neural substrate involved in prosodic pitch processing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test the premise that prosody pitch processing is primarily subserved by the right cortical hemisphere. Two experimental paradigms were used, firstly pairs of spoken sentences, where the only variation was a single internal phrase pitch change, and secondly, a matched condition utilizing pitch changes within analogous tone-sequence phrases. This removed the potential confounder of lexical evaluation. fMRI images were obtained using these paradigms. Results Activation was significantly greater within the right frontal and temporal cortices during the tone-sequence stimuli relative to the sentence stimuli. Conclusion This study showed that pitch changes, stripped of lexical information, are mainly processed by the right cerebral hemisphere, whilst the processing of analogous, matched, lexical pitch change is preferentially left sided. These findings, showing hemispherical differentiation of processing based on stimulus complexity, are in accord with a 'task dependent' hypothesis of pitch processing. PMID:22185438

2011-01-01

434

On the solidification of dendritic arrays: selection of the tip characteristics of slender needle crystals by array interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a unique solution to the well known indeterminacy for Ivantsov dendrites [Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR,58, 567 (1947)] by considering the directional solidification of a binary alloy as an array of interacting needle crystal dendrites. From the results of an asymptotic theory for the steady-state solidification of slender needle crystal arrays, the shape of the dendrite can be obtained

B. J. Spencer; H. E. Huppert

1998-01-01

435

Cartilage link protein interacts with neurocan, which shows hyaluronan binding characteristics different from CD44 and TSG-6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of neurocan with hyaluronan was qualitatively characterized with alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins secreted by mammalian cells. The wild type neurocan hyaluronan binding domain fused to alkaline phosphatase bound to immobilized hyaluronan under physiological as well as moderately hypertonic conditions, whereas its ability to bind to immobilized chondroitin sulfate dropped rapidly with increasing salt concentration. Strong hyaluronan binding ability

Uwe Rauch; Satoshi Hirakawa; Toshitaka Oohashi; Joachim Kappler; Gunnel Roos

2004-01-01

436

Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change  

E-print Network

Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change contribution to this debate by Schuchardt (1885) is the observa- tion that high-frequency words are affected by sound change earlier and to a greater extent than low-frequency words. In this article, after discussing

Port, Robert

437

Conscious Intention to Speak Proactively Facilitates Lexical Access during Overt Object Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored when and how the top-down intention to speak influences the language production process. We did so by comparing the brain's electrical response for a variable known to affect lexical access, namely word frequency, during overt object naming and non-verbal object categorization. We found that during naming, the…

Strijkers, Kristof; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Costa, Albert

2011-01-01

438

Lexical Quality and Reading Skill: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Contributions to Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated whether spelling ability, an index of precise lexical representations, predicts the balance between bottom-up and top-down processing in online sentence processing among skilled readers, over and above contributions of reading ability, vocabulary, and working memory. The results showed that the combination of superior…

Hersch, Jolyn; Andrews, Sally

2012-01-01

439

Modeling of Word Translation: Activation Flow from Concepts to Lexical Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas most theoretical and computational models assume a continuous flow of activation from concepts to lexical items in spoken word production, one prominent model assumes that the mapping of concepts onto words happens in a discrete fashion (Bloem & La Heij, 2003). Semantic facilitation of context pictures on word translation has been taken to…

Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Gerakaki, Svetlana

2013-01-01

440

Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the extent to which lexical bundles (LBs; i.e., frequently recurring strings of words that often span traditional syntactic boundaries) are stored and processed holistically. Three self-paced reading experiments compared sentences containing LBs (e.g., "in the middle of the") and matched control sentence fragments (e.g., "in…

Tremblay, Antoine; Derwing, Bruce; Libben, Gary; Westbury, Chris

2011-01-01

441

The Development of Lexical Bundle Accuracy and Production in English Second Language Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six adult, second language (L2) English learners were observed over a period of one year to explore the development of lexical bundles (i.e., bigrams) in naturally produced, oral English. Total bigrams produced by the L2 learners over the year of observation that were shared with native speakers were compared using a frequency index to explore L2…

Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Thomas Lee

2011-01-01

442

Lexical Bundles in Published and Student Disciplinary Writing: Examples from History and Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than a century, linguists have been interested in the study of frequent word combinations. The present study investigated a special type of word combination, lexical bundles, defined as a sequence of three or more words that co-occur frequently in a particular register [Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Longman, London,…

Cortes, Viviana

2004-01-01

443

An XML Markup Language Framework for Lexical Databases Environments: the Dictionary Markup Language.  

E-print Network

An XML Markup Language Framework for Lexical Databases Environments: the Dictionary Markup Language enough in order to accept a wide range of dictionary structures and proposes for manipulating heterogeneous dictionaries a set of common pointers into these structures. We will first present

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

2011-01-01

445

Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

2005-01-01

446

Temporal relation between top-down and bottom-up processing in lexical tone perception.  

PubMed

Speech perception entails both top-down processing that relies primarily on language experience and bottom-up processing that depends mainly on instant auditory input. Previous models of speech perception often claim that bottom-up processing occurs in an early time window, whereas top-down processing takes place in a late time window after stimulus onset. In this paper, we evaluated the temporal relation of both types of processing in lexical tone perception. We conducted a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments that recruited Mandarin participants and adopted three experimental paradigms, namely dichotic listening, lexical decision with phonological priming, and semantic violation. By systematically analyzing the lateralization patterns of the early and late ERP components that are observed in these experiments, we discovered that: auditory processing of pitch variations in tones, as a bottom-up effect, elicited greater right hemisphere activation; in contrast, linguistic processing of lexical tones, as a top-down effect, elicited greater left hemisphere activation. We also found that both types of processing co-occurred in both the early (around 200 ms) and late (around 300-500 ms) time windows, which supported a parallel model of lexical tone perception. Unlike the previous view that language processing is special and performed by dedicated neural circuitry, our study have elucidated that language processing can be decomposed into general cognitive functions (e.g., sensory and memory) and share neural resources with these functions. PMID:24723863

Shuai, Lan; Gong, Tao

2014-01-01

447

Bilingual Lexical Access in Context: Evidence from Eye Movements during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current models of bilingualism (e.g., BIA+) posit that lexical access during reading is not language selective. However, much of this research is based on the comprehension of words in isolation. The authors investigated whether nonselective access occurs for words embedded in biased sentence contexts (e.g., A. I. Schwartz & J. F. Kroll, 2006).…

Libben, Maya R.; Titone, Debra A.

2009-01-01

448

The Cascaded Nature of Lexical Selection and Integration in Auditory Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal relationship between lexical selection and the semantic integration in auditory sentence processing. Participants were presented with spoken sentences that ended with a word that was either semantically congruent or anomalous. Information about the moment in…

van den Brink, Danielle; Brown, Colin M.; Hagoort, Peter

2006-01-01

449

Cross-Linguistic Perception and Learning of Japanese Lexical Prosody by English Listeners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this dissertation is on how language experience shapes perception of a non-native prosodic contrast. In Tokyo Japanese, fundamental frequency (F0) peak and fall are acoustic cues to lexically contrastive pitch patterns, in which a word may be accented on a particular syllable or unaccented (e.g., "tsuru" "a crane", "tsuru" "a vine",…

Shport, Irina A.

2011-01-01

450

Prague, 30-31 August 2013 Sex-Based Nominal Pairs in the French Lexical Network  

E-print Network

pairs based on sex difference This paper deals with the problem posed to lexicographic description for a difference of sex; 2. Nmasc carries the masculine grammatical gender and denotes an animate being whose sexPrague, 30-31 August 2013 Sex-Based Nominal Pairs in the French Lexical Network: It's Not What You

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

Effects of Task Complexity on the Fluency and Lexical Complexity in EFL Students' Argumentative Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Robinson's (2001a,b, 2003) Cognition Hypothesis and Skehan's (1998) Limited Attentional Capacity Model, this study explored the effects of task complexity on the fluency and lexical complexity of 108 EFL students' argumentative writing. Task complexity was manipulated using three factors: (1) availability of planning time; (2) provision…

Ong, Justina; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

2010-01-01

452

Lexical chains as representations of context for the detection and correction of malapropisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we examine the idea of lexical chains as such a representation. We showhow they can be constructed by means of WordNet, and how they can be applied in one particularlinguistic task: the detection and correction of malapropisms.

Graeme Hirst; David St-Onge

1997-01-01

453

When Variability Matters More than Meaning: The Effect of Lexical Forms on Use of Phonemic Contrasts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the first half of the 2nd year of life, infants struggle to use phonemic distinctions in label-object association tasks. Prior experiments have demonstrated that exposure to the phonemes in distinct lexical forms (e.g., /"d"/ and /"t"/ in "daddy" and "tiger", respectively) facilitates infants' use of phonemic contrasts but also that they…

Thiessen, Erik D.

2011-01-01

454

The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

2012-01-01

455

Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

2005-01-01

456

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2013-01-01

457

Analyzing English Lexical Elements in the Language of Dutch Immigrants in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the general occurrence of English lexical elements in the recorded speech of 285 Dutch pre-World War I immigrants and their descendants in Massachusetts, Iowa, and Wisconsin. The problems encountered in analyzing a massive data corpus and the methods used to resolve these problems are the focus of the paper. The difficulties…

Schatz, Henriette F.

458

Some Remarks on the Stylistic Status of Modern Greek Lexical Elements in Rumanian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many speakers of Modern Greek have an exaggerated notion of the superiority of their language vis-a-vis Turkish and the languages of Southeastern Europe. It would therefore come as a surprise to some Greeks that Modern Greek lexical elements in Romanian have undergone a substantial stylistic demotion during the past century or so. In this paper…

Kazazis, Kostas

459

AN EFFORT TO DEVELOP A TAGGED LEXICAL RESOURCE FOR S. Varakhedi  

E-print Network

AN EFFORT TO DEVELOP A TAGGED LEXICAL RESOURCE FOR SANSKRIT S. Varakhedi V.Jaddipal V. Sheeba Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha Deemed University Tirupati {shrivara,v.jaddipal,v.sheeba}@gmail.com 1. ABSTRACT In this paper we present our efforts the first time of its kind in the history of Sanskrit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

SanskritTagger, a stochastic lexical and POS tagger for Sanskrit Oliver Hellwig  

E-print Network

SanskritTagger, a stochastic lexical and POS tagger for Sanskrit Oliver Hellwig Abstract SanskritTagger is a stochastic tagger for unpreprocessed Sanskrit text. The tag- ger tokenises text with a Markov model process, reports the results of tag- ging a few short passages of Sanskrit text and describes further

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

461

A Reason to Rhyme: Phonological and Semantic Influences on Lexical Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

During on-line language production, speakers rapidly select a sequence of words to express their desired meaning. The current study examines whether this lexical selection is also dependent on the existing activation of surface properties of the words. Such surface properties clearly matter in various forms of wordplay, including poetry and musical lyrics. The experiments in this article explore whether language

David N. Rapp; Arthur G. Samuel

2002-01-01

462

Distinguishing lexical- versus discourse-level processing using event-related potentials  

PubMed Central

Two experiments examine the links between neural patterns in EEG (e.g., N400s, P600s) and their corresponding cognitive processes (e.g., lexical access, discourse integration) by varying the lexical and syntactic contexts of co-referential expressions. Experiment 1 examined coreferring expressions when they occurred within the same clause as their antecedents (John/Bill warmly dressed John). Experiment 2 examined between-clause co-referencing with expressions that also varied in lexical frequency (John/Weston went to the store so that John/Weston could buy milk). Evidence of facilitated lexical processing occurred after repeated names, which elicited smaller N400s, as compared with new names. N400s were also attenuated to a greater degree for low-frequency expressions than for high-frequency ones. Repeated names also triggered evidence of postlexical processing, but this emerged as larger P600s for within-clause co-referencing and delayed N400s for between-clause co-referencing. Together, these results suggest that linguistic processes can be distinguished through distinct ERP components or distinct temporal patterns. PMID:24122362

Huang, Yi Ting; Hopfinger, Joseph; Gordon, Peter C.

2013-01-01

463

Depth of Lexical Knowledge among Bilingual Children: The Impact of Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of studies examining the language and literacy skills of second generation immigrant bilingual children have focused on the breadth of lexical knowledge in populations with a low level of involvement in literacy activities. This study extends previous work in three ways. First, we focused on a sample of second generation immigrant…

Schwartz, Mila; Katzir, Tami

2012-01-01

464

The Lexical Status of Basic Arabic Verb Morphemes among Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The masked priming paradigm was used to examine the role of the root and verb pattern morphemes in lexical access within the verb system of Arabic. Three groups participated in the study: grade 6 dyslexics, a reading-level-matched group and grade 6 normal readers. The first group consisted of: 28 grade 6 reading disabled (RD) students, 8 girls and…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Saliba, Fadi

2008-01-01

465

A Comparison of Word Lexicality in the Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research programme was to evaluate the role of word lexicality in effecting phonological change in children's sound systems. Four children with functional speech sound disorders (SSDs) were enrolled in an across-subjects multiple baseline single-subject design; two were treated using high-frequency real words (RWs) and two were…

Cummings, Alycia E.; Barlow, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

466

Effect of Instruction with Expert Patterns on the Lexical Learning of English as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to show the importance of instruction in learning a specific set of words. Two different tasks were used in the experiment: one in which subjects were required to fill in sentences and choose the appropriate answer in a multiple choice exercise (lexical test), and the other was a rating task designed to assess semantic…

Sanchez, Maria Jesus

2004-01-01

467

Traditional vs. Virtual Learning: Does It Make a Difference? ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexical Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents survey data from English Philology students (University of Granada) on a virtual course entitled ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexis--which was carried out in 2007-08 to enhance vocabulary acquisition. In the first part of this paper, we briefly offer a description of this second generation virtual course to enhance lexical…

Jaen, Maria Moreno

2009-01-01

468

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ensembles of Decision Trees in Disambiguating Senseval Lexical Samples  

E-print Network

function words as features. For example, if the target word is water and the training example is I water is an ensemble approach that assigns a sense to an instance of an ambiguous word by taking a vote among three with the target word. Each view of the training examples is based on one of the fol­ lowing three types of lexical

Pedersen, Ted

469

Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access  

E-print Network

Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access F and about the locus of the classic frequency effect to derive predictions about possible frequency effects orthogonally the frequencies of the adjective and of the noun that composed the NPs. We consistently found

Caramazza, Alfonso

470

Effects of Text Length on Lexical Diversity Measures: Using Short Texts with Less than 200 Tokens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of lexical diversity (LD) in L2 speaking and writing performance, LD assessment measures are known to be affected by the number of words analyzed in the text. This study aims to identify LD measures that are least affected by text length and can be used for the analysis of short L2 texts (50-200 tokens). We compared the…

Koizumi, Rie; In'nami, Yo

2012-01-01

471

From Spelling Pronunciation to Lexical Access: A Second Step in Word Decoding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a gap between "w..aa..sss" and "woz" ("was"). This is a gap between the output from a phonological recoding of a word and its lexical pronunciation. We suggest that ease of recognition of words from spelling pronunciations (like "w..aa..sss") contributes independent variance to word decoding ability with both regularly and irregularly…

Elbro, Carsten; de Jong, Peter F.; Houter, Daphne; Nielsen, Anne-Mette

2012-01-01

472

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

473

The Role of Visual Form in Lexical Access: Evidence from Chinese Classifier Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interface between the conceptual and lexical systems was investigated in a word production setting. We tested the effects of two conceptual dimensions--semantic category and visual shape--on the selection of Chinese nouns and classifiers. Participants named pictures with nouns ("rope") or classifier-noun phrases ("one-"classifier"-rope") in…

Bi, Yanchao; Yu, Xi; Geng, Jingyi; Alario, F. -Xavier.

2010-01-01

474

The Integration of Lexical, Syntactic, and Discourse Features in Bilingual Adolescents' Writing: An Exploratory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the bilingual writing of adolescent English language learners (ELLs) using quantitative tools. Linguistic measures were applied to the participants' writing at the lexical, syntactic, and discourse levels, with the goal of comparing outcomes at each of these levels across languages (Spanish/English)…

Danzak, Robin L.

2011-01-01

475

Syn: A Single Language for Specifying Abstract Syntax Trees, Lexical Analysis,  

E-print Network

Syn: A Single Language for Specifying Abstract Syntax Trees, Lexical Analysis Abstract A language called Syn is described in which all aspects of context-free syntax can, pretty-printers and abstract syntax tree representations from a Syn specification. 1

Haddadi, Hamed

476

Syn: A Single Language for Specifying Abstract Syntax Trees, Lexical Analysis,  

E-print Network

Syn: A Single Language for Specifying Abstract Syntax Trees, Lexical Analysis, Parsing and Pretty aspects of context­free syntax can be specified without redundancy. The language is essentially lexers, parsers, pretty­printers and abstract syntax tree representations from a Syn specification. 1

Haddadi, Hamed

477

Lexical and focal preferences in Rousseau's Profession de foi du Vicaire Savoyard (Book IV of Emile )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the ARTFL version of theProfession and excerpts fromEmile, high frequency function and content words, as defined by Brunet, are analyzed via Pearson chi square tests. Next, four measures of narrative voice from the same populations are compared using Markovian chains and further chi square tests. In a third analysis the two orders of evidence are juxtaposed. The lexical

Richard L. Frautschi

1989-01-01

478

Determining Smoker Status using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning with Lexical Features  

E-print Network

records for the smoker­status challenge, there is no single target word, and in fact the smoking statusDetermining Smoker Status using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning with Lexical Features Ted describes three University of Min- nesota, Duluth systems that participated in the I2B2 NLP smoker­status

Pedersen, Ted

479

Lexical Phonology and Sound Change: The Case of the Scottish Vowel Length Rule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the Scottish Vowel Length Rule supports Kiparsky's (1988) association of diffusing sound changes with lexical, and neogrammarian changes with postlexical rules, and to some extent, is a clearer illustration of Harris' (1989a: 55) notion of a phonological "life cycle" of changes and rules. (50 references) (GLR)

McMahon, April M. S.

1991-01-01

480

A Lexical Comparison of Signs from Icelandic and Danish Sign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a comparison of lexical items in the vocabulary of Icelandic and Danish sign languages prompted by anecdotal reports of similarity and historical records detailing close contact between the two communities. Drawing on previous studies, including Bickford (2005), McKee and Kennedy (1998, 2000a, 2000b) and Parkhurst and…

Aldersson, Russell R.; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa J.

2008-01-01

481

Relationships between Lexical Processing Speed, Language Skills, and Autistic Traits in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to current models of spoken word recognition listeners understand speech as it unfolds over time. Eye tracking provides a non-invasive, on-line method to monitor attention, providing insight into the processing of spoken language. In the current project a spoken lexical processing assessment (LPA) confirmed current theories of spoken…

Abrigo, Erin

2012-01-01

482

Lexical inhibition of neighbors during visual word recognition: An unmasked priming investigation.  

PubMed

Two experiments investigated the lexical inhibitory effect of orthographic neighbors relative to identity priming effects in an unmasked priming paradigm combined with a lexical decision task on word targets. Targets were preceded either by the same word, by a lower frequency orthographic word neighbor, by an orthographic pseudoword neighbor or by an unrelated prime. Experiment 1 showed a standard facilitatory effect from identity primes, whereas inhibitory priming effects were observed for both types of neighbor primes. Experiment 2 examined the time-course of these effects by using event-related potential recordings. A generalized relatedness effect was found in the 200-400ms time-window, with smaller negativities generated by related primes than unrelated primes regardless of prime type. In contrast, at 400ms, while identity primes were associated with smaller negativities than unrelated primes, word neighbor primes were associated with greater negativities than unrelated primes. Additionally, pseudoword neighbor primes produce null effects as compared to unrelated primes. These results are discussed in terms of competition between activated lexical representations and revealed that such a mechanism is modulated by the lexical status of the prime. PMID:25665529

Massol, Stéphanie; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel

2015-04-16

483

Lexical architecture based on a hierarchy of codes for high-speed string correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AI systems for the general public have to be really tolerant to errors. These errors could be of several kinds: typographic, phonetic, grammatical, or semantic. A special lexical dictionary architecture has been designed to deal with the first two. It extends the hierarchical file method of E. Tanaka and Y. Kojima.

de Bertrand de Beuvron, Francois; Trigano, Philippe

1992-03-01

484

The Effects of Phonotactic Constraints on Lexical Processing in Bilingual and Monolingual Subjects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of linguistic judgment tasks and lexical decision tasks among English-German bilinguals supports the hypotheses that bilinguals have knowledge of two sets of phonotactic constraints, and that both sets of constraints are simultaneously available to the individual during language processing. (MSE)

Altenberg, Evelyn P.; Cairns, Helen Smith

1983-01-01

485

Working Memory Influences on Cross-Language Activation during Bilingual Lexical Disambiguation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of verbal working memory on bilingual lexical disambiguation. Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences that ended in either a cognate or noncognate homonym or a control word. Participants decided whether follow-up target words were related in meaning to the sentences. On critical trials, sentences biased the…

Areas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Schwartz, Ana I.

2011-01-01

486

On the Role of Regular Phonological Variation in Lexical Access: Evidence from Voice Assimilation in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether lexical access is affected by a regular phonological variation in connected speech: voice assimilation in French. Two associative priming experiments were conducted to determine whether strongly assimilated, potentially ambiguous word forms activate the conceptual representation of the underlying word. Would…

Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

2008-01-01

487

Lexical Selection Is Competitive: Evidence from Indirectly Activated Semantic Associates during Picture Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm,…

Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

2013-01-01

488

Does Foreign Language Writing Benefit from Increased Lexical Fluency? Evidence from a Classroom Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text production, such as idea generation, selection and…

van Gelderen, Amos; Oostdam, Ron; van Schooten, Erik

2011-01-01

489

Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

490

Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

2015-01-01

491

What lexical decision and naming tell us about reading Leonard Katz Larry Brancazio Julia Irwin  

E-print Network

What lexical decision and naming tell us about reading Leonard Katz · Larry Brancazio · Julia Irwin · Stephen Katz · James Magnuson · D. H. Whalen � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Á D. H. Whalen Haskins Laboratories, 300 George St., New Haven, CT 06511, USA e-mail: leonard

492

Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: "pressure", "select", "adapt", "need", and "must". We utilized a new technological tool known as the…

Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

2013-01-01

493

Perception of Lexical and Structural Ambiguity by Junior and Senior High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three concerns of this study were: (1) the ability of students in grades seven, nine, and eleven to recognize ambiguity in sentences at the lexical, surface structural, and underlying structural levels; (2) the relative difficulty of perceiving ambiguity at each of these levels as determined by differential processing times; and (3) the…

Jurgens, Jeanne Marie

494

Meaning Dominance and Semantic Context in the Processing of Lexical Ambiguity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two experiments on the processing of ambiguous words: one involving lexical decisions for words related to dominant or subordinate meanings of homograph primes, the other involving ambiguous words ending sentences that bias the homographs at varying degrees. Concludes that dominance and context contribute independently to processing of…

Simpson, Greg B.

1981-01-01

495

Perceptron Training for a Wide-Coverage Lexicalized-Grammar Parser Stephen Clark  

E-print Network

Perceptron Training for a Wide-Coverage Lexicalized-Grammar Parser Stephen Clark Oxford University@it.usyd.edu.au Abstract This paper investigates perceptron training for a wide-coverage CCG parser and com- pares the perceptron with a log-linear model. The CCG parser uses a phrase-structure pars- ing model and dynamic

Koehn, Philipp

496

With or without semantic mediation: retrieval of lexical representations in sign production.  

PubMed

How are lexical representations retrieved during sign production? Similar to spoken languages, lexical representation in sign language must be accessed through semantics when naming pictures. However, it remains an open issue whether lexical representations in sign language can be accessed via routes that bypass semantics when retrieval is elicited by written words. Here we address this issue by exploring under which circumstances sign retrieval is sensitive to semantic context. To this end we replicate in sign language production the cumulative semantic cost: The observation that naming latencies increase monotonically with each additional within-category item that is named in a sequence of pictures. In the experiment reported here, deaf participants signed sequences of pictures or signed sequences of Italian written words using Italian Sign Language. The results showed a cumulative semantic cost in picture naming but, strikingly, not in word naming. This suggests that only picture naming required access to semantics, whereas deaf signers accessed the sign language lexicon directly (i.e., bypassing semantics) when naming written words. The implications of these findings for the architecture of the sign production system are discussed in the context of current models of lexical access in spoken language production. PMID:25583708

Navarrete, Eduardo; Caccaro, Arianna; Pavani, Francesco; Mahon, Bradford Z; Peressotti, Francesca

2015-04-01

497

Tasty Non-Words and Neighbours: The Cognitive Roots of Lexical-Gustatory Synaesthesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For lexical-gustatory synaesthetes, words trigger automatic, associated food sensations (e.g., for JB, the word "slope" tastes of over-ripe melon). Our study tests two claims about this unusual condition: that synaesthetic tastes are associated with abstract levels of word representation (concepts/lemmas), and that the first tastes to crystallise…

Simner, Julia; Haywood, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

498

Automatic Presentation of Sense-Specific Lexical Information in an Intelligent Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning vocabulary and understanding texts present difficulty for language learners due to, among other things, the high degree of lexical ambiguity. By developing an intelligent tutoring system, this dissertation examines whether automatically providing enriched sense-specific information is effective for vocabulary learning and reading…

Eom, Soojeong

2012-01-01

499

Atypical Lexical/Semantic Processing in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders without Early Language Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although autism is associated with impaired language functions, the nature of semantic processing in high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) without a history of early language delay has been debated. In this study, we aimed to examine whether the automatic lexical/semantic aspect of language is impaired or intact in these…

Kamio, Yoko; Robins, Diana; Kelley, Elizabeth; Swainson, Brook; Fein, Deborah

2007-01-01

500

Towards Building Lexical Ontology via Cross-Language Matching Mamoun Abu Helou  

E-print Network

) that are amenable to automatic processing and reasoning for a range of intra- and interlingual applications the performance of automatic cross-language matchers. Then, such mapping methods can be used to discover mappingsTowards Building Lexical Ontology via Cross-Language Matching Mamoun Abu Helou Birzeit University