Sample records for lexical characteristics interact

  1. A short report: Word-level phonological and lexical characteristics interact to influence phoneme awareness.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tiffany P

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological characteristic, sound contrast similarity (similar vs. dissimilar), and a lexical characteristic, neighborhood density (dense vs. sparse). In a subsample of the participants-those with the highest vocabularies-results were in line with a predicted interactive effect of phonological and lexical characteristics on phoneme awareness performance: word sets contrasting similar sounds were less likely to yield correct responses in words from sparse neighborhoods than words from dense neighborhoods. Word sets contrasting dissimilar sounds were most likely to yield correct responses regardless of the words' neighborhood density. Based on these findings, theories of early phoneme awareness should consider both word-level and child-level influences on performance. Attention to these influences is predicted to result in more sensitive and specific measures of reading risk. PMID:20574064

  2. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  3. Interaction Chain Patterns of Online Text Construction with Lexical Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at arousing college students' metacognition in detecting lexical cohesion during online text construction as WordNet served as a lexical resource. A total of 83 students were requested to construct texts through sequences of actions identified as interaction chains in this study. Interaction chains are grouped and categorized as a…

  4. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

  5. Rapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word Recognition in Context

    E-print Network

    Kim, Albert.

    very early stages of word recognition, within the initial 200 msec of processing the word. Here, weU ncorrected Proof Rapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word the time course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form pro- cessing

  6. Rapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word Recognition in Context

    E-print Network

    Kim, Albert.

    very early stages of word recognition, within the initial 200 msec of processing the word. Here, weRapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word Recognition course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form pro- cessing during word

  7. Building a Lexical Database for an Interactive Joke-Generator R. Manurung1

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Graeme

    Building a Lexical Database for an Interactive Joke-Generator R. Manurung1 , D. O'Mara2 , H. Pain1 by building jokes, we have developed a large lexical database, closely based on WordNet. As well to a suitably engineered text input device) cannot participate fully in the banter, joking and word play which

  8. Children's Syntactic-Priming Magnitude: Lexical Factors and Participant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. "the yellow…

  9. Children's syntactic-priming magnitude: lexical factors and participant characteristics.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-07-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. the yellow cup) or relative clause (RC; e.g. the cup that is yellow) structures with or without lexical overlap and performed additional tests of productive syntactic skills and WM capacity. Results revealed a reliable syntactic-priming effect without lexical boost in both groups: SLI and TD children produced more RCs following RC primes than following prenominal primes. Grammaticality requirements influenced RC productions in that SLI children produced fewer grammatical RCs than TD children. Of the additional measures, WM positively affected how frequently children produced dispreferred RC structures, but productive syntactic skills had no effect. The results support an implicit-learning account of syntactic priming and emphasize the importance of WM in syntactic priming tasks. PMID:25159048

  10. Lexical and Articulatory Interactions in Children's Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa; Younger, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Traditional models of adult language processing and production include two levels of representation: lexical and sublexical. The current study examines the influence of the inclusion of a lexical representation (i.e. a visual referent and/or object function) on the stability of articulation as well as on phonetic accuracy and variability in…

  11. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  12. Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis. PMID:23526862

  13. Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

    2011-01-01

    The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

  14. Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of Web multimodality plus dialogical interactions in the acquisition and retention of novel lexical items among EFL students under a social constructionist framework. The lexical acquisition of 107 1st-year English majors at the University of Costa Rica was analyzed through…

  15. Using the Web as Input and Discourse Interactions for the Construction of Meaning and the Acquisition of Lexical Units in University Level English as a Foreign Language

    E-print Network

    Mora Piedra, Marco Antonio

    2013-05-31

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the impact of Web multimodality plus dialogical interactions in the acquisition and retention of novel lexical items among EFL students under a social constructionist ...

  16. Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

  17. Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of "background emotionality" and a "projection through capacities" were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study of stable individual differences. PMID:24475048

  18. Interactive effects of age-of-acquisition and repetition priming in the lexical decision task. A multiple-loci account.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia; Saraulli, Daniele; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the interaction between repetition priming and age of acquisition may be used to shed further light on the question of which stages of elaboration are affected by this psycholinguistic variable. In the present study we applied this method in the context of two versions of a lexical decision task that differed in the type of non-words employed at test. When the non-words were illegal and unpronounceable, repetition priming was primarily based on the analysis of orthographic information, while phonological processes were additionally recruited only when using legal pronounceable non-words. The results showed a significant interaction between repetition priming and age of acquisition in both conditions, with priming being greater for late- than for early-acquired words. These findings support a multiple-loci account, indicating that age of acquisition influences implicit memory by facilitating the retrieval of both the orthographic and the phonological representations of studied words. PMID:23422658

  19. A Dual-Route Perspective on Brain Activation in Response to Visual Words: Evidence for a Length by Lexicality Interaction in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA)

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., “Does xxx sound like an existing word?”) presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. PMID:19896538

  20. On the Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency in Lexical Decision: Evidence for Opposing Interactive Influences Revealed

    E-print Network

    familiarity is deemphasized in lexical decision, cascaded processing between letter and word levels is in play, whereas, when familiarity is a viable dimension for word­nonword discrimination, processing is discreteOn the Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency in Lexical Decision: Evidence

  1. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  2. Interaction, Modality, and Word Engagement as Factors in Lexical Learning in a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Ruiying; Helms-Park, Rena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of collaborative output, the modality of output, and word engagement in vocabulary learning and retention by Chinese-speaking undergraduate EFL learners. The two treatment groups reconstructed a passage that they had read in one of two ways: (1) dyadic oral interaction while producing a written report (Written…

  3. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  4. Lexical Acquisition and Acquisition of Initial Voiceless Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Interaction between lexical acquisition and acquisition of initial voiceless stops (VSs) was studied in two normally developing children by acoustically examining token-by-token accuracy of initial VS targets in different lexical items. Tokens representing the emergence of accurate VS production were restricted to certain words, largely old words…

  5. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  6. An integrated analysis of speech and gestural characteristics in conversational child-computer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Serdar; Montanari, Simona; Andersen, Elaine; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the fine details of children's speech and gestural characteristics helps, among other things, in creating natural computer interfaces. We analyze the acoustic, lexical/non-lexical and spoken/gestural discourse characteristics of young children's speech using audio-video data gathered using a Wizard of Oz technique from 4 to 6 year old children engaged in resolving a series of age-appropriate cognitive challenges. Fundamental and formant frequencies exhibited greater variations between subjects consistent with previous results on read speech [Lee et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1455-1468 (1999)]. Also, our analysis showed that, in a given bandwidth, phonemic information contained in the speech of young child is significantly less than that of older ones and adults. To enable an integrated analysis, a multi-track annotation board was constructed using the ANVIL tool kit [M. Kipp, Eurospeech 1367-1370 (2001)]. Along with speech transcriptions and acoustic analysis, non-lexical and discourse characteristics, and child's gesture (facial expressions, body movements, hand/head movements) were annotated in a synchronized multilayer system. Initial results showed that younger children rely more on gestures to emphasize their verbal assertions. Younger children use non-lexical speech (e.g., um, huh) associated with frustration and pondering/reflecting more frequently than older ones. Younger children also repair more with humans than with computer.

  7. Lexical FreeNet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Finite relation expression networks, or FreeNets, allow users to search for lexical and conceptual relationships between words or phrases. Lexical FreeNet is a network that combines semantic relations derived from WordNet (discussed in the January 30, 1998 Scout Report) with relations derived from other linguistic data. To operate Lexical FreeNet, users type in a source concept and a target concept, select the linguistic relations they would like to explore, and then choose a query option. Every query returns a mapped binary connection, showing the path of relations between the source and the target. Users will be fascinated by how ostensibly unrelated words or concepts can be connected.

  8. V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

  9. Lexical and Robert Mailhammer

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    histories 1 Robert Mailhammer Towards a framework of contact etymology 9 Harold Koch and Luise HercusLexical and Structural Etymology Edited by Robert Mailhammer #12;Table of contents Contact details and affiliations of contributors v Abbreviations vii Robert Mailhammer Introduction: Etymology beyond word

  10. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  11. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  12. Lexical Chains Segmentation in Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doina Tatar; Andreea Diana Mihis; Gabriela Serban Czibula

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of linear text segmentation based on lexical cohesion of a text. The usual steps (to compute the lexical chains according to relatedness criteria, to score the chains after different parameters,to select the strong chains, to obtain the segments) are replaced by a single procedure. Namely, a single chain of disambiguated words in

  13. Lexical Resources and Their Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerstam, Martin

    This paper discusses computer-based resources for lexical data and their uses. First, the kinds of lexical data available are described, including those related to form (spelling, pronunciation, inflection, word class), meaning (definition/equivalent, synonyms/antonyms/hyperonyms, thesaurus classification), context (grammatical collocations,…

  14. Reactions to Lexical, Syntactical, and Text Layout Variations of a Print Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, William H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assesses reader reactions to a broad range of lexical, syntactical, and text layout conditions, both in isolation and interactively. Finds that, although the role of these elements in affecting readers' perceptions is not as critical as was presumed, certain perceptions are significantly affected by specific lexical, syntactical, and layout…

  15. Little Frog and Toad: Interaction of Orthography and Phonology in Polish Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the interaction of lexical and non-lexical processes in spelling through lexical priming of non-lexical spelling in Polish. Explains that orthographic choice for nonwords was assessed under free and primed spelling conditions for both adults and children using direct and associative priming. Finds that lexical orthography influences…

  16. How does emotional content affect lexical processing?

    PubMed Central

    Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

  17. How does emotional content affect lexical processing?

    PubMed

    Vinson, David; Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

  18. Virtual Reality Interaction: the Characteristic Pattern Approach* A. Celentano1

    E-print Network

    Celentano, Augusto

    Virtual Reality Interaction: the Characteristic Pattern Approach* A. Celentano1 , D. Fogli2 , P spaces as a step toward the definition of a rational methodology for the design of Virtual Reality] as a step toward the definition of a rational methodology for the de- sign of Virtual Reality (VR

  19. Interchanging Lexical Information for a Multilingual Dictionary

    PubMed Central

    Baud, RH; Nyström, M; Borin, L; Evans, R; Schulz, S; Zweigenbaum, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective To facilitate the interchange of lexical information for multiple languages in the medical domain. To pave the way for the emergence of a generally available truly multilingual electronic dictionary in the medical domain. Methods An interchange format has to be neutral relative to the target languages. It has to be consistent with current needs of lexicon authors, present and future. An active interaction between six potential authors aimed to determine a common denominator striking the right balance between richness of content and ease of use for lexicon providers. Results A simple list of relevant attributes has been established and published. The format has the potential for collecting relevant parts of a future multilingual dictionary. An XML version is available. Conclusion This effort makes feasible the exchange of lexical information between research groups. Interchange files are made available in a public repository. This procedure opens the door to a true multilingual dictionary, in the awareness that the exchange of lexical information is (only) a necessary first step, before structuring the corresponding entries in different languages. PMID:16778996

  20. Lexical alignment in triadic communication.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one's interlocutor's lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants' lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  1. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

  2. Accessing lexical ambiguity: Effects of context and dominance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Tabossi; Lucia Colombo; Remo Job

    1987-01-01

    The paper examines the effects of sentential context and frequency of meaning (dominance) on the lexical access of ambiguous words. Two experiments were carried out using Swinney's (1979) cross-modal paradigm. The sentential contexts were constructed in such a way as to make salient the most characteristic features of either the dominant (Experiment 1) or the secondary (Experiment 2) meaning of

  3. Chinese Passives: Transformational or Lexical?

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiuwu; Wen, Xiaohong

    1989-01-01

    There are two types of passive constructions in Chinese. Type I is a syntactic passive since it is derived through a transformational rule. Type II is a lexical passive. It has certain properties in common with the predicate ...

  4. Topological Characteristics of Random Surfaces Generated by Cubic Interactions

    E-print Network

    Nicholas Pippenger; Kristin Schleich

    2003-06-11

    We consider random topologies of surfaces generated by cubic interactions. Such surfaces arise in various contexts in 2-dimensional quantum gravity and as world-sheets in string theory. Our results are most conveniently expressed in terms of a parameter h = n/2 + \\chi, where n is the number of interaction vertices and \\chi is the Euler characteristic of the surface. Simulations and results for similar models suggest that Ex[h] = log (3n) + \\gamma + O(1/n) and Var[h] = log (3n) + \\gamma - \\pi^2/6 + O(1/n). We prove rigourously that Ex[h] = log n + O(1) and Var[h] = O(log n). We also derive results concerning a number of other characteristics of the topology of these random surfaces.

  5. The Role of Accentual Pattern in Early Lexical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn M.; Nakai, Satsuki; DePaolis, Rory A.; Halle, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between prosodic and segmental aspects of infant representations for speech was explored using the head-turn paradigm, with untrained everyday familiar words and phrases as stimuli. At 11 months English-learning infants, like French infants (Halle & Boysson-Bardies, 1994), attended significantly longer to a list of familiar lexical

  6. Lexicalized Aspectual Usage in Oral Proficiency Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study suggests that Intermediate High and Advanced speakers produce aspectually valid constructions in Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) in large part because they are doing more than assigning aspect to lexical categories (Lexical aspect hypothesis), but because they are assigning lexicalized meaning to discrete verbs, for example "govorit"…

  7. Traversing the Lexical Cohesion Minefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Iain

    2009-01-01

    When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain aspects…

  8. Retention in SLA Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2011-01-01

    Second language learners are faced with the challenging task of remembering many new words. Exactly how learners are supposed to accomplish that task is disputed. Research on lexical processing that has been carried out in cognitive psychology showed that rehearsing words in expanded patterns, that is, with a delay between each rehearsal, leads to…

  9. Lexicalization Patterns Leonard Talmy (2000)

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Martha

    2000-01-01

    3/8/2010 1 Lexicalization Patterns Leonard Talmy (2000) James Foster March 7, 2010 Outline 1 ­ individual lexeme · Incorporation ­ integration of multiple semantic concepts in one verb usage · Conflation Figure: pencil Ground: table Paths: on, off Manners: rolled, lay Cause: blew, stuck #12;3/8/2010 4 Talmy

  10. Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2014-01-01

    Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

  11. Sensitivity to the acoustic correlates of lexical stress and their relationship to reading in skilled readers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth J.; Wood, Clare

    2012-01-01

    The role of suprasegmental information in reading processes is a growing area of interest, and sensitivity to lexical stress has been shown to explain unique variance in reading development. However, less is known about its role in skilled reading. This study aimed to investigate the acoustic features of suprasegmental information using a same/different cross-modal matching task. Sixty-four adult participants completed standardized measures of reading accuracy, reading speed, and comprehension and performed an experimental task. The experimental task required the participants to identify whether non-speech acoustic sequences matched the characteristics of written words. The findings indicated differences in responses depending on where the lexical stress was required for the word. Moreover, evidence was found to support the view that amplitude information is part of the word knowledge retrieval process in skilled reading. The findings are discussed relative to models of reading and the role of lexical stress in lexical access. PMID:23704860

  12. Bilingual Lexical Access During Comprehension 1 Running Head: BILINGUAL LEXICAL ACCESS DURING COMPREHENSION

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Bilingual Lexical Access During Comprehension 1 Running Head: BILINGUAL LEXICAL ACCESS DURING COMPREHENSION Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension Anthony Shook, Matthew, and the members of the Bilingualism and Psycholinguistics Research Group and the Northwestern University Sound Lab

  13. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Interactional Types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines patterns of sibling relationship qualities or interactional types and their association with family characteristics, parenting, and the characteristics of 1 of those children. Participants were 65 children (34 boys; Time 1 mean age = 51 months), their mothers, fathers, and Head Start teachers. Approximately…

  14. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate online probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  15. Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2013-01-01

    Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. PMID:24269488

  16. Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2014-02-01

    Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. PMID:24269488

  17. Modeling the Lexical Morphology of Western Handwritten Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Ferrer, Miguel A.; Morales, Aythami

    2015-01-01

    A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures. PMID:25860942

  18. Categorical perception of lexical tones in mandarin-speaking congenital amusics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia), whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics, and amusics with tone agnosia) participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception (CP) of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the CP of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical CP of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the CP of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception.

  19. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  20. Dialectal Variation in the Lexical Tone System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Discusses dialectal variation in the lexical tone system of Ma'ya, an Austronesian language featuring three lexically contrastive tonemes. Representative acoustic data were collected from the Missol, Slawati, and Laganyan dialects, and on the basis of these data, an account is given of their tone systems and of how these tone systems compare to…

  1. Compiler Construction Lecture 3: Lexical Analysis II

    E-print Network

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Compiler Construction Lecture 3: Lexical Analysis II (Extended Matching Problem) Thomas Noll-Longest-Match Analysis 5 Implementation of FLM Analysis Compiler Construction Summer Semester 2012 3.2 #12;Lexical Construction Summer Semester 2012 3.3 #12;The DFA Method I Known from Formal Systems, Automata and Processes

  2. His Lips Are Moving: Pinocchio Effect and Other Lexical Indicators of Political Deceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Michael T.; Van Swol, Lyn M.; Vang, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Using the software program LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count), this study used political statements classified as truths and lies by website Politifact.com and examined lexical differences between statement type (lie or truth) and the setting (interactive or scripted) in which the statement was given. In interactive settings (where…

  3. Acoustic and Lexical Representations for Affect Prediction in Spontaneous Conversations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Houwei; Savran, Arman; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate what representations of acoustics and word usage are most suitable for predicting dimensions of affect|AROUSAL, VALANCE, POWER and EXPECTANCY|in spontaneous interactions. Our experiments are based on the AVEC 2012 challenge dataset. For lexical representations, we compare corpus-independent features based on psychological word norms of emotional dimensions, as well as corpus-dependent representations. We find that corpus-dependent bag of words approach with mutual information between word and emotion dimensions is by far the best representation. For the analysis of acoustics, we zero in on the question of granularity. We confirm on our corpus that utterance-level features are more predictive than word-level features. Further, we study more detailed representations in which the utterance is divided into regions of interest (ROI), each with separate representation. We introduce two ROI representations, which significantly outperform less informed approaches. In addition we show that acoustic models of emotion can be improved considerably by taking into account annotator agreement and training the model on smaller but reliable dataset. Finally we discuss the potential for improving prediction by combining the lexical and acoustic modalities. Simple fusion methods do not lead to consistent improvements over lexical classifiers alone but improve over acoustic models. PMID:25382936

  4. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B C; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2014-09-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime-target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel ("almond") and manDAT ("mandate"; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime-target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

  5. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

  6. Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

  7. Electron Interaction in Solids. Characteristic Energy Loss Spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nozières; D. Pines

    1959-01-01

    The characteristic energy loss spectrum of solids is analyzed with the aid of the dielectric formulation of the many-body problem developed by the authors. It is shown that a measurement of the angular distribution of inelastically scattered fast electrons is a direct measurement of the imaginary part of the inverse dielectric constant of the solid, at the frequency and momentum

  8. Lexical and Nonlexical Processes in the Skilled Reading and Spelling of Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of lexical and nonlexical processes to skilled reading and spelling in Persian. Persian is a mixed orthography that allows one to study within one language characteristics typically found in shallow orthographies as well as those found in deeper orthographies. 61 senior high-school…

  9. Avoiding Lexical Ambiguities: Does Prior Experience Help? 

    E-print Network

    Burns, Rebecca

    2008-06-27

    This study examined whether speakers avoid lexical ambiguities in a communication task by avoiding ambiguous descriptions when two interpretations are plausible and, furthermore, whether this avoidance is increased after ...

  10. Avoiding Lexical Ambiguities: Does Prior Experience Help? 

    E-print Network

    Nierop, Katharine

    2008-06-27

    The present study examined whether speakers avoided the production of lexically ambiguous target labels in a referential communication task (e.g., avoiding the ambiguous bare homophone mouse when pictures of both a computer ...

  11. Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna

    2010-08-13

    Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

  12. Design of a Lexical Database for Sanskrit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Huet

    We present the architectural design rationale of a Sanskrit computational linguistics plat- form, where the lexical database has a cen- tral role. We explain the structuring require- ments issued from the interlinking of grammat- ical tools through its hypertext rendition.

  13. Using Lexical Chains for Text Summarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Barzilay; Michael Elhadad

    1999-01-01

    We investigate one technique to produce a summary of an original text without requiring its full semantic in- terpretation, but instead relying on a model of the topic progression in the text derived from lexical chains. We present a new algorithm to compute lexical chains in a text, merging several robust knowledge sources: the WordNet thesaurus, a part-of-speech tagger, shallow

  14. Lexical Threshold Revisited: Lexical Text Coverage, Learners' Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the relationship between second language (L2) learners' vocabulary size, lexical text coverage that their vocabulary provides and their reading comprehension. We also conceptualize "adequate reading comprehension" and look for the lexical threshold for such reading in terms of coverage and vocabulary size. Vocabulary size was measured…

  15. More on Lexical Bias: How Efficient Can a "Lexical Editor'" Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The lexical bias effect (the tendency for phonological speech errors to create words more often than nonwords) has been debated for over 30 years. One account attributes the effect to a lexical editor, a strategic component of the production system that examines each planned phonological string, and suppresses it if it is a nonword. The…

  16. Characteristics of the Two Frontier Orbital Interactions in the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    Characteristics of the Two Frontier Orbital Interactions in the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Claude to give, in some cases, the corresponding Diels-Alder adducts. Clear differences in the roles played by the two frontier orbital interactions emerged. It was demonstrated that in the case of normal Diels

  17. Spending Time with Teacher: Characteristics of Preschoolers Who Frequently Elicit versus Initiate Interactions with Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Prakash, Kavita

    2003-01-01

    Explored interface between preschoolers' socio-emotional characteristics and interactions with teachers during free play. Found that children who most frequently initiated teacher interaction behaved more aggressively than peers and were so rated by teachers. Children who most frequently received teacher initiations were more shy and anxious.…

  18. Characteristics of users'needs and activities: A design space for interactive information retrieval systems

    E-print Network

    Nigay, Laurence

    interactive information retrieval systems. To do so, we adopt a user centered perspective: our problem space An Information Retrieval System (IRS) allows various users to search and retrieve information. One of the newCharacteristics of users'needs and activities: A design space for interactive information retrieval

  19. Characteristics of hadronic interactions in the forward direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkov, I.

    2013-06-01

    A selection of results obtained with very forward detectors of the CMS experiment at LHC is presented. Studies of the energy flow, dE?d?, are extended into very forward region with CASTOR calorimeter (-6.6 < ? < 5.2) for pp collisions at 3 different center-of-mass energies (0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV) and PbPb collisions at 2.76A TeV. Results are compared to hadronic interaction models as implemented in standard collider physics generators and generators used in cosmic-ray physics.

  20. The Limit of Structure Preservation in Dakota Lexical Phonology

    E-print Network

    Kyle, John

    1994-01-01

    Some of the earliest papers on Lexical Phonology claim that structure preservation applies throughout a Lexical derivation and may only he shut off by exiting the Lexicon. Work by Kellogg (1991) in Lakota attempts to uphold ...

  1. Lexicalized Hidden Markov Models for Part-of-Speech Tagging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Zoo Lee; Jun-ichi Tsujii; Hae-Chang Rim

    2000-01-01

    Since most previous works for HMM-based tagging consider only part-of-speech information in contexts, their models cannot utilize lexical information which is crucial for resolving some morphological ambiguity. In this paper we introduce uniformly lexicalized HMMs for part-of-speech tagging in both English and Korean. The lexicalized models use a simplified back-off smoothing technique to overcome data sparseness. In experiments, lexicalized models

  2. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

  3. On the Use of Lexical Stress in Reading Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Palma-Reyes, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether or not lexical stress is used for lexical access in Spanish. A lexical decision task and a masking priming procedure were used to compare correctly-versus-incorrectly stressed words (e.g., "tecla-TECLA vs. tecla-TECLA"). SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was manipulated at 33, 66, 100, and 143 ms. The results showed…

  4. Consequences of Lexical Stress on Learning an Artificial Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined effects of lexical stress on lexical access for recently learned words. Participants learned artificial lexicons (48 words) containing phonologically similar items and were tested on their knowledge in a 4-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) referent-selection task. Lexical stress differences did not reduce confusions…

  5. Attacks on Lexical Natural Language Steganography Systems Cuneyt M. Taskirana

    E-print Network

    Topkara, Mercan

    Attacks on Lexical Natural Language Steganography Systems Cuneyt M. Taskirana , Umut Topkarab. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method

  6. Lexical Studies of Indigenous Personality Factors: Premises, Products, and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Saucier; Lewis R. Goldberg

    2001-01-01

    The rationale for lexical studies rests on the assumption that the most meaningful personality attributes tend to become encoded in language as single-word descriptors. We articulate some key premises of the lexical approach and then review a number of studies that have been conducted examining the factor structure of personality descriptors extracted from dictionaries. We com- pare lexical studies in

  7. Lexical Selection in Multi-Word Production

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Niels; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    In multi-word utterances, target words need to be selected in the context of other target words. In the present study, three hypotheses were tested that differed in their assumptions about whether the lexical selection mechanism considers the activation levels of the other target lexical representations, and whether it takes into account their grammatical class properties. Participants produced adjective + noun and noun + noun utterances in response to colored word and picture + word stimulus displays. In both types of utterances, the frequency of the first and second response was manipulated. The results revealed an effect of the frequency of the second response that did not depend on the utterance type, and additive effects for the frequency of the first and the second response in both utterance types. These results are interpreted in terms of a model of lexical selection that assumes that selection is non-competitive. PMID:21687451

  8. Effects of word frequency and spelling-to-sound regularity in naming with and without preceding lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Hino, Y; Lupker, S J

    2000-02-01

    The effects of word frequency and spelling-to-sound regularity were examined using standard naming, standard lexical-decision, go/no-go naming, and go/no-go lexical-decision tasks. In both the standard and go/no-go naming tasks, tasks requiring phonological coding, a significant Frequency x Regularity interaction was observed. That is, the regularity effect was limited to low-frequency words. In the standard and go/no-go lexical-decision tasks, tasks not requiring phonological coding, no Frequency x Regularity interaction was observed. These results indicate not only that the Frequency x Regularity interaction is a product of phonological coding processes but also that these processes are similar in the standard and go/no-go naming tasks. Results are discussed in terms of the dual-route and the parallel distributed processing frameworks. PMID:10696612

  9. Influence of intermolecular interactions on spectroscopic characteristics of metal nanoparticles and their composites.

    PubMed

    Shaganov, Igor I; Perova, Tatiana S; Mukhina, Maria V; Martynenko, Irina V; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gerard, Valerie; Gun'ko, Yuri K

    2014-11-28

    In this paper we investigate the possibility to apply the concepts of non-specific intermolecular interactions and dispersive local field effect approach for study of the influence of interactions of metal nanoparticles with matrix molecules on the spectral characteristics of composites. The effect of intermolecular (interparticle) interactions and the influence of the dielectric environment on the peak position of the plasmon resonance band of colloidal solutions and thin films formed from noble metal nanostructures is determined. Simulated and experimental absorption spectra obtained for a colloidal solution of silver and gold nanoparticles, of various shapes and sizes in water and glycerol, are in good agreement. PMID:25310112

  10. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  11. Influences of Lexical Processing on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Kuo, Hsing-Hsiu

    2003-01-01

    Investigates how early lexical processing (word recognition) could influence reading. Finds that less-proficient readers could not finish the task of word recognition within time limits and their accuracy rates were quite low, whereas the proficient readers processed the physical words immediately and translated them into meanings quickly in order…

  12. Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

  13. Engineering English: A Lexical Frequency Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudraya, Olga

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues for the integration of the lexical approach with a data-driven corpus-based methodology in English teaching for technical students, particularly students of Engineering. It presents the findings of the author's computer-aided research, which aimed to establish a frequency-based corpus of student engineering lexis. The Student…

  14. Lexically Based Learning and Early Grammatical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieven, Elena V. M.

    1997-01-01

    Tests Pine & Lieven's (1993) suggestion that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. Results reveal that the positional analysis accounts for 60% of the children's multiword utterances and that most other utterances are defined as frozen. (33…

  15. Lexical and Phrasal Phonology of Yoruba Nouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folarin, Antonia Y.

    A detailed analysis of nouns derived from Noun + Noun structures in the African language Yoruba is presented. These nouns are categorized into two types: compound and phrasal nouns. Assuming some of the basic principles of lexical phonology, it is argued that compound nouns should be derived in the lexicon, while phrasal nouns are derived in the…

  16. The Dynamics of Bilingual Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Heij, Wido La; Navarrete, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss different views about how information flows through the lexical system in bilingual speech production. In the first part, we focus on some of the experimental evidence often quoted in favor of the parallel activation of the bilinguals' two languages from the semantic system in the course of language production. We argue…

  17. BALDEY: A database of auditory lexical decisions.

    PubMed

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2015-08-01

    In an auditory lexical decision experiment, 5541 spoken content words and pseudowords were presented to 20 native speakers of Dutch. The words vary in phonological make-up and in number of syllables and stress pattern, and are further representative of the native Dutch vocabulary in that most are morphologically complex, comprising two stems or one stem plus derivational and inflectional suffixes, with inflections representing both regular and irregular paradigms; the pseudowords were matched in these respects to the real words. The BALDEY ("biggest auditory lexical decision experiment yet") data file includes response times and accuracy rates, with for each item morphological information plus phonological and acoustic information derived from automatic phonemic segmentation of the stimuli. Two initial analyses illustrate how this data set can be used. First, we discuss several measures of the point at which a word has no further neighbours and compare the degree to which each measure predicts our lexical decision response outcomes. Second, we investigate how well four different measures of frequency of occurrence (from written corpora, spoken corpora, subtitles, and frequency ratings by 75 participants) predict the same outcomes. These analyses motivate general conclusions about the auditory lexical decision task. The (publicly available) BALDEY database lends itself to many further analyses. PMID:25397865

  18. Lexical validation of answers in Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Ligozat, Anne-Laure

    Lexical validation of answers in Question Answering Anne-Laure Ligozat, Brigitte Grau, Anne Vilnat answering (QA) aims at retrieving precise in- formation from a large collection of documents, typically, it is impor- tant to evaluate question answering systems. The objective of an Answer Validation task

  19. Lexical Knowledge Representation and Natural Language Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Pustejovsky; Branimir Boguraev

    1993-01-01

    Pustejovsky, J. and B. Boguraev, Lexical knowledge representation and natural language processing, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 193-223. Traditionally, semantic information in computational lexicons is limited to notions such as selectional restrictions or domain-specific constraints, encoded in a \\

  20. Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

  1. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

  2. Father Caretaking Characteristics and Their Influence on Infant-Father Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotelchuck, Milton

    This paper describes five experimental studies which explored the influence of fathers' home caregiving and interactional characteristics on their infant's laboratory behavior. Approximately 300 families with children ranging in age from 6 to 24 months were studied. Each infant's reactions were observed as a function of the manipulation of the…

  3. Individual differences in the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency: The role of lexical integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the joint effects of semantic priming and word frequency are critically dependent upon differences in the vocabulary knowledge of the participants. Specifically, across two Universities, additive effects of the two variables were observed in participants with more vocabulary knowledge, while interactive effects were observed in participants with less vocabulary knowledge. These results are discussed with reference to Borowsky and Besner’s (1993) multistage account and Plaut and Booth’s (2000) single-mechanism model. In general, the findings are also consistent with a flexible lexical processing system that optimizes performance based on processing fluency and task demands. PMID:20161653

  4. Insights on Curriculum, Instruction, and Early Literacy Learning: Student Characteristic by Instruction Interaction Effects on Literacy Outcomes

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Insights on Curriculum, Instruction, and Early Literacy Learning: Student Characteristic by Instruction Interaction Effects on Literacy Outcomes Guest Lecture by literacy instruction interaction effects on students' literacy outcomes particularly

  5. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS The redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific processes and various levels of word processing. PMID:23818879

  6. Resonance, synchronization, and lexical redundancy in the expanding dynamics of brain stem neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Arnold J.; Selz, Karen A.

    1993-11-01

    Interspike interval patterns of brain stem neurons that project directly or indirectly to much of the neocortex interactively influence electroencephalographically-defined states of consciousness and modulate patterns of temporal-spatial coherence, `binding,' in cortical field potential oscillations. Neurochemical classes of brain stem neurons manifest discriminable dynamical characteristics apart from the statistics of their firing rates. These sequences of interspike intervals are not well described by either harmonic functions or the Poisson statistics of renewal processes. We cast these patterns within the context of information bearing processes by using moment partitions and symbolic dynamics. We describe the expanding behavior of model and real brain stem neurons in relationship to states of resonance (the presence of complex singularities in the power spectrum with amplitudes related to the persistence of unstable fixed points in the nonexponential decay of correlations), synchronization (how closely the measure of maximal entropy comes to equaling the Sinai- Ruelle-Bowen area measure), and lexical redundancy (as repetitions of symbol subsequences).

  7. Real-life emotions detection with lexical and paralinguistic cues on Human-Human call center dialogs

    E-print Network

    Real-life emotions detection with lexical and paralinguistic cues on Human-Human call center, vidrascu}@limsi.fr Abstract The emotion detection work reported here is part of a larger study aiming to model user behavior in real interactions. We already studied emotions in a real-life corpus with human

  8. Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented. PMID:22518273

  9. Lexical–semantic priming effects during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

    2009-01-01

    When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word–word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants’ attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime–target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical–semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic–associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137

  10. [Characteristics of multimedia counseling: a study of an interactive TV system].

    PubMed

    Kakii, T

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate communication characteristics of multimedia counseling. Eye-contact through an interactive TV system was made possible, within three degrees of angle, with a camera attached on the TV screens. Counseling sessions with 18 clients were conducted to study differences among three conditions: audio only, interactive TV, and conventional face-to-face. The variables examined were information transmission, feeling communication, rapport building, overall evaluation, etc. Eighty-three per cent of the clients positively evaluated the interactive TV system, with all of its indices significantly higher than the audio only condition. However, rapport building with the system was significantly lower than the face-to-face condition. Two common factors found for the conditions were defenseless communication and counselor warmth. A larger TV screen might facilitate rapport building. More work is needed to study applicability of multimedia counseling, as well as to develop new effective counselor styles for the kind of counseling. PMID:9198264

  11. Lexical mediation and context effects in sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Traxler, Matthew J; Tooley, Kristen M

    2007-05-18

    Studies of syntactic ambiguity resolution have played a central role in resolving questions about when and how contextual information affects parsing processes. These investigations are often couched in terms of modularity versus interaction, with demonstrations of rapid contextual effects being taken as evidence that the mechanisms responsible for structuring sentences are permeable to referential or semantic context, and therefore non-modular. In this paper, we will propose that argument relations are constructed on the basis of lexically stored syntactic representations (as in MacDonald, M.C., Pearlmutter, N.J., and Seidenberg, M.S. (1994). Lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution. Psychological Review, 101, 676-703. Pickering, M.J., and Traxler, M.J. (2004). Grammatical repetition and garden path effects. Paper presented to the CUNY Sentence Processing Conference. College Park, MD., Pickering, M.J., and Traxler, M.J. (2006). Syntactic Priming in Comprehension. Manuscript in preparation. Traxler, M.J., and Pickering, M.J. (2005, March). Syntactic priming in comprehension. Paper presented to the CUNY Sentence Processing Conference. Tucson, AZ), but that other types of structural decisions are made on the basis of general processing principles. This formulation can be tested by looking at how the parser reacts to immediate intra- and inter-sentential factors (short-term context) and how it reacts to patterns of input over longer time scales (long-term context). We begin with a brief review of work on context effects in syntactic disambiguation, sketch our account of parsing, and then provide evidence from two eye-tracking experiments that illustrate some of the processing principles that govern parsing of argument relations. PMID:17112486

  12. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  13. Level Ordering and Economy in the Lexical Phonology of Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Sharon; Orgun, Cemil Orhan

    1995-01-01

    Supports the theory of level ordering by demonstrating, on the basis of productive morphology and phonology, that Turkish has four lexical levels. The first is the principle of Level Economy, which accounts for systematic exceptionality. The second is Level Prespecification, which exempts a root entirely from early lexical levels. Both of these…

  14. Hemispheric Differences in Context Sensitivity During Lexical Ambiguity Resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Titone

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of contextual constraint on lexical ambiguity resolution in the cerebral hemispheres. A cross-modal priming variant of the divided visual field task was utilized in which subjects heard sentences containing homonyms and made lexical decisions to targets semantically related to dominant and subordinate meanings. Experiment 1 showed priming in both hemispheres of dominant

  15. Word Length and Lexical Activation: Longer Is Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Many models of spoken word recognition posit the existence of lexical and sublexical representations, with excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms used to affect the activation levels of such representations. Bottom-up evidence provides excitatory input, and inhibition from phonetically similar representations leads to lexical competition. In such a…

  16. A Developmental Lexical Bias in the Interpretation of Discrepant Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Margaret; Bryant, Judith Becker

    2000-01-01

    Four experiments examined children's interpretations of lexical and vocal cues to speaker affect and the developmental trajectory of their interpretations of discrepancy. Findings indicate that the affective interpretations of 7- to 10-year-olds reflected a weighted- averaging strategy favoring the affect conveyed lexically. Both 4- and…

  17. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  18. Lexical Approach to Second Language Teaching. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moudraia, Olga

    This digest provides an overview of the methodological foundations underlying the lexical approach to language teaching and the pedagogical implications suggested by them. The lexical approach has received interest in recent years as an alternative to grammar-based approaches. It concentrates on developing learners' proficiency with lexis, or…

  19. Inaugural Article: Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem J. M. Levelt

    2001-01-01

    A core operation in speech production is the preparation of words from a semantic base. The theory of lexical access reviewed in this article covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation. The initial stages of preparation are concerned with lexical selection, which is zooming in

  20. HIERARCHICAL LEXICAL STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETIVE MAPPING IN MACHINE TRANSLATION

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    @cs.cmu.edu Abstract Large-scale knowledge-based machine translation requires significant amounts of lexical knowledge and Japanese. 1 Introduction The basic premise of knowledge-based machine translation is that accurate, highHIERARCHICAL LEXICAL STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETIVE MAPPING IN MACHINE TRANSLATION Teruko Mitamura

  1. Lexical Inhibition and Sublexical Facilitation Are Surprisingly Long Lasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Meghan; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    When a listener hears a word (beef), current theories of spoken word recognition posit the activation of both lexical (beef) and sublexical (/b/, /i/, /f/) representations. No lexical representation can be settled on for an unfamiliar utterance (peef). The authors examined the perception of nonwords (peef) as a function of words or nonwords heard…

  2. Lexical Effects on Children's Pseudoword Reading in a Transparent Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolini, Stefania; Burani, Cristina; Colombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the involvement of lexical knowledge in pseudoword reading by Italian children aged 8-10. In both lexical decision and reading aloud tasks, inhibitory effects were found on pseudowords derived from high-frequency words in comparison to pseudowords derived from low-frequency words. A group of adult readers showed…

  3. Lexical Bundles in University Spoken and Written Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Barbieri, Federica

    2007-01-01

    Lexical bundles--recurrent sequences of words--are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. Previous research has shown that lexical bundles are especially prevalent in university classroom teaching, where they serve three major discourse functions: stance expressions, discourse organizers, and referential…

  4. Problems of Lexical Decomposition: The Case of Yoruba Complex Verbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABIODUN OGUNWALE

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a description and analysis of the problems associated with the identification of the internal structure as well as the derivational sources of the Yoruba complex verbs. I attempt the lexical decomposition of these composite forms within the framework of a lexical morphology vis- à-vis my knowledge as a native speaker of the language. I find that some

  5. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar, and unfamiliar…

  6. The use of lexical affinities in requirements extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Maarek; D. M. Berry

    1989-01-01

    The use of lexical afftnities to help a human requirements analyst find abstractions in problem descriptions is explored. It is hoped that a lexical athnities tinding tool can be used as part of an environment to help organize the sentences and phrases of a natural language problem description to aid the requirements analyst in the extraction of requirements. An experiment

  7. Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Jayaraj

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

  8. PICTURE NAMING AND LEXICAL ACCESS IN ITALIAN CHILDREN AND ADULTS

    E-print Network

    PICTURE NAMING AND LEXICAL ACCESS IN ITALIAN CHILDREN AND ADULTS Simonetta D'Amico University, 00185 Roma (damicosi@tin.it). #12;2 PICTURE NAMING AND LEXICAL ACCESS IN ITALIAN CHILDREN AND ADULTS) and 50 Italian-speaking adults in a timed picture-naming task, with 250 pictures (simple line drawings

  9. Predicting Lexical Relations between Biomedical Terms: towards a Multilingual Morphosemantics-based System.

    PubMed

    Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This issue is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morpho-semantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a la morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots, and (3) a set of language-independant rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3,000 lexical families. PMID:16160355

  10. RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mah?bh?rata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Diwakar

    The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mah?bh?rata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devan?gar? Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

  11. Lexical Development in Korean: Vocabulary Size, Lexical Composition, and Late Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Lee, Youn Mi Cathy; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to compare vocabulary size, lexical composition, and late talking in large samples of Korean and U.S. children ages 18-35 months. Method: Data for 2,191 Korean children (211 children recruited "offline" through preschools, and 1,980 recruited "online" via the Internet) and 274 U.S.…

  12. Lexical Familiarity and Processing Efficiency: Individual Differences in Naming, Lexical Decision, and Semantic Categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jo Lewellen; Stephen D. Goldinger; David B. Pisoni; Beth G. Greene

    1993-01-01

    College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming

  13. Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

  14. Energy characteristics of beam-plasma interaction in a closed volume

    SciTech Connect

    Klykov, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation); Tarakanov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for High Energy Densities, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Shustin, E. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Energy exchange between an electron beam and plasma during a beam-plasma discharge in a closed cavity excited by the electron beam is analyzed using computer simulations by the KARAT code. A method allowing one to analyze the beam-plasma interaction in the quasi-steady stage of the discharge is proposed. Qualitative characteristics of energy exchange (such as beam energy losses and the energy distributions of beam electrons and plasma particles leaving the discharge) both during spontaneous discharge excitation and in the presence of initial beam modulation by regular or noiselike signals are determined. The results obtained enable one to estimate the energy characteristics of a plasma processing reactor based on a beam-plasma discharge.

  15. Non-local sub-characteristic zones of influence in unsteady interactive boundary-layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothmayer, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of incompressible, unsteady, interactive, boundary layers are examined for a model hypersonic boundary layer and internal flow past humps or, equivalently, external flow past short-scaled humps. Using a linear high frequency analysis, it is shown that the domains of dependence within the viscous sublayer may be a strong function of position within the sublayer and may be strongly influenced by the pressure displacement interaction, or the prescribed displacement condition. Detailed calculations are presented for the hypersonic boundary layer. This effect is found to carry over directly to the fully viscous problem as well as the nonlinear problem. In the fully viscous problem, the non-local character of the domains of dependence manifests itself in the sub-characteristics. Potential implications of the domain of dependence structure on finite difference computations of unsteady boundary layers are briefly discussed.

  16. Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Andrews, D W; Crosby, L

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the close friendships of early adolescent boys in relation to antisocial behavior. 186 13-14-year-old boys and their close friends were interviewed, assessed at school, and videotaped in a problem-solving task. Similarity was observed between the demographic characteristics and antisocial behavior of the boys and their close friends. There was a tendency for the close friends of antisocial boys to live within the same neighborhood block and to have met in unstructured, unsupervised activities. Direct observations of interactions with close friends revealed a reliable correlation between antisocial behavior, directives, and negative reciprocity. Positive interactions within the friendship were uncorrelated with antisocial behavior and relationship quality. Implications of these findings for clinical and developmental theory are discussed. PMID:7497821

  17. Lexical Selection and Verbal Self-Monitoring: Effects of Lexicality, Context, and Time Pressure in Picture-Word Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Current views of lexical selection in language production differ in whether they assume lexical selection by competition or not. To account for recent data with the picture-word interference (PWI) task, both views need to be supplemented with assumptions about the control processes that block distractor naming. In this paper, we propose that such…

  18. Do statistical segmentation abilities predict lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic abilities in children with and without SLI?

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included 40 children (ages 8;5–12;3), 20 children with SLI and 20 with typical development. Children completed Saffran’s statistical word segmentation task, a lexical-phonological access task (gating task), and a word definition task. Poor statistical learners were also poor at managing lexical-phonological competition during the gating task. However, statistical learning was not a significant predictor of semantic richness in word definitions. The ability to track statistical sequential regularities may be important for learning the inherently sequential structure of lexical-phonology, but not as important for learning lexical-semantic knowledge. Consistent with the procedural/declarative memory distinction, the brain networks associated with the two types of lexical learning are likely to have different learning properties. PMID:23425593

  19. Structure and Function in the Lexical System: Insights from Distributed Models of Word Reading and Lexical Decision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Plaut

    1997-01-01

    The traditional view of the lexical system stipulates word-speciéc representations and separate pathways for regular and exception words. An alternative approach views lexical knowledge as developing from general learning principles applied to mappings among distributed representations of written and spoken words and their meanings. On this distributed account, distinctions among words, and between words and nonwords, are not reié ed

  20. Lexical access and evoked traveling alpha waves

    PubMed Central

    Zauner, Andrea; Gruber, Walter; Himmelstoß, Nicole Alexandra; Lechinger, Julia; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval from semantic memory is usually considered within a time window around 300–600 ms. Here we suggest that lexical access already occurs at around 100 ms. This interpretation is based on the finding that semantically rich and frequent words exhibit a significantly shorter topographical latency difference between the site with the shortest P1 latency (leading site) and that with the longest P1 latency (trailing site). This latency difference can be described in terms of an evoked traveling alpha wave as was already shown in earlier studies. PMID:24486978

  1. Lexical Selection in Bilingual Speech Production Does Not Involve Language Suppression

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Lexical Selection in Bilingual Speech Production Does Not Involve Language Suppression Matthew" in bilingual lexical access arises when translation-equivalent lexical representations are activated to roughly suppression hypothesis as a possible solution to the hard problem in bilingual lexical access. Keywords

  2. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    PubMed

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies. PMID:17877849

  3. Lexical conflation and edible iconicity: two sources of ambiguity in American vernacular health terminology.

    PubMed

    Stvan, Laurel Smith

    2007-01-01

    Examination of lexical items in naturally occurring vernacular prose shows patterns of ambiguities in how Americans discuss health issues. Samples from the Freiburg-Brown corpus of American English and varied registers of popular health writing found online reveal two principles of naming beliefs that crosscut the uses of many ambiguous terms: the semantic principle of 'lexical conflation' and the semiotic principle of 'edible iconicity'. Both are shown to reflect sources of nutritional conceptualizations. Lexical conflation is illustrated by uses of fat, cholesterol, sugar, oil, and germ, with modifiers shown to help disambiguate terms. Edible iconicity, where meaning is attached to the visible form of what is ingested and characteristics of a food are believed to transfer to the person who eats it, is illustrated through aspects of hard, white, and hot. Applications are suggested that take into account the influence on nutritional choices that can occur when lay people misinterpret specialized information as signifying a nonspecialist sense. Recognition of these two principles has the potential to affect public health policy by helping practitioners to identify and modify ambiguous words, and to take into account tendencies to interpret metaphors literally, especially regarding iconic ingredients and their presumed effect upon the body. PMID:18052818

  4. Interaction and Representational Integration: Evidence from Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated…

  5. Academic Self-Efficacy, Faculty-Student Interactions, and Student Characteristics as Predictors of Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore student characteristics, academic self-efficacy, and faculty-student interactions as predictors of grade point average for upper-division (college level third and fourth year) education students at a public 4-year degree-granting community college. The study examined the effects of student characteristics

  6. Spatiotemporal Signatures of Lexical-Semantic Prediction.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ellen F; Weber, Kirsten; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2014-10-14

    Although there is broad agreement that top-down expectations can facilitate lexical-semantic processing, the mechanisms driving these effects are still unclear. In particular, while previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has demonstrated a reduction in the N400 response to words in a supportive context, it is often challenging to dissociate facilitation due to bottom-up spreading activation from facilitation due to top-down expectations. The goal of the current study was to specifically determine the cortical areas associated with facilitation due to top-down prediction, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings supplemented by EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic priming paradigm. In order to modulate expectation processes while holding context constant, we manipulated the proportion of related pairs across 2 blocks (10 and 50% related). Event-related potential results demonstrated a larger N400 reduction when a related word was predicted, and MEG source localization of activity in this time-window (350-450 ms) localized the differential responses to left anterior temporal cortex. fMRI data from the same participants support the MEG localization, showing contextual facilitation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus for the high expectation block only. Together, these results provide strong evidence that facilitatory effects of lexical-semantic prediction on the electrophysiological response 350-450 ms postonset reflect modulation of activity in left anterior temporal cortex. PMID:25316341

  7. Learning to read shapes the activation of neural lexical representations in the speech recognition pathway.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Röder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2011-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that written and spoken language processing are tightly linked. Here we focus on the development of this relationship at the time children start reading and writing. We hypothesize that the newly acquired knowledge about graphemes shapes lexical access in neural spoken word recognition. A group of preliterate children (six years old) and two groups of beginning readers (six and eight years old) were tested in a spoken word identification task. Using word onset priming we compared behavioural and neural facilitation for target words in identical prime-target pairs (e.g., mon-monster) and in prime target pairs that varied in the first speech sound (e.g., non-monster, Variation condition). In both groups of beginning readers priming was less effective in the Variation condition than in the Identity condition. This was indexed by less behavioural facilitation and enhanced P350 amplitudes in the event related potentials (ERPs). In the group of preliterate children, by contrast, both conditions did not differ. Together these results reveal that lexical access in beginning readers is based on more acoustic detail than lexical access in preliterate children. The results are discussed in the light of bidirectional speech and print interactions in readers. PMID:22436438

  8. Color perception involves color representations firstly at a semantic level and then at a lexical level.

    PubMed

    Heurley, Loïc P; Brouillet, Thibaut; Chesnoy, Gabrielle; Brouillet, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Studies and models have suggested that color perception first involves access to semantic representations of color. This result leads to two questions: (1) is knowledge able to influence the perception of color when associated with a color? and (2) can the perception of color really involve only semantic representations? We developed an experiment where participants have to discriminate the color of a patch (yellow vs. green). The target patch is preceded either by a black-and-white line drawing or by a word representing a natural object associated with the same or a different color (banana vs. frog). We expected a priming effect for pictures because, with a 350-ms SOA, they only involve access to semantic representations of color, whereas words seem only elicit an access to lexical representations. As expected, we found a priming effect for pictures, but also for words. Moreover, we found a general slowdown of response times in the word-prime-condition suggesting the need of an additional processing step to produce priming. In a second experiment, we manipulated the SOA in order to preclude a semantic access in the word-prime-condition that could explain the additional step of processing. We also found a priming effect, suggesting that interaction with perception occurs at a lexical level and the additional step occurs at a color perception level. In the discussion, we develop a new model of color perception assuming that color perception involves access to semantic representations and then access to lexical representations. PMID:23053840

  9. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

  10. WordNet: A Lexical Database for English

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WordNet is a powerful lexical reference system that combines aspects of dictionaries and thesauri with current psycholinguistic theories of human lexical memory. It is produced by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University, under the direction of Professor George Miller. In WordNet, words are defined and grouped into various related sets of synonyms. Not only is the system valuable to the casual user as a powerful thesaurus and dictionary, but also to the researcher as one of the few freely available, lexical databases. WordNet is available via an on-line interface and also as easy-to-compile C source code for Unix.

  11. Micromotors with step-motor characteristics by controlled magnetic interactions among assembled components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Xu, Xiaobin; Fan, Donglei Emma

    2015-01-27

    In this study, we investigated the control of the rotation dynamics of an innovative type of rotary micromotors with desired performances by tuning the magnetic interactions among the assembled micro/nanoscale components. The micromotors are made of metallic nanowires as rotors, patterned magnetic nanodisks as bearings and actuated by external electric fields. The magnetic forces for anchoring the rotors on the bearings play an essential role in the rotation dynamics of the micromotors. By varying the moment, orientation, and dimension of the magnetic components, distinct rotation behaviors can be observed, including repeatable wobbling and rolling in addition to rotation. We understood the rotation behaviors by analytical modeling, designed and realized micromotors with step-motor characteristics. The outcome of this research could inspire the development of high-performance nanomachines assembled from synthetic nanoentities, relevant to nanorobotics, microfluidics, and biomedical research. PMID:25536023

  12. Interaction between socio-demographic characteristics: traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers.

    PubMed

    Alver, Y; Demirel, M C; Mutlu, M M

    2014-11-01

    Young drivers' high traffic violation involvement rate and significant contribution to traffic crashes compared to older drivers creates the need for detailed analyses of factors affecting young drivers' behaviors. This study is based on survey data collected from 2,057 18-29 year old young adults. Data were collected via face-to-face questionnaire surveys in four different cities in Turkey. The main objective of this study is to identify the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violations, and traffic crashes among young drivers. Four main traffic rule violations are examined: red light violations, seat belt violations, speeding, and driving under the influence of alcohol, which are decisive in determining driving behavior and traffic crashes. The survey investigates the socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violation behavior and traffic crash histories of young adults. Four hypothetical scenarios were prepared for each traffic rule violation and data from the scenarios were modeled using the ordered probit model. Significant variables affecting each traffic rule violation are stated. Finally, significant variables that interact with crash involvements were investigated with binary logit models. According to the data analysis, 23.9% of drivers stated that they were involved in at least one traffic crash within the last three years. This crash rate increases to 38.3% for those who received at least one traffic citation/violation in last three years and peaks to 47.4% for those who were fined for seat belt violations in last three years. PMID:25019690

  13. The Arabic Lexical Contributions to the English Language 

    E-print Network

    Cannon, Garland; Kaye, Alan S.

    2007-03-05

    book is the largest, most up-to-date collection of English words and multiword lexical units borrowed from Arabic, directly or sometimes through a mediating language such as Hindi or Urdu, Persian, or Turkish. All general English dictionaries were...

  14. The Autonomy of Lexical Orthography Brenda Rapp and Lisa Benzing

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    to Alfonso Caramazza. We are grateful to Michael McCloskey, Marie-Josephe Tainturier, Gabriele Miceli, 1974; Patterson & Marcel, 1977). Here we will focus on the relationship between lexical phonology

  15. Does semantic size affect size constancy scaling using lexical stimuli? 

    E-print Network

    Beveridge, Madeleine

    2010-11-24

    Binocular disparity allows us to perceive the world in 3-dimensions through the process of stereopsis. In this study, we used binocular disparity to induce the size constancy illusion in lexical stimuli. 47 undergraduate ...

  16. Syntactic priming during sentence comprehension: evidence for the lexical boost.

    PubMed

    Traxler, Matthew J; Tooley, Kristen M; Pickering, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The experiments were designed to determine the degree to which lexical overlap between prime and target sentences produced larger effects, comparable to the widely observed "lexical boost" in production experiments (Pickering & Branigan, 1998; Pickering & Ferreira, 2008). The current experiments showed that priming effects during online comprehension were in fact larger when a verb was repeated across the prime and target sentences (see also Tooley et al., 2009). The finding of larger priming effects with lexical repetition supports accounts under which syntactic form representations are connected to individual lexical items (e.g., Tomasello, 2003; Vosse & Kempen, 2000, 2009). PMID:24707789

  17. Syntactic Priming During Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports two eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The experiments were designed to determine the degree to which lexical overlap between prime and target sentences produced larger effects, comparable to the widely observed ‘lexical boost’ in production experiments (Pickering & Branigan, 1998; Pickering & Ferreira, 2008). The current experiments showed that priming effects during on-line comprehension were in fact larger when a verb was repeated across the prime and target sentences (see also Tooley et al., 2009). The finding of larger priming effects with lexical repetition supports accounts under which syntactic form representations are connected to individual lexical items (e.g., Vosse & Kempen, 2000, 2009; Tomasello, 2003). PMID:24707789

  18. ZDDP and MoDTC interactions and their effect on tribological performance – tribofilm characteristics and its evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Morina; A. Neville; M. Priest; J. H. Green

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the interactions between two key additives in current lubricants (ZDDP and MoDTC) and the effect on tribofilm formation and tribofilm evolution under boundary lubrication are studied. The chemical and tribological characteristics of the tribofilms are probed using measurement of friction, wear and film characteristics. Tribofilms have been examined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron

  19. Interaction Layer Characteristics in U-xMo Dispersion/Monolithic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Porter

    2010-11-01

    Published data concerning the interaction layer (IL) formed between U-xMo fuel alloy and aluminum (Al)-based matrix or cladding materials was reviewed, including the effects of silicon (Si) content in the matrix/cladding, molybdenum (Mo) content in the fuel, pre irradiation thermal treatments, irradiation, and test temperature. The review revealed that tests conducted in the laboratory produce results different from those conducted in an irradiation environment. However, the laboratory testing relates well to thermal treatments performed prior to irradiation and helps in understanding the effects that these pre irradiation treatments have on in reactor performance. A pre-formed, Si-enriched IL seems to be important in delaying the onset of rapid growth of fission gas bubbles at low irradaiiation temperatures. Several other conclusions can be drawn: 1. An IL with phases akin to UAl3 is desired for optimum fuel performance, but at low temperatures, and especially in an irradiation atmosphere, the desired (Al+Si)/(U+Mo) ratio of three is difficult to produce. When the fuel operating temperature is low, it is important to create a pre-irradiation IL, enriched in Si. This pre-formed IL is relatively stable, performs well in terms of swelling resistance, and prevents rapid IL growth during irradiation. 2. At higher operating temperatures (>150–170°C), IL formation in reactor may not be so dependent on pre-irradiation IL formation, especially at high burnup; a pre-fabricated IL seems to be less stable at high burnup and high operating temperature. Moreover, the (Al+SI)/(U+Mo) ratio of three occurs more often at higher temperature. For these two reasons, it is important at high operating temperature to also have a matrix with significant Si content to create an IL in reactor with the right characteristics. 3. Out-of-reactor testing seems to indicate that Si in the matrix material is required in some concentration (2%, 5%, ?) to provide for a thin, Si-enriched IL formed before irradiation of a fuel plate. It ensures that the IL contains beneficial phases, or prevents formation of some known to promote poor fuel performance. Significant progress has been made in determining the desired characteristics of the IL. 4. The use of a fuel with stable gamma phase appears to allow more predictable performance regarding both a beneficial pre-irradiation layer, and the fuel performance (low swelling) to high burnup. Destabilization of the gamma phase may create problems with IL breakaway growth. 5. A theory whereby prevention of the U6Mo4Al43 complex phase in interaction layers formed during fabrication may be a key to good irradiation performance. Si additions to the matrix allow for solubility of Mo in the desirable (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 or perhaps (U,Mo)(Al,Si)4 phase, helping to prevent formation of the complex phase. Keeping alloy Mo content as low as possible may also help so long as decomposition does not occur in fabrication, forcing Mo into the interaction layer. This theory may explain a number of apparent anomalies observed in testing results. 6. More work is needed in order to prescribe the conditions to best produce a beneficial IL. Another necessity is a better understanding of any correlation between beneficial characteristics of the pre-fabricated IL and the irradiation conditions to which it will be subjected.

  20. Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?

    PubMed Central

    Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models. PMID:18942035

  1. Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

  2. Spectral, spatial, and polarization characteristics of harmonics generated at interaction of intense laser radiation with aluminum foils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashid A. Ganeev; J. A. Chakera; M. Raghuramaiah; A. K. Sharma; P. A. Naik; Parshotam D. Gupta

    2001-01-01

    Investigations on harmonic generation in laser-matter interaction of Nd:glass laser radiation with solid surfaces have been performed. Detailed measurements were made on the intensity of second, third and fourth harmonics, their polarization properties and spectral distribution, as well as dependencies of these characteristics on intensity and polarization of the incident laser radiation. Intensity dependence of second, third and fourth harmonics

  3. Are Children’s Syntactic Representations Facilitated By A Rapidly Decaying Lexical Boost? 

    E-print Network

    Garry, Neil William

    2010-06-30

    The present study explores whether 4 year old children have abstract syntactic representations and if so whether they are facilitated by repetition of lexical items. A lexical boost, elicited by repetition, has been shown to facilitate the magnitude...

  4. Syntactic priming in children: The strength and longevity of lexical enhancement 

    E-print Network

    Walterson, Lauren

    this with respect to the strength and longevity of lexical enhancement in the priming of children and adults. Both children and adults showed a strong lexical boost effect, given verb repetition between prime and target utterances: significantly more passives were...

  5. Word Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task, lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or under-additive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  6. Word Frequency Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or underadditive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again, we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  7. Context-dependent Probabilistic Hierarchical Sub-lexical Modelling Using Finite State Transducers

    E-print Network

    Context-dependent Probabilistic Hierarchical Sub-lexical Modelling Using Finite State Transducers describes a unified architecture for integrat- ing sub-lexical models with speech recognition, and a layered framework for context-dependent probabilistic hierarchical sub- lexical modelling. Previous work [1, 2, 3

  8. SUB-LEXICAL MODELLING USING A FINITE STATE TRANSDUCER FRAMEWORK Xiaolong Mou and Victor Zue

    E-print Network

    SUB-LEXICAL MODELLING USING A FINITE STATE TRANSDUCER FRAMEWORK Xiaolong Mou and Victor Zue sources across sub-lexical and high-level linguistic layers. In this paper, we use this FST framework to explore some sub- lexical modelling approaches, and propose a hybrid model that combines an ANGIE [2

  9. Social Media is NOT that Bad! The Lexical Quality of Social Media

    E-print Network

    Social Media is NOT that Bad! The Lexical Quality of Social Media Luz Rello Web Research and NLP an estimation of the lexical quality of the main Social Media sites. This pa- per presents an updated and complete analysis of the lexical quality of Social Media written in English and Spanish, in- cluding how

  10. With or without Semantic Mediation: Retrieval of Lexical Representations in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Caccaro, Arianna; Pavani, Francesco; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Peressotti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    How are lexical representations retrieved during sign production? Similar to spoken languages, lexical representation in sign language must be accessed through semantics when naming pictures. However, it remains an open issue whether lexical representations in sign language can be accessed via routes that bypass semantics when retrieval is…

  11. Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically

  12. Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody but atypical lexical prosody production. Method: Sixteen children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers…

  13. Rebounding Activation Caused by Lexical Homophony in the Processing of Japanese Two-Kanji Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of lexical homophony on the processing of Japanese two-kanji compound words. Experiment 1 showed that participants took longer to perform lexical decisions for words with a high degree of lexical homophony than those with no homophony. Interestingly, the same inhibitory trend was found in the naming task…

  14. Effects of Lexicality and Word Frequency on Brain Activation in Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…

  15. Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

  16. Lexical Stress Modeling for Improved Speech Recognition of Spontaneous Telephone Speech in the JUPITER Domain1

    E-print Network

    Lexical Stress Modeling for Improved Speech Recognition of Spontaneous Telephone Speech an approach of using lexical stress mod- els to improve the speech recognition performance on sponta- neous with lexical stress on a large corpus of spontaneous utterances, and identified the most informative features

  17. Interaction between Shiga Toxin and Monoclonal Antibodies: Binding Characteristics and in Vitro Neutralizing Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Letícia B.; Luz, Daniela E.; Moraes, Claudia T. P.; Caravelli, Andressa; Fernandes, Irene; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been employed either for diagnosis or treatment of infections caused by different pathogens. Specifically for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), numerous immunoassays have been developed for STEC diagnosis, showing variability in sensitivity and specificity when evaluated by reference laboratories, and no therapy or vaccines are currently approved. Thus, the aim of this work was the characterization of the interaction between MAbs against Stx1 and Stx2 toxins and their neutralizing abilities to enable their use as tools for diagnosis and therapy. The selected clones designated 3E2 (anti-Stx1) and 2E11 (anti-Stx2) were classified as IgG1. 3E2 recognized the B subunit of Stx1 with an affinity constant of 2.5 × 10?10 M, detected as little as 6.2 ng of Stx1 and was stable up to 50 ºC. In contrast, 2E11 recognized the A subunit of Stx2, was stable up to 70 ºC, had a high dissociation constant of 6.1 × 10?10 M, and detected as little as 12.5 ng of Stx2. Neutralization tests showed that 160 ng of 3E2 MAb inhibited 80% of Stx1 activity and 500 µg 2E11 MAb were required for 60% inhibition of Stx2 activity. These MAb amounts reversed 25 to 80% of the cytotoxicity triggered by different STEC isolates. In conclusion, these MAbs show suitable characteristics for their use in STEC diagnosis and encourage future studies to investigate their protective efficacy. PMID:23105978

  18. Spoken word production: a theory of lexical access.

    PubMed

    Levelt, W J

    2001-11-01

    A core operation in speech production is the preparation of words from a semantic base. The theory of lexical access reviewed in this article covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation. The initial stages of preparation are concerned with lexical selection, which is zooming in on the appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i.e., retrieving a word's morphemic phonological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corresponding articulatory gestures. The theory is based on chronometric measurements of spoken word production, obtained, for instance, in picture-naming tasks. The theory is largely computationally implemented. It provides a handle on the analysis of multiword utterance production as well as a guide to the analysis and design of neuroimaging studies of spoken utterance production. PMID:11698690

  19. Lexical Variation and Change in British Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas; Woll, Bencie; Cormier, Kearsy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a corpus-based study investigating lexical variation in BSL. An earlier study investigating variation in BSL numeral signs found that younger signers were using a decreasing variety of regionally distinct variants, suggesting that levelling may be taking place. Here, we report findings from a larger investigation looking at regional lexical variants for colours, countries, numbers and UK placenames elicited as part of the BSL Corpus Project. Age, school location and language background were significant predictors of lexical variation, with younger signers using a more levelled variety. This change appears to be happening faster in particular sub-groups of the deaf community (e.g., signers from hearing families). Also, we find that for the names of some UK cities, signers from outside the region use a different sign than those who live in the region. PMID:24759673

  20. Author's personal copy An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical

    E-print Network

    Author's personal copy An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical Lexical competition Acoustic-phonetic competition FMRI Middle temporal gyrus a b s t r a c t The current study explored how factors of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition affect access to the lexical

  1. Durational Properties of Lexical Stress and Grammatical Stress in Nanchang Chinese and Their Implications for Tonal Contrasts

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jiang

    2010-03-11

    ..........................................................37 4.2 Results of tonal contrasts in the lexically stressed but grammatically stressless CV(R) syllables and in the lexically stressless syllables............................................ 37 5. Analysis.............................................................................................................................49 5.1 Tonal contrasts in lexically stressed but grammatically stressless CV(R) and lexically stressless CV(R)...........................................................................................49 5.2 Tonal contrasts in CVO...

  2. Lexical Repetition in Second Language Learners' Peer Play Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed to the importance of second language learners' use of repetition for conversational participation and language learning. This study researched the significance of repetition, varying in type and complexity, for second language learning children's verbal participation in play as well as their academic language skills and…

  3. The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

  4. Studying the grammatical aspects of word recognition: lexical priming, parsing, and syntactic ambiguity resolution.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jared M; Kim, Albert; Trueswell, John C

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are reported examining the relationship between lexical and syntactic processing during language comprehension, combining techniques common to the on-line study of syntactic ambiguity resolution with priming techniques common to the study of lexical processing. By manipulating grammatical properties of lexical primes, we explore how lexically based knowledge is activated and guides combinatory sentence processing. Particularly, we find that nouns (like verbs, see Trueswell & Kim, 1998) can activate detailed lexically specific syntactic information and that these representations guide the resolution of relevant syntactic ambiguities pertaining to verb argument structure. These findings suggest that certain principles of knowledge representation common to theories of lexical knowledge--such as overlapping and distributed representations--also characterize grammatical knowledge. Additionally, observations from an auditory comprehension study suggest similar conclusions about the lexical nature of parsing in spoken language comprehension. They also suggest that thematic role and syntactic preferences are activated during word recognition and that both influence combinatory processing. PMID:12647563

  5. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  6. Traits and characteristics of interacting Dirac fermions in monolayer and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Apalkov, Vadim M.

    2013-12-01

    The relativistic-like behavior of electrons in graphene significantly influences the interaction properties of these electrons in a quantizing magnetic field, resulting in more stable fractional quantum Hall effect states as compared to those in conventional (non-relativistic) semiconductor systems. In bilayer graphene the interaction strength can be controlled by a bias voltage and by the orientation of the magnetic field. The finite bias voltage between the graphene monolayers can in fact, enhance the interaction strength in a given Landau level. As a function of the bias voltage, a graphene bilayer system shows transitions from a state with weak electron-electron interactions to a state with strong interactions. Interestingly, the in-plane component of a tilted magnetic field can also alter the interaction strength in bilayer graphene. We also discuss the nature of the Pfaffian state in bilayer graphene and demonstrate that the stability of this state can be greatly enhanced by applying an in-plane magnetic field.

  7. Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While…

  8. Hedges, Boosters and Lexical Invisibility: Noticing Modifiers in Academic Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Examines the view that the items writers use to modify their claims in academic texts, commonly referred to as hedges and boosters, may actually be unnoticed by second language readers, a phenomenon known as the lexical invisibility hypothesis. Data is presented from a small retrospective think-aloud study that explores how 14 Cantonese first…

  9. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  10. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

  11. Dissociating Visual Form from Lexical Frequency Using Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Tae; Duncan, Keith J. Kawabata; Hogan, John S.; Morita, Kenji; Umeda, Kazumasa; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    In Japanese, the same word can be written in either morphographic Kanji or syllabographic Hiragana and this provides a unique opportunity to disentangle a word's lexical frequency from the frequency of its visual form--an important distinction for understanding the neural information processing in regions engaged by reading. Behaviorally,…

  12. Aligning Parallel EnglishChinese Texts Statistically with Lexical

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    experience with automatic alignment of sentences in parallel English­ Chinese texts. Our report concerns towards addressing this problem. In this paper, we describe our experience with automatic alignmentAligning Parallel English­Chinese Texts Statistically with Lexical Criteria Dekai Wu \\Lambda

  13. The Effects of Prohibiting Gestures on Children's Lexical Retrieval Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Karen J.; Bird, Hannah; Kirk, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two alternative accounts have been proposed to explain the role of gestures in thinking and speaking. The Information Packaging Hypothesis (Kita, 2000) claims that gestures are important for the conceptual packaging of information before it is coded into a linguistic form for speech. The Lexical Retrieval Hypothesis (Rauscher, Krauss & Chen, 1996)…

  14. HIERARCHICAL LEXICAL STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETIVE MAPPING IN MACHINE TRANSLATION \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    ehn@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Large­scale knowledge­based machine translation requires significant amounts for both English and Japanese. 1 Introduction The basic premise of knowledge­based machine translationHIERARCHICAL LEXICAL STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETIVE MAPPING IN MACHINE TRANSLATION \\Lambda Teruko

  15. Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

  16. Lexical Diversity in Writing and Speaking Task Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Guoxing

    2010-01-01

    In the rating scales of major international language tests, as well as in automated evaluation systems (e.g. e-rater), a positive relationship is often claimed between lexical diversity, holistic quality of written or spoken discourses, and language proficiency of candidates. This article reports a "posteriori" validation study that analysed a…

  17. Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationships between lexical and phonological development has been enhanced in recent years by increased interest in this area from language scientists, psychologists and phonologists. This review article provides a summary of research, highlighting similarities and differences across studies. It is suggested that the…

  18. Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2007-01-01

    In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

  19. Extracting Lexically Divergent Paraphrases from Twitter , Alan Ritter2

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Extracting Lexically Divergent Paraphrases from Twitter Wei Xu1 , Alan Ritter2 , Chris Callison paraphrases within the short mes- sages on Twitter. We jointly model para- phrase relations between word of the same or similar meaning (Bhagat and Hovy, 2013). Twitter engages millions of users, who nat- urally

  20. Appraising Lexical Bundles in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: Obligation and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David

    2010-01-01

    Working from a large corpus of transcripts from secondary mathematics classrooms, we identify patterns of speech that encode interpersonal positioning. We extend our analysis from a previous article (Herbel-Eisenmann, Wagner & Cortes, Educ Stud Math, 2010, in press), in which we introduced a concept from corpus linguistics--a "lexical bundle,"…

  1. Input and Word Learning: Caregivers' Sensitivity to Lexical Category Distinctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Geoffrey D.; Burns, Tracey C.; Pawluski, Jodi L.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-four caregivers and their 2- to 4-year-old children took part in a storybook reading task in which caregivers taught children novel labels for familiar objects. Findings indicate parental speech could provide a rich source of information to children in learning how different lexical categories are expressed in their native language.…

  2. Semantic and Structural Elaboration in L2 Lexical Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of semantic and structural elaboration on second language lexical acquisition. English-speaking low-intermediate Spanish learners attempted to learn 24 new Spanish words in three conditions. Results provide evidence that increased semantic processing can inhibit the ability to encode the formal properties of new words.…

  3. Parafoveal Lexical Activation Depends on Skilled Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…

  4. Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

  5. The Lexical Breadth of Undergraduate Novice Level Writing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Scott Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on previous work exploring reading and listening lexical thresholds (Nation, 2006; Laufer & Ravenhorst-Kalovski, 2010; Schmitt, Jiang, & Grabe, 2011) in order to investigate productive vocabulary targets that mark successful entry-level undergraduate writing. Papers that passed the Effective Writing Test (EWT) were chosen…

  6. A Corpus-Based Assessment of French CEFR Lexical Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusseling, Françoise; Lonsdale, Deryle

    2013-01-01

    The French CEFR vocabulary profiles as presented in the "Référentiels"--while a valuable resource for a wide range of applications focused on lexical content--result from introspection, intuition-based judgements, and unquantifiable experience. The result is a specification of vocabulary that has been largely untested from a…

  7. Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

  8. Speech Perception and Lexical Effects in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

    2013-01-01

    Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6-9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CVtsets [word-word (WW), nonword-nonword (NN), word-nonword (WN) and…

  9. On the Generality of Thesaurally derived Lexical Links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Ellman; John Tait

    2000-01-01

    Cohesion is that property of a text that allows it to be read as a unified entity rather than a series of unconnected sentences. Lexical cohesion may be detected using an external thesaurus and the resulting representation used in a variety of language processing tasks. Our particular interest is in determining whether texts of different genres are similar in meaning.

  10. Neural systems underlying lexical retrieval for sign language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Emmorey; Thomas Grabowskib; Stephen McCullough; Hanna Damasio; Laura L. B. Ponto; Richard D. Hichwa; Ursula Bellugi

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography was used to investigate whether signed languages exhibit the same neural organization for lexical retrieval within classical and non-classical language areas as has been described for spoken English. Ten deaf native American sign language (ASL) signers were shown pictures of unique entities (famous persons) and non-unique entities (animals) and were asked to name each stimulus with an

  11. Determiner Primes as Facilitators of Lexical Retrieval in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner…

  12. Lexical and Semantic Binding in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Frankish, Clive R.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2006-01-01

    Semantic dementia patients make numerous phoneme migration errors in their immediate serial recall of poorly comprehended words. In this study, similar errors were induced in the word recall of healthy participants by presenting unpredictable mixed lists of words and nonwords. This technique revealed that lexicality, word frequency, imageability,…

  13. Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

  14. Dissociating Word Reading and Lexical Decision in Neglect Dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Connectionist Account

    Neglect dyslexia is a reading impairment acquired as a consequence of brain injury characterized by failures to read verbal material on the left side of a text or at the beginning of words. Neglect dyslexia patients make many errors when naming isolated words, whereas they perform nearly normally when required to make a lexical decision judgment. This behavior has been

  15. Lexical Specificity Training Effects in Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Caressa; Segers, Eliane; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Children who start formal education in a second language may experience slower vocabulary growth in that language and subsequently experience disadvantages in literacy acquisition. The current study asked whether lexical specificity training can stimulate bilingual children's phonological awareness, which is considered to be a precursor to…

  16. D-LTAG: Extending Lexicalized Tag to Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys work on applying the insights of lexicalized grammars to low-level discourse, to show the value of positing an autonomous grammar for low-level discourse in which words (or idiomatic phrases) are associated with discourse-level predicate-argument structures or modification structures that convey their syntactic-semantic meaning…

  17. Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

  18. Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

  19. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  20. A Study of Strategy Use in Producing Lexical Collocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Candi Chen-Pin

    This study examined strategy use in producing lexical collocations among freshman English majors at the Chinese Culture University. Divided into two groups by English writing proficiency, students completed three tasks: a collocation test, an optimal revision task, and a task-based structured questionnaire regarding their actions and mental…

  1. Sensitivity analysis of window characteristics and their interactions on thermal performance in residential buildings

    E-print Network

    George, Julie N

    1996-01-01

    This thesis studies the effects of different window characteristics such as area, conductance and shading on annual energy performance in residential buildings. A single parameter analysis is used to quantify the effect on annual energy due to a...

  2. Comparing Alternative Biometric Models with and without Gene-by-Measured Environment Interaction in Behavior Genetic Designs: Statistical Operating Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    To extend Purcell's well known ACE model in testing gene by measured environment interactions (GxM) in behavior genetic designs, Rathouz et al. considered a broader class of models for quantifying and testing such interactions. Only a sub-group of these extended models have been investigated for their statistical operating characteristics by Van Hulle et al. due to lack of closed form likelihood. With an estimation procedure developed using numerical techniques in a companion paper, we study statistical operating characteristics of these extended models, especially those with non-linear effects. Type I error analysis shows the likelihood ratio test for GxM to be conservative in testing models extended from the bivariate Cholesky model, and to be liberal for models extended from the bivariate correlated factors model. Parameter estimation for all models is very good, with little bias exhibited for most models and parameters. Comparisons among alternative models under various simulated conditions show that it is relatively more difficult to confirm the existence of gene by environment interactions versus to detect non-linear effects which exclude such interactions. PMID:25724590

  3. Characteristics of Interactive Oral and Computer-Mediated Peer Group Talk and Its Influence on Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewett, Beth L.

    2000-01-01

    Details a functional and qualitative study of interactive oral and computer-mediated communication (CMC)-generated (Norton "Connect") peer response group talk and its influence on revision. Finds the interactive peer groups in both environments talked primarily about their writing; however, the talk had different qualities when students used…

  4. Turbulence Characteristics and Interaction between Particles and Fluid in Particle-Laden Open Channel Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iehisa Nezu

    2004-01-01

    Mechanism of sediment transport is composed of complicated interactions between turbulent flow, particle motion, and bed configurations. Of particular significance is the interaction between turbulence and particle motion, although turbulence measurements of particle-laden two phase flow have been a problem for a long time, especially in the near-wall region. In this study, simultaneous measurements of both the particles and fluid

  5. Lexical and gestural symbols in left-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-06-01

    Motor activations reported during action-word understanding have raised the question as to whether the system for motor production contains semantically-relevant information. Cognitive neuropsychologists have provided compelling evidence that damage to the system for production of object-directed (transitive) actions does not necessarily lead to detrimental changes in the individuals' ability to understand the corresponding action words, and vice versa. We addressed this question focusing on intransitive symbolic gestures (emblems; e.g., waving goodbye), which are known to engage different resources, or neural representations, than object-directed actions, and are thought to enjoy a special relationship with language, due to a lexicalized relation between form (the gesture) and its meaning. We tested 12 left-damaged patients (and 17 healthy controls) on praxis (imitation and gesturing-to-verbal-command) and lexical-semantic tasks (naming and word-picture matching) involving the same emblems. With the group-level analyses, we replicated correlations between praxis and language deficits typically observed in left-damaged patients. The analyses of patients' performance at the single-case level, however, revealed double dissociations between the ability to produce emblems and the ability to retrieve and recognize their lexical-semantic definition. Double dissociations, even in the event of positive group-level correlations across tasks, imply that the motor representation of a gesture and the lexical-semantic representation of the corresponding word rely on functionally independent system. This study is the first systematic neuropsychological investigation of the relationship between the lexical-semantic and the motor representation of emblems, the closest counterpart of words in the gestural domain. PMID:23107378

  6. The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

    2004-01-01

    Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

  7. COLING 94, August 5-9, 1994, Kyoto, Japan, pp.278-282 Interlingual Lexical Organisation for Multilingual Lexical Databases

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    database, acception, linguistic structure. Introduction Needs for large scale lexical resources for Natural (Knowledge Based Machine Translation) at Carnegie Mellon University in the US and the EDR (Electronic, this system gives the linguist a great liberty in the choice of the linguistic structures. We first give

  8. Characteristics of widespread pyroclastic deposits formed by the interaction of silicic magma and water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Self; R. S. J. Sparks

    1978-01-01

    We have recognized a type of pyroclastic deposit formed by the interaction of water and silicic magma during explosive eruptions.\\u000a These deposits have a widespread dispersal, similar to plinian tephra, but the overall grain size is much tiner. Several deposits\\u000a studied can be associated with caldera lakes or sea water and water\\/magma interaction is proposed to account for the fine

  9. Microstructural behaviour and gelling characteristics of myosystem protein gels interacting with hydrocolloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Montero; J. L Hurtado; M Pérez-Mateos

    2000-01-01

    Hydrocolloids were added to blue whiting mince in order to study their distribution in the gel and obtain more information about how these additives act on gel characteristics. The addition of hydrocolloid in powder significantly reduced puncture test properties with respect to the hydrocolloid-free gels, except in the case of locust bean gum. On the other hand, compression properties were

  10. Characteristic parameters of superconductor-coolant interaction including high Tc current density limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.

    1989-01-01

    In the area of basic mechanisms of helium heat transfer and related influence on super-conducting magnet stability, thermal boundary conditions are important constraints. Characteristic lengths are considered along with other parameters of the superconducting composite-coolant system. Based on helium temperature range developments, limiting critical current densities are assessed at low fields for high transition temperature superconductors.

  11. The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

  12. Hiring Discrimination Against Arab Minorities: Interactions Between Prejudice and Job Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Derous; Hannah-Hanh Nguyen; Ann Marie Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Individuals of Arab descent have increasingly experienced prejudice and employment discrimination. This study used the social identity paradigm to investigate whether greater Arab identification of applicants led to hiring discrimination and whether job characteristics and raters' prejudice moderated this effect. One hundred forty-one American and 153 Dutch participants rated résumés on job suitability. Résumés with Arab name and affiliations negatively

  13. Task Characteristics and the Experience of Optimal Flow in Human—Computer Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jawaid A. Ghani; Satish P. Deshpande

    1994-01-01

    This article builds on job characteristics and optimal flow theory to describe the experience of individuals using computers in the workplace. A model was developed and tested with linear structural relationship modeling (LISREL) with data from 149 professionals employed in a variety of organizations. Flow, which is characterized by intense concentration and enjoyment, was found to be significantly linked with

  14. Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS),…

  15. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpzhao@nwpu.edu.cn; Song, Kun [Smart Materials Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, 710129 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  16. A Spatially-Explicit Modeling Approach to Examine the Interaction of Reproductive Traits and Landscape Characteristics on Arctic Shrub Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, A. T.; Cairns, D. M.; Feldman, R. M.; Grant, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    Shrub expansion is one of the most recognized components of terrestrial Arctic change. While experimental work has provided valuable insights into its fine-scale drivers and implications, the contribution of shrub reproductive characteristics to their spatial patterns is poorly understood at broader scales. Building upon our previous work in river valleys in northern Alaska, we developed a C#-based spatially-explicit model that simulates historic landscape-scale shrub establishment between the 1970s and the late 2000s on a yearly time-step while accounting for parameters relating to different reproduction modes (clonal development with and without the "mass effect" and short-distance dispersal), as well as the presence and absence of the interaction of hydrologic constraints using the topographic wetness index. We examined these treatments on floodplains, valley slopes, and interfluves in the Ayiyak, Colville, and Kurupa River valleys. After simulating 30 landscape realizations using each parameter combination, we quantified the spatial characteristics (patch density, edge density, patch size variability, area-weighted shape index, area-weighted fractal dimension index, and mean distance between patches) of the resulting shrub patches on the simulation end date using FRAGSTATS. We used Principal Components Analysis to determine which treatments produced spatial characteristics most similar to those observed in the late 2000s. Based upon our results, we hypothesize that historic shrub expansion in northern Alaska has been driven in part by clonal reproduction with the "mass effect" or short-distance dispersal (< 5 m). The interactive effect of hydrologic characteristics, however, is less clear. These hypotheses may then be tested in future work involving field observations. Given the potential that climate change may facilitate a shift from a clonal to a sexual reproductive strategy, this model may facilitate predictions regarding future Arctic vegetation patterns.

  17. Surface characteristics of projectiles after frictional interaction with metal matrix composites under ballistic condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Baki Karam??; A. Alper Cerit; Fehmi Nair

    2006-01-01

    The surface characteristics of the AK-47 (7.62mm×39mm Armour Piercing) and G3 (7.62mm×51mm Armour Piercing) projectile tips were investigated after impacting an Al alloy reinforced with Al2O3 particles at high velocity. The composite samples were manufactured from Al-7075 by the squeeze casting method and they were subjected to ballistic impact tests as defined in related ballistic standards of the National Institute

  18. The role of visual representations during the lexical access of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gwyneth; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Do visual representations contribute to spoken word recognition? We examine, using MEG, the effects of sublexical and lexical variables at superior temporal (ST) areas and the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) compared with that of word imageability at visual cortices. Embodied accounts predict early modulation of visual areas by imageability - concurrently with or prior to modulation of pMTG by lexical variables. Participants responded to speech stimuli varying continuously in imageability during lexical decision with simultaneous MEG recording. We employed the linguistic variables in a new type of correlational time course analysis to assess trial-by-trial activation in occipital, ST, and pMTG regions of interest (ROIs). The linguistic variables modulated the ROIs during different time windows. Critically, visual regions reflected an imageability effect prior to effects of lexicality on pMTG. This surprising effect supports a view on which sensory aspects of a lexical item are not a consequence of lexical activation. PMID:24814579

  19. Biological interactions in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles of different characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aula, Sangeetha; Lakkireddy, Samyuktha; AVN, Swamy; Kapley, Atya; Jamil, Kaiser; Rao Tata, Narasinga; Hembram, Kaliyan

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have recently received growing attention for various biomedical applications, including use as therapeutic or carrier for drug delivery and/or imaging. For the above applications, the NPs necessitate administration into the body leading to their systemic exposure. To better anticipate the safety, make risk assessment, and be able to interpret the future preclinical and clinical safety data, it is important to systematically understand the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences of such interaction, and the mechanisms associated with the toxicity induction, with the important components with which the NPs are expected to be in contact after systemic exposure. In this context, we report here a detailed study on the biological interactions in vitro of the ZnO NPs with healthy human primary lymphocytes as these are the important immune components and the first systemic immune contact, and with the whole human blood. Additionally, the influence, if any, of the NPs shape (spheres and rods) on the biological interaction has been evaluated. The ZnO NPs caused toxicity (30% at 12.5 ?g ml-1 spheres and 10.5 ?g ml-1 rods; 50% at 22 ?g ml-1 spheres and 19.5 ?g ml-1 rods) to the lymphocytes at molecular and genetic level in a dose-dependent and shape-dependent manner, while the interaction consequences with the blood and blood components such as RBC, platelets was only dose-dependent and not shape-dependent. This is evident from the decreased RBC count due to increased %Hemolysis (5.3% in both the spheres- and rods-treated blood) and decreased platelet count due to increased %platelet aggregation (28% in spheres-treated and 33% in rods-treated platelet-rich plasma). Such in-depth understanding of the biological interaction of the NPs, the consequences, and the associated mechanisms in vitro could be expected to allow anticipating the NP safety for risk assessment and for interpretation of the preclinical and clinical safety data when available.

  20. Effect of sound similarity and word position on lexical selection

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Megan; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2014-01-01

    Spoken word production research has shown that phonological information influences lexical selection. It remains unclear, however, whether this phonological information is specified for its phonological environment (e.g., word position) or its phonetic (allophonic) realization. To examine this, two definition naming experiments were performed during which subjects produced lexical targets (e.g., “balcony”) in response to the targets’ definitions (“deck higher than a building’s first floor”) after naming a series of phonologically related or unrelated primes. Subjects produced target responses significantly more often when the primes were phonologically related to the target, regardless of whether the phonologically related primes matched the target’s word position or did not. For example, subjects were equally primed to produce the target “balcony” after the prime “ballast” or “unbalanced” relative to unrelated primes. Moreover, equal priming occurred irrespective of phonological environment or phonetic realization. The results support models of spoken word production which include context-independent phonological representations. PMID:25436217

  1. Norwegian words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marianne; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2015-04-01

    All words have properties linked to form, meaning and usage patterns which influence how easily they are accessed from the mental lexicon in language production, perception and comprehension. Examples of such properties are imageability, phonological and morphological complexity, word class, argument structure, frequency of use and age of acquisition. Due to linguistic and cultural variation the properties and the values associated with them differ across languages. Hence, for research as well as clinical purposes, language specific information on lexical properties is needed. To meet this need, an electronically searchable lexical database with more than 1600 Norwegian words coded for more than 12 different properties has been established. This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching. PMID:25588015

  2. "M" to "Moonless": Lexical Databases in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Paul; Huntley, Frank

    This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…

  3. An Exploratory Analysis of Network Characteristics and Quality of Interactions among Public Health Collaboratives

    PubMed Central

    Varda, Danielle M.; Retrum, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    While the benefits of collaboration have become widely accepted and the practice of collaboration is growing within the public health system, a paucity of research exists that examines factors and mechanisms related to effective collaboration between public health and their partner organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the structural and organizational characteristics of public health collaboratives. Design and Methods. Using both social network analysis and traditional statistical methods, we conduct an exploratory secondary data analysis of 11 public health collaboratives chosen from across the United States. All collaboratives are part of the PARTNER (www.partnertool.net) database. We analyze data to identify relational patterns by exploring the structure (the way that organizations connect and exchange relationships), in relation to perceptions of value and trust, explanations for varying reports of success, and factors related to outcomes. We describe the characteristics of the collaboratives, types of resource contributions, outcomes of the collaboratives, perceptions of success, and reasons for success. We found high variation and significant differences within and between these collaboratives including perceptions of success. There were significant relationships among various factors such as resource contributions, reasons cited for success, and trust and value perceived by organizations. We find that although the unique structure of each collaborative makes it challenging to identify a specific set of factors to determine when a collaborative will be successful, the organizational characteristics and interorganizational dynamics do appear to impact outcomes. We recommend a quality improvement process that suggests matching assessment to goals and developing action steps for performance improvement. Acknowledgements the authors would like to thank the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Public Health Program for funding for this research. PMID:25170462

  4. Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access II. Infant data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Gout; Anne Christophe; James L. Morgan

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both their syllables separated by a phonological phrase boundary. Ten-month-olds

  5. Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem J. M. Levelt

    2001-01-01

    appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i. e., retrieving a word's morphemic pho-nological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corre-sponding articulatory gestures. The theory is based on chronomet-ric measurements of spoken word production, obtained, for instance, in picture-naming tasks. The theory is largely computa-tionally implemented. It provides a handle on the analysis

  6. Lexical semantic and associative priming in Alzheimer's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guila Glosser; Rhonda B. Friedman; Patrick K. Grugan; Jefferson H. Lee; Murray Grossman

    1998-01-01

    Semantic memory impairment was investigated in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a threshold oral word reading task to assess priming of different lexical relationships. Healthy elderly controls showed significant priming for associatively related nouns (tempest-teapot) and also for nouns semantically related either because both designate basic-level exemplars of a common superordinate category (cousin-nephew) or because the target names

  7. Using Lexical tools to convert Unicode characters to ASCII.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chris J; Browne, Allen C; Divita, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. It is widely used in multilingual NLP (natural language processing) projects. On the other hand, there are some NLP projects still only dealing with ASCII characters. This paper describes methods of utilizing lexical tools to convert Unicode characters (UTF-8) to ASCII (7-bit) characters. PMID:18998787

  8. Revisiting Lexical Signatures to (Re)Discover Web Pages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Klein; Michael L. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    A lexical signature (LS) is a small set of terms derived from a document that capture the “aboutness” of that document. A\\u000a LS generated from a web page can be used to discover that page at a different URL as well as to find relevant pages in the\\u000a Internet. From a set of randomly selected URLs we took all their

  9. Construction and operational characteristics of a plasma-propellant interaction experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Edwards; M. A. Bourham; J. G. Gilligan

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-propellant interaction experiment “PIPE” consists of an electrothermal source which injects a low temperature (1-3 eV), high density (1025-1026m3) plasma to the surface of either a solid or a liquid propellant. A 340-?F Maxwell capacitor is charged (up to 10 kV) and subsequently discharged to the plasma gun electrode by releasing the stored energy (up to 15 kJ). The

  10. Interactions of CO 2 enrichment and temperature on cotton growth and leaf characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R Reddy; R. R Robana; Harry F Hodges; X. J Liu; James M McKinion

    1998-01-01

    Studies on the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and temperature on growth and leaf morphology, particularly on stomatal index and density are limited. Upland cotton was grown in naturally-lit plant growth chambers at 30\\/22°C day\\/night temperatures from planting until squaring or the fifth or sixth leaf emerged. Five growth chambers were maintained at ambient (350 ?l l?1) CO2 and another

  11. Lexical segmentation and vocabulary growth in early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, K

    1993-02-01

    The identification of appropriate lexical segmentations of the speech signal constitutes a problem for the language learner and the child language researcher alike. Articulatory precision and fluency criteria for identifying formulaic expressions, sub-lexical forms and target lexemes in linguistic productions are defined and applied to the analysis of two Danish children's language development between the ages of 1;0 and 2;0. The results of this analysis are compared to the results of applying standard distributional and frequency criteria in the tabulation of mean length of utterance and vocabulary profiles for both standard and non-standard lexical segmentations. It is argued that although the two methods yield converging profiles of development during the latter part of the period studied, articulatory precision and fluency criteria offer a more powerful tool for identifying alternative segmentation strategies in early language acquisition. Profiles of vocabulary development for these two children suggest that the solution to the segmentation problem may be an important trigger for their vocabulary spurts. PMID:8454686

  12. [Psychometric properties and diagnostic value of 'lexical screening for aphasias'].

    PubMed

    Pena-Chavez, R; Martinez-Jimenez, L; Lopez-Espinoza, M

    2014-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. Language assessment in persons with brain injury makes it possible to know whether they require language rehabilitation or not. Given the importance of a precise evaluation, assessment instruments must be valid and reliable, so as to avoid mistaken and subjective diagnoses. AIM. To validate 'lexical screening for aphasias' in a sample of 58 Chilean individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A screening-type language test, lasting 20 minutes and based on the lexical processing model devised by Patterson and Shewell (1987), was constructed. The sample was made up of two groups containing 29 aphasic subjects and 29 control subjects from different health centres in the regions of Biobio and Maule, Chile. Their ages ranged between 24 and 79 years and had between 0 and 17 years' schooling. Tests were carried out to determine discriminating validity, concurrent validity with the aphasia disorder assessment battery, reliability, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS. The statistical analysis showed a high discriminating validity (p < 0.001), an acceptable mean concurrent validity with aphasia disorder assessment battery (rs = 0.65), high mean reliability (alpha = 0.87), moderate mean sensitivity (69%) and high mean specificity (86%). CONCLUSION. 'Lexical screening for aphasias' is valid and reliable for assessing language in persons with aphasias; it is sensitive for detecting aphasic subjects and is specific for precluding language disorders in persons with normal language abilities. PMID:25190338

  13. Speech perception and lexical effects in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

    2014-01-01

    Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6–9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CV/t/sets [word–word (WW), nonword–nonword (NN), word–nonword (WN) and nonword–word (NW)] were edited to create four 12-step continua. Both groups used duration as an identification cue but it was a weaker cue for children with SLI. For NN, WN and NW continua, children with SLI demonstrated certainty at shorter vowel durations than their TLD peers. Except for the WN continuum, children with SLI demonstrated category boundaries at shorter vowel durations. Both groups exhibited lexical effects, but they were stronger in the SLI group. Performance on the WW continuum indicated adequate perception of fine-grained duration differences. Strong lexical effects indicated reliance on familiar words in speech perception. PMID:23635335

  14. Information deficits in the summary of product characteristics preclude an optimal management of drug interactions: a comparison with evidence from the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verena Bergk; Walter E. Haefeli; Christiane Gasse; Hermann Brenner; Meret Martin-Facklam

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare comprehensiveness and accuracy of drug interaction information in the German summary of product characteristics (SPC) with current evidence from the literature and to evaluate the SPC's usefulness with respect to management of drug interac- tions. Methods: Information on clinically relevant drug inter- actions was compared between the SPC and three standard information sources on drug interactions (DRUGDEX,

  15. Spectra of hadrons and muons in the atmosphere: primary spectra, characteristics of hadron-air interactions

    E-print Network

    A. V. Yushkov; A. A. Lagutin

    2006-12-01

    Self-consistency of interaction models QGSJET 01, SIBYLL 2.1, NEXUS 3.97 and QGSJET II is checked in terms of their ability to reproduce simultaneously experimental data on fluxes of muons and hadrons. From this point of view SIBYLL 2.1 gives the most acceptable, though not quite satisfactory, results. Analysis of the situation for muons supports our previous conclusions, that high-energy muon deficit is due both to underestimation of primary light nuclei fluxes in direct emulsion chamber experiments and to softness of $p+A\\to\\pi^\\pm,K^\\pm+X$ inclusive spectra in fragmentation region, especially prominent in case of QGSJET 01 model.

  16. Flocculating characteristic of activated sludge flocs: interaction between Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum flocculant can enhance the flocculating performance of activated sludge. However, the binding mechanism of aluminum ion (Al(3+)) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge is unclear due to the complexity of EPS. In this work, three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM), fluorescence quenching titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to explore the binding behavior and mechanism between Al(3+) and EPS. The results showed that two fluorescence peaks of tyrosine- and tryptophan-like substances were identified in the loosely bound-extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), and three peaks of tyrosine-, tryptophan- and humic-like substances were identified in the tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS). It was found that these fluorescence peaks could be quenched with Al(3+) at the dosage of 3.0 mg/L, which demonstrated that strong interactions took place between the EPS and Al(3+). The conditional stability constants for Al(3+) and EPS were determined by the Stern-Volmer equation. As to the binding mechanism, the -OH, N-H, C=O, C-N groups and the sulfur- and phosphorus-containing groups showed complexation action, although the groups in the LB-EPS and TB-EPS showed different behavior. The TB-EPS have stronger binding ability to Al(3+) than the LB-EPS, and TB-EPS play an important role in the interaction with Al(3+). PMID:24218821

  17. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  18. Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders’ Word Reading Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes. PMID:22229058

  19. Some surface characteristics and gas interactions of Apollo 14 fines and rock fragments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Wagner, N. J.; Jones, B. R.; Stetter, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Comprehensive survey of the physical surface characteristics of Apollo 14 fines, two fragments of a breccia (14321), and a crystalline rock (14310). The survey was carried out with optical and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy and by studying the adsorption of a variety of gases including nitrogen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Our objective in the optical microscope study was to relate the visible geological and petrological features to the surface properties. Electron microscopy particularly helped relate surface roughness and particle fusion to gas adsorption and pore structure. The fine sample (14163,111) had a surface area of 0.210 sq m/g and a helium density of 2.9 g/cc. Similar values have been observed with breccia fragments. Other observations include physical adsorption of molecular hydrogen at low temperatures and of water vapor at ambient temperatures. It is concluded that these particular lunar materials, while capable of adsorbing water vapor, do not retain it for any significant time at low pressures, nor, under lunar conditions, is there any indication of absorption or penetration.

  20. Improving the electrical characteristics of graphene field effect transistors by hexamethyldisilazane interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sk.; Rahimi, Somayyeh; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Banerjee, Sanjay; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-03-01

    We report the improvement of the electrical characteristics of graphene field effect transistors (FET) by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) passivation. Sample is left in liquid HMDS after complete back gated FET fabrication. Both electron and hole field effect mobilities are improved by 1.5X - 2X, accompanied by effective residual carrier concentration reduction. Dirac voltage also moves closer to zero. Various techniques for HMDS application are investigated. Time evolution of mobility data shows that mobility improvement saturates after a few hours of HMDS dosing. Temperature-dependent transport measurements show small mobility variation between 77K and room temperature (295K) before HMDS application. But mobility at 77K is almost 2 times higher than mobility at 295K after HMDS application. The best CVD devices achieve a mobility of ~ 20,000 cm2/V-s at 77K. Performance improvement is observed for FETs made with exfoliated graphene and for FETs made on hydrophobic substrate- an HMDS-graphene-HMDS sandwich structure. Raman spectroscopic analysis shows that G peak width is increased, G peak position is down shifted and intensity ratios between 2D and G peak is increased after HMDS application. AFM data shows increased RMS roughness after HMDS application.

  1. Lexicality Effects in Word and Nonword Recall of Semantic Dementia and Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Troche, Joshua; Chatel, Alison; Park, Hyejin; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal working memory is an essential component of many language functions, including sentence comprehension and word learning. As such, working memory has emerged as a domain of intense research interest both in aphasiology and in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. The integrity of verbal working memory encoding relies on a fluid interaction between semantic and phonological processes. That is, we encode verbal detail using many cues related to both the sound and meaning of words. Lesion models can provide an effective means of parsing the contributions of phonological or semantic impairment to recall performance. Methods and Procedures We employed the lesion model approach here by contrasting the nature of lexicality errors incurred during recall of word and nonword sequences by 3individuals with progressive nonfluent aphasia (a phonological dominant impairment) compared to that of 2 individuals with semantic dementia (a semantic dominant impairment). We focused on psycholinguistic attributes of correctly recalled stimuli relative to those that elicited a lexicality error (i.e., nonword ? word OR word ? nonword). Outcomes and results Patients with semantic dementia showed greater sensitivity to phonological attributes (e.g., phoneme length, wordlikeness) of the target items relative to semantic attributes (e.g., familiarity). Patients with PNFA showed the opposite pattern, marked by sensitivity to word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and imageability. Conclusions We interpret these results in favor of a processing strategy such that in the context of a focal phonological impairment patients revert to an over-reliance on preserved semantic processing abilities. In contrast, a focal semantic impairment forces both reliance upon and hypersensitivity to phonological attributes of target words. We relate this interpretation to previous hypotheses about the nature of verbal short-term memory in progressive aphasia. PMID:23486736

  2. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension. PMID:26017384

  3. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Jason E.; Martin, Randi C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle was negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production. PMID:24478675

  4. Language Differences in the Brain Network for Reading in Naturalistic Story Reading and Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W. Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension. PMID:26017384

  5. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, James M.; Allen, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS) is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem appears to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate. To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy) to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies. PMID:25926810

  6. Surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash particles after interaction with seawater under natural deep sea conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brami, Y.; Shemesh, A.; Cohen, H. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)] [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Herut, B. [National Inst. of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)] [National Inst. of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

    1999-01-15

    The surface chemical characteristics of coal fly ash (CFA) before and after interaction with Mediterranean deep seawater was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Significantly lower values of Si, Ca, and S and higher values of Mg and Cl were found in the retrieved CFA as compared to fresh CFA. It is suggested that hydrolysis of the oxide matrixes results in an alkaline environment which rapidly leads to several chemical reactions. The two most important are (a) dissolution of the amorphous silicate and the calcium phases and (b) precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2}-brucite. A depth profile of the retrieved CFA was measured by both line-shape analysis of the XPS spectra and by consecutive cycle of sputtering. The thickness of the brucite layer is estimated to be 1.3 nm.

  7. The interaction of vocal characteristics and audibility in the recognition of concurrent syllables.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Martin D; Fyson, Nicholas R C; Patterson, Roy D

    2009-02-01

    In concurrent-speech recognition, performance is enhanced when either the glottal pulse rate (GPR) or the vocal tract length (VTL) of the target speaker differs from that of the distracter, but relatively little is known about the trading relationship between the two variables, or how they interact with other cues such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper presents a study in which listeners were asked to identify a target syllable in the presence of a distracter syllable, with carefully matched temporal envelopes. The syllables varied in GPR and VTL over a large range, and they were presented at different SNRs. The results showed that performance is particularly sensitive to the combination of GPR and VTL when the SNR is 0 dB. Equal-performance contours showed that when there are no other cues, a two-semitone difference in GPR produced the same advantage in performance as a 20% difference in VTL. This corresponds to a trading relationship between GPR and VTL of 1.6. The results illustrate that the auditory system can use any combination of differences in GPR, VTL, and SNR to segregate competing speech signals. PMID:19206886

  8. Training Production of Lexical Stress in Typically Developing Children Using Orthographically Biased Stimuli and Principles of Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rees, Lauren J.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; McCabe, Patricia; Macdonald-D'Silva, Anita G.; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Impaired lexical stress production characterizes multiple pediatric speech disorders. Effective remediation strategies are not available, and little is known about the normal process of learning to assign and produce lexical stress. This study examined whether typically developing (TD) children can be trained to produce lexical stress on…

  9. Cross-Language Lexical Connections in the Mental Lexicon: Evidence from a Case of Trilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Obler, Loraine K.; Cohen, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Despite anecdotal data on lexical interference among the languages of multilingual speakers, little research evidence about the lexical connections among multilinguals' languages exists to date. In the present paper, two experiments with a multilingual speaker who had suffered aphasia are reported. The first experiment provides data about…

  10. Semantic Inference at the Lexical-Syntactic Level Roy Bar-Haim and Ido Dagan

    E-print Network

    Ido, Dagan

    Semantic Inference at the Lexical-Syntactic Level Roy Bar-Haim and Ido Dagan Computer Science Department Bar-Ilan University Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel {barhair, dagan}@cs.biu.ac.il Iddo Greental structures as well as specific lexical-based inferences. Initial empirical eval- uation in a Relation

  11. An Analysis of Lexical Errors of Korean Language Learners: Some American College Learners' Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Manjin

    2014-01-01

    There has been a huge amount of research on errors of language learners. However, most of them have focused on syntactic errors and those about lexical errors are not found easily despite the importance of lexical learning for the language learners. The case is even rarer for Korean language. In line with this background, this study was designed…

  12. Effects of Perceptual Learning Style Preferences on L2 Lexical Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ming-yueh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of perceptual learning style preferences on L2 lexical inferencing and whether learners with certain perceptual learning styles benefited more from an explicitly instructional program. Joy Reid's (1995) Perceptual Learning Style Preferences (PLSP) Inventory and a lexical inferencing test…

  13. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  14. Inter- and Intralingual Lexical Influences in Advanced Learners' French L3 Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindqvist, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates lexical inter- and intralingual influences in the oral production of 14 very advanced learners of French L3. Lexical deviances are divided into two main categories: formal influence and meaning-based influence. The results show that, as predicted with respect to advanced learners, meaning-based influence is the most…

  15. Ageing and Lexical Access to Common and Proper Names in Picture Naming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muriel Evrard

    2002-01-01

    The question of whether lexical access for proper names is more impaired by ageing than lexical acess for other words is controversial. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of age on proper and common name retrieval in long-term memory. The word retrieval paradigm used to achieve this goal consisted of the naming of photographs representing

  16. Assessing Speech Perception in Listeners with Cochlear Implants: The Development of the Lexical Neighborhood Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Karen Iler

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the theory behind two new measures of spoken word recognition for children with sensory aids, the Lexical and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Tests. It then summarizes data concerning the tests' word familiarity, interlist equivalency, and test-retest reliability. Results indicate that deaf children with cochlear…

  17. The construction of Chinese-English lexical knowledge base for machine translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ying; Ma Haihui; Wang Qinghai; Dong Lingchong

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese-English lexical knowledge base based on HNC is an important component of the HNC knowledge base system. As a new stage of the HNC natural language processing, the building of the knowledge base needs a deep development of the association between the target language and the source language in the concept of space. In this paper, the Chinese-English lexical

  18. Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

  19. Visual Word Recognition by Bilinguals in a Sentence Context: Evidence for Nonselective Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyck, Wouter; Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on bilingualism has shown that lexical access in visual word recognition by bilinguals is not selective with respect to language. In the present study, the authors investigated language-independent lexical access in bilinguals reading sentences, which constitutes a strong unilingual linguistic context. In the first experiment,…

  20. Brief Report: An Exploratory Study of Lexical Skills in Bilingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jill M.; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Mirenda, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Studying lexical diversity in bilingual children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can contribute important information to our understanding of language development in this diverse population. In this exploratory study, lexical comprehension and production and overall language skills were investigated in 14 English-Chinese bilingual and 14…

  1. Disambiguating Form and Lexical Frequency Effects in MEG Responses Using Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Dylan Alexander; Lewis, Gwyneth; Marantz, Alec

    2012-01-01

    We present an MEG study of homonym recognition in reading, identifying effects of a semantic measure of homonym ambiguity. This measure sheds light on two competing theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing; and the "late access" theory, which…

  2. "Heating up" or "Cooling up" the Brain? MEG Evidence that Phrasal Verbs Are Lexical Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelle, Bert; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

    2010-01-01

    There is a considerable linguistic debate on whether phrasal verbs (e.g., "turn up," "break down") are processed as two separate words connected by a syntactic rule or whether they form a single lexical unit. Moreover, views differ on whether meaning (transparency vs. opacity) plays a role in determining their syntactically-connected or lexical

  3. The Role of Low-Spatial Frequencies in Lexical Decision and Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, C.; Giaschi, D.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial frequency filtering was used to test the hypotheses that low-spatial frequency information in printed text can: (1) lead to a rapid lexical decision or (2) facilitate word recognition. Adult proficient readers made lexical decisions in unprimed and masked repetition priming experiments with unfiltered, low-pass, high-pass and notch…

  4. Evidence for a cascade model of lexical access in speech production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezequiel Morsella; Michele Miozzo

    2002-01-01

    How word production unfolds remains controversial. Serial models posit that phonological encoding begins only after lexical node selection, whereas cascade models hold that it can occur before selection. Both models were evaluated by testing whether unselected lexical nodes influence phonological encoding in the picture-picture interference paradigm. English speakers were shown pairs of superimposed pictures and were instructed to name one

  5. Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but Not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic…

  6. Single- versus Dual-Process Models of Lexical Decision Performance: Insights from Response Time Distributional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Cortese, Michael J.; Watson, Jason M.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates 2 competing models that address the decision-making processes mediating word recognition and lexical decision performance: a hybrid 2-stage model of lexical decision performance and a random-walk model. In 2 experiments, nonword type and word frequency were manipulated across 2 contrasts (pseudohomophone-legal nonword and…

  7. The Acquisition of Lexical Phrases in Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Schmitt, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Lexical phrases are both numerous and functionally important in written texts. Despite this, L2 learners often find their use problematic, typically overusing a limited number of well-known phrases, while at the same time lacking a diverse enough phrasal repertoire to employ lexical phrases in a native-like manner. While a number of studies have…

  8. "The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

  9. Lexical Bundle Analysis in Mathematics Classroom Discourse: The Significance of Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Wagner, David; Cortes, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the lexical bundle, defined by corpus linguists as a group of three or more words that frequently recur together, in a single group, in a particular register (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, & Finegan, 2006; Cortes, "English for Specific Purposes" 23:397-423, 2004). Attention to lexical bundles helps to explore…

  10. Detection of Lexical and Morphological Anomalies by Children with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowska, Monika; Robinson, Sarah; Seddoh, Amebu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The abilities of 5-year-old children with and without language impairment (LI) to detect anomalies involving lexical items and grammatical morphemes in stories were compared. The influence of sentence versus discourse context on lexical anomaly detection rates was explored. Method: The participants were read 3 story scripts and asked to…

  11. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

  12. Lexical Selection in Bilinguals: Do Words in the Bilingual's Two Lexicons Compete for Selection?

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Lexical Selection in Bilinguals: Do Words in the Bilingual's Two Lexicons Compete for Selection In a series of picture­word interference experiments, Catalan­Spanish bilinguals named pictures in Catalan facilitation effect. © 1999 Academic Press Key Words: bilingualism; lexical access; naming; speech production

  13. How to Say "No" to a Nonword: A Leaky Competing Accumulator Model of Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model of the lexical decision task that can be used as a response/decision module for any computational model of word recognition. The LCA model uses evidence for a word, operationalized as some measure of lexical activity, as input to the "YES" decision node. Input to the "NO" decision node is…

  14. Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

  15. Depth versus Breadth of Lexical Repertoire: Assessing Their Roles in EFL Students' Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehsanzadeh, Seyed Jafar

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the roles of depth and breadth of lexical repertoire in L2 lexical inferencing success and incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Students read a graded reader containing 13 pseudo-words and attempted to infer the meanings of underlined target words. The Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) and the Vocabulary…

  16. Testing for Lexical Competition during Reading: Fast Priming with Orthographic Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the fast priming…

  17. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  18. Role of the multiword lexical units in current EFL\\/ESL textbooks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeng-yih Tim Hsu

    Over the past decade, the importance of multiword lexical units has been receiving an extraordinary amount of attention, and is now almost a must -have component in the practice of English language teaching. The field of English for Business Purposes was among the first to recognize the uniqueness of such word-like units, establishing the initial attempt to accommodate longer lexical

  19. Functional characteristics of lateral interactions between rods in the retina of the snapping turtle.

    PubMed Central

    Copenhagen, D R; Owen, W G

    1976-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made of the slow hyperpolarizing light responses of single rods in the retina of the snapping turtle. Physiological criteria used to identify rods were verified by intracellular injections of Procion Yellow. 2. The amplitudes of the responses elicited by fixed intensity flashes increased as the stimulus was enlarged to a diameter of 300 mum. Scattered light was found incapable of accounting for this effect, which must result from summative interaction of rods with neighbouring receptors. Effects of summative interaction were observed even at stimulus intensities that produced maximal responses. Enlarging the diameter of the higher intensity stimuli from 100 to 300 mum increased the peak response amplitude by almost 50%; it also produced a distinct initial peak of the response which we term overshoot. The amplitude of this overshoot was graded with stimulus size. 3. Complete intensity-response relationships were determined using stimulus diameters of 100 and 750 mum for each rod. With the smaller stimulus the intensity response range was 4-5 log units, and with the larger stimulus this was increased to 5-0 log units. For intensities below about 60 quanta/mum2 per flash (514 nm) the amplitudes elicited by the large stimulus followed a sigmoid-shaped curve. However, at higher intensities an additional lobe appeared on the intensity-response relationship. The appearance of this lobe correlated with the emergence of the overshoot on the response wave form. 4. Determinations of rod flash sensitivity (mV per quantum per mum2) showed that it increased with stimulus size up to a stimulus diameter of about 300 mum. With diameters between 50 and 150 mum, a linear relationship existed between the flash sensitivity and stimulus area. Absolute quantal sensitivities increased with stimulus area by a factor of 26, from a value of 28 muV per photoisomerization per rod with a stimulus 25 mum in diameter, to 720 muV per photoisomerization per rod with a stimulus 300 mum in diameter. 5. By comparison, red-sensitive cones showed increased sensitivity as a function of stimulus size only up to a stimulus diameter of 120 mum. Their over-all sensitivity was lower than that of rods and proved linear with stimulus diameter rather than with stimulus area. 6. Simultaneous recordings were made from rod-cone pairs to determine whether the overshoot, and hence the lobe on the amplitude-intensity function, could result from a cone input to the rod response. The time course of the cone response proved much too rapid to fit the overshoot of the rod response. 7. The spectral sensitivity of the dark-adapted rod response closely followed the difference spectrum of the rod photopigment for wave-lengths greater than 450 nm. This was true throughout the intensity range of the response, including low intensities where response averaging was necessary. 8. At low response amplitudes (approximately 1 mV), about 70% of the 40 rods tested showed responses to long wave-length stimuli consisting of two components... Images A B A PMID:986460

  20. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  1. ILexicOn: toward an ECD-compliant interlingual lexical ontology described with semantic web formalisms

    E-print Network

    Lefrançois, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in bridging the world of natural language and the world of the semantic web in particular to support natural multilingual access to the web of data. In this paper we introduce a new type of lexical ontology called interlingual lexical ontology (ILexicOn), which uses semantic web formalisms to make each interlingual lexical unit class (ILUc) support the projection of its semantic decomposition on itself. After a short overview of existing lexical ontologies, we briefly introduce the semantic web formalisms we use. We then present the three layered architecture of our approach: i) the interlingual lexical meta-ontology (ILexiMOn); ii) the ILexicOn where ILUcs are formally defined; iii) the data layer. We illustrate our approach with a standalone ILexicOn, and introduce and explain a concise human-readable notation to represent ILexicOns. Finally, we show how semantic web formalisms enable the projection of a semantic decomposition on the decomposed ILUc.

  2. A network of specific minor-groove contacts is a common characteristic of paired-domain-DNA interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzari, L; Fabbro, D; Lonigro, R; Di Lauro, R; Damante, G

    1996-01-01

    Pax proteins are a family of transcription factors conserved during evolution and able to bind specific DNA sequences through a domain called a "paired domain'. The DNA-binding specificity of the Pax-8 paired domain was investigated. Site-selection experiments indicate that Pax-8 binds to a consensus sequence similar to those bound by Pax-2 and Pax-5. When consensus sequences of various paired domains are observed in light of recent structural studies describing paired-domain-DNA interaction [Xu, Rould, Jun, Desplan and Pabo (1995) Cell 80, 639-650], it appears that base-pairs contacted in the minor groove are conserved, while most of the base-pairs contacted in the major groove are not. Therefore a network of specific minor groove contacts is a common characteristic of paired-domain-DNA interactions. The functional importance of such a network was successfully tested by analysing the effect of consensus-based mutations on the Pax-8 binding site of the thyroglobulin promoter. PMID:8615801

  3. Deaf students and their classroom communication: an evaluation of higher order categorical interactions among school and background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E; Anderson, Melissa L

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated to what extent age, use of a cochlear implant, parental hearing status, and use of sign in the home determine language of instruction for profoundly deaf children. Categorical data from 8,325 profoundly deaf students from the 2008 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Youth were analyzed using chi-square automated interaction detector, a stepwise analytic procedure that allows the assessment of higher order interactions among categorical variables. Results indicated that all characteristics were significantly related to classroom communication modality. Although younger and older students demonstrated a different distribution of communication modality, for both younger and older students, cochlear implantation had the greatest effect on differentiating students into communication modalities, yielding greater gains in the speech-only category for implanted students. For all subgroups defined by age and implantation status, the use of sign at home further segregated the sample into communication modality subgroups, reducing the likelihood of speech only and increasing the placement of students into signing classroom settings. Implications for future research in the field of deaf education are discussed. PMID:20624758

  4. Performance of a Lexical and POS Tagger for Sanskrit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig, Oliver

    Due to the phonetic, morphological, and lexical complexity of Sanskrit, the automatic analysis of this language is a real challenge in the area of natural language processing. The paper describes a series of tests that were performed to assess the accuracy of the tagging program SanskritTagger. To our knowlegde, it offers the first reliable benchmark data for evaluating the quality of taggers for Sanskrit using an unrestricted dictionary and texts from different domains. Based on a detailed analysis of the test results, the paper points out possible directions for future improvements of statistical tagging procedures for Sanskrit.

  5. Spanish norms for age of acquisition, concept familiarity, lexical frequency, manipulability, typicality, and other variables for 820 words from 14 living/nonliving concepts.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martínez, F Javier; Montoro, Pedro R; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a new corpus of 820 words pertaining to 14 semantic categories, 7 natural (animals, body parts, insects, flowers, fruits, trees, and vegetables) and 7 man-made (buildings, clothing, furniture, kitchen utensils, musical instruments, tools, and vehicles); each word in the database was collected empirically in a previous exemplar generation study. In the present study, 152 Spanish speakers provided data for four psycholinguistic variables known to affect lexical-semantic processing in both neurologically intact and brain-damaged participants: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, and typicality. Furthermore, we collected lexical frequency data derived from Internet search hits, plus three additional Spanish lexical frequency indexes. Word length, number of syllables, and the proportion of respondents citing the exemplar as a category member-which can be useful as an additional measure of typicality-are also provided. Reliability and validity indexes showed that our items display characteristics similar to those of other corpora. Overall, this new corpus of words provides a useful tool for scientists engaged in cognitive- and neuroscience-based research focused on examining language, memory, and object processing. The full set of norms can be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:24415408

  6. A mechanism of implicit lexicalized phonological recoding used concurrently with underdeveloped explicit letter-sound skills in both precocious and normal reading development.

    PubMed

    Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Thompson, G Brian

    2004-01-01

    These are findings of theoretical interest from: (i) follow-up of a case study of a precocious reader; and (ii) normally developing readers who served as comparison groups. The precocious reader was first reported when 2-3 years of age (Cognition 74 (2000) 177). From 3 to 7 years of age her precocious reading development continued, her word reading accuracy increasing from the 8- to the 16-year-level, although her phonemic awareness skills remained underdeveloped relative to word reading. Nonword reading continued to develop rapidly. Her word reading, however, was more than phonological recoding. At 5 years of age, in comparison with reading-level matched normal 11-year-olds she exhibited strong effects of semantic characteristics of words and evidence of well-specified lexical orthographic representations. In common with normal comparison 11-year-olds, who had not received instruction in explicit phonics, her explicit letter-sound skills were underdeveloped but she possessed high speed and accuracy in nonword reading, a result most theories of the acquisition of reading fail to explain. Her responses to irregularly spelt nonwords indicated higher proficiency than the 11-year-olds in acquiring lexical orthographic representations not predictable from prior phonological recoding knowledge. It is considered that this proficiency contributes to an explanation of her precocious reading development. A mechanism of implicit lexicalized phonological recoding is involved which explains the dissociation of skills in both the precocious reader and normally developing readers. PMID:14667699

  7. Speech Segmentation by Native and Non-Native Speakers: The Use of Lexical, Syntactic, and Stress-Pattern Cues

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Lisa D.; Neville, Helen J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2008-01-01

    Varying degrees of plasticity in different subsystems of language have been demonstrated by studies showing that some aspects of language are processed similarly by native speakers and late-learners whereas other aspects are processed differently by the two groups. The study of speech segmentation provides a means by which the ability to process different types of linguistic information can be measured within the same task, because lexical, syntactic, and stress-pattern information can all indicate where one word ends and the next begins in continuous speech. In this study, native Japanese and native Spanish late-learners of English (as well as near-monolingual Japanese and Spanish speakers) were asked to determine whether specific sounds fell at the beginning or in the middle of words in English sentences. Similar to native English speakers, late-learners employed lexical information to perform the segmentation task. However, non-native speakers did not use syntactic information to the same extent as native English speakers. Although both groups of late-learners of English used stress pattern as a segmentation cue, the extent to which this cue was relied upon depended on the stress-pattern characteristics of their native language. These findings support the hypothesis that learning a second language later in life has differential effects on subsystems within language. PMID:12069004

  8. Interactive effects of dietary ractopamine HCl and L-carnitine on finishing pigs: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments using 1,356 pigs (C22 × 336 PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Experiments were arranged as factorials with main effects of L-carnitine and RAC; L-carnitine levels were 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 and 0 or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 3, and RAC levels of 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 0 or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 2 and 3. Dietary L-carnitine was fed from 38 kg to slaughter (109 and 118 kg in Exp. 1 and 3, respectively) or for 4 wk before slaughter (109 kg in Exp. 2). Ractopamine HCl was fed for 4 wk in all experiments. Exp. 1 and 2 were conducted at university research facilities (2 pigs per pen), and Exp. 3 was conducted in a commercial research barn (23 pigs per pen). In Exp. 1, an L-carnitine × RAC interaction (P < 0.02) was observed for LM visual color, L*, and a*/b*. In pigs fed RAC, increasing L-carnitine decreased L* and increased visual color scores and a*/b* compared with pigs not fed RAC. Ultimate pH tended to increase (linear, P < 0.07) with increasing L-carnitine. Drip loss decreased (linear, P < 0.04) in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine. In Exp. 2, firmness scores decreased in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine when not fed RAC, but firmness scores increased and drip losses decreased with increasing L-carnitine when RAC was added to the diet (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.04). Percentage lean was greater (P < 0.01) for pigs fed RAC in Exp. 2. In Exp. 3, fat thickness decreased and lean percentage increased in pigs fed L-carnitine or RAC, but the responses were not additive (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.03). Furthermore, pigs fed L-carnitine tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased LM drip loss percentage whereas pigs fed RAC had decreased (P < 0.05) 10th rib and average backfat and decreased drip loss than pigs fed diets without RAC. These results suggest that dietary RAC increased carcass leanness and supplemental L-carnitine reduced LM drip loss when fed in combination with RAC. PMID:23422010

  9. Lexical access in sign language: a computational model

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Naomi K.; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition. PMID:24860539

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of Lexical Diversity Indices: Assessing Length Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Green, Samuel B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Several novel techniques have been developed recently to assess the breadth of speaker’s vocabulary exhibited in a language sample. The specific aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the validity of the scores generated by different lexical diversity (LD) estimation techniques. Four techniques were explored: D, Maas, Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD), and the Moving Average Type Token Ratio (MATTR). Method Four LD indices were estimated for language samples on four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story retell, and recounts) from 442 neurologically intact adults. The resulting data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results The scores on the MATTR and MTLD estimation techniques were stronger indicators of the LD of the language samples. The results for the other two techniques were consistent with the presence of method factors representing construct-irrelevant sources. Conclusions These findings offer a deeper understanding of the relative validity of the four estimation techniques and should assist clinicians and researchers in the selection of LD measures of language samples that minimize construct-irrelevant sources. PMID:25766139

  11. Lexical availability and grammatical encoding scope during spoken sentence production.

    PubMed

    Wheeldon, Linda; Ohlson, Natalie; Ashby, Aimee; Gator, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    Three sentence production experiments investigate the relationship between lexical and structural processing scope. Speakers generated sentences with varying phrase structures in response to visual displays (e.g., The dog and the hat move above the fork and the tree/The dog moves above the hat and the fork and the tree). On half of the trials, one of the pictures in the arrays was previewed. Filler sentences varied preview position and sentence structure from trial to trial. When speakers could not anticipate the position of the previewed picture in the upcoming sentence (Experiment 1), preview benefit for pictures corresponding to the second noun to be produced was limited to pictures that fell within the sentence-initial phrase. When the linear position of the previewed picture was predictable, preview benefits were observed for the second noun to be produced, irrespective of phrase position (Experiment 2). However, no preview benefits were observed for the third noun to be produced (Experiment 3). In contrast, significant effects of initial phrase structure were observed in all experiments, with latencies increasing with initial phrase length. The results are consistent with speakers operating a phrasal scope for structural planning within which the scope of lexical access can vary. PMID:23286440

  12. Bilingual vocabulary size and lexical reading in Italian.

    PubMed

    Primativo, Silvia; Rinaldi, Pasquale; O'Brien, Shaunna; Paizi, Despina; Arduino, Lisa S; Burani, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    In the present study we investigated how the vocabulary size of English-Italian bilinguals affects reading aloud in Italian (L2) modulating the reader's sensitivity to lexical aspects of the language. We divided adult bilinguals in two groups according to their vocabulary size (Larger - LV, and smaller - SV), and compared their naming performance to that of native Italian (NI) readers. In Experiment 1 we investigated the lexicality and word frequency effects in reading aloud. Similarly to NI, both groups of bilinguals showed these effects. In Experiment 2 we investigated stress assignment - which is not predictable by rule - to Italian words. The SV group made more stress errors in reading words with a non-dominant stress pattern compared to the LV group. The results suggest that the size of the reader's L2 lexicon affects the probability of correct reading aloud. Overall, the results indicate that proficient adult bilinguals show a similar sensibility to the statistical and distributional properties of the language as compared to Italian monolinguals. PMID:24140823

  13. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid

    PubMed Central

    Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

    2014-01-01

    During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

  14. 1987JOURNALOF GEOPHYSICALRESEARCH,VOL. 92 NO. A8, PAGES8545-8557, AUGUST1 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MARSLIKE LIMIT OF THE VENUS-SOLAR WIND INTERACTION

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    OF THE MARSLIKE LIMIT OF THE VENUS-SOLAR WIND INTERACTION 1 1 2 J. G. Luhmann, C.3T. Russell, F. L.4Scarf, L. H by the availability of the extensive data obtained at Venus. These data allow one to examine in detail the plasma but negligible intrinsic field. However, compari- sons of the characteristics of the Venus data with the limited

  15. Do work relationships matter? Characteristics of workplace interactions that enhance or detract from employee perceptions of well-being and health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health – an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The study also offers human resource development professionals with evidence supporting interventions aimed at minimizing workplace incivility. Interventions designed to improve employee engagement could minimize financial and human costs of negative interactions. The bottom line is that workplaces should be physically, emotionally, and psychologically safe for well-being and healthy behaviors to flourish. PMID:25750820

  16. Lexical category influences in Persian children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Vahab, Maryam; Zandiyan, Azadeh; Falahi, Mohammad Hadi; Howell, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This article explores the effect that words from different lexical categories have on disfluency in 12 Persian children, ten boys and two girls, who stutter. They were aged 7 years 5 months to 10 years 6 months. Words from the participants' narrative and reading samples (sub-tests of the Reading and Dyslexia Test validated for Persian school-aged children) were categorized as content, function, or content-function, and stuttering-like disfluencies were coded in each speech sample. Content and content-function words were significantly more likely to show stuttering-like disfluencies than function words. The distribution of symptom types over content and content-function words was similar, and differed from the distribution seen in function words. The symptom type analysis also supported the view that whole-word repetitions should not be grouped with other stuttering-like disfluencies. PMID:23941107

  17. Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, suggesting mismatch between the context and residual activation of the contextually-irrelevant sense. However, the frontal negativity seen in young adults to homographs in syntactically well-defined but semantically neutral contexts was absent in older adults as a group, suggesting decline in recruiting additional neural resources to aid difficult semantic selection. A subset of older adults with high verbal fluency maintained a young-like effect pattern. PMID:21175671

  18. Assessing L2 lexical versus inflectional accuracy across skill levels.

    PubMed

    West, Donna E

    2014-10-01

    This study measures whether number and type of morphemes in an elicited imitation string results in a greater number of modifications with L2 experience. Rationale is drawn from L2 working memory processing limitations at distinct levels of proficiency. 38 subjects (L2 Spanish university students) comprise three proficiency groups: beginning, undergraduate majors and graduate students. Number of morphemes was varied within each syllable count; and responses were either correct or modified (lexemically/inflectionally as deletions or substitutions). Two way ANOVAs determined significance between mean proportions for each group. Findings indicate that increases in number of morphemes yielded significant differences; and that while the lowest proficiency group produced higher proportions of lexical deletions, the more advanced groups' modifications were inflectional substitutions. PMID:24030773

  19. What's in a sentence? The crucial role of lexical content in sentence production in nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wilshire, Carolyn E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lexical content on sentence production in nonfluent aphasia. Five participants with nonfluent aphasia, four with fluent aphasia, and eight controls were asked to describe pictured events in subject-verb-object sentences. Experiment 1 manipulated speed of lexical retrieval by varying the frequency of sentence nouns. Nonfluent participants' accuracy was consistently higher for sentences commencing with a high- than with a low-frequency subject noun, even when errors on those nouns were themselves excluded. This was not the case for the fluent participants. Experiment 2 manipulated the semantic relationship between subject and object nouns. The nonfluent participants produced sentences less accurately when they contained related than when they contained unrelated lexical items. The fluent participants exhibited the opposite trend. We propose that individuals with nonfluent aphasia are disproportionately reliant on activated conceptual-lexical representations to drive the sentence generation process, an idea we call the content drives structure (COST) hypothesis. PMID:24512548

  20. Lexical Context Effects on Speech Perception in Chinese People with Autistic Traits 

    E-print Network

    Huang, Hui-Chun

    2007-11-28

    One theory (weak central coherence) that accounts for a different perceptual-cognitive style in autism may suggest the possibility that individuals with autism are less likely to be affected by lexical knowledge on speech ...

  1. Extractive Summarization of Voicemail using Lexical and Prosodic Feature Subset Selection 

    E-print Network

    Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven approach to summarizing spoken audio transcripts utilizing lexical and prosodic features. The former are obtained from a speech recognizer and the latter are extracted automatically ...

  2. Lexical Access and Dual-Task Performance: Determining the Locus of the Bottleneck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phil

    2004-01-01

    During the two years of funding for NASA Grant "NCC21325, Lexical access and dual-task performance: Determining the locus of the bottleneck," we completed three experiments involving the psychological refractory period (PRP) and word frequency.

  3. Deaf students' knowledge of subtle lexical properties of transitive and intransitive English verbs.

    PubMed

    Berent, Gerald P; Kelly, Ronald R; Albertini, John A; Toscano, Rose Marie

    2013-01-01

    Deaf learners' acquisition of fundamental lexical properties of high-frequency English verbs related to transitivity and intransitivity was examined, including the subtle distinction between unergative and unaccusative verbs. A 140-item sentence acceptability rating scale was used to assess this lexical knowledge in deaf college students at two English proficiency levels, plus a control group of hearing native English speakers. Hypotheses addressed the influence of relative derivational complexity and overall English proficiency on verb acquisition. Though the hearing group showed greater accuracy in sentence acceptability judgments and greater accuracy tied to overall English proficiency, the two deaf groups displayed fairly robust knowledge of targeted verbs' fundamental transitive and intransitive lexical properties. Nevertheless, verb acquisition remains a formidable challenge. Further research should assess deaf students' knowledge of these lexical properties in lower-frequency English verbs, including unaccusative verbs prevalent in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) and other academic discourse. PMID:24133959

  4. Enhancement and suppression in a lexical interference fMRI-paradigm.

    PubMed

    Abel, Stefanie; Dressel, Katharina; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Previous picture-word interference (PWI) fMRI-paradigms revealed ambiguous mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition in healthy subjects. Lexical distractors revealed increased (enhancement) or decreased (suppression) activation in language and monitoring/control areas. Performing a secondary examination and data analysis, we aimed to illuminate the relation between behavioral and neural interference effects comparing target-related distractors (REL) with unrelated distractors (UNREL). We hypothesized that interference involves both (A) suppression due to priming and (B) enhancement due to simultaneous distractor and target processing. Comparisons to UNREL should remain distractor unspecific even at a low threshold. (C) Distractor types with common characteristics should reveal overlapping brain areas. In a 3T MRI scanner, participants were asked to name pictures while auditory words were presented (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = -200 msec). Associatively and phonologically related distractors speeded responses (facilitation), while categorically related distractors slowed them down (inhibition) compared to UNREL. As a result, (A) reduced brain activations indeed resembled previously reported patterns of neural priming. Each target-related distractor yielded suppressions at least in areas associated with vision and conflict/competition monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), revealing least priming for inhibitors. (B) Enhancements concerned language-related but distractor-unspecific regions. (C) Some wider brain regions were commonly suppressed for combinations of distractor types. Overlapping areas associated with conceptual priming were found for facilitatory distractors (inferior frontal gyri), and areas related to phonetic/articulatory processing (precentral gyri and left parietal operculum/insula) for distractors sharing feature overlap. Each distractor with semantic relatedness revealed nonoverlapping suppressions in lexical-phonological areas (superior temporal regions). To conclude, interference combines suppression of areas well known from neural priming and enhancement of language-related areas caused by dual activation from target and distractor. Differences between interference and priming need to be taken into account. The present interference paradigm has the potential to reveal the functioning of word-processing stages, cognitive control, and responsiveness to priming at the same time. PMID:22574280

  5. Lexical stress encoding in single word production estimated by event-related brain potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels O. Schiller

    2006-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERPs) experiment was carried out to investigate the time course of lexical stress encoding in language production. Native speakers of Dutch viewed a series of pictures corresponding to bisyllabic names which were either stressed on the first or on the second syllable and made go\\/no-go decisions on the lexical stress location of those picture names. Behavioral

  6. Inhibitory effects of first syllable-frequency in lexical decision: an event-related potential study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Hutzler; Jürgen Bergmann; Markus Conrad; Martin Kronbichler; Prisca Stenneken; Arthur M. Jacobs

    2004-01-01

    Electrophysiological correlates of the behaviorally well-documented inhibitory effect of first syllable-frequency during lexical access are presented. In a lexical decision task, response times to words with high-frequency first syllables were longer than those to words with low-frequency first syllables and resulted in more negative event-related potentials (ERPs) in an early time window from 190ms to 280ms and in the N400

  7. Sonorant onset pitch as a perceptual cue of lexical tones in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Ying; Tucker, Benjamin V

    2013-01-01

    Lexical tone identification requires a number of secondary cues, when main tonal contours are unavailable. In this article, we examine Mandarin native speakers' ability to identify lexical tones by extracting tonal information from sonorant onset pitch (onset contours) on syllable-initial nasals ranging from 50 to 70 ms in duration. In experiments I and II we test speakers' ability to identify lexical tones in a second syllable with and without onset contours in isolation (experiment I) and in a sentential context (experiment II). The results indicate that speakers can identify lexical tones with short distinctive onset contour patterns,they also indicate that misperception of tones 213 and 24 are common. Furthermore, in experiment III, we test whether onset contours in a following syllable can be utilized by listeners in tone identification. We find that onset contours in the following syllable also contribute to the identification of the target lexical tones. The conclusions are twofold: (1) Mandarin lexical tones can be identified with onset contours; (2) tonal domain must be extended to include not just typical cues of tones but also coarticulated tonal patterns. PMID:24281066

  8. Responding to nonwords in the lexical decision task: Insights from the English Lexicon Project.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvin J; Sibley, Daragh E; Balota, David A; Ratcliff, Roger; Rueckl, Jay

    2015-05-01

    Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, because a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide valuable insights into early lexical processes. In the present study, item-level and participant-level analyses were conducted on the trial-level lexical decision data for almost 37,000 nonwords in the English Lexicon Project in order to identify the influence of different psycholinguistic variables on nonword lexical decision performance and to explore individual differences in how participants respond to nonwords. Item-level regression analyses reveal that nonword response time was positively correlated with number of letters, number of orthographic neighbors, number of affixes, and base-word number of syllables, and negatively correlated with Levenshtein orthographic distance and base-word frequency. Participant-level analyses also point to within- and between-session stability in nonword responses across distinct sets of items, and intriguingly reveal that higher vocabulary knowledge is associated with less sensitivity to some dimensions (e.g., number of letters) but more sensitivity to others (e.g., base-word frequency). The present findings provide well-specified and interesting new constraints for informing models of word recognition and lexical decision. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25329078

  9. Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder: An event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Magnuson, James S; Rakhlin, Natalia; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-05-01

    Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have been postulated to arise as sequelae of their grammatical deficits (either directly or via compensatory mechanisms) and vice versa. We examined event-related potential indices of lexical processing in children with DLD (n = 23) and their typically developing peers (n = 16) using a picture-word matching paradigm. We found that children with DLD showed markedly reduced N400 amplitudes in response both to auditorily presented words that had initial phonological overlap with the name of the pictured object and to words that were not semantically or phonologically related to the pictured object. Moreover, this reduction was related to behavioral indices of phonological and lexical but not grammatical development. We also found that children with DLD showed a depressed phonological mapping negativity component in the early time window, suggesting deficits in phonological processing or early lexical access. The results are partially consistent with the overactivation account of lexical processing deficits in DLD and point to the relative functional independence of lexical/phonological and grammatical deficits in DLD, supporting a multidimensional view of the disorder. The results also, although indirectly, support the neuroplasticity account of DLD, according to which language impairment affects brain development and shapes the specific patterns of brain responses to language stimuli. PMID:25997765

  10. Activation of lexical and semantic representations without intention along GPC-sublexical and orthographic-lexical reading pathways in a Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Anton, Kathryn F; Gould, Layla; Borowsky, Ron

    2014-05-01

    Dual route models of reading suggest there are 2 pathways for reading words: an orthographic-lexical pathway, used to read familiar regular words and exception words, and a grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion-(GPC)-sublexical pathway, used to read unfamiliar regular words, pseudohomophones (PHs), and nonwords. It is unclear, however, whether PHs activate lexical and semantic representations without intention in the GPC-sublexical pathway to the same extent as words along the orthographic-lexical pathway. The present study explored this by introducing a novel condition, color pseudohomophone associates (CPHAs; e.g., "skigh"), in 3 experiments using the Stroop paradigm. Experiment 1 examined 4 types of stimuli: color words (CWs), color word associates (CWAs), color PHs (CPHs), and color PH associates (CPHAs), in a mixed list context. Significant Stroop effects were found for all 4 types of stimuli. To ensure the robustness of this effect, Experiment 2 was conducted using pure list contexts whereby participants received only word stimuli (e.g., CWs, CWAs) or only PH stimuli (e.g., CPHs, CPHAs). The results replicated those of Experiment 1, suggesting that CPHAs activate lexical and semantic representations without intention in the GPC-sublexical pathway. Experiment 3 added 2 novel conditions: color exception word associates (which can only be pronounced correctly using the orthographic-lexical pathway) to compare the effects obtained with color exception PH associates (which rely on the GPC-sublexical pathway for correct pronunciation). Stroop effects of similar magnitude were found for both types of stimuli, suggesting lexical and semantic representations are accessed without intention in either reading pathway to a similar degree. Implications for models of reading are discussed. PMID:24294918

  11. Interaction between riverbed condition and characteristics of debris flow in Ichino-sawa subwatershed of Ohya-kuzure landslide, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunetaka, Haruka; Hotta, Norifumi; Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Yumen, Noriki

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale sediment movements, such as a deep-seated landslide, not only induce immediate sediment disasters but also produce a large amount of unstable sediment upstream. Most of the unstable sediment residing in the upstream area is discharged as debris flow. Hence, after the occurrence of large-scale sediment movement, debris flows have a long-term effect on the watershed regime. However, the characteristics of debris flow in upstream areas are not well understood, due to the topographic and grain-size conditions that are more complicated than the downstream area. This study was performed to reveal the relationship between such a riverbed condition and the characteristics of debris flow by field observations. The study site was Ichinosawa-subwatershed in the Ohya-kuzure basin, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The basin experienced a deep-seated landslide about 300 years ago and is currently actively yielding sediment with a clear annual cycle. During the winter season, sediment is deposited on the valley bottom by freeze-thaw and weathering. In the summer season, the deposited sediment is discharged incrementally by debris flows related to storm events. Topographical survey and grain-size analysis were performed several times between November 2011 and November 2014. High-resolution digital elevation models (10 cm) were created from the results of a topographical survey using a terrestrial laser scanner. A grain-size analysis was conducted in the upper, middle, and lower parts of the study site. Debris flow occurrences were also monitored in the same period by a sensor-triggered video camera and interval camera. Rainfall was observed during the summer season for comparison with debris flow occurrence. Several debris flows of different magnitudes were observed during the study period. Although heavy rainfall events altered the bed inclination, the thickness of deposited sediment, and the grain-size distribution, more significant changes were detected after the debris flow. While the initial grain-size distribution in early spring was roughly identical across the study site, the subsequent changes in the grain-size distribution differed according to location. The source, transport and deposition areas of the debris flows differed among rainfall events, resulting in different transitions in topographic conditions at different locations. Furthermore, surges of debris flow not only induced erosion-deposited sediment but also suspended and deposited sediment in the same area during one typhoon event. A comparison of the results indicated that, in addition to the conditions of the triggering rainfall, topographic and grain-size conditions affected the debris flow occurrence and magnitude. These interactions also showed that the magnitude and form of the succeeding debris flow could be dominant, depending on changing riverbed condition by past debris flows in upstream areas.

  12. Bark beetles and dwarf mistletoe interact to alter downed woody material, canopy structure, and stand characteristics in northern

    E-print Network

    ), and in areas with endemic populations of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and Ips spp, and stand characteristics in northern Colorado ponderosa pine Jennifer G. Klutsch a,b, , Russell D. Beam a material, fuel parameters and stand characteristics were assessed in areas of ponderosa pine (Pinus

  13. Human-computer interaction: input devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. K. Jacob

    1996-01-01

    All aspects of human-computer interaction, from the high-level concerns of organizational context and system requirements to the conceptual, semantic, syntactic, and lexical levels of user interface design, are ultimately funneled through physical input and output actions and devices. The fundamental task in computer input is to move information from the brain of the user to the computer. Progress in this

  14. Wing surface-jet interaction characteristics of an upper-surface blown model with rectangular exhaust nozzles and a radius flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, A. M.; Hohlweg, W. C.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The wing surface jet interaction characteristics of an upper surface blown transport configuration were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Velocity profiles at the inboard engine center line were measured for several chordwise locations, and chordwise pressure distributions on the flap were obtained. The model represented a four engine arrangement having relatively high aspect ratio rectangular spread, exhaust nozzles and a simple trailing edge radius flap.

  15. Parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Johnston

    1996-01-01

    This study examined parent-child interactions and parent characteristics in families of nonproblem children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with lower (ADHD-LOD) and higher (ADHD-HOD) levels of oppositional-defiant behavior. Families of ADHD children were recruited from a parent training program. Observed and parent-reported child behavior problems were highest in the ADHD-HOD group. Observed parent behavior revealed few differences, but

  16. Study of the characteristics of La sup 139 emulsion interactions at 1. 2A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, A.; Bhalla, K.B.; Kumar, V.; Lokanathan, S.; Palsania, H.S.; Shukla, V.S.. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (IN)); Bhasin, A.; Gupta, V.K.; Kitroo, S.; Mangotra, L.K.; Rao, N.K. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Jammu, Jammu-180001 (IN))

    1990-02-20

    La{sup 139} interactions at 1.2A GeV are studied in an emulsion stack exposed at Bevalac (Berkeley). The results on interaction cross-section and mean free path are discussed in the light of geometrical model and compared with the corresponding results from interactions of other projectiles over a wide range of mass (1 to 139). Various multiplicities, multiplicity distributions, multiplicity correlations, angular distributions and rapidity-density distributions are studied and compared with other projectiles.

  17. Matching is not Naming: A direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of “automatic activation” of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a non-reading task for studying “reading effects” by directly comparing BOLD activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in “reading-related” regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs naming) by string type (word vs pseudoword vs nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type by timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions, and is thus non-automatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. PMID:22711620

  18. Processing of Lexical-Stress Cues by Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Though infants learn an impressive amount about their native-language phonological system by the end of the first year of life, after the first year children still have much to learn about how acoustic dimensions cue linguistic categories in fluent speech. The present study investigates what children have learned about how the acoustic dimension of pitch indicates the location of the stressed syllable in familiar words. Preschoolers (2.5–5 years) and adults were tested on their ability to use lexical-stress cues to identify familiar words. Both age groups saw pictures of a bunny and a banana, and heard versions of “bunny” and “banana” in which stress was either indicated normally with convergent cues (pitch, duration, amplitude, and vowel quality), or was manipulated such that only pitch differentiated the words’ initial syllables. Adults (n=48) used both the convergent cues, and the isolated pitch cue, to identify the target words as they unfolded. Children (n=206) used the convergent stress cues, but not pitch alone, in identifying words. We discuss potential reasons for children’s difficulty exploiting isolated pitch cues to stress, despite children’s early sensitivity to pitch in language (e.g., Fernald, 1992). These findings contribute to a view in which phonological development progresses toward the adult state well past infancy. PMID:24705094

  19. Processing of lexical stress cues by young children.

    PubMed

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Although infants learn an impressive amount about their native-language phonological system by the end of the first year of life, after the first year children still have much to learn about how acoustic dimensions cue linguistic categories in fluent speech. The current study investigated what children have learned about how the acoustic dimension of pitch indicates the location of the stressed syllable in familiar words. Preschoolers (2.5- to 5-year-olds) and adults were tested on their ability to use lexical-stress cues to identify familiar words. Both age groups saw pictures of a bunny and a banana and heard versions of "bunny" and "banana" in which stress either was indicated normally with convergent cues (pitch, duration, amplitude, and vowel quality) or was manipulated such that only pitch differentiated the words' initial syllables. Adults (n=48) used both the convergent cues and the isolated pitch cue to identify the target words as they unfolded. Children (n=206) used the convergent stress cues but not pitch alone in identifying words. We discuss potential reasons for children's difficulty in exploiting isolated pitch cues to stress despite children's early sensitivity to pitch in language. These findings contribute to a view in which phonological development progresses toward the adult state well past infancy. PMID:24705094

  20. Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymaekers, Mark; Ernestus, Mirjam; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of lexical frequency on the durational reduction of morphologically complex words in spoken Dutch. The hypothesis that high-frequency words are more reduced than low-frequency words was tested by comparing the durations of affixes occurring in different carrier words. Four Dutch affixes were investigated, each occurring in a large number of words with different frequencies. The materials came from a large database of face-to-face conversations. For each word containing a target affix, one token was randomly selected for acoustic analysis. Measurements were made of the duration of the affix as a whole and the durations of the individual segments in the affix. For three of the four affixes, a higher frequency of the carrier word led to shorter realizations of the affix as a whole, individual segments in the affix, or both. Other relevant factors were the sex and age of the speaker, segmental context, and speech rate. To accommodate for these findings, models of speech production should allow word frequency to affect the acoustic realizations of lower-level units, such as individual speech sounds occurring in affixes.

  1. Individual variability in cue-weighting and lexical tone learning

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Sampath, Padma D.; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Speech sound patterns can be discerned using multiple acoustic cues. The relative weighting of these cues is known to be language-specific. Speech-sound training in adults induces changes in cue-weighting such that relevant acoustic cues are emphasized. In the current study, the extent to which individual variability in cue weighting contributes to differential success in learning to use foreign sound patterns was examined. Sixteen English-speaking adult participants underwent a sound-to-meaning training paradigm, during which they learned to incorporate Mandarin linguistic pitch contours into words. In addition to cognitive tests, measures of pitch pattern discrimination and identification were collected from all participants. Reaction time data from the discrimination task was subjected to 3-way multidimensional scaling to extract dimensions underlying tone perception. Two dimensions relating to pitch height and pitch direction were found to underlie non-native tone space. Good learners attended more to pitch direction relative to poor learners, before and after training. Training increased the ability to identify and label pitch direction. The results demonstrate that variability in the ability to successfully learn to use pitch in lexical contexts can be explained by pre-training differences in cue-weighting. PMID:20649239

  2. Multimodal lexical processing in auditory cortex is literacy skill dependent.

    PubMed

    McNorgan, Chris; Awati, Neha; Desroches, Amy S; Booth, James R

    2014-09-01

    Literacy is a uniquely human cross-modal cognitive process wherein visual orthographic representations become associated with auditory phonological representations through experience. Developmental studies provide insight into how experience-dependent changes in brain organization influence phonological processing as a function of literacy. Previous investigations show a synchrony-dependent influence of letter presentation on individual phoneme processing in superior temporal sulcus; others demonstrate recruitment of primary and associative auditory cortex during cross-modal processing. We sought to determine whether brain regions supporting phonological processing of larger lexical units (monosyllabic words) over larger time windows is sensitive to cross-modal information, and whether such effects are literacy dependent. Twenty-two children (age 8-14 years) made rhyming judgments for sequentially presented word and pseudoword pairs presented either unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) or cross-modally (audiovisual). Regression analyses examined the relationship between literacy and congruency effects (overlapping orthography and phonology vs. overlapping phonology-only). We extend previous findings by showing that higher literacy is correlated with greater congruency effects in auditory cortex (i.e., planum temporale) only for cross-modal processing. These skill effects were specific to known words and occurred over a large time window, suggesting that multimodal integration in posterior auditory cortex is critical for fluent reading. PMID:23588185

  3. Learning new vocabulary during childhood: effects of semantic training on lexical consolidation and integration.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that word learning is an extended process, with offline consolidation crucial for the strengthening of new lexical representations and their integration with existing lexical knowledge (as measured by engagement in lexical competition). This supports a dual memory systems account, in which new information is initially sparsely encoded separately from existing knowledge and integrated with long-term memory over time. However, previous studies of this type exploited unnatural learning contexts, involving fictitious words in the absence of word meaning. In this study, 5- to 9-year-old children learned real science words (e.g., hippocampus) with or without semantic information. Children in both groups were slower to detect pauses in familiar competitor words (e.g., hippopotamus) relative to control words 24h after training but not immediately, confirming that offline consolidation is required before new words are integrated with the lexicon and engage in lexical competition. Children recalled more new words 24h after training than immediately (with similar improvements shown for the recall and recognition of new word meanings); however, children who were exposed to the meanings during training showed further improvements in recall after 1 week and outperformed children who were not exposed to meanings. These findings support the dual memory systems account of vocabulary acquisition and suggest that the association of a new phonological form with semantic information is critical for the development of stable lexical representations. PMID:23981272

  4. Aspects of dynamic force microscopy on NaCl\\/Cu(111): resolution, tip-sample interactions and cantilever oscillation characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bennewitz; M. Bammerlin; M. Guggisberg; C. Loppacher; E. Meyer; H.-J. Gué; H.-J. Güntherodt

    1999-01-01

    Ultrathin —lms of NaCl on Cu(111) have been studied using a dynamic force microscope. We present images with atomic resolution at step sites on the NaCl —lms. Force spectroscopy measurements of the tipñsample interaction on NaCl-covered areas and the Cu substrate are analysed with respect to electrostatic, van der Waals and short- range contributions. The interaction contrast between NaCl and

  5. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well documented nor well understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound…

  6. Lexical and Syntactic Representations in the Brain: An fMRI Investigation with Multi-Voxel Pattern Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Work in theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics suggests that human linguistic knowledge forms a continuum between individual lexical items and abstract syntactic representations, with most linguistic representations falling between the two extremes and taking the form of lexical items stored together with the syntactic/semantic contexts in…

  7. Lexical Translation with Application to Image Search on the Web Oren Etzioni, Kobi Reiter, Stephen Soderland, and Marcus Sammer

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    , either on their own (e.g., search-engine queries or meta-data tags) or as part of a knowledge-based Machine Translation (MT) system. In contrast with statisti- cal MT, lexical translation does not require not solve the full machine-translation prob- lem, lexical translation is valuable for a number of practical

  8. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  9. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical

  10. A Comparison of Phonological Awareness, Lexical Compounding, and Homophone Training for Chinese Word Reading in Hong Kong Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yan-Ling; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Fong, Cathy Y.-C.; Wong, Terry T.-Y.; Cheung, Sum Kwing

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: In this study, 88 kindergartners received special training in lexical compounding, homophone awareness, or phonological awareness or were assigned to a control condition over a period of approximately 2 months, with 20-min lessons administered twice per week. Chinese word reading improved significantly more in the lexical

  11. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  12. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  13. The Crucial Role of Thiamine in the Development of Syntax and Lexical Retrieval: A Study of Infantile Thiamine Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fattal, Iris; Friedmann, Naama; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the effect of thiamine deficiency during early infancy on the development of syntax and lexical retrieval. We tested syntactic comprehension and production, lexical retrieval abilities and conceptual abilities of 59 children aged 5-7 years who had been fed during their first year of life with a thiamine-deficient milk…

  14. An fMRI Study of Sentence-Embedded Lexical-Semantic Decision in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Parks, Erin Nicole; Burns, Erin L.; Bazzill, Rebecca; Levy, Sarah; Posada, Valerie; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-semantic knowledge is a core language component that undergoes prolonged development throughout childhood and is therefore highly amenable to developmental studies. Most previous lexical-semantic functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been limited to single-word or word-pair tasks, outside a sentence context. Our objective was to investigate…

  15. How strongly do word reading times and lexical decision times correlate? Combining data from eye movement corpora and megastudies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Kuperman; Denis Drieghe; Emmanuel Keuleers; Marc Brysbaert

    2012-01-01

    We assess the amount of shared variance between three measures of visual word recognition latencies: eye movement latencies, lexical decision times, and naming times. After partialling out the effects of word frequency and word length, two well-documented predictors of word recognition latencies, we see that 7–44% of the variance is uniquely shared between lexical decision times and naming times, depending

  16. Biphasic characteristic of interactions between stiripentol and carbamazepine in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model: a three-dimensional isobolographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2006-10-01

    The anticonvulsant effects produced by stiripentol (STP), carbamazepine (CBZ), and their combination in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice were investigated using three-dimensional (3D) isobolographic analysis. With 3D isobolography, the combinations of both drugs at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 for 16%, 50% and 84% antiseizure effects, respectively, were examined in order to evaluate the preclinical characteristics of the interactions between STP and CBZ. Additionally, to characterize precisely the types of interactions observed in the MES test, free plasma and total brain CBZ concentrations were estimated for all fixed-ratios tested. The 3D isobolographic analysis showed that STP and CBZ combined at the fixed-ratio of 1:3 produced supra-additive (synergistic) interactions in the MES test for the anticonvulsant effects ranging between 16% and 84%. In contrast, the combination of STP with CBZ at the fixed-ratio of 3:1 exerted sub-additive (antagonistic) interactions in 3D isobolography for all antiseizure effects examined in the MES test. Only the combination of STP and CBZ at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 was additive for the investigated effects (16%, 50% and 84%) in 3D isobolography. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of CBZ concentrations revealed that STP increased both free plasma and total brain CBZ concentrations for all fixed-ratio combinations tested (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1). In conclusion, the 3D isobolographic findings suggest that the combination of STP with CBZ exerted biphasic characteristics of interactions in the MES test, despite the pharmacokinetic increase in CBZ content in plasma and brains of experimental animals. PMID:16972063

  17. Resolving the EGF-EGFR interaction characteristics through a multiple-temperature, multiple-inhibitor, real-time interaction analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    BJÖRKELUND, HANNA; GEDDA, LARS; MALMQVIST, MAGNUS; ANDERSSON, KARL

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression and aberrant activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been observed in various cancer types, rendering it an important target in oncology research. The interaction between EGF and its receptor (EGFR), as well as subsequent internalization, is complex and may be affected by various factors including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). By combining real-time binding curves produced in LigandTracer® with internalization assays conducted at different temperatures and with different TKIs, the processes of ligand binding, internalization and excretion was visualized. SKOV3 cells had a slower excretion rate compared to A431 and U343 cells, and the tested TKIs (gefitinib, lapatinib, AG1478 and erlotinib) reduced the degree of internalization. The kinetic analysis of the binding curves further demonstrated TKI-dependent balances of EGFR monomer and dimer populations, where lapatinib promoted the monomeric form, while the other TKIs induced dimers. The dimer levels were found to be associated with the apparent affinity of the EGF-EGFR interaction, with EGF binding stronger to EGFR dimers compared to monomers. This study analyzed how real-time molecular interaction analysis may be utilized in combination with perturbations in order to understand the kinetics of a ligand-receptor interaction, as well as some of its associated intracellular processes. Our multiple-temperature and -inhibitor assay setup renders it possible to follow the EGFR monomer, dimer and internalized populations in a detailed manner, allowing for a new perspective of the EGFR biology. PMID:24649173

  18. Characteristic features of the laser radiation-target interactions during reactive pulsed laser ablation of Si targets in ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Mihailescu; E. Gyorgy; V. S. Teodorescu; Gy. Steinbrecher; J. Neamtu; A. Perrone; A. Luches

    1999-01-01

    We performed electron microscopy studies of targets subjected to the multipulse laser irradiation in the regime characteristic of reactive pulsed laser deposition from bulk Si in low-pressure ammonia. Experimental evidence is provided concerning the expulsion of liquid droplets from the crater that forms on the target surface. In our opinion, the main mechanisms responsible for droplets spraying directly from the

  19. Global statistical predictor model for characteristic adsorption energy of organic vapors-solid interaction: use in dynamic process simulation.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Shivaji G; Hamon, Lomig; Pré, Pascaline; Giraudet, Sylvain; Le Coq, Laurence; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is one of the best remediation techniques for controlling industrial air pollution. In this paper, a quantitative predictor model for the characteristic adsorption energy (E) of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) isotherm model has been established with R(2) value of 0.94. A predictor model for characteristic adsorption energy (E) has been established by using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis in a statistical package MINITAB. The experimental value of characteristic adsorption energy was computed by modeling the isotherm equilibrium data (which contain 120 isotherms involving five VOCs and eight activated carbons at 293, 313, 333, and 353 K) with the Gauss-Newton method in a statistical package R-STAT. The MLR model has been validated with the experimental equilibrium isotherm data points, and it will be implemented in the dynamic adsorption simulation model PROSIM. By implementing this model, it predicts an enormous range of 1200 isotherm equilibrium coefficients of DR model at different temperatures such as 293, 313, 333, and 353K (each isotherm has 10 equilibrium points by changing the concentration) just by a simple MLR characteristic energy model without any experiments. PMID:22503987

  20. The Effectiveness of Social Stories[TM] to Develop Social Interactions with Adults with Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Rachel; Stansfield, Jois

    2012-01-01

    Most research into the effectiveness of Social Stories has focused on children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examines the use of Social Stories with four adults with learning disabilities and social communication impairments characteristic of ASD. This study employed an N = 1 multiple-baseline, across-participant, AB design with…

  1. A framework for applying organizational routines in empirical research: linking antecedents, characteristics and performance outcomes of recurrent interaction patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus C. Becker

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for applying the concept of organizational routines in empirical research. The framework is built up in three steps: (i) reviewing the methods for operationalizing organizational routines that have been employed in empirical research; (ii) identifying the most important characteristics of organizational routines, to serve for describing them; and (iii) developing propositions that systematically link organizational

  2. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel García

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

  3. Domains of psychopathy: evaluating the structure of a lexical model of psychopathic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Helge Andreas; Rypdal, Knut; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the structure of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) from a card sort perspective. The CAPP is a lexically based construct map of psychopathy comprising 33 symptoms organized by its developers into 6 broad functional domains of personality (i.e., Attachment, Behavioral, Cognitive; Dominance; Emotional, Self). Groups of mental health workers and students were asked to sort the CAPP symptoms into the model's 6 proposed domains. Overall, both mental health workers and students were able to categorize the symptoms speedily and intuitively according to model. This suggests that the CAPP model's hierarchical structure is plausible, and that the lexical nature of the model is successful in facilitating people's ability to understand features of psychopathy in a way that requires limited cognitive effort. Together, these findings support the validity of the CAPP model as a lexically based concept map of psychopathy. Yet, some exceptions to the overall pattern of agreement with model were identified. PMID:25867837

  4. Word Skipping During Sentence Reading: Effects of Lexicality on Parafoveal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined how lexical status affects the targeting of saccades during reading by using the boundary technique to vary independently the content of a letter string when seen in parafoveal preview and when directly fixated. Experiment 1 measured the skipping rate for a target word embedded in a sentence under three parafoveal preview conditions: full preview (e.g. brain-brain), pseudohomophone preview (e.g. brane-brain), and orthographic nonword control preview (e.g. brant-brain); in the first condition the preview string was always an English word while in the second and third conditions it was always a nonword. Experiment 2 investigated three conditions where the preview string was always a word: full preview (e.g. beach-beach), homophone preview (e.g. beech-beach), and orthographic control preview (e.g. bench-beach). None of the letter string manipulations used to create the preview conditions in the experiments disrupted sub-lexical orthographic or phonological patterns. In Experiment 1 higher skipping rates were observed for the full (lexical) preview condition, which consisted of a word, compared to the nonword preview conditions (pseudohomophone and orthographic-control). In contrast Experiment 2 showed no difference in skipping rates across the three types of lexical preview conditions (full, homophone and orthographic control), though preview type did influence reading times. This pattern indicates that skipping depends not only on the presence of disrupted sub-lexical patterns of orthography or phonology but is also critically dependent on processes that are sensitive to the lexical status of letter strings in the parafovea. PMID:24170376

  5. Building Specialized Multilingual Lexical Graphs Using Community Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Mohammad; Boitet, Christian; Kageura, Kyo; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Mangeot, Mathieu; Daoud, Daoud

    We are describing methods for compiling domain-dedicated multilingual terminological data from various resources. We focus on collecting data from online community users as a main source, therefore, our approach depends on acquiring contributions from volunteers (explicit approach), and it depends on analyzing users' behaviors to extract interesting patterns and facts (implicit approach). As a generic repository that can handle the collected multilingual terminological data, we are describing the concept of dedicated Multilingual Preterminological Graphs MPGs, and some automatic approaches for constructing them by analyzing the behavior of online community users. A Multilingual Preterminological Graph is a special lexical resource that contains massive amount of terms related to a special domain. We call it preterminological, because it is a raw material that can be used to build a standardized terminological repository. Building such a graph is difficult using traditional approaches, as it needs huge efforts by domain specialists and terminologists. In our approach, we build such a graph by analyzing the access log files of the website of the community, and by finding the important terms that have been used to search in that website, and their association with each other. We aim at making this graph as a seed repository so multilingual volunteers can contribute. We are experimenting this approach with the Digital Silk Road Project. We have used its access log files since its beginning in 2003, and obtained an initial graph of around 116000 terms. As an application, we used this graph to obtain a preterminological multilingual database that is serving a CLIR system for the DSR project.

  6. Seed characteristics and soil surface patch type interact to affect germination of semi-arid woodland species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber L. Briggs; John W. Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are common in many arid and semi-arid regions and they can alter microenvironments which are likely\\u000a to directly and indirectly influence vascular plant establishment. The effect of biological soil crusts on germination is\\u000a also influenced by the biological characteristics of the seeds themselves but rarely have the effects of both crust type and\\u000a seed morphology on germination

  7. Tribological characteristics and surface interaction between piston ring coatings and a blend of energy-conserving oils and ethanol fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon C. Tung; Hong Gao

    2003-01-01

    The friction and wear performance of coatings on nitrided stainless steel (NSS) piston rings and chrome plated stainless steel rings sliding against cast iron cylinder liner segments in fully-formulated engine oils were investigated by using a high frequency reciprocating tribometer. The ring coatings include thermal-sprayed CrN and physical vapor deposited (PVD) diamond-like-carbon (DLC). The tribological characteristics of piston ring coatings

  8. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

  9. Interaction Interaction

    E-print Network

    Hehner, Eric C.R.

    Interaction 1/54 #12;Interaction shared variables 2/54 #12;Interaction shared variables can be read and written by any process (most interaction) 3/54 #12;Interaction shared variables can be read and written by any process (most interaction) difficult to implement 4/54 #12;Interaction shared variables can

  10. Characteristics of Fragments Produced in the Interaction of 5.5GeV Protons with Silver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl K. Hyde; Gilbert W. Butler; A. M. Poskanzer

    1971-01-01

    The energy spectra of nuclear fragments produced by the interaction of 5.5-GeV protons with silver were determined at several laboratory angles by means of dEdx-E measurements with semiconductor-detector telescopes. Individual isotopes of the elements from hydrogen to nitrogen were resolved. From oxygen to silicon the elements were determined without isotopic separation. For the case of the isotopes of He through

  11. Hydrophobic forces dominate the thermodynamic characteristics of UvrA-DNA damage interactions 1 1 Edited by I. Tinoco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Zou; Heather Bassett; Randall Walker; Adriana Bishop; Shantu Amin; Nicholas E. Geacintov; Bennett Van Houten

    1998-01-01

    The Escherichia coli DNA repair proteins UvrA, UvrB and UvrC work together to recognize and incise DNA damage during the process of nucleotide excision repair (NER). To gain an understanding of the damage recognition properties of UvrA, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy to study the thermodynamics of its interaction with a defined DNA substrate containing a benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF KINEMATICS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DURING THE 2010 AUGUST 1 CME-CME INTERACTION EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Flor, Olga [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan; Zic, Tomislav [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); De Koning, Curt A. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Liu, Ying [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bosman, Eckhard [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Davies, Jackie A.; Bothmer, Volker [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Harrison, Richard [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Nitta, Nariaki [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Centre, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1191 (United States); Bisi, Mario [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Eastwood, Jonathan; Forsyth, Robert [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.at [Computational and Data Sciences, George Mason University/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and heliospheric imager (HI) data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field of view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; {approx}700 km s{sup -1}). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2, suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

  13. Characteristics of Kinematics of a Coronal Mass Ejection During the 2010 August 1 CME-CME Interaction Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temmer, Manuela; Vrsnak, Bojan; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; de Koning, Curt A.; Liu, Ying; Bosman, Eckhard; Davies, Jackie A.; Mostl, Christian; Zic, Tomislav; Veronig, Astrid M.; Bothmer, Volker; Harrison, Richard; Nitta, Nariaki; Bisi, Mario; Flor, Olga; Eastwood, Jonathan; Odstrcil, Dusan; Forsyth, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and HI data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field-of-view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; (is) approximately 1200 km s-1) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; (is) approximately 700 km s-1). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2 suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

  14. Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

  15. Does Foreign Language Writing Benefit from Increased Lexical Fluency? Evidence from a Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Amos; Oostdam, Ron; van Schooten, Erik

    2011-01-01

    We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text production, such as idea generation, selection and…

  16. Discovery of Lexical Entries for Non-taxonomic Relations in Ontology Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Kavalec; Alexander Maedche; Vojtech Svátek

    2004-01-01

    Ontology learning from texts has recently been proposed as a new technology helping ontology designers in the modelling process. Discovery of non-taxonomic relations is understood as the least tackled problem therein. We propose a technique for extraction of lexical entries that may give cue in assigning semantic labels to otherwise 'anonymous' relations. The technique has been implemented as extension to

  17. Sandwich Priming: A Method for Overcoming the Limitations of Masked Priming by Reducing Lexical Competitor Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    An orthographically similar masked nonword prime facilitates responding in a lexical decision task (Forster & Davis, 1984). Recently, this masked priming paradigm has been used to evaluate models of orthographic coding--models that attempt to quantify prime-target similarity. One general finding is that priming effects often do not occur when…

  18. A Probabilistic Lexical Model for Ranking Textual Inferences Eyal Shnarch and Ido Dagan

    E-print Network

    Goldberger, Jacob

    A Probabilistic Lexical Model for Ranking Textual Inferences Eyal Shnarch and Ido Dagan Computer Science Department Bar-Ilan University Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel {shey,dagan}@cs.biu.ac.il Jacob Goldberger an appeal- ing potential as a ranking task as well. For instance, one may want to find texts that validate

  19. 1. Combinatorial operations and lexical entries A core property of human language is the unlimited possi-

    E-print Network

    Kutas, Marta

    work in linguistic theory, it is hypothesized that the language faculty has a modular structure provides evidence for the dual nature of the language faculty by describing recent re- sults1. Combinatorial operations and lexical entries A core property of human language is the unlimited

  20. Words that matter: Lexical choice and gender ideologies in women's magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisol del-Teso-Craviotto

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a lexical study of four US women's magazines (Good Housekeeping, Cosmopolitan, Working Woman and Ms.). Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, I explore the connections between the vocabulary and the dominant gender ideology of each magazine. I argue that magazines are powerful instruments in maintaining and challenging gender ideologies in US society, and I

  1. Repetition priming across distinct contexts: Effects of lexical status, word frequency, and retrieval test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. Coane; David A. Balota

    2010-01-01

    Repetition priming, the facilitation observed when a target is preceded by an identity prime, is a robust phenomenon that occurs across a variety of conditions. Oliphant (1983), however, failed to observe repetition priming for targets embedded in the instructions to an experiment in a subsequent lexical decision task. In the present experiments, we examined the roles of priming context (list

  2. Relationships among early lexical and literacy skills and language-literacy environments at home and school

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L Constantine

    2004-01-01

    This observational study examined the relationships among home literacy environments, classroom language-literacy environments, and lexical and early literacy skills for 101 (56 male, 45 female) preschool and kindergarten children between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Data for multiple regression analyses were collected from 14 classrooms across 7 early childhood education centers in central Florida using the Home Literacy

  3. Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity Lee Osterhout*, Mark Allen Abstract Many studies have shown that open- and closed-class words elicit different patterns of brain. Introduction Is the brain response to words determined primarily by their linguistic functions

  4. The lexical status of basic Arabic verb morphemes among dyslexic children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Abu-Rabia; Fadi Saliba

    2008-01-01

    The masked priming paradigm was used to examine the role of the root and verb pattern morphemes in lexical access within the verb system of Arabic. Three groups participated in the study: grade 6 dyslexics, a reading-level-matched group and grade 6 normal readers. The first group consisted of: 28 grade 6 reading disabled (RD) students, 8 girls and 20 boys,

  5. The Impact of Lexical Inferencing Strategies on Second Language Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parel, Rolande

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the source of reading problems of English as a second language learners at the high school level. The results indicate that while reading comprehension is impacted by level of receptive vocabulary knowledge, the ability to select and implement word-appropriate lexical inferencing strategies can compensate for low receptive…

  6. Atypical Lexical/Semantic Processing in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders without Early Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Robins, Diana; Kelley, Elizabeth; Swainson, Brook; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Although autism is associated with impaired language functions, the nature of semantic processing in high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) without a history of early language delay has been debated. In this study, we aimed to examine whether the automatic lexical/semantic aspect of language is impaired or intact in these…

  7. With or without semantic mediation: retrieval of lexical representations in sign production.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Caccaro, Arianna; Pavani, Francesco; Mahon, Bradford Z; Peressotti, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    How are lexical representations retrieved during sign production? Similar to spoken languages, lexical representation in sign language must be accessed through semantics when naming pictures. However, it remains an open issue whether lexical representations in sign language can be accessed via routes that bypass semantics when retrieval is elicited by written words. Here we address this issue by exploring under which circumstances sign retrieval is sensitive to semantic context. To this end we replicate in sign language production the cumulative semantic cost: The observation that naming latencies increase monotonically with each additional within-category item that is named in a sequence of pictures. In the experiment reported here, deaf participants signed sequences of pictures or signed sequences of Italian written words using Italian Sign Language. The results showed a cumulative semantic cost in picture naming but, strikingly, not in word naming. This suggests that only picture naming required access to semantics, whereas deaf signers accessed the sign language lexicon directly (i.e., bypassing semantics) when naming written words. The implications of these findings for the architecture of the sign production system are discussed in the context of current models of lexical access in spoken language production. PMID:25583708

  8. Bilingual practices in the process of initiating and resolving lexical problems in students' collaborative writing sessions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Persian as a first language and Swedish as a second language in the process of initiating and resolving. The students, both Persian- speaking, are advanced speakers of Swedish as a second language. For this article, four lexical language-related episodes, where code-switching between Persian and Swedish occurs

  9. Analyzing English Lexical Elements in the Language of Dutch Immigrants in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Henriette F.

    A study investigated the general occurrence of English lexical elements in the recorded speech of 285 Dutch pre-World War I immigrants and their descendants in Massachusetts, Iowa, and Wisconsin. The problems encountered in analyzing a massive data corpus and the methods used to resolve these problems are the focus of the paper. The difficulties…

  10. Feature and Model Level Compensation of Lexical Content for Facial Emotion Recognition

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    Feature and Model Level Compensation of Lexical Content for Facial Emotion Recognition Soroosh variability for solving the facial emotion recognition problem, especially in continuous frame of facial emotion recognition systems (e.g., confusing a phoneme /ey/ with a smile). Decoding the emotional

  11. Cross-Linguistic Perception and Learning of Japanese Lexical Prosody by English Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shport, Irina A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is on how language experience shapes perception of a non-native prosodic contrast. In Tokyo Japanese, fundamental frequency (F0) peak and fall are acoustic cues to lexically contrastive pitch patterns, in which a word may be accented on a particular syllable or unaccented (e.g., "tsuru" "a crane", "tsuru" "a vine",…

  12. Automatic Detection and Rating of Dementia of Alzheimer Type through Lexical Analysis of

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    in patients. These results are significant step forward toward automatic and objective means to identifyingAutomatic Detection and Rating of Dementia of Alzheimer Type through Lexical Analysis University Kenneth Rockwood Faculty of Medicine Dalhousie University Elissa Asp English Department Saint Mary

  13. Neurophysiological Evidence for Underspecified Lexical Representations: Asymmetries with Word Initial Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Claudia K.; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    How does the mental lexicon cope with phonetic variants in recognition of spoken words? Using a lexical decision task with and without fragment priming, the authors compared the processing of German words and pseudowords that differed only in the place of articulation of the initial consonant (place). Across both experiments, event-related brain…

  14. The Role of Lexical Analogies in Beginning Reading: Insights from Children's Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare

    2007-01-01

    The research addresses the role of lexical analogies in early reading by examining variation in children's self-reported strategy choices in the context of a traditional clue-word reading task. Sixty 5- to 6-year-old beginning readers were given a nonword version of a traditional clue-word reading analogy task, and changes in strategies were…

  15. Panlingual Lexical Translation via Probabilistic Inference Mausam, Stephen Soderland, Oren Etzioni

    E-print Network

    Mausam

    translation is a valuable component in knowledge-based Machine Transla- tion (MT) systems, e.g., (Carbonell etPanlingual Lexical Translation via Probabilistic Inference Mausam, Stephen Soderland, Oren Etzioni to translate be- tween a pair of languages is a translation dictionary. Unfor- tunately, dictionaries exist

  16. Lexical Range and Communicative Competence of Learners in Bilingual Schools in Lower Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mewald, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of lexical range on the learners' ability to communicate in English when taught as a foreign language in bilingual schools, and emphasizes the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction. It draws on data from classroom observation, lexis-retrieval tasks, written and spoken performance in bilingual…

  17. Automatic Presentation of Sense-Specific Lexical Information in an Intelligent Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eom, Soojeong

    2012-01-01

    Learning vocabulary and understanding texts present difficulty for language learners due to, among other things, the high degree of lexical ambiguity. By developing an intelligent tutoring system, this dissertation examines whether automatically providing enriched sense-specific information is effective for vocabulary learning and reading…

  18. The Search for Common Ground: Part I. Lexical Performance by Linguistically Diverse Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This study examines lexical performance by 3 groups of linguistically diverse school-age learners: English-only speakers with primary language impairment (LI), typical English-only speakers (EO), and typical bilingual Spanish-English speakers (BI). The accuracy and response time (RT) of 100 8- to 13-year-old children in word recognition and…

  19. From Phonological Recoding to Lexical Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Reading Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Tosi, Valeria; De Nigris, Barbara; Carrieri, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we analyse the early phases of reading development in Italian and explore the transition from phonological to lexical reading. A group of 28 Italian children was tested in four phases. Language and cognitive skills were first assessed in the preschool. Reading performance was then tested in three different sessions, in…

  20. Computational Assessment of Lexical Differences in L1 and L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how lexical differences related to cohesion and connectionist models can distinguish first language (L1) writers of English from second language (L2) writers of English. Key to this analysis is the use of the computational tool Coh-Metrix, which measures cohesion and text difficulty at…

  1. Attentional Control and Flexible Lexical Processing: Explorations of the Magic Moment of Word Recognition

    E-print Network

    1 Attentional Control and Flexible Lexical Processing: Explorations of the Magic Moment of Word in this volume, the processes involved in visual word recognition are remarkably complex. This should underlying models of visual word recognition is that there is a magic moment in word processing (Balota, 1990

  2. Bigram Frequency, Number of Syllables and Morphemes and Their Effects on Lexical Decision and Word Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven J.; Knight, David; Adams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing volume of evidence supporting the role of the syllable in word processing tasks. Recently it has also been shown that orthographic redundancy, related to the pattern of bigram frequencies, could not explain the syllable number effect on lexical decision times. This was demonstrated on a large sample of words taken from…

  3. Input Frequency and Word Truncation in Child Japanese: Structural and Lexical Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the statistical properties of the input have an impact on the prosodic shape of young children's word production. However, it is still not clear whether the effects of input statistics emerge from the frequency of prosodic structures or the frequency of individual lexical items. This issue is investigated in this…

  4. Picture-Induced Semantic Interference Reflects Lexical Competition during Object Naming

    PubMed Central

    Aristei, Sabrina; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2012-01-01

    With a picture–picture experiment, we contrasted competitive and non-competitive models of lexical selection during language production. Participants produced novel noun–noun compounds in response to two adjacently displayed objects that were categorically related or unrelated (e.g., depicted objects: apple and cherry; naming response: “apple–cherry”). We observed semantic interference, with slower compound naming for related relative to unrelated pictures, very similar to interference effects produced by semantically related context words in picture–word-interference paradigms. This finding suggests that previous failures to observe reliable interference induced by context pictures may be due to the weakness of lexical activation and competition induced by pictures, relative to words. The production of both picture names within one integrated compound word clearly enhances lexical activation, resulting in measurable interference effects. We interpret this interference as resulting from lexical competition, because the alternative interpretation, in terms of response-exclusion from the articulatory buffer, does not apply to pictures, even when they are named. PMID:22363304

  5. The Simultaneous Effects of Inflectional Paradigms and Classes on Lexical Recognition: Evidence from Serbian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Petar; Filipovic Durdevic, Dusica; Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relevance of inflectional paradigms and inflectional classes for lexical processing. We provide an information-theoretical measure of the divergence in the frequency distributions of two of the paradigms to which a word simultaneously belongs: the paradigm of the stem and the more general paradigm of the nominal…

  6. Knowledge Sources in EFL Learners' Lexical Inferencing across Reading Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Soltani Moghaddam, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Growing concerns have been voiced about strategies employed in L2 reading in general and dealing with unknown words in particular. Among other strategies, lexical inferencing has received attention in the literature. However, more research is needed to further clarify how different levels of L2 reading proficiency may affect the readers'…

  7. On the Role of Regular Phonological Variation in Lexical Access: Evidence from Voice Assimilation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether lexical access is affected by a regular phonological variation in connected speech: voice assimilation in French. Two associative priming experiments were conducted to determine whether strongly assimilated, potentially ambiguous word forms activate the conceptual representation of the underlying word. Would…

  8. An efficient environment allocation scheme in an interpreter for a lexically-scoped LISP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew V. McDermott

    1980-01-01

    Lexically-scoped LISP dialects offer great flexibility and expressive power. Unfortunately, they tend to be inefficiently implemented, because many interpreter structures such as variable binding environments must be allocated in the heap rather than on the stack. One solution to this problem is to allocate them on the stack, then move them to the heap if necessary. This means moving the

  9. Statistical Sentence Condensation using Ambiguity Packing and Stochastic Disambiguation Methods for Lexical-Functional Grammar

    E-print Network

    Riezler, Stefan

    for Lexical-Functional Grammar Stefan Riezler and Tracy H. King and Richard Crouch and Annie Zaenen Palo Alto-entropy model for stochastic output selection. Furthermore, we propose the use of standard parser evaluation-words models and n-grams. Such models may well produce summaries that are indicative of the original's content

  10. False Cognates: The Effect of Mismatch in Morphological Complexity on a Backward Lexical Translation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In this article we focus on "false cognates", lexical items that have overlapping orthographic/phonological properties but little or no semantic overlap. False-cognate pairs were created from French (second language or L2) and English (first language or L1) items by manipulating the levels of morphological correspondence between them.…

  11. Sensitivity to Lexical Stress in Dyslexia: A Case of Cognitive Not Perceptual Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Johanna G.; Harbodt, Silke; Cantiani, Chiara; Sabisch, Beate; Zobay, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to lexical stress in adult German-speaking students with reading difficulty was investigated using minimal pair prepositional verbs whose meaning and syntax depend on the location of the stressed syllable. Two tests of stress perception were used: (i) a stress location task, where listeners indicated the location of the perceptually…

  12. Visual-Attentional Span and Lexical ­Decision in Skilled Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Dawson, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association between visual-attentional span and lexical decision in skilled adult readers. In the span tasks, an array of letters was presented briefly and recognition or production of a single cued letter (partial span) or production of all letters (whole span) was required. Independently of letter…

  13. A Lexical Basis for N400 Context Effects: Evidence from MEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ellen; Almeida, Diogo; Hines, Paul C.; Poeppel, David

    2009-01-01

    The electrophysiological response to words during the "N400" time window (approximately 300-500 ms post-onset) is affected by the context in which the word is presented, but whether this effect reflects the impact of context on "access" of the stored lexical information itself or, alternatively, post-access "integration" processes is still an open…

  14. Lexical architecture based on a hierarchy of codes for high-speed string correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bertrand de Beuvron, Francois; Trigano, Philippe

    1992-03-01

    AI systems for the general public have to be really tolerant to errors. These errors could be of several kinds: typographic, phonetic, grammatical, or semantic. A special lexical dictionary architecture has been designed to deal with the first two. It extends the hierarchical file method of E. Tanaka and Y. Kojima.

  15. Effects of Text Length on Lexical Diversity Measures: Using Short Texts with Less than 200 Tokens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Rie; In'nami, Yo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of lexical diversity (LD) in L2 speaking and writing performance, LD assessment measures are known to be affected by the number of words analyzed in the text. This study aims to identify LD measures that are least affected by text length and can be used for the analysis of short L2 texts (50-200 tokens). We compared the…

  16. From Spelling Pronunciation to Lexical Access: A Second Step in Word Decoding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbro, Carsten; de Jong, Peter F.; Houter, Daphne; Nielsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap between "w..aa..sss" and "woz" ("was"). This is a gap between the output from a phonological recoding of a word and its lexical pronunciation. We suggest that ease of recognition of words from spelling pronunciations (like "w..aa..sss") contributes independent variance to word decoding ability with both regularly and irregularly…

  17. Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu

    E-print Network

    Acoustic Analysis of Lexical Tone in Mandarin Infant-Directed Speech Huei-Mei Liu National Taiwan, the authors examined the acoustic modifications of infant-directed speech (IDS) at the syllable level to test and addressing an adult. The results indicate that IDS does not distort the acoustic cues that are essential

  18. Multilingual Lexical Network from the Archives of the Digital Mohammad Daoud

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Multilingual Lexical Network from the Archives of the Digital Silk Road Mohammad Daoud LIG, GETALP Road DSR. The DSR project creates digital archives of cultural heritage along the historical Silk Road; more than 116 of basic references on Silk Road have been digitized and made available online

  19. A cross-linguistic and bilingual evaluation of the interdependence between lexical and grammatical domains

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine within and across language relationships between lexical and grammatical domains by focusing on measures of lexical diversity and grammatical complexity in Spanish and English. One hundred and ninety-six preschool and school-aged Latino children with different levels of English and Spanish proficiencies and different language abilities produced narratives in Spanish, English, or both. Analyses revealed strong associations between lexical (number of different words and number of different verbs) and grammatical measures (mean length of utterances in words and use of ditransitive predicates), supporting the domain interdependence hypothesis within a language. Cross-linguistic comparisons indicate a greater diversity of verbs and ditransitive predicates in Spanish compared to English for this population. In the language samples of children who produced narratives in the two languages, there was no relationship between the two domains across languages. The lack of cross-language correlations may be related to other variables influencing lexical and semantic development in bilingual learners. Methodological issues to be considered in future studies with bilingual speakers are discussed. PMID:19444336

  20. Young Learners and Lexical Awareness: Children's Engagement with Wordlists and Concordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Sinclair (1991) found that lexical analysis can be overcomplicated, yet Johns (1994) called for investigation into whether corpus analysis can motivate beginners and near-beginners. The findings of this research suggest that young EFL learners can enjoy using corpus analysis tools (wordlists and concordances) to identify, classify, and generalize…

  1. Differentiating Cantonese-Speaking Preschool Children with and without SLI Using MLU and Lexical Diversity (D)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of a composite clinical assessment measure based on mean length of utterance (MLU), lexical diversity (D), and age (Klee, Stokes, Wong, Fletcher, & Gavin, 2004) in a second, independent sample of 4-year-old Cantonese-speaking children with and without specific language impairment…

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ensembles of Decision Trees in Disambiguating Senseval Lexical Samples

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Ted

    function words as features. For example, if the target word is water and the training example is I water is an ensemble approach that assigns a sense to an instance of an ambiguous word by taking a vote among three with the target word. Each view of the training examples is based on one of the fol­ lowing three types of lexical

  3. The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

  4. Lexical Effects on Children's Speech Processing: Individual Differences Reflected in the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Stewart, Mary E.; Petrou, Alexandra M.; Dickie, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to examine whether children exhibit the same relationship that adults show between lexical influence on phoneme identification and individual variation on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Method: Data from 62 4- to 7-year-olds with no diagnosis of autism were analyzed. The main task involved identification of…

  5. SWAT: Cross-Lingual Lexical Substitution using Local Context Matching, Bilingual Dictionaries and Machine Translation

    E-print Network

    Wicentowski, Richard

    SWAT: Cross-Lingual Lexical Substitution using Local Context Matching, Bilingual Dictionaries Substitution task. The first sys- tem, SWAT-E, finds Spanish substitutions by first finding English-Spanish dictionary. The second system, SWAT-S, translates each English sentence into Spanish and then finds

  6. Stress-Based Lexical Stratification in a Rato-Romansh Dialect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamprath, Christine K.

    A dialect of Rato-Romansh spoken in a Swiss town is examined in the context of lexical phonology. The structure of this dialect's lexicon consists of two levels defined by stress assignment, not cyclically in this case but at the end of each level. Other considerations that have been advanced as bases for level division within the lexicon, such as…

  7. Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

  8. The Strength and Time Course of Lexical Activation of Pronunciation Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Spoken words undergo frequent and often predictable variation in pronunciation. One form of variation is medial /t/ deletion, in which words like "center" and "cantaloupe" are pronounced without acoustic cues indicative of syllable-initial /t/. Three experiments examined the consequences of this missing phonetic information on lexical activation.…

  9. Decision Lists for Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Yarowsky

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical ambiguity resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given ambiguity. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies.

  10. Scope of Lexical Access in Spoken Sentence Production: Implications for the Conceptual-Syntactic Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul H.; Wheeldon, L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on P. H. Allum and L. Wheeldon (2007), the authors conducted 5 experiments to investigate the scope of lexical access during spoken sentence production in Japanese and English. Speakers described pairs of pictured objects, and on critical trials, 1 object was previewed. In Japanese, sentence onset is speeded by the preview of each of the…

  11. LEXICAL DIVERSITY AND PRODUCTIVITY IN FRENCH PRESCHOOOLERS DEVELOPMENTAL AND BIOSOCIAL ASPECTS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Preschoolers Acknowledgments: This study was supported by grants from INSERM (CRI4U009B; France) and SSHRC Parisian children in nine age groups (24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45 and 48 months). A total of 316 influences of SCL, with children from high SCL families showing more complex lexical productions and a higher

  12. Lexical Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs, Samantha; Yelland, Greg; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The presence or absence of clinically delayed language development prior to 3 years of age is a key, but contentious, clinical feature distinguishing autism from Asperger's disorder. The aim of this study was to examine language processing in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD) using a task which taps lexical

  13. On the Meaning of Words and Dinosaur Bones: Lexical Knowledge Without a Lexicon

    E-print Network

    Elman, Jeff

    On the Meaning of Words and Dinosaur Bones: Lexical Knowledge Without a Lexicon Jeffrey L. Elman to Hebb's (1949) paleontologist, who uses his beliefs and knowledge about dinosaurs in conjunction- tologist, and the dinosaur, to the meaning conveyed through these clues. (p. 140) David Rumelhart (1979) 1

  14. Structural Correlates for Lexical Efficiency and Number of Languages in Non-Native Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M. L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers.…

  15. Contrastive Lexical Pragmatics as an Effective Strategy in Teaching Pragmatics: A Review Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaemi, Farid; Ziafar, Meisam

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic aspect of formulaic language must be emphasized and employed in second language acquisition. Translation of formulaic speech can help learners better understand the pragmatic nature of L2 prefabricated language through comparing them with their L1 (first language) equivalents. This study proposes a contrastive lexical pragmatic approach…

  16. A Joint Learning Model of Word Segmentation, Lexical Acquisition, and Phonetic Variability

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    A Joint Learning Model of Word Segmentation, Lexical Acquisition, and Phonetic Variability Micha and learns an explicit model of phonetic variation. We define the model as a Bayesian noisy channel; we infant learners, tends to learn multiword collocations. We also conduct analyses of the phonetic

  17. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  18. THE PHONETIC EVOLUTION OF REDUPLICATED EXPRESSIONS: REDUPLICATION, LEXICAL TONES AND PROSODY IN NA (NAXI)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE PHONETIC EVOLUTION OF REDUPLICATED EXPRESSIONS: REDUPLICATION, LEXICAL TONES AND PROSODY IN NA in the other cases. The facts are set out in section 2. Our research brings out a phonetic similarity between of phonetic factors which are still observable in synchrony. The phonetic variation of some of the tones

  19. Adding phonetic similarity data to a lexical database Ruli Manurung (maruli@cs.ui.ac.id)

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Graeme

    Adding phonetic similarity data to a lexical database Ruli Manurung (maruli@cs.ui.ac.id) University, synonymy, hyponymy, etc., we have added various enhancements, including phonetic similarity ratings a notion of phonetic similarity, so that puns could be made using words which were similar, not simply

  20. Probabilistic Constraint Satisfaction at the Lexical/Phonetic Interface: Evidence for

    E-print Network

    DeAngelis, Gregory

    Probabilistic Constraint Satisfaction at the Lexical/Phonetic Interface: Evidence for Gradient. INTRODUCTION The absence of an invariant mapping between the acoustic stream and plau- sible phonetic featuresMurray, Tanenhaus, Aslin, and Spivey Virtually every phonetic feature examined to date has been found to corre- late

  1. Object Interference in Children's Colour and Position Naming: Lexical Interference or Task-Set Competition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke

    2010-01-01

    Cascade models of word production assume that during lexical access all activated concepts activate their names. In line with this view, it has been shown that naming an object's colour is facilitated when colour name and object name are phonologically related (e.g., "blue" and "blouse"). Prevor and Diamond's (2005) recent observation that…

  2. Explicit and Implicit Lexical Knowledge: Acquisition of Collocations under Different Input Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonbul, Suhad; Schmitt, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    To date, there has been little empirical research exploring the relationship between implicit and explicit lexical knowledge (of collocations). As a first step in addressing this gap, two laboratory experiments were conducted that evaluate different conditions (enriched, enhanced, and decontextualized) under which both adult native speakers…

  3. The Integration of Lexical, Syntactic, and Discourse Features in Bilingual Adolescents' Writing: An Exploratory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzak, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the bilingual writing of adolescent English language learners (ELLs) using quantitative tools. Linguistic measures were applied to the participants' writing at the lexical, syntactic, and discourse levels, with the goal of comparing outcomes at each of these levels across languages (Spanish/English)…

  4. The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

  5. Exploiting Context to Identify Lexical Atoms A Statistical View of Linguistic Context

    E-print Network

    Zhai, ChengXiang

    .) The context of a word can usually provide good clues to decide which sense the word has in this contextExploiting Context to Identify Lexical Atoms ­­ A Statistical View of Linguistic Context Chengxiang . S . A . Email: cz25@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract Interpretation of natural language is inherently context

  6. Exploiting Context to Identify Lexical Atoms --A Statistical View of Linguistic Context

    E-print Network

    Zhai, ChengXiang

    good clues to decide which sense the word has in this context, or as Firth said, "You shall know a wordExploiting Context to Identify Lexical Atoms -- A Statistical View of Linguistic Context Chengxiang . S . A . Email: cz25@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract Interpretation of natural language is inherently context

  7. Functional lateralization of lexical stress representation: a systematic review of patient data.

    PubMed

    Häuser, Katja; Domahs, Frank

    2014-01-01

    According to the functional lateralization hypothesis (FLH) the lateralization of speech prosody depends both on its function (linguistic = left, emotional = right) and on the size of the units it operates on (small = left, large = right). In consequence, according to the FLH, lexical stress should be processed by the left (language-dominant) hemisphere, given its linguistic function and small unit size. We performed an exhaustive search for case studies of patients with acquired dysprosody due to unilateral brain damage. In contrast to previous reviews we only regarded dysprosody at the lexical level (excluding phrasal stress). Moreover, we focused on the representational stage of lexical stress processing, excluding more peripheral perceptual or motor deficits. Applying these criteria, we included nine studies reporting on 11 patients. All of these patients showed representational deficits in word stress processing following a lesion in their language-dominant hemisphere. In 9 out of 11 patients, it was the left hemisphere which was affected. This is a much more consistent pattern as found in previous reviews, in which less rigorous inclusion criteria may have blurred the pattern of results. We conclude that the representation of lexical stress crucially relies on the functioning of the language-dominant (mostly left) hemisphere. PMID:24782813

  8. Effect of Instruction with Expert Patterns on the Lexical Learning of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Maria Jesus

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to show the importance of instruction in learning a specific set of words. Two different tasks were used in the experiment: one in which subjects were required to fill in sentences and choose the appropriate answer in a multiple choice exercise (lexical test), and the other was a rating task designed to assess semantic…

  9. Phonology, Decoding, and Lexical Compensation in Vowel Spelling Errors Made by Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    A descriptive study of vowel spelling errors made by children first diagnosed with dyslexia (n = 79) revealed that phonological errors, such as "bet" for "bat", outnumbered orthographic errors, such as "bate" for "bait". These errors were more frequent in nonwords than words, suggesting that lexical context helps with vowel spelling. In a second…

  10. Modeling of Word Translation: Activation Flow from Concepts to Lexical Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Gerakaki, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most theoretical and computational models assume a continuous flow of activation from concepts to lexical items in spoken word production, one prominent model assumes that the mapping of concepts onto words happens in a discrete fashion (Bloem & La Heij, 2003). Semantic facilitation of context pictures on word translation has been taken to…

  11. Sensitivity to lexical stress in dyslexia: a case of cognitive not perceptual stress.

    PubMed

    Barry, Johanna G; Harbodt, Silke; Cantiani, Chiara; Sabisch, Beate; Zobay, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    Sensitivity to lexical stress in adult German-speaking students with reading difficulty was investigated using minimal pair prepositional verbs whose meaning and syntax depend on the location of the stressed syllable. Two tests of stress perception were used: (i) a stress location task, where listeners indicated the location of the perceptually most prominent syllable, and (ii) a stress pattern identification task, where listeners indicated if the stress pattern was appropriate for its semantic frame. The students with reading difficulties performed worse than the normally reading students on both tasks. Their poorer performance did not reflect the lack of a percept for lexical stress rather patterns of performance across the two tasks suggested that each loaded onto different underlying cognitive abilities. Deficits in these, rather than perceptual difficulties, explained observed group differences. Students with reading difficulties have a normal implicit knowledge of lexical stress usage but lack the necessary cognitive resources for developing an explicit metalinguistic awareness of it. Deficits in these skills not deficiencies in lexical stress perception are implicated in their reading difficulties. PMID:22589197

  12. The Influence of Initial Exposure on Lexical Representation: Comparing Early and Simultaneous Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, N.; Echeverria, S.; Bosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    The representation of L2 words and non-words was analysed in a series of three experiments. Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, differing in terms of their L1 and the age of exposure to their L2 (since birth-simultaneous bilinguals-or starting in early childhood-early sequential bilinguals), were asked to perform a lexical decision task on Catalan words…

  13. SanskritTagger, a stochastic lexical and POS tagger for Sanskrit Oliver Hellwig

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SanskritTagger, a stochastic lexical and POS tagger for Sanskrit Oliver Hellwig Abstract SanskritTagger is a stochastic tagger for unpreprocessed Sanskrit text. The tag- ger tokenises text with a Markov model process, reports the results of tag- ging a few short passages of Sanskrit text and describes further

  14. AN EFFORT TO DEVELOP A TAGGED LEXICAL RESOURCE FOR S. Varakhedi

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AN EFFORT TO DEVELOP A TAGGED LEXICAL RESOURCE FOR SANSKRIT S. Varakhedi V.Jaddipal V. Sheeba Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha Deemed University Tirupati {shrivara,v.jaddipal,v.sheeba}@gmail.com 1. ABSTRACT In this paper we present our efforts the first time of its kind in the history of Sanskrit

  15. The Role of Visual Form in Lexical Access: Evidence from Chinese Classifier Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Yanchao; Yu, Xi; Geng, Jingyi; Alario, F. -Xavier.

    2010-01-01

    The interface between the conceptual and lexical systems was investigated in a word production setting. We tested the effects of two conceptual dimensions--semantic category and visual shape--on the selection of Chinese nouns and classifiers. Participants named pictures with nouns ("rope") or classifier-noun phrases ("one-"classifier"-rope") in…

  16. Toddlers Activate Lexical Semantic Knowledge in the Absence of Visual Referents: Evidence from Auditory Priming.

    PubMed

    Willits, Jon A; Wojcik, Erica H; Seidenberg, Mark S; Saffran, Jenny R

    2013-11-01

    Language learners rapidly acquire extensive semantic knowledge, but the development of this knowledge is difficult to study, in part because it is difficult to assess young children's lexical semantic representations. In our studies, we solved this problem by investigating lexical semantic knowledge in 24-month-olds using the Head-turn Preference Procedure. In Experiment 1, looking times to a repeating spoken word stimulus (e.g., kitty-kitty-kitty) were shorter for trials preceded by a semantically related word (e.g., dog-dog-dog) than trials preceded by an unrelated word (e.g., juice-juice-juice). Experiment 2 yielded similar results using a method in which pairs of words were presented on the same trial. The studies provide evidence that young children activate of lexical semantic knowledge, and critically, that they do so in the absence of visual referents or sentence contexts. Auditory lexical priming is a promising technique for studying the development and structure of semantic knowledge in young children. PMID:24409090

  17. Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access F and about the locus of the classic frequency effect to derive predictions about possible frequency effects orthogonally the frequencies of the adjective and of the noun that composed the NPs. We consistently found

  18. Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Antoine; Derwing, Bruce; Libben, Gary; Westbury, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which lexical bundles (LBs; i.e., frequently recurring strings of words that often span traditional syntactic boundaries) are stored and processed holistically. Three self-paced reading experiments compared sentences containing LBs (e.g., "in the middle of the") and matched control sentence fragments (e.g., "in…

  19. Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

  20. Decomposition into Multiple Morphemes during Lexical Access: A Masked Priming Study of Russian Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanina, Nina; Dukova-Zheleva, Galina; Geber, Dana; Kharlamov, Viktor; Tonciulescu, Keren

    2008-01-01

    The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) "transparent," in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the…

  1. Orthographic Structure Versus Morphological Structure: Principles of Lexical Organization in a Given Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Ram; Kugler, Tamar; Deutsch, Avital; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2005-01-01

    Most models of visual word recognition in alphabetic orthographies assume that words are lexically organized according to orthographic similarity. Support for this is provided by form-priming experiments that demonstrate robust facilitation when primes and targets share similar sequences of letters. The authors examined form-orthographic priming…

  2. Depth of Lexical Knowledge among Bilingual Children: The Impact of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Katzir, Tami

    2012-01-01

    The majority of studies examining the language and literacy skills of second generation immigrant bilingual children have focused on the breadth of lexical knowledge in populations with a low level of involvement in literacy activities. This study extends previous work in three ways. First, we focused on a sample of second generation immigrant…

  3. Prosodic Boundaries Delay the Processing of Upcoming Lexical Information during Silent Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yingyi; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic boundaries can be used to guide syntactic parsing in both spoken and written sentence comprehension, but it is unknown whether the processing of prosodic boundaries affects the processing of upcoming lexical information. In 3 eye-tracking experiments, participants read silently sentences that allow for 2 possible syntactic interpretations…

  4. APPLYING RELATIONAL DATABASE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES TO THE DESIGN OF LEXICAL DATABASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sáenz; A. Vaquero

    We propose to apply relational databases (RDB) development methodologies to the design of lexical databases (LDB), which embody conceptual and linguistic knowledge. We represent the conceptual knowledge as an ontology, and the linguistic knowledge, which depends on each language, in lexicons. Our approach is based on a single language- independent ontology. Besides, we study some conceptual and linguistic requirements; in

  5. SECOND-DEGREE POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION OF MANDARIN CHINESE LEXICAL TONE PITCH CONTOURS A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

    E-print Network

    Reyle, Uwe

    SECOND-DEGREE POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION OF MANDARIN CHINESE LEXICAL TONE PITCH CONTOURS for the Mandarin Chinese (MC) citation tones and the perceptual acceptability of the approximated F0 contours as judged by the native speakers of Mandarin. Any inquiry into the phonological system of MC usually entails

  6. Fine-Grained Lexical Semantic Representations and Compositionally-Derived Events in Mandarin Chinese

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    Fine-Grained Lexical Semantic Representations and Compositionally-Derived Events in Mandarin primarily present evidence from Mandarin Chinese, whose verbal system is very different from that of English (at least by theoretical linguists) that decomposing verbs in terms of more basic primitives can

  7. Object Naming and Later Lexical Development: From Baby Bottle to Beer Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara; Storms, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Despite arguments for the relative ease of learning common noun meanings, semantic development continues well past the early years of language acquisition even for names of concrete objects. We studied evolution of the use of common nouns during later lexical development. Children aged 5-14 years and adults named common household objects and their…

  8. Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions. Volume 1, Batch leach and adsorption tests and sediment characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Conca, J.L. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Wood, M.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units.

  9. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richardson, John D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lugaz, Noé, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

  10. Sun-to-Earth Characteristics of Two Coronal Mass Ejections Interacting Near 1 AU: Formation of a Complex Ejecta and Generation of a Two-step Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.; Lugaz, Noé

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

  11. Evaluation of a “Lexically Assign, Logically Refine” Strategy for Semi-automated Integration of Overlapping Terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Dolin, Robert H.; Huff, Stanley M.; Rocha, Roberto A.; Spackman, Kent A.; Campbell, Keith E.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate a “lexically assign, logically refine” (LALR) strategy for merging overlapping healthcare terminologies. This strategy combines description logic classification with lexical techniques that propose initial term definitions. The lexically suggested initial definitions are manually refined by domain experts to yield description logic definitions for each term in the overlapping terminologies of interest. Logic-based techniques are then used to merge defined terms. Methods: A LALR strategy was applied to 7,763 LOINC and 2,050 SNOMED procedure terms using a common set of defining relationships taken from the LOINC data model. Candidate value restrictions were derived by lexically comparing the procedure's name with other terms contained in the reference SNOMED topography, living organism, function, and chemical axes. These candidate restrictions were reviewed by a domain expert, transformed into terminologic definitions for each of the terms, and then algorithmically classified. Results: The authors successfully defined 5,724 (73%) LOINC and 1,151 (56%) SNOMED procedure terms using a LALR strategy. Algorithmic classification of the defined concepts resulted in an organization mirroring that of the reference hierarchies. The classification techniques appropriately placed more detailed LOINC terms underneath the corresponding SNOMED terms, thus forming a complementary relationship between the LOINC and SNOMED terms. Discussion: LALR is a successful strategy for merging overlapping terminologies in a test case where both terminologies can be defined using the same defining relationships, and where value restrictions can be drawn from a single reference hierarchy. Those concepts not having lexically suggested value restrictions frequently indicate gaps in the reference hierarchy. PMID:9524353

  12. Polarisation characteristics of the harmonics and reflected radiation upon the interaction of 100-GW picosecond pulses with aluminium films

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R A ['Akadempribor' Research and Production Association, Academy of Science of Uzbekistan, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Chakera, J A; Raghuramaiah, M; Sharma, A K; Naik, P A; Gupta, P D [Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2000-11-30

    The generation of harmonics from a solid surface irradiated by 27-ps pulses (I{<=}1.5x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}) from a neodymium laser is studied. The conversion efficiency of p-polarised laser radiation was more than ten times greater than that of the s-polarised radiation for the second harmonic generation and more than one hundred times greater for the third harmonic generation. The optical rotation of the second harmonic generated by s- and p-polarised laser radiation is studied. The efficiencies of the second, third, and fourth harmonic generation were 2x10{sup -8}, 2x10{sup -10}, and 5x10{sup -12}, respectively. The intensities of the second, third, and fourth harmonics exhibit a power dependence on the laser radiation intensity with exponents equal to 1.5, 1.8, and 3.8, respectively. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  13. The tension between authoritative and dialogic discourse: A fundamental characteristic of meaning making interactions in high school science lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Philip H.; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Aguiar, Orlando G.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we draw upon a framework for analyzing the discursive interactions of science classrooms (Mortimer & Scott, 2003, Meaning Making in Secondary Science Classrooms, Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press), to probe the movement between authoritative and dialogic discourse in a Brazilian high school science class. More specifically, we argue the point that such shifts between communicative approaches are an inevitable part of teaching whose purpose is to support meaningful learning of scientific knowledge. We suggest that a necessary tension therefore exists between authoritative and dialogic approaches as dialogic exchanges are followed by authoritative interventions (to develop the canonical scientific view), and the authoritative introduction of new ideas is followed by the opportunity for dialogic application and exploration of those ideas. In these ways, one communicative approach follows from the other, authoritativeness acting as a seed for dialogicity and vice versa. We discuss how this analysis, in terms of shifts in communicative approach, offers a new and complementary perspective on supporting productive disciplinary engagement (Engle & Conant, 2002, Cognition and Instruction, 20, 399-484) in the classroom. Finally we consider some methodological issues arising from this study.

  14. Near-field magnetostatics and Néel-Brownian interactions mediated magneto-rheological characteristics of highly stable nano-ferrocolloids.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Ajay; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K; Nandi, Tandra

    2015-02-28

    Magnetic nanocolloids consisting of synthesized superparamagnetic iron(II,III) oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (5-15 nm) dispersed in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a nano-silica complex have been synthesized. The PEG-nano-silica complex physically encapsulates the SPIONs, ensuring that there is no phase separation under high magnetic fields (?1.2 T). Exhaustive magneto-rheological investigations have been performed to understand the structural behavior and response of the ferrocolloids. Remarkable stability and reversibility have been observed under magnetic field for concentrated systems. The results show the impact of particle concentration, size and encapsulation efficiency on parameters such as shear viscosity, yield stress, viscoelastic moduli, magneto-viscous hysteresis, and so on. Analytical models to reveal the system mechanism and mathematically predict the magneto-viscosity and magneto-yield stress have been developed. The mechanistic approach based on near-field magnetostatics and Néel-Brownian interactivities could predict the colloidal properties under the effect of the magnetic field accurately. The colloid exhibits amplified storage and loss moduli together with a highly augmented linear viscoelastic region under magnetic stimuli. The transition of the colloidal state from the fluidic phase to the soft condensed phase and its viscoelastic stimuli under the influence of a magnetic field has been explained based on the mathematical analysis. The remarkable stability, magnetic properties and accurate physical models reveal promise for the colloids in transient situations, namely, magneto-microelectromechanical/nanoelectromechanical devices, anti-seismic damping, biomedical invasive treatments, and so on. PMID:25599522

  15. Effects of the psycholinguistic variables on the lexical decision task in Spanish: a study with 2,765 words.

    PubMed

    González-Nosti, María; Barbón, Analía; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    In order to explore the role of the main psycholinguistic variables on visual word recognition, several mega-studies have been conducted in English in recent years. Nevertheless, because the effects of these variables depend on the regularity of the orthographic system, studies must also be done in other languages with different characteristics. The goal of this work was to conduct a lexical decision study in Spanish, a language with a shallow orthography and a high number of words. The influence of psycholinguistic variables on latencies corresponding to 2,765 words was assessed by means of linear mixed-effects modeling. The results show that some variables, such as frequency or age of acquisition, have significant effects on reaction times regardless of the type of words used. Other variables, such as orthographic neighborhood or imageability, were significant only in specific groups of words. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the peculiarities of each spelling system in the development of reading models. PMID:24197707

  16. The dark side of incremental learning: A model of cumulative semantic interference during lexical access in speech production

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Gary M.; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2010-01-01

    Naming a picture of a dog primes the subsequent naming of a picture of a dog (repetition priming) and interferes with the subsequent naming of a picture of a cat (semantic interference). Behavioral studies suggest that these effects derive from persistent changes in the way that words are activated and selected for production, and some have claimed that the findings are only understandable by positing a competitive mechanism for lexical selection. We present a simple model of lexical retrieval in speech production that applies error-driven learning to its lexical activation network. This model naturally produces repetition priming and semantic interference effects. It predicts the major findings from several published experiments, demonstrating that these effects may arise from incremental learning. Furthermore, analysis of the model suggests that competition during lexical selection is not necessary for semantic interference if the learning process is itself competitive. PMID:19854436

  17. A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

  18. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Alexandra Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0\\/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation

  19. Lexical quality and eye movements: individual differences in the perceptual span of skilled adult readers.

    PubMed

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments used the gaze-contingent moving-window paradigm to investigate whether reading comprehension and spelling ability modulate the perceptual span of skilled adult readers during sentence reading. Highly proficient reading and spelling were both associated with increased use information to the right of fixation, but did not systematically modulate the extraction of information to the left of fixation. Individuals who were high in both reading and spelling ability showed the greatest benefit from window sizes larger than 11 characters, primarily because of increases in forward saccade length. They were also significantly more disrupted by being denied close parafoveal information than those poor in reading and/or spelling. These results suggest that, in addition to supporting rapid lexical retrieval of fixated words, the high quality lexical representations indexed by the combination of high reading and spelling ability support efficient processing of parafoveal information and effective saccadic targeting. PMID:23972214

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n=33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency. PMID:23869741

  1. Diagnostics of phonological lexical processing: Pseudohomophone naming advantages, disadvantages, and base-word frequency effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Borowsky; William J. Owen; Michael E. J. Masson

    2002-01-01

    Phonological lexical access has been investigated by examining both a pseudohomophone (e.g.,brane) base-word frequency effect and a pseudohomophone advantage over pronounceable nonwords (e.g.,frane) in a single mixed block of naming trials. With a new set of pseudohomophones and nonwords presented in a mixed block, we\\u000a replicated the standard finding in the naming literature: no reliable base-word frequency effect, and a

  2. Teacher Gesture and Lexical Focus on Form in a Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inceoglu, Solène

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of gesture by a French language teacher during lexical focus on form (FonF). The analysis compares pre-emptive FonF (before a problem in communication has occurred), and reactive FonF (after a problem has occurred) and looks at the differences between teacher-initiated and learner-initiated FonF in the use and type of…

  3. The Role of Lexical Analogies in Beginning Reading: Insights From Children's Self-Reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Farrington-Flint; Clare Wood

    2007-01-01

    The research addresses the role of lexical analogies in early reading by examining variation in children's self-reported strategy choices in the context of a traditional clue-word reading task. Sixty 5- to 6-year-old beginning readers were given a nonword version of a traditional clue-word reading analogy task, and changes in strategies were examined using measures of immediately retrospective verbal reports. The

  4. Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Readers: Lexicality Is Modulated by Communication Mode

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  5. Cascaded versus noncascaded models of lexical and semantic processing: The turple effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth I. Forster; Jo Hector

    2002-01-01

    The density of the orthographic neighborhood surrounding an item has been shown to have an inhibitory effect for nonwords\\u000a in a lexical decision experiment. Four experiments are reported investigating whether a similar pattern holds for a semantic\\u000a categorization task (animal vs. non-animal). In the first experiment, no effects of neighborhood density were found for nonexemplars,\\u000a whether they were words or

  6. Treatment for lexical retrieval using abstract and concrete words in persons with aphasia: Effect of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Abbott, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background The significance of imageability and concreteness as factors for lexical tasks in aphasic individuals is under debate. No previous treatment studies have looked specifically at training abstract words compared to concrete for improved lexical retrieval in patients with chronic aphasia. Aim The goal of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a treatment for lexical retrieval that is based on models of lexical processing by utilizing abstractness as a mode of complexity. It was hypothesized that training abstract words in a category will result in improvement of those words and generalization to untrained target concrete words in the same category. Training concrete words in a category, however, will result in the retrieval of trained concrete words, but not generalization to target abstract words. Methods & Procedures A single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors was used to examine treatment and generalization. Generative naming for three categories (church, hospital, courthouse) was tested during baseline and treatment. Each treatment session was carried out in five steps: (1) category sorting, (2) feature selection, (3) yes/no feature questions, (4) word recall, and (5) free generative naming. Results Although participant 1 demonstrated neither significant learning nor generalization during abstract or concrete word training, participants 2, 3, and 4 showed significant learning during abstract word training and generalization to untrained concrete words. Participants 3 and 4 were also trained on concrete words which they improved on but did not show generalization to untrained abstract words. Conclusions The results of the present experiment support our hypothesis that training abstract words would result in greater learning and generalization to untrained concrete words. They also tentatively support the idea that generalization is facilitated by treatment focusing on more complex constructions (Kiran & Thompson, 2003; Thompson, Shapiro, Kiran, & Sobecks, 2003). PMID:19816590

  7. Phonological memory and lexical, narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IRENA O'BRIEN; NORMAN SEGALOWITZ; JOE COLLENTINE; BARBARA FREED

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of phonological memory (PM) in second language (L2) speech production by English-speaking adults who were learning Spanish. PM, operationalized as serial nonword recognition, and L2 lexical, narrative, and grammatical abilities from speech samples were assessed 13 weeks apart. After controlling for the amount of speech output, PM contributed significantly to the development of L2 narrative

  8. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  9. Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts to identify the primary causer of the state of affairs described (the "actor") quickly and unambiguously (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky and Schlesewsky, 2009). This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy). Here, we present two experiments demonstrating that actor potential is also encoded at the level of individual nouns (a king is a better actor than a beggar). Experiment 1 collected ratings for 180 German nouns on 12 scales defined by adjective oppositions and deemed relevant for actorhood potential. By means of structural equation modeling, an actor potential (ACT) value was calculated for each noun. Experiment 2, an event-related potential study, embedded nouns from Experiment 1 in verb-final sentences, in which they were either actors or non-actors. N400 amplitude increased with decreasing ACT values and this modulation was larger for highly frequent nouns and for actor versus non-actor nouns. We argue that potency to act is lexically encoded for individual nouns and, since it modulates the N400 even for non-actor participants, it should be viewed as a property that modulates ease of lexical access (akin, for example, to lexical frequency). We conclude that two separate dimensions of actorhood computation are crucial to language comprehension: an experience-based, lexically encoded (bottom-up) representation of actorhood potential, and a prominence-based, computational mechanism for calculating goodness-of-fit to the actor role in a particular (top-down) sentence context. PMID:25688217

  10. The role of prosodic boundaries in the resolution of lexical embedding in speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Dahan, Delphine; McQueen, James M

    2003-11-01

    Participants' eye movements were monitored as they heard sentences and saw four pictured objects on a computer screen. Participants were instructed to click on the object mentioned in the sentence. There were more transitory fixations to pictures representing monosyllabic words (e.g. ham) when the first syllable of the target word (e.g. hamster) had been replaced by a recording of the monosyllabic word than when it came from a different recording of the target word. This demonstrates that a phonemically identical sequence can contain cues that modulate its lexical interpretation. This effect was governed by the duration of the sequence, rather than by its origin (i.e. which type of word it came from). The longer the sequence, the more monosyllabic-word interpretations it generated. We argue that cues to lexical-embedding disambiguation, such as segmental lengthening, result from the realization of a prosodic boundary that often but not always follows monosyllabic words, and that lexical candidates whose word boundaries are aligned with prosodic boundaries are favored in the word-recognition process. PMID:14597270

  11. Lexical stress, frequency, and stress neighbourhood effects in the early stages of Italian reading development.

    PubMed

    Sulpizio, Simone; Colombo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the development of stress assignment in reading Italian aloud. We investigated frequency effects as a marker of the use of item-specific lexical knowledge in assigning stress together with stress dominance and stress neighbourhood (the number of words sharing both stress and ending) as markers of distributional information regarding properties of the lexicon extracted from spoken language. We tested second- and fourth-graders in a reading-aloud experiment including high- and low-frequency words and nonwords. Results show that despite the regularity of orthography-phonology mappings in Italian and the predominant use of phonological recoding procedures, item-specific lexical knowledge is also used, even by beginning readers. The frequency effect was significant and did not increase with age, while stress errors on low-frequency words decreased with increasing grade. Stress neighbourhood increasingly affected stress assignment on nonwords with older children. Taken together, our findings show that both item-specific knowledge and general information about stress distribution are relevant in children's reading, suggesting the simultaneous use of both lexical and sublexical information. Moreover, as the reading system develops, and knowledge about the relative distribution of stress neighbourhood increases, larger grain-size units are also exploited. PMID:23590549

  12. Lexical Neighborhood Density Effects on Spoken Word Recognition and Production in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Geoffrey P.; Steinmetz, Lauren G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of lexical competition and word frequency on spoken word recognition and production in healthy aging. Older (n = 16) and younger adults (n = 21) heard and repeated meaningful English sentences presented in the presence of multitalker babble at two signal-to-noise ratios, +10 and ?3 dB. Each sentence contained three keywords of high or low word frequency and phonological neighborhood density (ND). Both participant groups responded less accurately to high- than low-ND stimuli; response latencies (from stimulus offset to response onset) were longer for high- than low-ND sentences, whereas response durations—time from response onset to response offset—were longer for low- than high-ND stimuli. ND effects were strongest for older adults in the most difficult conditions, and ND effects in accuracy were related to inhibitory function. The results suggest that the sentence repetition task described here taps the effects of lexical competition in both perception and production and that these effects are similar across the life span, but that accuracy in the lexical discrimination process is affected by declining inhibitory function in older adults. PMID:20542997

  13. Phonological Codes Constrain Output of Orthographic Codes via Sublexical and Lexical Routes in Chinese Written Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    To what extent do phonological codes constrain orthographic output in handwritten production? We investigated how phonological codes constrain the selection of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production. Participants wrote down picture names in a picture-naming task in Experiment 1or response words in a symbol—word associative writing task in Experiment 2. A sublexical phonological property of picture names (phonetic regularity: regular vs. irregular) in Experiment 1and a lexical phonological property of response words (homophone density: dense vs. sparse) in Experiment 2, as well as word frequency of the targets in both experiments, were manipulated. A facilitatory effect of word frequency was found in both experiments, in which words with high frequency were produced faster than those with low frequency. More importantly, we observed an inhibitory phonetic regularity effect, in which low-frequency picture names with regular first characters were slower to write than those with irregular ones, and an inhibitory homophone density effect, in which characters with dense homophone density were produced more slowly than those with sparse homophone density. Results suggested that phonological codes constrained handwritten production via lexical and sublexical routes. PMID:25879662

  14. Spoken word recognition in early childhood: Comparative effects of vowel, consonant and lexical tone variation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Goh, Hwee Hwee; Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the world's languages exploit consonants, vowels and lexical tones to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, the majority of experimental research on early language development focuses on consonant-vowel languages. In the present study, the role of consonants, vowels and lexical tones in emergent word knowledge are directly compared in toddlers (2.5-3.5years) and preschoolers (4-5years) who were bilingual native learners of a consonant-vowel-tone language (Mandarin Chinese). Using a preferential looking paradigm, participants were presented with correct pronunciations and consonantal, vowel, and tonal variations of known words. Responses to each type of variation were assessed via gaze fixations to a visual target. When their labels were correctly pronounced, visual targets were reliably identified at both age groups. However, in toddlers, there was a high degree of sensitivity to mispronunciations due to variation in lexical tones relative to those due to consonants and vowels. This pattern was reversed in preschoolers, who were more sensitive to consonant and vowel variation than to tone variation. Findings are discussed in terms of properties of tones, vowels and consonants and the respective role of each source of variation in tone languages. PMID:26010558

  15. Parafoveal preview benefit is modulated by the precision of skilled readers' lexical representations.

    PubMed

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-02-01

    In skilled reading, the processing of an upcoming word often begins in the parafovea, that is, before the word is fixated. This study investigated whether the extraction and use of multiple sources of information about an upcoming word depends on reading skill. The eye movements of 107 skilled adult readers, assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability, were recorded. The gaze-contingent boundary paradigm was used to manipulate the preview of a target word's identity and length in sentences with low- or high-frequency pretarget words. Across all first-pass reading measures, superior reading ability was associated with a larger preview benefit, but only among readers with high spelling ability, suggesting that the orthographic precision of a reader's stored lexical representations influences the extraction of parafoveal information. There was also evidence that the highly skilled reader/spellers' parafoveal processing advantage derived partly from their efficient foveal processing. Finally, in first fixations on the target, increased preview benefit for highly skilled reader/spellers was restricted to accurate length previews, suggesting that readers with precise lexical representations use upcoming word length in combination with parafoveal orthographic information to narrow down potential lexical candidates. The implications of these results for computational models of eye movements are discussed. PMID:25384238

  16. Dialectal variation in the lexical tone system of Ma'ya.

    PubMed

    Remijsen, B

    2001-12-01

    This paper deals with dialectal variation in the lexical tone system of Ma'ya, an Austronesian language featuring three lexically contrastive tonemes (High, Rise, and Fall). Representative acoustic data were collected from the Misool, Salawati, and Laganyan dialects, and on the basis of these data, an account is given of their tone systems, and of how these tone systems compare to one another. The objective of this investigation is to gain insight in diachronic development in lexical tone systems. The Rise toneme features the most variation, both within and between dialects. Evidence is presented that the diachronic, between-dialect variation in the Rise toneme is due to synchronic between-context variation (cf. Ohala, 1989). While this synchronic variation is still evident in the Salawati dialect, the two other dialects developed in radically different directions. In the Misool dialect, the generalization of one of the realizations of the Rise triggered a push-chain style tonal change, in which another toneme, the Fall, shifted upward in the tonal space, ensuring perceptual contrast. In the Laganyan dialect, on the other hand, the tonal contrast between the Fall and the Rise is lost in one context. The Laganyan dialect also developed a boundary tone which only surfaces when the syllable with which it is associated has a voiced coda. PMID:12162695

  17. Tracking Second Thoughts: Continuous and Discrete Revision Processes during Visual Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of lexical decisions by asking participants to categorize lexical and nonlexical stimuli and recording their mouse movements toward response buttons during the choice. In a previous report we revealed greater trajectory curvature and attraction to competitors for Low Frequency words and Pseudowords. This analysis did not clarify whether the trajectory curvature in the two conditions was due to a continuous dynamic competition between the response alternatives or if a discrete revision process (a "change of mind") took place during the choice from an initially selected response to the opposite one. To disentangle these two possibilities, here we analyse the velocity and acceleration profiles of mouse movements during the choice. Pseudowords' peak movement velocity occurred with 100ms delay with respect to words and Letters Strings. Acceleration profile for High and Low Frequency words and Letters Strings exhibited a butterfly plot with one acceleration peak at 400ms and one deceleration peak at 650ms. Differently, Pseudowords' acceleration profile had double positive peaks (at 400 and 600ms) followed by movement deceleration, in correspondence with changes in the decision from lexical to nonlexical response buttons. These results speak to different online processes during the categorization of Low Frequency words and Pseudowords, with a continuous competition process for the former and a discrete revision process for the latter. PMID:25699992

  18. Storage and access procedures in schizophrenia: evidence for a two phase model of lexical impairment.

    PubMed

    Leeson, Verity C; McKenna, Peter J; Laws, Keith R

    2005-08-01

    Evidence has accumulated to show that schizophrenia is characterized by lexical-semantic difficulties; however, questions remain about whether schizophrenics have problems in accessing intact representations or a loss of the representations themselves. Both access and storage types of disorder have been reported and it has been speculated that this may reflect a transition from the former to latter with increasing length of illness. This study investigated whether illness duration, age or estimated premorbid IQ predict the size and accessibility of the lexical store. Fifty-six schizophrenic patients (chosen to represent a wide range of illness duration from 3-40 years) and 24 matched healthy controls were asked to name 120 pictures on two occasions. Estimates of store size and retrieval probability were derived from a two parameter stochastic Markov chain model. This revealed that even early in the course of illness, schizophrenics appear to have suffered a reduction in lexical store size and that those with longer length of illness show deficits in both their store size and their ability to retrieve names from that store. PMID:16019646

  19. Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young AAE-speaking children’s understanding and awareness of MAE. Methods 83 4- to 8-year-old African American English-speaking children participated in two experimental tasks. One task evaluated their awareness of differences between Mainstream American English (MAE) and African American English (AAE), while the other evaluated their lexical comprehension of MAE in contexts that were ambiguous in AAE but unambiguous in MAE. Receptive and expressive vocabulary, receptive syntax, and dialect density were also assessed. Results The results of a series of mixed-effect models showed that children with larger expressive vocabularies performed better on both experimental tasks, relative to children with smaller expressive vocabularies. Dialect density was a significant predictor only of MAE lexical comprehension; children with higher levels of dialect density were less accurate on this task. Conclusions Both vocabulary size and dialect density independently influenced MAE lexical comprehension. The results suggest that children with high levels of non-mainstream dialect use have more difficulty understanding words in MAE, at least in challenging contexts and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24949596

  20. Feature overlap slows lexical selection: evidence from the picture-word interference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Vieth, H E; McMahon, K L; de Zubicaray, G I

    2014-01-01

    How does the presence of a categorically related word influence picture naming latencies? In order to test competitive and noncompetitive accounts of lexical selection in spoken word production, we employed the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm to investigate how conceptual feature overlap influences naming latencies when distractors are category coordinates of the target picture. Mahon et al. (2007. Lexical selection is not by competition: A reinterpretation of semantic interference and facilitation effects in the picture-word interference paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(3), 503-535. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.33.3.503 ) reported that semantically close distractors (e.g., zebra) facilitated target picture naming latencies (e.g., HORSE) compared to far distractors (e.g., whale). We failed to replicate a facilitation effect for within-category close versus far target-distractor pairings using near-identical materials based on feature production norms, instead obtaining reliably larger interference effects (Experiments 1 and 2). The interference effect did not show a monotonic increase across multiple levels of within-category semantic distance, although there was evidence of a linear trend when unrelated distractors were included in analyses (Experiment 2). Our results show that semantic interference in PWI is greater for semantically close than for far category coordinate relations, reflecting the extent of conceptual feature overlap between target and distractor. These findings are consistent with the assumptions of prominent competitive lexical selection models of speech production. PMID:24830335