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1

A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

Hogan, Tiffany P.

2010-01-01

2

Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

2010-01-01

3

Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

4

Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.

Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

2013-01-01

5

A Case-Series Test of the Interactive Two-Step Model of Lexical Access: Predicting Word Repetition from Picture Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access in language production, and particularly pathologies of lexical access, are often investigated by examining errors in picture naming and word repetition. In this article, we test a computational approach to lexical access, the two-step interactive model, by examining whether the model can quantitatively predict the repetition-error…

Dell, Gary S.; Martin, Nadine; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2007-01-01

6

Evidence for the Modulation of Sub-Lexical Processing in Go No-Go Naming: The Elimination of the Frequency x Regularity Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Frequency (high vs. low) x Regularity (regular vs. exception) interaction found on naming response times is often taken as evidence for parallel processing of sub-lexical and lexical systems. Using a Go/No-go naming task, we investigated the effect of nonword versus pseudohomophone foils on sub-lexical processing and the subsequent Frequency x…

Cummine, Jacqueline; Amyotte, Josee; Pancheshen, Brent; Chouinard, Brea

2011-01-01

7

Additive and interactive effects in semantic priming: Isolating lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task.  

PubMed

The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1) or by visually degrading targets (Experiment 2). Although target latencies were considerably slowed by both difficulty manipulations, stimulus quality-but not nonword type-moderated priming effects, consistent with recent work by Lupker and Pexman (2010). To characterize these results in a more fine-grained manner, data were also analyzed at the level of response time (RT) distributions, using a combination of ex-Gaussian, quantile, and diffusion model analyses. The results indicate that for clear targets, priming was reflected by distributional shifting of comparable magnitude across different nonword types. In contrast, priming of degraded targets was reflected by shifting and an increase in the tail of the distribution. We discuss how these findings, along with others, can be accommodated by an embellished multistage activation model that incorporates retrospective prime retrieval and decision-based mechanisms. PMID:22612169

Yap, Melvin J; Balota, David A; Tan, Sarah E

2013-01-01

8

Computer-Mediated Negotiated Interaction and Lexical Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a paired-groups experimental study, which tests the Interaction Hypothesis in a computer-mediated communicative environment. Pairs of intermediate-level nonnative speakers of English (n = 24) interacted with one another in a synchronous mode over a local area network while attempting to jointly complete jigsaw and…

Smith, Bryan

2004-01-01

9

Word Recognition during Reading: The Interaction between Lexical Repetition and Frequency  

PubMed Central

Memory studies utilizing long-term repetition priming have generally demonstrated that priming is greater for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words and that this effect persists if words intervene between the prime and the target. In contrast, word-recognition studies utilizing masked short-term repetition priming typically show that the magnitude of repetition priming does not differ as a function of word frequency and does not persist across intervening words. We conducted an eye-tracking while reading experiment to determine which of these patterns more closely resembles the relationship between frequency and repetition during the natural reading of a text. Frequency was manipulated using proper names that were high-frequency (e.g., Stephen) or low-frequency (e.g., Dominic). The critical name was later repeated in the sentence, or a new name was introduced. First-pass reading times and skipping rates on the critical name revealed robust repetition-by-frequency interactions such that the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect was greater for low-frequency names than for high-frequency names. In contrast, measures of later processing showed effects of repetition that did not depend on lexical frequency. These results are interpreted within a framework that conceptualizes eye-movement control as being influenced in different ways by lexical- and discourse-level factors.

Lowder, Matthew W.; Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

2013-01-01

10

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes.

De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

11

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

12

Richness of information about novel words influences how episodic and semantic memory networks interact during lexicalization.  

PubMed

The complementary learning systems account of declarative memory suggests two distinct memory networks, a fast-mapping, episodic system involving the hippocampus, and a slower semantic memory system distributed across the neocortex in which new information is gradually integrated with existing representations. In this study, we investigated the extent to which these two networks are involved in the integration of novel words into the lexicon after extensive learning, and how the involvement of these networks changes after 24h. In particular, we explored whether having richer information at encoding influences the lexicalization trajectory. We trained participants with two sets of novel words, one where exposure was only to the words' phonological forms (the form-only condition), and one where pictures of unfamiliar objects were associated with the words' phonological forms (the picture-associated condition). A behavioral measure of lexical competition (indexing lexicalization) indicated stronger competition effects for the form-only words. Imaging (fMRI) results revealed greater involvement of phonological lexical processing areas immediately after training in the form-only condition, suggesting that tight connections were formed between novel words and existing lexical entries already at encoding. Retrieval of picture-associated novel words involved the episodic/hippocampal memory system more extensively. Although lexicalization was weaker in the picture-associated condition, overall memory strength was greater when tested after a 24hour delay, probably due to the availability of both episodic and lexical memory networks to aid retrieval. It appears that, during lexicalization of a novel word, the relative involvement of different memory networks differs according to the richness of the information about that word available at encoding. PMID:23962957

Takashima, Atsuko; Bakker, Iske; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

2014-01-01

13

Thinking-Aloud as Talking-in-Interaction: Reinterpreting How L2 Lexical Inferencing Gets Done  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general consensus among second-language (L2) researchers today that lexical inferencing (LIF) is among the most common techniques that L2 learners use to generate meaning for unknown words they encounter in context. Indeed, claims about the salience and pervasiveness of LIF for L2 learners rely heavily upon data obtained via concurrent…

Deschambault, Ryan

2012-01-01

14

An Attribute-Treatment Interaction Study: Lexical-Set versus Semantically-Unrelated Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was (a) to assess the effectiveness of the lexical-set (LS) and the semantically-unrelated (SU) vocabulary instruction, separately and relative to each other, and (b) to assess the differential effects of the two methods for students of lower and upper English proficiency levels. Two intact EFL classes were…

Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Gowdasiaei, Farah

2005-01-01

15

Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

2013-01-01

16

The Relation of Phoneme Discrimination, Lexical Access, and Short-Term Memory: A Case Study and Interactive Activation Account  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brain-damaged patient (AP) is reported who had a strong tendency to identify nonwords as words on auditory lexical decision and to lexicalize nonwords in repetition, yet who showed a normal ability to perceive individual phonemes. It was initially hypothesized that these findings could be accounted for in terms of disrupted lexical phonological representations. This hypothesis was rejected on the

Randi C. Martin; Sarah D. Breedin; Markus F. Damian

1999-01-01

17

A Dual-Route Perspective on Brain Activation in Response to Visual Words: Evidence for a Length by Lexicality Interaction in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA)  

PubMed Central

Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., “Does xxx sound like an existing word?”) presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes.

Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

18

Temporal characteristics of the speech of typical and lexically precocious two-year-old children: preliminary observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the extent to which temporal properties of speech might be affected by children's lexical knowledge as opposed to their age and general development, productions by a group of two-year-olds with average-sized vocabularies were compared with those of a group of age-matched, lexically precocious children. It was hypothesized that because of their additional lexical knowledge and experience, the lexically precocious children would manifest shorter durations and/or less temporal variability in their speech. Multiple repetitions of several different target words were obtained from children with vocabularies at about the 50th percentile (ca. 300 words) versus the 90th percentile (ca. 600 words) on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. In general, acoustic measurements indicated that there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of their segmental durations or temporal variability. Thus, the additional linguistic knowledge and experience the precocious talkers had gained from having learned to produce many more words did not appear to have influenced temporal properties of their speech. This suggests that the children's age and/or other aspects of their development had a greater impact on temporal aspects of their speech than did their level of lexical knowledge and experience.

Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.

2002-05-01

19

The Role of Lexical Temporal Indicators and Text Interaction Format in the Incidental Acquisition of the Spanish Future Tense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilizes traditional silent reading and a think-aloud procedure to investigate the role of lexical cues to meaning in the incidental acquisition of the Spanish future tense. A total of 161 beginning-level university students of Spanish participated in the study. Two versions of a reading passage that contained 13 target items…

Rossomondo, Amy E.

2007-01-01

20

Bootstrapping Lexical and Syntactic Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on how phrasal prosody and function words may interact during early language acquisition. Experimental results show that infants have access to intermediate prosodic phrases (phonological phrases) during the first year of life, and use these to constrain lexical segmentation. These same intermediate prosodic phrases are used by…

Christophe, Anne; Millotte, Severine; Bernal, Savita; Lidz, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

21

Spectral correlates lexical prosody  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to derive a quantitative acoustic model of lexical-prosodic characteristics of stressed vowels by looking at several spectral properties associated with the articulatory mechanisms used in speech production. Native speakers of American English were asked to name disyllabic visualizable nouns. Words containing liquids or glides were not used in this study because of their effect on the spectra of adjacent vowels. Subjects uttered short phrases in which the target word was pitch accent half of the time and unaccented the other half. Results show that within the category of full vowels, unstressed and stressed vowels can be distinguished by syllable/vowel durations and spectral tilt. Spectral tilt (SpT) is an acoustic measure related to the degree of glottal spreading. Stressed full vowels had longer duration and less SpT. Distinction between unaccented and accented stressed vowels can be made by amplitude of voicing (AV), F0 (pitch), and intensity contour differences. Accented stressed vowels have higher pitch, and greater AV and intensity. These results suggest that there are acoustic correlates to lexical stress that can be used to determine the stressed syllable of a word, regardless of whether or not it is pitch accented. [Work supported by NIH T32-DC00038.

Okobi, Anthony

2005-09-01

22

The Bilingual's Lexical Store  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingual subjects' decoding of texts in mixed language requires no more time than their decoding of material in homogeneous language. Bilingual speakers appear not to command two separate lexical lists, but only one basic internal dictionary consisting of the lexical items they have learned for both languages. (DB)

Neufeld, Gerald G.

1976-01-01

23

Modeling Lexical Borrowability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops analytical techniques to determine "borrowability," the ease with which a lexical item or category of lexical items can be borrowed by one language from another. These techniques are then applied to Spanish borrowings in Bolivian Quechua on the basis of a set of bilingual texts. (29 references) (MDM)

van Hout, Roeland; Muysken, Pieter

1994-01-01

24

Lexical and phonological processes in dyslexic readers: evidence from a visual lexical decision task.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether reading failure in the context of an orthography of intermediate consistency is linked to inefficient use of the lexical orthographic reading procedure. The performance of typically developing and dyslexic Portuguese-speaking children was examined in a lexical decision task, where the stimulus lexicality, word frequency and length were manipulated. Both lexicality and length effects were larger in the dyslexic group than in controls, although the interaction between group and frequency disappeared when the data were transformed to control for general performance factors. Children with dyslexia were influenced in lexical decision making by the stimulus length of words and pseudowords, whereas age-matched controls were influenced by the length of pseudowords only. These findings suggest that non-impaired readers rely mainly on lexical orthographic information, but children with dyslexia preferentially use the phonological decoding procedure--albeit poorly--most likely because they struggle to process orthographic inputs as a whole such as controls do. Accordingly, dyslexic children showed significantly poorer performance than controls for all types of stimuli, including words that could be considered over-learned, such as high-frequency words. This suggests that their orthographic lexical entries are less established in the orthographic lexicon. PMID:24115511

Araújo, Susana; Faísca, Luís; Bramão, Inês; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

2014-02-01

25

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

26

Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

2006-01-01

27

On Lexical Correlativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, an attempt to "systematize a general theory of lexical correlations and to define and illustrate their categories, is designed to "assist translators, linguists, teachers, writers, learners and all students of language and languages. (FWB)

Newmark, Peter

1969-01-01

28

Lexical neighborhood effects in pseudoword spelling  

PubMed Central

The general aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes that underpin skilled adult spelling. More specifically, it investigates the influence of lexical neighbors on pseudo-word spelling with the goal of providing a more detailed account of the interaction between lexical and sublexical sources of knowledge in spelling. In prior research examining this topic, adult participants typically heard lists composed of both words and pseudo-words and had to make a lexical decision to each stimulus before writing the pseudo-words. However, these priming paradigms are susceptible to strategic influence and may therefore not give a clear picture of the processes normally engaged in spelling unfamiliar words. In our two Experiments involving 71 French-speaking literate adults, only pseudo-words were presented which participants were simply requested to write to dictation using the first spelling that came to mind. Unbeknownst to participants, pseudo-words varied according to whether they did or did not have a phonological word neighbor. Results revealed that low-probability phoneme/grapheme mappings (e.g., /o/ -> aud in French) were used significantly more often in spelling pseudo-words with a close phonological lexical neighbor with that spelling (e.g., /krepo/ derived from “crapaud,” /krapo/) than in spelling pseudo-words with no close neighbors (e.g., /frøpo/). In addition, the strength of this lexical influence increased with the lexical frequency of the word neighbors as well as with their degree of phonetic overlap with the pseudo-word targets. These results indicate that information from lexical and sublexical processes is integrated in the course of spelling, and a specific theoretical account as to how such integration may occur is introduced.

Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Bosse, Marie-Line; Roberts, Daniel J.; Valdois, Sylviane; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

29

Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection  

PubMed Central

Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history.

Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

2010-01-01

30

Lexical restructuring in the absence of literacy.  

PubMed

Vocabulary growth was suggested to prompt the implementation of increasingly finer-grained lexical representations of spoken words in children (e.g., [Metsala, J. L., & Walley, A. C. (1998). Spoken vocabulary growth and the segmental restructuring of lexical representations: precursors to phonemic awareness and early reading ability. In J. L. Metsala & L. C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 89-120). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.]). Although literacy was not explicitly mentioned in this lexical restructuring hypothesis, the process of learning to read and spell might also have a significant impact on the specification of lexical representations (e.g., [Carroll, J. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2001). The effects of global similarity between stimuli on children's judgments of rime and alliteration. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 327-342.]; [Goswami, U. (2000). Phonological representations, reading development and dyslexia: Towards a cross-linguistic theoretical framework. Dyslexia, 6, 133-151.]). This is what we checked in the present study. We manipulated word frequency and neighborhood density in a gating task (Experiment 1) and a word-identification-in-noise task (Experiment 2) presented to Portuguese literate and illiterate adults. Ex-illiterates were also tested in Experiment 2 in order to disentangle the effects of vocabulary size and literacy. There was an interaction between word frequency and neighborhood density, which was similar in the three groups. These did not differ even for the words that are supposed to undergo lexical restructuring the latest (low frequency words from sparse neighborhoods). Thus, segmental lexical representations seem to develop independently of literacy. While segmental restructuring is not affected by literacy, it constrains the development of phoneme awareness as shown by the fact that, in Experiment 3, neighborhood density modulated the phoneme deletion performance of both illiterates and ex-illiterates. PMID:17113063

Venturaa, Paulo; Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandesa, Sandra; Queridoa, Luís; Morais, José

2007-11-01

31

V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

2013-01-01

32

Classrooms as Lexical Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the vocabulary available in English-as-a-Second-Language classes in which teachers have made a strong commitment to a communicative approach to language teaching. Provides an account of problems that were encountered in an attempt to establish a rich lexical environment in one classroom. (Author/VWL)

Meara, Paul; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Halter, Randall H.

1997-01-01

33

Reading and Spelling in Adults: Are There Lexical and Sub-Lexical Subtypes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dual-route model of reading proposes distinct lexical and sub-lexical procedures for word reading and spelling. Lexically reliant and sub-lexically reliant reader subgroups were selected from 78 university students on the basis of their performance on lexical (orthographic) and sub-lexical (phonological) choice tests, and on irregular and…

Burt, Jennifer S.; Heffernan, Maree E.

2012-01-01

34

On the Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency in Lexical Decision: Evidence for Opposing Interactive Influences Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency in lexical decision were examined in 4 experiments as a function of nonword type (legal nonwords, e.g., BRONE, vs. pseudohomophones, e.g., BRANE). When familiarity was a viable dimension for word-nonword discrimination, as when legal nonwords were used, additive effects of stimulus quality…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Besner, Derek

2008-01-01

35

Treatment for lexical retrieval in progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment for lexical retrieval impairment has been shown to yield positive outcomes in individuals with aphasia due to focal lesions, but there has been little research regarding the treatment of such impairments in individuals with progressive aphasia. Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of a semantic treatment for anomia in progressive aphasia relative to the outcome in an individual with stroke-induced aphasia. Methods & Procedures Two individuals with progressive aphasia and one with aphasia resulting from stroke participated in the study. Each participant presented with fluent, anomic aphasia; however, one of the patients with progressive aphasia demonstrated characteristics indicating a likely progression towards non-fluency. Each participant received a brief, intensive treatment intended to improve lexical retrieval in the context of generative naming for selected semantic categories. Treatment tasks included guided lexical retrieval prompted by the identification and elaboration of items within semantic subcategories, as well as other semantic tasks. Treatment outcomes were quantified using standard effects sizes as well as nonparametric tests comparing pre- versus post-treatment performance. Outcomes & Results One of the individuals with progressive aphasia showed large treatment effects for lexical retrieval of items from targeted semantic categories. The other progressive aphasia patient showed very small effects overall for treated categories. The individual with the focal lesion due to stroke showed medium-sized effects for trained categories as well as significant improvement on a standardised measure of naming. Conclusions Findings indicate that intensive, semantically based treatment for lexical retrieval can result in positive outcomes in individuals with progressive as well as stroke-induced aphasia. Examination of individual differences suggests that the status of semantic and episodic memory may provide predictive information regarding responsiveness to treatment.

Henry, Maya L.; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2009-01-01

36

An integrated analysis of speech and gestural characteristics in conversational child-computer interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the fine details of children's speech and gestural characteristics helps, among other things, in creating natural computer interfaces. We analyze the acoustic, lexical/non-lexical and spoken/gestural discourse characteristics of young children's speech using audio-video data gathered using a Wizard of Oz technique from 4 to 6 year old children engaged in resolving a series of age-appropriate cognitive challenges. Fundamental and formant frequencies exhibited greater variations between subjects consistent with previous results on read speech [Lee et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1455-1468 (1999)]. Also, our analysis showed that, in a given bandwidth, phonemic information contained in the speech of young child is significantly less than that of older ones and adults. To enable an integrated analysis, a multi-track annotation board was constructed using the ANVIL tool kit [M. Kipp, Eurospeech 1367-1370 (2001)]. Along with speech transcriptions and acoustic analysis, non-lexical and discourse characteristics, and child's gesture (facial expressions, body movements, hand/head movements) were annotated in a synchronized multilayer system. Initial results showed that younger children rely more on gestures to emphasize their verbal assertions. Younger children use non-lexical speech (e.g., um, huh) associated with frustration and pondering/reflecting more frequently than older ones. Younger children also repair more with humans than with computer.

Yildirim, Serdar; Montanari, Simona; Andersen, Elaine; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

2003-10-01

37

Concept-Based Lexical Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a concept-based approach to the problem of lexical selection which allows us to deal precisely with lexicalization gaps or mis- matches in mapping from a source language into a target language. We adopt a linguis- tically motivated scheme that makes use of a decompositional representation which can be classified in terms of a KR ontology. A main contribution

Bonnie J. Dorr; Clare R. Voss; Eric Peterson; Michael Kiker

1994-01-01

38

Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

Johnston, Trevor

2012-01-01

39

Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories  

PubMed Central

Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

2014-01-01

40

Effects of local lexical competition and regional dialect on vowel production.  

PubMed

Global measures of lexical competition, such as lexical neighborhood density, assume that all phonological contrasts contribute equally to competition. However, effects of local phonetic similarity have also been observed in speech production processes, suggesting that some contrasts may lead to greater competition than others. In the current study, the effect of local lexical competition on vowel production was examined across two dialects of American English that differ in the phonetic similarity of the low-front and low-back vowel pairs. Results revealed a significant interaction between regional dialect and local lexical competition on the acoustic distance within each vowel pair. Local lexical contrast led to greater acoustic distance between vowels, as expected, but this effect was significantly enhanced for acoustically similar dialect-specific variants. These results were independent of global neighborhood density, suggesting that local lexical competition may contribute to the realization of sociolinguistic variation and phonological change. PMID:24993188

Clopper, Cynthia G; Tamati, Terrin N

2014-07-01

41

Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.  

PubMed

Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2014-05-01

42

The Influence of Lexical Status and Neighborhood Density on Children's Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical status and neighborhood density of constituent syllables on children's nonword repetition and interactions with nonword length. Lexical status of the target syllable impacted repetition accuracy for the longest nonwords. In addition, children made more errors that changed a nonword syllable to a word syllable…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Chisholm, Gina M.

2010-01-01

43

How does emotional content affect lexical processing?  

PubMed Central

Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience.

Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

2013-01-01

44

Gender and lexical access in Italian.  

PubMed

Two new procedures were employed to investigate the effects of semantic and grammatical gender on lexical access in Italian and to investigate the interaction of gender with other factors that are known to influence lexical access in other languages. The gender-monitoring task requires a conscious decision about the gender of each noun, whereas the word repetition task does not require explicit attention to gender. In both tasks, single words are presented out of context, under speeded conditions. Both procedures proved to be sensitive indices of word recognition, with reaction times that are closely tied to the point at which words can be uniquely identified (although some processing before and after the uniqueness point was seen). In both tasks, reaction times were strongly affected by phonological factors (e.g., length, number of syllables, and presence of frication on the initial consonant). Phonological transparency of gender marking had a reliable effect on gender monitoring but had no effect on word repetition, suggesting that explicit attention to gender may be a factor affecting utilization of this phonological cue. Semantic factors (including semantic gender) had no effect on performance. Frequency and age of acquisition had very small effects when other factors were controlled. Implications for current models of lexical access are discussed, with special reference to the role of gender. PMID:7651809

Bates, E; Devescovi, A; Pizzamiglio, L; D'Amico, S; Hernandez, A

1995-08-01

45

An fMRI examination of the effects of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition on access to the lexical-semantic network.  

PubMed

The current study explored how factors of acoustic-phonetic and lexical competition affect access to the lexical-semantic network during spoken word recognition. An auditory semantic priming lexical decision task was presented to subjects while in the MR scanner. Prime-target pairs consisted of prime words with the initial voiceless stop consonants /p/, /t/, and /k/ followed by word and nonword targets. To examine the neural consequences of lexical and sound structure competition, primes either had voiced minimal pair competitors or they did not, and they were either acoustically modified to be poorer exemplars of the voiceless phonetic category or not. Neural activation associated with semantic priming (Unrelated-Related conditions) revealed a bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal network. Within this network, clusters in the left insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left superior temporal gyrus (STG), and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) showed sensitivity to lexical competition. The pMTG also demonstrated sensitivity to acoustic modification, and the insula/IFG showed an interaction between lexical competition and acoustic modification. These findings suggest the posterior lexical-semantic network is modulated by both acoustic-phonetic and lexical structure, and that the resolution of these two sources of competition recruits frontal structures. PMID:23816958

Minicucci, Domenic; Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E

2013-08-01

46

Little Frog and Toad: Interaction of Orthography and Phonology in Polish Spelling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the interaction of lexical and non-lexical processes in spelling through lexical priming of non-lexical spelling in Polish. Explains that orthographic choice for nonwords was assessed under free and primed spelling conditions for both adults and children using direct and associative priming. Finds that lexical orthography influences…

Kaminska, Zofia

2003-01-01

47

Psychocentricity and participant profiles: implications for lexical processing among multilinguals  

PubMed Central

Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over 40 years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear, respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production.

Libben, Gary; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Weber, Silke

2014-01-01

48

Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

2011-01-01

49

Comparing Nouns and Verbs in a Lexical Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the…

Cordier, Francoise; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Rigalleau, Francois

2013-01-01

50

Perception of Lexical Stress by Brain-Damaged Individuals: Effects on Lexical-Semantic Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A semantic priming, lexical-decision study was conducted to examine the ability of left- and right-brain damaged individuals to perceive lexical-stress cues and map them onto lexical-semantic representations. Correctly and incorrectly stressed primes were paired with related and unrelated target words to tap implicit processing of lexical prosody.…

Shah, Amee P.; Baum, Shari R.

2006-01-01

51

Whole Body Lexical Decision  

PubMed Central

When a person standing upright raises an arm on cue, muscles of the left and right sides of the body exhibit changes prior to and specific to the responding arm. We had standing participants perform a visual lexical decision task (“is this letter string a word?”), responding yes by raising one arm and no by raising the other arm. We recorded onset of the arm movement and onset of electromyographic activity in thigh, trunk, and shoulder muscles. We observed the expected responding arm specificity and found that the onset difference favoring word decisions was evident in similar magnitude at all measurement sites, with the difference at the levels of thigh, trunk and shoulder muscles available 225, 189, and 120 ms, respectively, prior to its manifestation at the level of arm movement. We discuss including (a) whole body reaction time along with event-related potentials in determining the decision-response, brain-body temporal relation, and (b) response execution along with response initiation in investigating mental chronometry.

Moreno, Miguel A.; Stepp, Nigel; Turvey, M. T.

2013-01-01

52

Informational Constraints on Pre-lexical Priming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides evidence that automatic lexical priming is a product of an informationally specific lexical level network. An alternative account appealing to retrospective but automatic semantic integration processes is discussed.(52 references) (JL)

Hodgson, James M.

1991-01-01

53

Connectionist models of language production: lexical access and grammatical encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTIONPsycholinguistic research into language production---the process of translating thoughtsinto speech---has long been associated with connectionist models. Spreading activationmodels of lexical access in production represent some of the earliest applications ofconnectionist ideas to psycholinguistic data (e.g., Dell & Reich, 1977; Harley, 1984;MacKay, 1982; Stemberger, 1985). These models combined representations from linguisticswith interactive activation principles and sought ...

Gary S. Dell; Franklin Chang; Zenzi M. Griffin

1999-01-01

54

Conflicting Strategies and Hemispheric Suppression in a Lexical Decision Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research tests the prediction of the inhibitory-interaction hypothesis (Wey, Cook, Landis, Regard, & Graves, 1993) that experience with a task accentuates the functional imbalance between the hemispheres. Right-handed males who were experienced readers were presented a letter string to the centre visual field for lexical decision. The string…

Rutherford, Barbara J.; Lutz, Kevin T.

2004-01-01

55

Bilingual lexical interillumination in the foreign language classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign language (FL) education has been marked by a monolingual principle that has favoured ‘intralingual’ methodologies. Bakhtin's view of language interillumination – that languages throw light on each other – challenges such language teaching practices radically. Using conversation analysis methods, this article examines transcripts of interactional sequences from one eighth-grade French lesson for evidence of reciprocal lexical elucidation. Analysis suggests

Oliver St John

2010-01-01

56

The Role of Accentual Pattern in Early Lexical Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction between prosodic and segmental aspects of infant representations for speech was explored using the head-turn paradigm, with untrained everyday familiar words and phrases as stimuli. At 11 months English-learning infants, like French infants (Halle & Boysson-Bardies, 1994), attended significantly longer to a list of familiar lexical

Vihman, Marilyn M.; Nakai, Satsuki; DePaolis, Rory A.; Halle, Pierre

2004-01-01

57

Novel word lexicalization and the prime lexicality effect.  

PubMed

This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in which less priming is obtained due to form similarity when the prime is a word. In the first experiment, subjects were taught the meanings of novel words that were neighbors of real words, but no PLE was observed; that is, equally strong form priming was obtained for both trained and untrained novel primes. In the second experiment, 4 training sessions were spread over 4 weeks, and under these conditions, a clear PLE was obtained in the final session. It is concluded that lexicalization requires multiple training sessions. Possible explanations of the PLE are discussed. PMID:23088548

Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I

2013-07-01

58

Lexical Processing in Spanish Sign Language (LSE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access is concerned with how the spoken or visual input of language is projected onto the mental representations of lexical forms. To date, most theories of lexical access have been based almost exclusively on studies of spoken languages and/or orthographic representations of spoken languages. Relatively few studies have examined how…

Carreiras, Manuel; Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Baquero, Silvia; Corina, David

2008-01-01

59

Lexical Problems in Large Distributed Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a unified concept of a lexical subsystem as part of an information system to deal with lexical problems in local and network environments. The linguistic and control functions of the lexical subsystems in solving problems for large computer systems are described, and references are included. (Author/BK)

Berkovich, Simon Ya; Shneiderman, Ben

1980-01-01

60

Traversing the Lexical Cohesion Minefield  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain aspects…

McGee, Iain

2009-01-01

61

Retention in SLA Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language learners are faced with the challenging task of remembering many new words. Exactly how learners are supposed to accomplish that task is disputed. Research on lexical processing that has been carried out in cognitive psychology showed that rehearsing words in expanded patterns, that is, with a delay between each rehearsal, leads to…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2011-01-01

62

Lexical Access in Speech Production: The Bilingual Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review models of lexical access in speech production in bilingual speakers. We focus on two major aspects of lexical access: a) how lexical selection is achieved, and b) whether lexical access involves cascaded or discrete stages of processing. We start by considering the major assumptions of how lexical access works in monolingual speakers, and then proceed

Àngels Colomé; Alfonso Caramazza

2000-01-01

63

Automatic processing of unattended lexical information in visual oddball presentation: neurophysiological evidence  

PubMed Central

Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention.

Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna

2013-01-01

64

A reduced ambiguity lexical system.  

PubMed

Natural human languages have proven to be sub-optimal in artificial intelligence applications because of their tendency to inexact representation of meaning. The author has devised a technique for converting human language to and from a compact byte-coded intermediate representation, which is processed more easily by computer systems. A specialized lexical engine based on IEEE Standard 1275-1994 was created to embed redundant information invisibly within the byte-coded text stream, to enable use of a variety of alphabets, grammars, and pronunciation rules (including slang and regional dialects). Very large vocabularies in a variety of human languages are supported. These lexical tools are designed to facilitate speech recognition and speech synthesis subsystems, universal translators and machine intelligence systems. PMID:15133995

Frenger, Paul

2004-01-01

65

Bidirectional lexical-gustatory synesthesia.  

PubMed

In developmental lexical-gustatory synesthesia, specific words (inducers) can trigger taste perceptions (concurrents) and these synesthetic associations are generally stable. We describe a case of multilingual lexical-gustatory synesthesia for whom some synesthesias were bidirectional as some tastes also triggered auditory word associations. Evoked concurrents could be gustatory but also tactile sensations. In addition to words and pseudowords, many voices were effective inducers, suggesting increased connections between cortical taste areas and both voice-selective and language-selective areas. Lasting changes in some evoked tastes occurred during childhood suggesting that some plasticity can be present after the initial learning of associations. Inducers were often linked to taste concurrents phonologically or semantically, but also through identifiable childhood episodes (persons or events). Several inducers were phonologically linked to episodic inducers suggesting a process of secondary acquisition for many inducers. Implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:21296005

Richer, François; Beaufils, Guillaume-Alexandre; Poirier, Sophie

2011-12-01

66

Cartes sur table: échelonnage lexical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ma communication envisage un certain point de vue, celui du lexi- que, au sein de trois ensembles pédagogiques dans le domaine de l'en- seignement\\/apprentissage du français langue étrangère (FLE). Plus pré- cisément, il m'appartient d'analyser les propositions d'un manuel, Car- tes sur table1; il s'agit pour lors de dégager le rôle du sens lexical dans un manuel qui appelle l'attention

SILVIO FERRARI

67

Lexical competition in young children's word learning  

PubMed Central

In two experiments, 1.5 year olds were taught novel words whose sound patterns were phonologically similar to familiar words (novel neighbors) or were not (novel nonneighbors). Learning was tested using a picture fixation task. In both experiments, children learned the novel nonneighbors but not the novel neighbors. In addition, exposure to the novel neighbors impaired recognition performance on familiar neighbors. Finally, children did not spontaneously use phonological differences to infer that a novel word referred to a novel object. Thus, lexical competition—inhibitory interaction among words in speech comprehension—can prevent children from using their full phonological sensitivity in judging words as novel. These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word.

Swingley, Daniel; Aslin, Richard N.

2008-01-01

68

Sensitivity to the acoustic correlates of lexical stress and their relationship to reading in skilled readers  

PubMed Central

The role of suprasegmental information in reading processes is a growing area of interest, and sensitivity to lexical stress has been shown to explain unique variance in reading development. However, less is known about its role in skilled reading. This study aimed to investigate the acoustic features of suprasegmental information using a same/different cross-modal matching task. Sixty-four adult participants completed standardized measures of reading accuracy, reading speed, and comprehension and performed an experimental task. The experimental task required the participants to identify whether non-speech acoustic sequences matched the characteristics of written words. The findings indicated differences in responses depending on where the lexical stress was required for the word. Moreover, evidence was found to support the view that amplitude information is part of the word knowledge retrieval process in skilled reading. The findings are discussed relative to models of reading and the role of lexical stress in lexical access.

Williams, Gareth J.; Wood, Clare

2012-01-01

69

Lexical Influences in Audiovisual Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phoneme identification with audiovisually discrepant stimuli is influenced by information in the visual signal (the McGurk effect). Additionally, lexical status affects identification of auditorily presented phonemes. The present study tested for lexical influences on the McGurk effect. Participants identified phonemes in audiovisually discrepant…

Brancazio,Lawrence

2004-01-01

70

Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

2012-01-01

71

Lexical knowledge without a lexicon?  

PubMed Central

Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words — with primary interest on rules — this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon.

Elman, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

72

Unfolding Visual Lexical Decision in Time  

PubMed Central

Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called “lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as “lexical" or “non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms.

Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

2012-01-01

73

Sub- and Supralexical Information in Early Phases of Lexical Access  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated sub- and supralexical effects in morphological processing for inflected and pseudo complex words and pseudo words in lexical decision with masked and cross-modal priming. The results showed that the early stage of morphological processing is not only sensitive to whether the orthographic string can be segmented into an existing stem and affix, but also whether the full form is an existing word the meaning of which differs from the meaning of the segmented stem. It is thus likely that from early on morphological processing is probably not governed by morpho-orthographic processes alone, but is most likely sensitive to top-down information, perhaps originating from supralexical semantic connections between the words morphological family members. In addition, whereas semantic interpretability has a clear advantage later in processing, this stage seems to be sensitive to bottom-up form information as well. In a detailed theoretical discussion we show how these findings, along with earlier findings, are explained by a model that assumes that morphological information is represented at two interactive levels, corresponding to sublexical form (orthographic) and supralexical (semantic) information mediated by a lexical level. This allows supralexical (semantic) effects to feed top-down, predicting differences between regular inflected and pseudo complex words at the lexical level, affecting the early phases of processing for these words.

Jarvikivi, Juhani; Pyykkonen, Pirita

2011-01-01

74

Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments.  

PubMed

Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

Nation, Kate

2014-01-01

75

An integrated neural model of semantic memory, lexical retrieval and category formation, based on a distributed feature representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a connectionist model of the semantic-lexical system. Model assumes that the lexical and semantic aspects\\u000a of language are memorized in two distinct stores, and are then linked together on the basis of previous experience, using\\u000a physiological learning mechanisms. Particular characteristics of the model are: (1) the semantic aspects of an object are\\u000a described by a collection of

Mauro Ursino; Cristiano Cuppini; Elisa Magosso

2011-01-01

76

Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

Korhonen, Anna

2010-08-13

77

More on Lexical Bias: How Efficient Can a "Lexical Editor'" Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lexical bias effect (the tendency for phonological speech errors to create words more often than nonwords) has been debated for over 30 years. One account attributes the effect to a lexical editor, a strategic component of the production system that examines each planned phonological string, and suppresses it if it is a nonword. The…

Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S.

2009-01-01

78

Pseudohomophone Priming in Lexical Decision Is Not Fragile in a Sparse Lexical Neighborhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In lexical decision, to date few studies in English have found a reliable pseudohomophone priming advantage with orthographically similar primes (the "klip-plip effect"; Frost, Ahissar, Gotesman, & Tayeb, 2003; see Rastle & Brysbaert, 2006, for a review). On the basis of the Bayseian reader model of lexical decision (Norris, 2006, 2009), we…

Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

2012-01-01

79

Exploring the role of lexical stress in lexical recognition.  

PubMed

Three cross-modal priming experiments examined the role of suprasegmental information in the processing of spoken words. All primes consisted of truncated spoken Dutch words. Recognition of visually presented word targets was facilitated by prior auditory presentation of the first two syllables of the same words as primes, but only if they were appropriately stressed (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by okTO-); inappropriate stress, compatible with another word (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by OCto-, the beginning of octopus), produced inhibition. Monosyllabic fragments (e.g., OC-) also produced facilitation when appropriately stressed; if inappropriately stressed, they produced neither facilitation nor inhibition. The bisyllabic fragments that were compatible with only one word produced facilitation to semantically associated words, but inappropriate stress caused no inhibition of associates. The results are explained within a model of spoken-word recognition involving competition between simultaneously activated phonological representations followed by activation of separate conceptual representations for strongly supported lexical candidates; at the level of the phonological representations, activation is modulated by both segmental and suprasegmental information. PMID:15903117

van Donselaar, Wilma; Koster, Mariëtte; Cutler, Anne

2005-02-01

80

A study of technical signs in science: implications for lexical database development.  

PubMed

Both classroom instruction and lexical database development stand to benefit from applied research on sign language, which takes into consideration American Sign Language rules, pedagogical issues, and teacher characteristics. In this study of technical science signs, teachers' experience with signing and, especially, knowledge of content, were found to be essential for the identification of signs appropriate for instruction. The results of this study also indicate a need for a systematic approach to examine both sign selection and its impact on learning by deaf students. Recommendations are made for the development of lexical databases and areas of research for optimizing the use of sign language in instruction. PMID:16952932

Lang, Harry G; Hupper, Mary Laporta; Monte, Denise A; Brown, Scott W; Babb, Ivar; Scheifele, Pete M

2007-01-01

81

A Study of Technical Signs in Science: Implications for Lexical Database Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both classroom instruction and lexical database development stand to benefit from applied research on sign language, which takes into consideration American Sign Language rules, pedagogical issues, and teacher characteristics. In this study of technical science signs, teachers' experience with signing and, especially, knowledge of content, were…

Lang, Harry G.; Hupper, Mary LaPorta; Monte, Denise A.; Brown, Scott W.; Babb, Ivar; Scheifele, Pete M.

2007-01-01

82

Sharing science: characteristics of effective scientist-teacher interactions.  

PubMed

Despite national guidelines to reform K-12 science education, our students are not learning science any better. Conducted under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a symposium examined several programs where professional scientists interact with classroom teachers to improve science education. Symposium participants described their projects and discussed the factors that contribute or detract from each project's success. The events of this symposium are critically analyzed. Four themes emerged as issues that affect the successful implementation and continuation of science education reform projects: scientific literacy as a primary goal, personal characteristics and commitment of project partners, curricular change built on social and developmental goals, and the incentive/reward structures in universities and school systems. This review of the emergent themes places the opinions of the symposium participants into the larger context of a growing science education research literature to inform others about synergy between professional scientists and classroom teachers. Our aim is to help others learn about the characteristics of effective partnerships to improve science education. PMID:12189123

Pelaez, Nancy J; Gonzalez, Barbara L

2002-12-01

83

Sharing Science: Characteristics of Effective Scientist-Teacher Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite national guidelines to reform K-12 science education, our students are not learning science any better. Conducted under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a symposium examined several programs where professional scientists interact with classroom teachers to improve science education. Symposium participants described their projects and discussed the factors that contribute or detract from each projectÃÂs success. The events of this symposium are critically analyzed. Four themes emerged as issues that affect the successful implementation and continuation of science education reform projects: scientific literacy as a primary goal, personal characteristics and commitment of project partners, curricular change built on social and developmental goals, and the incentive/reward structures in universities and school systems. This review of the emergent themes places the opinions of the symposium participants into the larger context of a growing science education research literature to inform others about synergy between professional scientists and classroom teachers. Our aim is to help others learn about the characteristics of effective partnerships to improve science education.

PhD Nancy J. Pelaez (California State University Fullerton Department of Biological Science, MH282); PhD Barbara L. Gonzalez (California State University Fullerton Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry)

2002-09-01

84

Lexical Morphology and Verb Use in Child First Language Loss: A Preliminary Case Study Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data on the effects of first language loss on verb inflection and use by two Spanish-speaking siblings who were in an English-speaking environment were gathered. Both children were videotaped interacting with a familiar Spanish-speaking adult. A lexical morphology model was used to predict the course of first language loss. Examined…

Anderson, Raquel T.

2001-01-01

85

Lexicalized Hidden Markov Models for Part-of-Speech Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since most previous works for HMM-based tagging consider only part-of-speech information in contexts, their models cannot utilize lexical information which is crucial for resolving some morphological ambiguity. In this paper we introduce uniformly lexicalized HMMs for part-of-speech tagging in both English and Korean. The lexicalized models use a simplified back-off smoothing technique to overcome data sparseness. In experiments, lexicalized models

Sang-Zoo Lee; Jun-ichi Tsujii; Hae-Chang Rim

2000-01-01

86

The speed of lexical activation is altered in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbed comprehension of complex noncanonical sentences in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to dopamine depletion and delayed lexical retrieval. The aim of the present study was to replicate findings of delayed lexical activation in PD patients with noncanonical sentence processing difficulties, and investigate the influence of dopamine depletion on these changes to lexical access. In the first experiment, 20

Anthony J. Angwin; Helen J. Chenery; David A. Copland; Bruce E. Murdoch; Peter A. Silburn

2007-01-01

87

Effects of Lexical Tone Contour on Mandarin Sentence Intelligibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…

Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi

2014-01-01

88

Lexical Richness in the Spontaneous Speech of Bilinguals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the measurement of lexical richness. Lexical richness is often measured either by the traditional type-token ratio or by its square root variant, the index of Guiraud. Proposes two methods that have advantages over traditional methods. Computed indices for the lexical items used in an oral text by two groups of Turkish-German…

Daller, Helmut; van Hout, Roeland; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine

2003-01-01

89

Consequences of Lexical Stress on Learning an Artificial Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined effects of lexical stress on lexical access for recently learned words. Participants learned artificial lexicons (48 words) containing phonologically similar items and were tested on their knowledge in a 4-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) referent-selection task. Lexical stress differences did not reduce confusions…

Creel, Sarah C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2006-01-01

90

On the Use of Lexical Stress in Reading Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates whether or not lexical stress is used for lexical access in Spanish. A lexical decision task and a masking priming procedure were used to compare correctly-versus-incorrectly stressed words (e.g., "tecla-TECLA vs. tecla-TECLA"). SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was manipulated at 33, 66, 100, and 143 ms. The results showed…

Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Palma-Reyes, Alfonso

2008-01-01

91

Spectro-temporal correlates of lexical access during auditory lexical decision.  

PubMed

Lexical access during speech comprehension comprises numerous computations, including activation, competition, and selection. The spatio-temporal profile of these processes involves neural activity in peri-auditory cortices at least as early as 200 ms after stimulation. Their oscillatory dynamics are less well understood, although reports link alpha band de-synchronization with lexical processing. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether these alpha-related oscillations reflect the speed of lexical access, as would be predicted if they index lexical activation. In an auditory semantic priming protocol, monosyllabic nouns were presented while participants performed a lexical decision task. Spatially-localizing beamforming was used to examine spectro-temporal effects in left and right auditory cortex time-locked to target word onset. Alpha and beta de-synchronization (10-20 Hz ERD) was attenuated for words following a related prime compared to an unrelated prime beginning about 270 ms after stimulus onset. This timing is consistent with how information about word identity unfolds incrementally in speech, quantified in information-theoretic terms. These findings suggest that alpha de-synchronization during auditory word processing is associated with early stages of lexical access. PMID:24769280

Brennan, Jonathan; Lignos, Constantine; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P L

2014-06-01

92

The Perception of Lexical Tone in Mambila.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines tone perception in Mambila, a Benue-Congo language with four level lexical tones. A categorization experiment was run to determine some of the salient aspects of the perceptual nature of these tones. Results are discussed in light of what is known about universal tendencies of tone systems and the historical development of the Mambila…

Connell, Bruce

2000-01-01

93

Textual Constraints in L2 Lexical Disambiguation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the role of textual constraints, rather than previous knowledge, in resolving lexical ambiguities in second-language learning. Twenty ambiguous words with differing Portuguese translations were selected, disambiguated based on collocation, and tested with a concordancer, using a 20,000,000-word English language corpus of expository text.…

Leffa, Vilson J.

1998-01-01

94

Linguistic Experience Modifies Lexical Stress Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensitivity to differences in lexical stress was studied in monolingual French-, German-, and Swedish-speaking four- and five-year-olds. For most discriminations the older children performed better, but for a trisyllabic discrimination not found in French, the older children performed less well, supporting an attunement theory of language…

Allen, George D.

1983-01-01

95

Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

2004-01-01

96

The Dynamics of Bilingual Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we discuss different views about how information flows through the lexical system in bilingual speech production. In the first part, we focus on some of the experimental evidence often quoted in favor of the parallel activation of the bilinguals' two languages from the semantic system in the course of language production. We argue…

Costa, Albert; Heij, Wido La; Navarrete, Eduardo

2006-01-01

97

Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

Comer, William J.

2012-01-01

98

Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

Jarvis, Scott

2013-01-01

99

Lexically Based Learning and Early Grammatical Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests Pine & Lieven's (1993) suggestion that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. Results reveal that the positional analysis accounts for 60% of the children's multiword utterances and that most other utterances are defined as frozen. (33…

Lieven, Elena V. M.

1997-01-01

100

Sentiment Detection Using Lexically-Based Classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of supervised sentiment detection using classifiers which are derived from word features. We ar- gue that, while the literature has suggested the use of lexical features is inappropriate for sentiment detection, a careful and thorough evalua- tion reveals a less clear-cut state of affairs. We present results from five classifiers using word based-features on three

Ben Allison

2008-01-01

101

Effects of alcohol on lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the effect of alcohol on retrieval of lexical information. In each, volunteers received alcohol (1 ml per kg body weight) in one session and no alcohol in another in counterbalanced order. Experiment 1 was a computerised version of the Mill Hill vocabulary test in which subjects were required to define words by making multiple choice responses as

E. A. Maylor; P. M. A. Rabbitt; A. F. Kingstone

1988-01-01

102

Characteristics of quercetin interactions with liposomal and vacuolar membranes.  

PubMed

Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is claimed to exert many beneficial health effects. With application of (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) techniques, quercetin interaction with liposomes formed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was analyzed. Patch-clamp technique was employed to study quercetin effects at single channel level of vacuolar membranes in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Light and electron microscopy were applied to study quercetin effects on human negroid cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). Enzymatic measurements along with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) bioassay were performed to investigate the influence of quercetin on antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inclusion of quercetin to the membrane exerted pronounced ordering effect on the motional freedom of lipids in the head group region as manifested by broadening of the (1)H NMR spectral line representing the choline groups. FTIR analysis revealed quercetin incorporation into DPPC liposomes via hydrogen bonding between its own hydroxyl groups and lipid polar head groups in the C-O-P-O-C segment. Both, FTIR and NMR techniques indicated also quercetin spectral effects in the region corresponding to alkyl chains. Patch-clamp experiments showed that quercetin stabilizes tonoplast and promotes a close state of SV channels. Microscopic observations of HeLa cells revealed characteristic changes in ultrastructure and morphology of the examined cells in comparison to control cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cells with quercetin alleviated H2O2-induced cell injury by improving redox balance as indicated by the increase in glutathione content and SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels as well as by the decrease in ROS level. \\In conclusion, the incorporation, distribution and the changes of biophysical properties of the membranes are very important for the effectiveness of phenolic compounds as antioxidant and anticancer factors. PMID:24001508

Pawlikowska-Pawl?ga, Bo?ena; Dziubi?ska, Halina; Król, El?bieta; Tr?bacz, Kazimierz; Jarosz-Wilko?azka, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Gawron, Antoni; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

2014-01-01

103

Neonatal Characteristics and Directional Effects in Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 134 mothers and their newborn infants evaluated the relationships between neonatal style and mother-infant interaction. The procedure included a newborn assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale and two mother-infant interaction observations, one carried out during feeding and the other during a semi-structured…

Osofsky, Joy D.

104

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning.

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

105

The lexical semantics of derived statives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the semantics of derived statives, deverbal adjectives that fail to entail there to have been a preceding\\u000a (temporal) event of the kind named by the verb they are derived from, e.g. darkened in a darkened portion of skin. Building on Gawron’s (The lexical semantics of extent verbs, San Diego State University, ms, 2009) recent observations regarding the

Andrew Koontz-Garboden

2010-01-01

106

The Concede model for Lexical Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of language resources is greatly enhanced if they share a common markup with an explicit minimal semantics. Achieving this goal for lexical databases is difficult, as large-scale resources can realistically only be obtained by up-transla tion from pre-existing dictionaries, each with its own proprietary structure. Thi s issue is a central concern in our work in the CONCEDE

Tomaz Erjavec; Roger Evans; Nancy Ide; Adam Kilgariff

2000-01-01

107

Characteristics of Interactional Management Functions in Group Oral by Japanese Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to investigate the characteristics of interaction dynamics in a group oral interaction carried out by Japanese learners of English. The relationship between the participants' language development and interactional management functions (IMFs) was also explored. Oral performance tests in a paired or a small group have recently…

Negishi, Junko

2010-01-01

108

Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words  

PubMed Central

Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented.

Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka

2011-01-01

109

Lexical-semantic priming effects during infancy.  

PubMed

When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word-word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants' attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime-target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical-semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic-associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137

Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

2009-12-27

110

Lexical Familiarity and Processing Efficiency: Individual Differences in Naming, Lexical Decision, and Semantic Categorization  

PubMed Central

College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming visually presented words. They were also faster and more accurate in making difficult lexical decisions and in rejecting homophone foils in semantic categorization. Taken together, the results demonstrate that Ss who differ in lexical familiarity also differ in processing efficiency. The relationship between processing efficiency and working memory accounts of individual differences in language processing is also discussed.

Lewellen, Mary Jo; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Greene, Beth G.

2012-01-01

111

Artificial neural network versus case-based approaches to lexical combination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lexical combination presents a number of intriguing problems for cognitive science. By studying the empirical phenomena of combination we can derive constraints on models of the representation of individual lexical items. One particular phenomenon that symbolic models have been unable to accommodate is `semantic interaction'. Medin & Shoben (1988) have shown that properties associated with nouns by subjects vary with the choice of adjective. For example, wooden spoons are not just made of a different material: the phrase is interpreted as denoting a `larger' object. However, the adjective wooden is not generally held to carry implications as to size. We report experimental results showing similar effects across a range of properties for a single adjective in combination with different nouns from a single semantic field. It is this more radical dependence of interpretative features on lexical partners that we term `semantic interaction'. The phenomenon described by Medin and Shoben cannot be accounted for by the Selective Modification model, the most complete model hitherto. We show that a case-based reasoning system could account for earlier data because of the particular examples chosen, but that such a model could not handle semantic interaction. A neural network system is presented that does handle semantic interaction.

Dunbar, George L.

1994-03-01

112

Effects of lexical competition on immediate memory span for spoken words  

PubMed Central

Current theories and models of the structural organization of verbal short-term memory are primarily based on evidence obtained from manipulations of features inherent m the short-term traces of the presented stimuli, such as phonological similarity. In the present study, we investigated whether properties of the stimuli that are not inherent in the short-term traces of spoken words would affect performance in an immediate memory span task. We studied the lexical neighbourhood properties of the stimulus items, which are based on the structure and organization of words in the mental lexicon. The experiments manipulated lexical competition by varying the phonological neighbourhood structure (i.e., neighbourhood density and neighbourhood frequency) of the words on a test list while controlling for word frequency and intra-set phonological similarity (family size). Immediate memory span for spoken words was measured under repeated and nonrepeated sampling procedures. The results demonstrated that lexical competition only emerged when a nonrepeated sampling procedure was used and the participants had to access new words from their lexicons. These findings were not dependent on individual differences in short-term memory capacity. Additional results showed that the lexical competition effects did not interact with proactive interference. Analyses of error patterns indicated that item-type errors, but not positional errors, were influenced by the lexical attributes of the stimulus items. These results complement and extend previous findings that have argued for separate contributions of long-term knowledge and short-term memory rehearsal processes in immediate verbal serial recall tasks.

Goh, Winston D.; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

113

LEXOP: a lexical database providing orthography-phonology statistics for French monosyllabic words.  

PubMed

During the last 20 years, psycholinguistic research has identified many variables that influence reading and spelling processes. We describe a new computerized lexical database, LEXOP, which provides quantitative descriptors about the relations between orthography and phonology for French monosyllabic words. Three main classes of variables are considered: consistency of print-to-sound and sound-to-print associations, frequency of orthography-phonology correspondences, and word neighborhood characteristics. PMID:10495825

Peereman, R; Content, A

1999-05-01

114

Anorexia Nervosa: Family Characteristics and Family Interaction Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review examines research issues in anorexia nervosa, including conceptual issues and methodological considerations. Research on the family's contribution to the disorder is reviewed. The demographic characteristics of social class, birth order, history of sexual abuse, and biological and genetic factors are examined. Individual…

Geer, Susan Fellerman

115

Parent--Child Interactions in Autism: Characteristics of Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the literature on parent-child interactions in young children with autism has examined dyadic style, synchrony, and sustained engagement, the examination of parental skill in sustaining and developing play skills themselves has not been targeted. This study examined the extent to which parents of young children with autism match and…

Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie

2013-01-01

116

Relationships Between Neonatal Characteristics and Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 51 mothers and their newborn infants were studied in order to evaluate the relationship between neonatal style and the early mother-infant relationship. The procedure included an infant assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, a mother-infant interaction observation during feeding, and an interview concerning maternal…

Osofsky, Joy D.; Danzger, Barbara

117

Characteristics of Classroom Mathematics Traditions: An Interactional Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we attempt to clarify what it means to teach mathematics for understanding and to learn mathematics with understanding. To this end, we present an interactional analysis of transcribed video recordings of two lessons that occurred in different elementary school classrooms. The lessons, which are representative of a much larger data corpus, were selected because both focus on

Paul Cobb; Terry Wood; Erna Yackel; Betsy McNeal

1992-01-01

118

Lexical Training through Modeling and Elicitation Procedures with Late Talkers Who Have Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and…

Kouri, Theresa A.

2005-01-01

119

Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

2008-01-01

120

Lexical Competition Effects in Aphasia: Deactivation of Lexical Candidates in Spoken Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that Broca's and Wernicke's aphasic patients show different impairments in auditory lexical processing. The results of an experiment with form-overlapping primes showed an inhibitory effect of form-overlap for control adults and a weak inhibition trend for Broca's aphasic patients, but a facilitatory effect of form-overlap was…

Janse, Esther

2006-01-01

121

Hemispheric Sensitivities to Lexical and Contextual Information: Evidence from Lexical Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the manner in which both hemispheres utilize prior semantic context and relative meaning frequency during the processing of homographs. Participants read sentences biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meaning of their final homograph, or unbiased neutral sentences, and performed a lexical decision task on…

Peleg, Orna; Eviatar, Zohar

2008-01-01

122

Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit I: Lexical vs Sub-Lexical and Input vs Output Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a series of experiments designed to explore the locus of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Phonological processing of dyslexic adults is compared to that of age- and IQ-matched controls. Dyslexics' impaired performance on tasks involving nonwords suggests that sub-lexical phonological representations are deficient. Contrasting…

Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Ramus, Franck

2005-01-01

123

Inaugural Article: Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core operation in speech production is the preparation of words from a semantic base. The theory of lexical access reviewed in this article covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation. The initial stages of preparation are concerned with lexical selection, which is zooming in

Willem J. M. Levelt

2001-01-01

124

Research on Multi-document Summarization Using Lexical Cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates using lexical cohesion to generate a moderately fluent semantic summary from a collection of documents written in Chinese. Based on the algorithm of cohesion analysis using the relationship among the words in the HowNet knowledge database, the built system computes concept frequency rather than word frequency as a measurement of importance. It merges the analysis of lexical

Yanmin Chen; Xizhong Lou; Julong Pan

2009-01-01

125

Scalable Semantic Annotation of Text Using Lexical and Web Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we are dealing with the task of adding domain- specific semantic tags to a document, based solely on the domain ontol- ogy and generic lexical and Web resources. In this manner, we avoid the need for trained domain-specific lexical resources, which hinder the scal- ability of semantic annotation. More specifically, the proposed method maps the content of

Elias Zavitsanos; George Tsatsaronis; Iraklis Varlamis; Georgios Paliouras

2010-01-01

126

Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

2012-01-01

127

Lexical Effects on Children's Pseudoword Reading in a Transparent Orthography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the involvement of lexical knowledge in pseudoword reading by Italian children aged 8-10. In both lexical decision and reading aloud tasks, inhibitory effects were found on pseudowords derived from high-frequency words in comparison to pseudowords derived from low-frequency words. A group of adult readers showed…

Marcolini, Stefania; Burani, Cristina; Colombo, Lucia

2009-01-01

128

On the Nature of Semantic Constraints on Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…

Weber, Andrea; Crocker, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

129

The Processing of Lexical Tones by Young Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined five- and seven-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's processing of lexical tones in relation to speech segments by varying onset and rime in an oddity task (onset±rime±). Results showed that children experienced more difficulty in lexical tone oddity judgment when rimes differed across monosyllables (e.g.…

Lin, Candise Y.; Wang, Min; Shu, Hua

2013-01-01

130

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

131

Lexical Bundles in University Spoken and Written Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical bundles--recurrent sequences of words--are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. Previous research has shown that lexical bundles are especially prevalent in university classroom teaching, where they serve three major discourse functions: stance expressions, discourse organizers, and referential…

Biber, Douglas; Barbieri, Federica

2007-01-01

132

Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

Cha, Mi Yang

2009-01-01

133

Analysis of lexical signatures for finding lost or related documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lexical signature of a web page is often sufficient for finding the page, even if its URL has changed. We conduct a large-scale empirical study of eight methods for generating lexical signatures, including Phelps and Wilensky's [14] original proposal (PW) and seven of our own variations. We examine their performance on the web and on a TREC data set,

Seung-Taek Park; David M. Pennock; C. Lee Giles; Robert Krovetz

2002-01-01

134

The Relationship between Reading Ability and Lateralized Lexical Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although lexical decision remains one of the most extensively studied cognitive tasks, very little is known about its relationship to broader linguistic performance such as reading ability. In a correlational study, several aspects of lateralized lexical decision performance were related to vocabulary and reading comprehension measures, as…

Weems, Scott A.; Zaidel, Eran

2004-01-01

135

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Lexical Reading in Italian Developmental Dyslexics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Italian developmental dyslexic readers show a striking length effect and have been hypothesised to rely mostly on nonlexical reading. Our experiments tested this hypothesis by assessing whether or not the deficit underlying dyslexia is specific to lexical reading. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and length were investigated in the same…

Paizi, Despina; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

2013-01-01

136

Modeling Lexical Decision: The Form of Frequency and Diversity Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the root cause of word frequency effects on lexical decision times? W. S. Murray and K. I. Forster (2004) argued that such effects are linear in rank frequency, consistent with a serial search model of lexical access. In this article, the authors (a) describe a method of testing models of such effects that takes into account the…

Adelman, James S.; Brown, Gordon D. A.

2008-01-01

137

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

138

Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

2012-01-01

139

The Role of Specificity in the Lexical Encoding of Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to information about phonology, morphology and syntax, lexical entries contain semantic information about participants (e.g., Agent). However, the traditional criteria for determining how much participant information is lexically encoded have proved unreliable. We have proposed two semantic criteria (obligatoriness and selectivity)…

Conklin, Kathy; Koenig, Jean-Pierre; Mauner, Gail

2004-01-01

140

Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar, and unfamiliar…

Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

2009-01-01

141

Lexical Viability Constraints on Speech Segmentation by Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Possible Word Constraint limits the number of lexical candidates considered in speech recognition by stipulating that input should be parsed into a string of lexically viable chunks. For instance, an isolated single consonant is not a feasible word candidate. Any segmentation containing such a chunk is disfavored. Five experiments using the…

Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Jusczyk, Peter W.; Cutler, Anne; Norris, Dennis

2003-01-01

142

Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

143

Lexical and default stress assignment in reading Greek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greek is a language with lexical stress that marks stress orthographically with a special diacritic. Thus, the orthography and the lexicon constitute potential sources of stress assignment information in addition to any possible general default metrical pattern. Here, we report two experiments with secondary education children reading aloud pseudo-word stimuli, in which we manipulated the availability of lexical (using stimuli

Athanassios Protopapas; Svetlana Gerakaki; Stella Alexandri

2006-01-01

144

Multilingualism and Non-Native Lexical Transfer: An Identification Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes the existence of a cognitive process by which multilinguals who incorporate nontarget lexical items from one non-native language into another may (1) come to identify the lexical item transferred from a source to a guest system as belonging to the guest system and (2) fail to recognise the source of their knowledge in the…

De Angelis, Gessica

2005-01-01

145

Lexical Inhibition and Sublexical Facilitation Are Surprisingly Long Lasting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a listener hears a word (beef), current theories of spoken word recognition posit the activation of both lexical (beef) and sublexical (/b/, /i/, /f/) representations. No lexical representation can be settled on for an unfamiliar utterance (peef). The authors examined the perception of nonwords (peef) as a function of words or nonwords heard…

Sumner, Meghan; Samuel, Arthur G.

2007-01-01

146

Segregation of Lexical and Sub-Lexical Reading Processes in the Left Perisylvian Cortex  

PubMed Central

A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is the existence of two major, sub-lexical and lexical, reading processes and their possible segregation in the left posterior perisylvian cortex. Using cortical electrostimulation mapping, we identified the cortical areas involved on reading either orthographically irregular words (lexical, “direct” process) or pronounceable pseudowords (sublexical, “indirect” process) in 14 right-handed neurosurgical patients while video-recording behavioral effects. Intraoperative neuronavigation system and Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates were used to identify the localization of stimulation sites. Fifty-one reading interference areas were found that affected either words (14 areas), or pseudo-words (11 areas), or both (26 areas). Forty-one (80%) corresponded to the impairment of the phonological level of reading processes. Reading processes involved discrete, highly localized perisylvian cortical areas with individual variability. MNI coordinates throughout the group exhibited a clear segregation according to the tested reading route; specific pseudo-word reading interferences were concentrated in a restricted inferior and anterior subpart of the left supramarginal gyrus (barycentre x?=??68.1; y?=??25.9; z?=?30.2; Brodmann’s area 40) while specific word reading areas were located almost exclusively alongside the left superior temporal gyrus. Although half of the reading interferences found were nonspecific, the finding of specific lexical or sublexical interferences is new evidence that lexical and sublexical processes of reading could be partially supported by distinct cortical sub-regions despite their anatomical proximity. These data are in line with many brain activation studies that showed that left superior temporal and inferior parietal regions had a crucial role respectively in word and pseudoword reading and were core regions for dyslexia.

Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Jucla, Melanie; Rehault, Emilie; Reddy, Marion; Demonet, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

147

Lexical access and evoked traveling alpha waves  

PubMed Central

Retrieval from semantic memory is usually considered within a time window around 300–600 ms. Here we suggest that lexical access already occurs at around 100 ms. This interpretation is based on the finding that semantically rich and frequent words exhibit a significantly shorter topographical latency difference between the site with the shortest P1 latency (leading site) and that with the longest P1 latency (trailing site). This latency difference can be described in terms of an evoked traveling alpha wave as was already shown in earlier studies.

Zauner, Andrea; Gruber, Walter; Himmelstoss, Nicole Alexandra; Lechinger, Julia; Klimesch, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

148

Structure and Function in the Lexical System: Insights from Distributed Models of Word Reading and Lexical Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional view of the lexical system stipulates word-specific representations and separate pathways for regular and exception words, while an alternative approach views lexical knowledge as developing from general principles applied to mappings among distributed representations of written and spoken words and their meanings. In this study,…

Plaut, David C.

1997-01-01

149

Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

2010-01-01

150

What Is Lexical Proficiency? Some Answers from Computational Models of Speech Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical proficiency, as a cognitive construct, is poorly understood. However, lexical proficiency is an important element of language proficiency and fluency, especially for second language (L2) learners. Lexical proficiency is also an important attribute of L2 academic achievement. Generally speaking, lexical proficiency comprises breadth of…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

2011-01-01

151

Characterization of intermolecular interaction between two substances when one substance does not possess any characteristic peak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether it is possible to use 2D correlation spectrum to characterize intermolecular interactions between two solutes dissolved in the same solution when one substance does not possesses any characteristic peak. We demonstrate that the interaction can be manifested by characteristic cross peaks in 2D asynchronous correlated spectrum. The above cross peaks reflect the subtle spectral variations on the characteristic peak of another solute under intermolecular interaction. On the other hand, 2D synchronous spectrum is not suitable to characterize intermolecular interaction since the cross peaks contain irremovable interfering parts. The terbium-chloride/benzamide/methanol system is used to demonstrate that this approach is applicable in the real chemical system.

Li, Xiaopei; Fan, Xiaokun; Huang, Kun; Liu, Huizhou; Zhao, Ying; Wei, Yongju; Liu, Cuige; Xu, Yizhuang; Noda, Isao; Wu, Jinguang

2014-07-01

152

Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

2005-04-01

153

Lexical-perceptual integration influences sensorimotor adaptation in speech  

PubMed Central

A combination of lexical bias and altered auditory feedback was used to investigate the influence of higher-order linguistic knowledge on the perceptual aspects of speech motor control. Subjects produced monosyllabic real words or pseudo-words containing the vowel [?] (as in “head”) under conditions of altered auditory feedback involving a decrease in vowel first formant (F1) frequency. This manipulation had the effect of making the vowel sound more similar to [I] (as in “hid”), affecting the lexical status of produced words in two Lexical-Change (LC) groups (either changing them from real words to pseudo-words: e.g., less—liss, or pseudo-words to real words: e.g., kess—kiss). Two Non-Lexical-Change (NLC) control groups underwent the same auditory feedback manipulation during the production of [?] real- or pseudo-words, only without any resulting change in lexical status (real words to real words: e.g., mess—miss, or pseudo-words to pseudo-words: e.g., ness—niss). The results from the LC groups indicate that auditory-feedback-based speech motor learning is sensitive to the lexical status of the stimuli being produced, in that speakers tend to keep their acoustic speech outcomes within the auditory-perceptual space corresponding to the task-related side of the word/non-word boundary (real words or pseudo-words). For the NLC groups, however, no such effect of lexical status is observed.

Bourguignon, Nicolas J.; Baum, Shari R.; Shiller, Douglas M.

2014-01-01

154

The effects of familiarization on intelligibility and lexical segmentation in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria  

PubMed Central

This study is the third in a series that has explored the source of intelligibility decrement in dysarthria by jointly considering signal characteristics and the cognitive–perceptual processes employed by listeners. A paradigm of lexical boundary error analysis was used to examine this interface by manipulating listener constraints with a brief familiarization procedure. If familiarization allows listeners to extract relevant segmental and suprasegmental information from dysarthric speech, they should obtain higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized listeners, and their lexical boundary error patterns should approximate those obtained in misperceptions of normal speech. Listeners transcribed phrases produced by speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria after being familiarized with other phrases produced by these speakers. Data were compared to those of nonfamiliarized listeners [Liss et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 3415–3424 (2000)]. The familiarized groups obtained higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized groups, and the effects were greater when the dysarthria type of the familiarization procedure matched the dysarthria type of the transcription task. Remarkably, no differences in lexical boundary error patterns were discovered between the familiarized and nonfamiliarized groups. Transcribers of the ataxic speech appeared to have difficulty distinguishing strong and weak syllables in spite of the familiarization. Results suggest that intelligibility decrements arise from the perceptual challenges posed by the degraded segmental and suprasegmental aspects of the signal, but that this type of familiarization process may differentially facilitate mapping segmental information onto existing phonological categories.

Liss, Julie M.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles

2014-01-01

155

Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word-frequency (high, low), context (none, low-constraining, high-constraining), and level of English proficiency (monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals, Dutch-English bilinguals), on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context, but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraining context, and were reduced by high-constraining context only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages, and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production, but a frequency driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production.

Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith

2010-01-01

156

Learning to read shapes the activation of neural lexical representations in the speech recognition pathway.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that written and spoken language processing are tightly linked. Here we focus on the development of this relationship at the time children start reading and writing. We hypothesize that the newly acquired knowledge about graphemes shapes lexical access in neural spoken word recognition. A group of preliterate children (six years old) and two groups of beginning readers (six and eight years old) were tested in a spoken word identification task. Using word onset priming we compared behavioural and neural facilitation for target words in identical prime-target pairs (e.g., mon-monster) and in prime target pairs that varied in the first speech sound (e.g., non-monster, Variation condition). In both groups of beginning readers priming was less effective in the Variation condition than in the Identity condition. This was indexed by less behavioural facilitation and enhanced P350 amplitudes in the event related potentials (ERPs). In the group of preliterate children, by contrast, both conditions did not differ. Together these results reveal that lexical access in beginning readers is based on more acoustic detail than lexical access in preliterate children. The results are discussed in the light of bidirectional speech and print interactions in readers. PMID:22436438

Schild, Ulrike; Röder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K

2011-04-01

157

Effect of initial-consonant intensity on the speed of lexical decisions.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of initial-consonant intensity on lexical decisions. Amplification was selectively applied to the initial consonant of monosyllabic words. In Experiment 1, young adults with normal hearing completed an auditory lexical decision task with words that either had the natural or amplified initial consonant. The results demonstrated faster reaction times for amplified words when listeners randomly heard words spoken by two unfamiliar talkers. The same pattern of results was found when comparing words in which the initial consonant was naturally higher in intensity than the low-intensity consonants, across all amplification conditions. In Experiment 2, listeners were familiarized with the talkers and tested on each talker in separate blocks, to minimize talker uncertainty. The effect of initial-consonant intensity was reversed, with faster reaction times being obtained for natural than for amplified consonants. In Experiment 3, nonlinguistic processing of the amplitude envelope was assessed using noise modulated by the word envelope. The results again demonstrated faster reaction times for natural than for amplified words. Across all experiments, the results suggest that the acoustic-phonetic structure of the word influences the speed of lexical decisions and interacts with the familiarity and predictability of the talker. In unfamiliar and less-predictable listening contexts, initial-consonant amplification increases lexical decision speed, even if sufficient audibility is available without amplification. In familiar contexts with adequate audibility, an acoustic match of the stimulus with the stored mental representation of the word is more important, possibly along with general auditory properties related to loudness perception. PMID:24435901

Fogerty, Daniel; Montgomery, Allen A; Crass, Kimberlee A

2014-04-01

158

Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection  

PubMed Central

Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words.

Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

2011-01-01

159

Syntactic priming during sentence comprehension: Evidence for the lexical boost.  

PubMed

Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The experiments were designed to determine the degree to which lexical overlap between prime and target sentences produced larger effects, comparable to the widely observed "lexical boost" in production experiments (Pickering & Branigan, 1998; Pickering & Ferreira, 2008). The current experiments showed that priming effects during online comprehension were in fact larger when a verb was repeated across the prime and target sentences (see also Tooley et al., 2009). The finding of larger priming effects with lexical repetition supports accounts under which syntactic form representations are connected to individual lexical items (e.g., Tomasello, 2003; Vosse & Kempen, 2000, 2009). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24707789

Traxler, Matthew J; Tooley, Kristen M; Pickering, Martin J

2014-07-01

160

Lexical Borrowings in Spanish: Function, Length, Genealogy and Chronology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study reveals that lexical borrowing in Spanish, from a variety of languages including Latin, French, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Provencal, and Catalan, accounts for 41 percent of the basic Spanish vocabulary, with variation in source according to historical period. (MSE)

Patterson, William T.

1986-01-01

161

How General Is General Slowing? Evidence From the Lexical Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three analyses are reported that are based on data from 19 studies using lexical tasks and a reduced version of the Hale, Myerson, and Wagstaff (1987) nonlexical data set. The results of Analysis 1 revealed that a linear function with a slope of approximately 1.5 described the relationship between the lexical decision latencies of older (65–75 years) and younger (19–29

Susan D. Lima; Sandra Hale; Joel Myerson

1991-01-01

162

How general is general slowing? Evidence from the lexical domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three analyses are reported that are based on data from 19 studies using lexical tasks and a reduced version of the Hale, Myerson, and Wagstaff (1987) nonlexical data set. The results of Analysis l revealed that a linear function with a slope of approximately 1,5 described the relationship between the lexical decision latencies of older (65-75 years) and younger (19-29

Susan D. Lima; Sandra Hale; Joel Myerson

1991-01-01

163

Lexical and nonlexical phonological priming in reading aloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five homophone priming experiments are reported in which the lexicality ofprimes and targets were varied, so that primes and targets were either nonwordhomophones (keff\\/keph), word homophones (brake\\/break), pseudohomophones(brayk\\/braik), or of mixed lexicality (brake\\/brayk and brayk\\/break). Results showedthat naming of targets was facilitated by a phonologically identical prime only when aword was in the prime-target pairing. No priming occurred in nonword

Kathleen Rastle; Max Coltheart

1999-01-01

164

Eurowordnet: a multilingual database with lexical semantic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

WordNet, the on-line English thesaurus and lexical database developed at Princeton University b y George Miller and his colleagues (Fellbaum 1998), has proved to be an extremely important resource used in much research in computational linguis-tics where lexical knowledge of English is required. The goal of the EuroWordNet project is to create similar wordnets for other languages of Europe. The

Piek Vossen

1998-01-01

165

Repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments investigated repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access with 164 college students. Repetition priming effects in lexical decision tasks are stronger for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words. This frequency attenuation effect creates problems for frequency-ordered search models that assume a relatively stable frequency effect. It was posited that frequency attenuation is a product of the involvement

Kenneth I. Forster; Chris Davis

1984-01-01

166

Neural Correlates of Lexical Access during Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

People can discriminate real words from nonwords even when the latter are orthographically and phonologically word-like, presumably because words activate specific lexical and\\/or semantic information. We investigated the neural correlates of this identification process using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a visual lexical decision task under conditions that encouraged specific word identification: Nonwords were matched to words

J. R. Binder; K. A. McKiernan; M. E. Parsons; C. F. Westbury; E. T. Possing; J. N. Kaufman; L. Buchanan

2003-01-01

167

Interaction and Representational Integration: Evidence from Speech Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated…

Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa

2011-01-01

168

Social Interaction and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A Case Study in Authentic Enterprise Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper is an empirical study which aims to investigate the development of social interaction and their impacts on developing learners' entrepreneurial characteristics throughout their participation in an authentic enterprise activity. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of this study was drawn from the participants of an…

Yu, Christina W. M.; Man, Thomas W. Y.

2009-01-01

169

Child Characteristics, Home Social-Contextual Factors, and Children's Academic Peer Interaction Behaviors in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addressed questions about the relations between personal characteristics and aspects of home environments and young children's subsequent academically relevant peer interaction behaviors in kindergarten in a sample of 108 preschool-age children (57 males, 51 females) from 2 Midwest cities and neighboring communities. A year prior to the…

Neitzel, Carin

2009-01-01

170

Hybrid simulations of solar wind interaction with magnetized asteroids: General characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using electromagnetic hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations, the interaction between solar wind and a magnetized asteroid is investigated. At no or very low levels of asteroid magnetization the solar wind remains undisturbed. As the level of magnetization is increased, a phase standing whistler wake is generated which owing to its propagation characteristics remains confined to planes close to that

N. Omidi; X. Blanco-Cano; C. T. Russell; H. Karimabadi; M. Acuna

2002-01-01

171

Early Lexical Acquisition in the Real World: Benefits of Child-Centered and Multimodal Input in the Absence of Coordinated Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study was conducted to examine variations in caregiver input and infant attention in association with children's later lexical and syntactic skills. Fifteen infant-caregiver dyads were videotaped during naturalistic interactions when infants were 9 and 12 months old. Videotapes were coded for caregiver style and modality, and infant…

Trautman, Carol Hamer

2009-01-01

172

Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?  

PubMed Central

A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models.

Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2009-01-01

173

The cognitive chronometric architecture of reading aloud: semantic and lexical effects on naming onset and duration  

PubMed Central

We examined onset reaction time (RT) in a word naming task using an additive factors method (AFM). The pattern of additive and over-additive joint effects on RT among Instructions (INST: name all, name words), Word Frequency (WF: log10 HAL), Semantic Neighborhood Density (SND: Inverse Ncount), and Word Type (WT: regular, exception) supported a cognitive chronometric architecture consisting of at least two cascaded stages of processing, with the orthographic lexical system as the locus of the INST × WF and the INST × SND interactions, and the phonological output system as the locus of the WF × WT and the SND × WT interactions. Additivity between INST and WT supports the notion that these variables affect separable systems, and a WF × SND interaction supports a common locus of their effects. These results support stage-like/cascaded processing models over parallel processing models of basic reading. We also examined response duration (RD) in these data by recording and hand-marking vocal responses, which provides evidence that basic reading processes are ongoing even after the initiation of a vocal response, and supports the notion that the more lexically a word is read, the shorter the RD. As such, the effects of WT and INST on RD were opposite to their effects on RT however the effects of WF and SND on RD were in the same direction as their effects on RT. Given the combination of consistent and dissociating effects between RT and RD, these results provide new challenges to all models of basic reading processes.

Gould, Layla; Cummine, Jacqueline; Borowsky, Ron

2012-01-01

174

Lexical and context effects in children's audiovisual speech recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Audiovisual Lexical Neighborhood Sentence Test (AVLNST), a new, recorded speech recognition test for children with sensory aids, was administered in multiple presentation modalities to children with normal hearing and vision. Each sentence consists of three key words whose lexical difficulty is controlled according to the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM) of spoken word recognition. According to NAM, the recognition of spoken words is influenced by two lexical factors: the frequency of occurrence of individual words in a language, and how phonemically similar the target word is to other words in the listeners lexicon. These predictions are based on auditory similarity only, and thus do not take into account how visual information can influence the perception of speech. Data from the AVLNST, together with those from recorded audiovisual versions of isolated word recognition measures, the Lexical Neighborhood, and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Tests, were used to examine the influence of visual information on speech perception in children. Further, the influence of top-down processing on speech recognition was examined by evaluating performance on the recognition of words in isolation versus words in sentences. [Work supported by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, the American Hearing Research Foundation, and the NIDCD, T32 DC00012 to Indiana University.

Holt, Rachael; Kirk, Karen; Pisoni, David; Burckhartzmeyer, Lisa; Lin, Anna

2005-09-01

175

Speakers' assumptions about the lexical flexibility of idioms.  

PubMed

In three experiments, we examined why some idioms can be lexically altered and still retain their figurative meanings (e.g., John buttoned his lips about Mary can be changed into John fastened his lips about Mary and still mean "John didn't say anything about Mary"), whereas other idioms cannot be lexically altered without losing their figurative meanings (e.g., John kicked the bucket, meaning "John died," loses its idiomatic meaning when changed into John kicked the pail). Our hypothesis was that the lexical flexibility of idioms is determined by speakers' assumptions about the ways in which parts of idioms contribute to their figurative interpretations as a whole. The results of the three experiments indicated that idioms whose individual semantic components contribute to their overall figurative meanings (e.g., go out on a limb) were judged as less disrupted by changes in their lexical items (e.g., go out on a branch) than were nondecomposable idioms (e.g., kick the bucket) when their individual words were altered (e.g., punt the pail). These findings lend support to the idea that both the syntactic productivity and the lexical makeup of idioms are matters of degree, depending on the idioms' compositional properties. This conclusion suggests that idioms do not form a unique class of linguistic items, but share many of the properties of more literal language. PMID:2913457

Gibbs, R W; Nayak, N P; Bolton, J L; Keppel, M E

1989-01-01

176

Bilingual picture-word studies constrain theories of lexical selection.  

PubMed

Whether lexical selection is by competition is the subject of current debate in studies of monolingual language production. Here, I consider whether extant data from bilinguals can inform this debate. In bilinguals, theories that accept the notion of lexical selection by competition are divided between those positing competition among all lexical nodes vs. those that restrict competition to nodes in the target language only. An alternative view rejects selection by competition altogether, putting the locus of selection in a phonological output buffer, where some potential responses are easier to exclude than others. These theories make contrasting predictions about how quickly bilinguals should name pictures when non-target responses are activated. In Part 1, I establish the empirical facts for which any successful theory must account. In Part 2, I evaluate how well each theory accounts for the data. I argue that the data do not support theories that reject lexical selection by competition, and that although theories where competition for selection is restricted to the target language can be altered to fit the data, doing so would fundamentally undermine the distinctness of their position. Theories where selection is by competition throughout both target and non-target language lexicons must also be modified to account for the data, but these modifications are relatively peripheral to the theoretical impetus of the model. Throughout, I identify areas where our empirical facts are sparse, weak, or absent, and propose additional experiments that should help to further establish how lexical selection works, in both monolinguals and bilinguals. PMID:22232610

Hall, Matthew L

2011-01-01

177

Word Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Word frequency effects in dual-task, lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or under-additive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

Remington, Roger; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

178

Word Frequency Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Word frequency effects in dual-task lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or underadditive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again, we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

Remington, Roger W.; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

179

Effects of fiber physical and chemical characteristics on the interaction between endoglucanase and eucalypt fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roles played by fiber physical and chemical characteristics in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials were investigated\\u000a by analyzing the interaction between an endoglucanase complex and eucalypt kraft fibers. PFI refining was employed to create\\u000a the difference of fiber size distribution and morphology. Oxygen delignification and bleaching were employed to prepare fibers\\u000a with different lignin and pentosan contents. The enzyme accessibility

Chun-Han KoFang-Jing; Fang-Jing Chen; Jey Jau Lee; Der-Lii M. Tzou

2011-01-01

180

Structural characteristics of hydrogenated carbon and boron nitride nanotubes: impact of H-H interactions.  

PubMed

The structural characteristics of perhydrogenated carbon and boron nitride nanotubes are determined by means of quantum chemical calculations. Two families of nanotubes are systematically studied for both carbon and boron nitride, the nanotubes being derived from the perhydrogenated (110) and (111) sheets of diamond and cubic boron nitride. Single-walled perhydrogenated carbon nanotubes prefer structures analogous to the (111) sheet. In clear contrast, the single-walled perhydrogenated boron nitride nanotubes prefer structures analogous to the (110) sheet. The significantly different structural characteristics are due to the polarization of hydrogen atoms in the perhydrogenated boron nitride nanotubes. The presence of attractive electrostatic H--H interactions leads to a strong preference for multilayering of the boron nitride sheets and nanotubes. The results are expected to provide new insights into the structural characteristics of main-group binary hydrides. PMID:18830994

Tanskanen, Jukka T; Linnolahti, Mikko; Karttunen, Antti J; Pakkanen, Tapani A

2008-11-10

181

Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

2013-01-01

182

The lexical interface in L1 acquisition: What children have to say about radical concept nativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ongoing philosophical debate over the origins and nature of lexical concepts stemming from the work of Fodor (1970, 1998, 2000, 2008), the potential of first language acquisition studies as a source of evidence has been somewhat overlooked. At the lexical interface with syntax, a restricted set of lexical conceptual elements can be shown to play a pivotal role

David Stringer

2012-01-01

183

The Relationship of Lexical Richness to the Quality of ESL Learners' Oral Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an examination of the relationship of lexical richness to the quality of English as a second language (ESL) learners' oral narratives. A computational system was designed to automate the measurement of 3 dimensions of lexical richness, that is, lexical density, sophistication, and variation, using 25 different metrics proposed in…

Lu, Xiaofei

2012-01-01

184

How Involved Are American L2 Learners of Spanish in Lexical Input Processing Tasks during Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the nature of the involvement load (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) in second language (L2) lexical input processing through reading by considering the effects of the reader-based factors of L2 reading proficiency and background knowledge. The lexical input processing aspects investigated were lexical inferencing (search), attentional…

Pulido, Diana

2009-01-01

185

Effects of Lexicality and Word Frequency on Brain Activation in Dyslexic Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…

Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2013-01-01

186

Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically

Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

2013-01-01

187

Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2008-01-01

188

[Characteristics and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and quercetin interaction in different solvent systems].  

PubMed

Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and quercetin (QUE) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecules and biomacromolecules. The fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays were used to investigate the characteristics and antioxidant activity of BSA and QUE interaction in three solvent systems (deionized water, dH2O; dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO and ethanol, EtOH). The results revealed that QUE had a great ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in both static and dynamic modes, and that hydrophobic interaction played a dominant role in BSA and QUE interaction in three solvent systems. The binding constant values and binding site numbers between BSA and QUE were in the order of dH2O>DMSO>EtOH. The binding distances were in the order of EtOH>DMSO>dH2O. On the basis of the binding distance, the binding forces were in the order of dH2O>DMSO>EtOH. The synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrated that QUE interacted with both tyrosine and tryptophan residues of BSA in three solvent systems. Moreover, the DPPH radical scavenging rates of both QUE and BSA-QUE were 30%. While, the ABTS radical scavenging rate of QUE was significantly decreased from 80% to 70% when bound to BSA. No significant difference in antioxidant activity between QUE and BSA-QUE was observed in three solvent systems. PMID:24783553

Dong, Xue-Yan; Yao, Hui-Fang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Jing, Hao

2014-01-01

189

Paternal Work Characteristics and Father-Infant Interactions in Low-Income, Rural Families  

PubMed Central

To examine the implications of paternal occupational conditions for the quality of father-infant interactions, home visits, including interviews and videotaped observations of father-infant interactions, were conducted with 446 fathers living in six low-income, nonmetropolitan counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania. When a variety of individual and demographic characteristics were controlled for, a less supportive work environment was associated with lower levels of fathers’ engaged and sensitive parenting. Significant interactions pointed to the importance of understanding combinations of risk factors. Experiencing high levels of workplace stressors, including low levels of self-direction and high levels of care work, in the presence of other individual or demographic risk factors was associated with lower levels of father parenting quality.

Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.

2009-01-01

190

A Diffusion Model Account of the Lexical Decision Task  

PubMed Central

The diffusion model for 2-choice decisions (R. Ratcliff, 1978) was applied to data from lexical decision experiments in which word frequency, proportion of high- versus low-frequency words, and type of nonword were manipulated. The model gave a good account of all of the dependent variables—accuracy, correct and error response times, and their distributions—and provided a description of how the component processes involved in the lexical decision task were affected by experimental variables. All of the variables investigated affected the rate at which information was accumulated from the stimuli—called drift rate in the model. The different drift rates observed for the various classes of stimuli can all be explained by a 2-dimensional signal-detection representation of stimulus information. The authors discuss how this representation and the diffusion model’s decision process might be integrated with current models of lexical access.

Ratcliff, Roger; Gomez, Pablo; McKoon, Gail

2005-01-01

191

Lexical Variation and Change in British Sign Language  

PubMed Central

This paper presents results from a corpus-based study investigating lexical variation in BSL. An earlier study investigating variation in BSL numeral signs found that younger signers were using a decreasing variety of regionally distinct variants, suggesting that levelling may be taking place. Here, we report findings from a larger investigation looking at regional lexical variants for colours, countries, numbers and UK placenames elicited as part of the BSL Corpus Project. Age, school location and language background were significant predictors of lexical variation, with younger signers using a more levelled variety. This change appears to be happening faster in particular sub-groups of the deaf community (e.g., signers from hearing families). Also, we find that for the names of some UK cities, signers from outside the region use a different sign than those who live in the region.

Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas; Woll, Bencie; Cormier, Kearsy

2014-01-01

192

Lexical retrieval in discourse: an early indicator of Alzheimer's dementia.  

PubMed

We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n = 24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS) and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7-9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2-4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD. PMID:23985011

Pekkala, Seija; Wiener, Debra; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Obler, Loraine K; Liu, Yulin; McKee, Ann; Auerbach, Sanford; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

2013-12-01

193

Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access  

PubMed Central

A core operation in speech production is the preparation of words from a semantic base. The theory of lexical access reviewed in this article covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation. The initial stages of preparation are concerned with lexical selection, which is zooming in on the appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i.e., retrieving a word's morphemic phonological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corresponding articulatory gestures. The theory is based on chronometric measurements of spoken word production, obtained, for instance, in picture-naming tasks. The theory is largely computationally implemented. It provides a handle on the analysis of multiword utterance production as well as a guide to the analysis and design of neuroimaging studies of spoken utterance production.

Levelt, Willem J. M.

2001-01-01

194

Lexical tone awareness among Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8;11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8;11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control group, mean age 7;4) on different measures of lexical tone awareness, rhyme awareness and visual-verbal paired-associate learning. Results showed that the Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA but not the RL control groups in nearly all the lexical tone and rhyme awareness measures. Analyses of individual performance demonstrated that over one-third of the dyslexic children showed a deficit in some aspects of tone awareness. Tone discrimination and tone production were found to correlate significantly with Chinese word reading. These findings confirm that Chinese dyslexic children show weaknesses in tone awareness. PMID:21092370

Li, Wing-Sze; Suk-Han Ho, Connie

2011-09-01

195

Comparing lexically guided perceptual learning in younger and older listeners.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that younger adults engage in lexically guided perceptual learning in speech perception. Here, we investigated whether older listeners are also able to retune their phonetic category boundaries. More specifically, in this research we tried to answer two questions. First, do older adults show perceptual-learning effects of similar size to those of younger adults? Second, do differences in lexical behavior predict the strength of the perceptual-learning effect? An age group comparison revealed that older listeners do engage in lexically guided perceptual learning, but there were two age-related differences: Younger listeners had a stronger learning effect right after exposure than did older listeners, but the effect was more stable for older than for younger listeners. Moreover, a clear link was shown to exist between individuals' lexical-decision performance during exposure and the magnitude of their perceptual-learning effects. A subsequent analysis on the results of the older participants revealed that, even within the older participant group, with increasing age the perceptual retuning effect became smaller but also more stable, mirroring the age group comparison results. These results could not be explained by differences in hearing loss. The age effect may be accounted for by decreased flexibility in the adjustment of phoneme categories or by age-related changes in the dynamics of spoken-word recognition, with older adults being more affected by competition from similar-sounding lexical competitors, resulting in less lexical guidance for perceptual retuning. In conclusion, our results clearly show that the speech perception system remains flexible over the life span. PMID:23354594

Scharenborg, Odette; Janse, Esther

2013-04-01

196

A reason to rhyme: phonological and semantic influences on lexical access.  

PubMed

During on-line language production, speakers rapidly select a sequence of words to express their desired meaning. The current study examines whether this lexical selection is also dependent on the existing activation of surface properties of the words. Such surface properties clearly matter in various forms of wordplay, including poetry and musical lyrics. The experiments in this article explore whether language processing more generally is sensitive to these properties. Two experiments examined the interaction between phonological and semantic features for written and verbal productions. In Experiment 1, participants were given printed sentences with a missing word, and were asked to generate reasonable completions. The completions reflected both the semantic and the surface features of the preceding context. In Experiment 2, listeners heard sentence contexts, and were asked to rapidly produce a word to complete the utterance. These spontaneous completions again incorporated surface features activated by the context. The results suggest that lexical access in naturalistic language processing is influenced by an interaction between the surface and semantic features of language. PMID:12018508

Rapp, David N; Samuel, Arthur G

2002-05-01

197

Body schematics: on the role of the body schema in embodied lexical-semantic representations.  

PubMed

Words denoting manipulable objects activate sensorimotor brain areas, likely reflecting action experience with the denoted objects. In particular, these sensorimotor lexical representations have been found to reflect the way in which an object is used. In the current paper we present data from two experiments (one behavioral and one neuroimaging) in which we investigate whether body schema information, putatively necessary for interacting with functional objects, is also recruited during lexical processing. To this end, we presented participants with words denoting objects that are typically brought towards or away from the body (e.g., cup or key, respectively). We hypothesized that objects typically brought to a location on the body (e.g., cup) are relatively more reliant on body schema representations, since the final goal location of the cup (i.e., the mouth) is represented primarily through posture and body co-ordinates. In contrast, objects typically brought to a location away from the body (e.g., key) are relatively more dependent on visuo-spatial representations, since the final goal location of the key (i.e., a keyhole) is perceived visually. The behavioral study showed that prior planning of a movement along an axis towards and away from the body facilitates processing of words with a congruent action semantic feature (i.e., preparation of movement towards the body facilitates processing of cup.). In an fMRI study we showed that words denoting objects brought towards the body engage the resources of brain areas involved in the processing information about human bodies (i.e., the extra-striate body area, middle occipital gyrus and inferior parietal lobe) relatively more than words denoting objects typically brought away from the body. The results provide converging evidence that body schema are implicitly activated in processing lexical information. PMID:19782094

Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Pfeiffer, Christian; Bekkering, Harold

2010-02-01

198

The effect of computer-mediated communication (CMC) interaction on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparison study of CMC interaction and face-to-face interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the differential effects of CMC interaction (both text-chat and voice-chat) and face-to-face interactions on university level of ESL students' vocabulary acquisition. More specifically, this study examines (a) whether learners engage in negotiated interaction when they encounter new lexical items, (b) whether CMC interaction help learners acquire new lexical items productively, (c) whether there are any special features

Ju-young Lee

2009-01-01

199

Effective connectivity of the left BA 44, BA 45, and inferior temporal gyrus during lexical and phonological decisions identified with DCM.  

PubMed

Distinct regions in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) preferentially support the processing of different word-types (e.g., real words, pseudowords) and tasks (e.g., lexical decisions, phonological decisions) in visual word recognition. However, the functional connectivity underlying the task-related specialisation of regions in the left IFG is not yet well understood. In this study we investigated the neural mechanisms driving the interaction of WORD-TYPE (real word vs. pseudoword) and TASK (lexical vs. phonological decision) in Brodmann's area (BA) 45 in the left IFG using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). Four different models were compared, all of which included left BA44, left BA45, and left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). In each model, the visual presentation of words and pseudowords is assumed to directly evoke activity in the ITG and is then thought to be subsequently propagated to BA45 and to BA44 via direct intrinsic connections. The models differed with regard to which connections were modulated by the different tasks. Both tasks were assumed to either modulate the ITG_BA45 connection (Model #1), or the BA44_BA45 connection (Model #2), or both connections in parallel (Model #3). In Model #4 lexical decisions modulated the ITG_BA45 connection, whereas phonological decisions modulated the BA44_BA45 connection. Bayesian model selection revealed a superiority of Model #1. In this model, the strength of the ITG_BA45 connection was enhanced during lexical decisions. This model is in line with the hypothesis that left BA 45 supports explicit lexical decisions during visual word recognition based on lexical access in the ITG. PMID:18095285

Heim, Stefan; Eickhoff, Simon B; Ischebeck, Anja K; Friederici, Angela D; Stephan, Klaas E; Amunts, Katrin

2009-02-01

200

Prediction of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides based on characteristics responsible for their interaction with the membranes.  

PubMed

Most available antimicrobial peptides (AMP) prediction methods use common approach for different classes of AMP. Contrary to available approaches, we suggest that a strategy of prediction should be based on the fact that there are several kinds of AMP that vary in mechanisms of action, structure, mode of interaction with membrane, etc. According to our suggestion for each kind of AMP, a particular approach has to be developed in order to get high efficacy. Consequently, in this paper, a particular but the biggest class of AMP, linear cationic antimicrobial peptides (LCAP), has been considered and a newly developed simple method of LCAP prediction described. The aim of this study is the development of a simple method of discrimination of AMP from non-AMP, the efficiency of which will be determined by efficiencies of selected descriptors only and comparison the results of the discrimination procedure with the results obtained by more complicated discriminative methods. As descriptors the physicochemical characteristics responsible for capability of the peptide to interact with an anionic membrane were considered. The following characteristics such as hydrophobicity, amphiphaticity, location of the peptide in relation to membrane, charge density, propensities to disordered structure and aggregation were studied. On the basis of these characteristics, a new simple algorithm of prediction is developed and evaluation of efficacies of the characteristics as descriptors performed. The results show that three descriptors, hydrophobic moment, charge density and location of the peptide along the membranes, can be used as discriminators of LCAPs. For the training set, our method gives the same level of accuracy as more complicated machine learning approaches offered as CAMP database service tools. For the test set accuracy obtained by our method gives even higher value than the one obtained by CAMP prediction tools. The AMP prediction tool based on the considered method is available at http://www.biomedicine.org.ge/dbaasp/. PMID:24730612

Vishnepolsky, Boris; Pirtskhalava, Malak

2014-05-27

201

Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

1984-01-01

202

Performance characteristics and optimal analysis of an interacting quantum dot thermoelectric refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the thermodynamic performance of a quantum-dot refrigerator consisting of a single orbital interacting quantum dot embedded between two electron reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials. Based on the quantum master equation the expressions for the cooling power and the coefficient of performance are derived. The characteristic curves between the cooling power and the coefficient of performance are plotted, and the optimal regions of the performance parameters are determined. Moreover, the optimal performance parameters are calculated numerically. Finally, the influence of the Coulomb interaction and the temperature ratio on optimal performance parameters are discussed in detail. The results obtained here can provide some theoretical guidelines for the design and operation of the practical quantum-dot refrigerator. Our work is not restricted to the linear-response regime.

Zhang, Yanchao; He, Jizhou; He, Xian; Xiao, Yuling

2013-09-01

203

Agraphia in Alzheimer's Disease: An Independent Lexical Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to delineate the pattern of the writing impairments in 12 patients with Alzheimer type dementia. The patients performed writing tasks involving regular and irregular words and nonwords given by dictation as well as a decision test composed of printed words and pictures requiring phonologic, lexical, and semantic processing. Writing from dictation demonstrated a predominant, but nonisolated,

Jany Lambert; Francis Eustache; Fausto Viader; Martine Dary; Patrice Rioux; Bernard Lechevalier; Jean M. Travere

1996-01-01

204

Lexical Exploration for Advanced ESL Students in Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper develops guidelines for instructional materials for advanced English as a second language students in which the objects of instruction would be: (1) the relationship between surface structures of lexical items and their underlying meanings; (2) the important aspects of structural forms; and (3) the special uses of words in the lexicon…

Wakai, Helen K.

205

ENHANCING A PERVASIVE COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT WITH LEXICAL KNOWLEDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pervasive computing environment consists typically of a large heterogeneous collection of networked devices. This paper describes the use of lexical knowledge to improve a pervasive computing environment. In an ongoing research project, we are exploring ways to enable non-technical users to manage and control their home environment that is particularly hostile. We assume that each device belonging to the

P. Filipe; M. Barata; N. Mamede; P. Araújo

206

Processing Discontinuous Lexical Items: A Reply to Frazier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on a study by Frazier and others on Dutch-language lexical processing. Claims that the control condition in the experiment was inadequate and that an assumption made by Frazier about closed class verbal items is inaccurate, and proposes an alternative account of a subset of the data from the experiment. (BC)

Kempen, Gerard

1995-01-01

207

Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

2010-01-01

208

Beyond Stop Consonants: Consonantal Specificity in Early Lexical Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that 20-month-old infants can simultaneously learn two words that only differ by one of their consonants, but fail to do so when the words differ only by one of their vowels. This asymmetry was interpreted as developmental evidence for the proposal that consonants play a more important role than vowels in lexical

Nazzi, Thierry; New, Boris

2007-01-01

209

Determiner Primes as Facilitators of Lexical Retrieval in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner…

Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

2012-01-01

210

Lexical Access during the Production of Idiomatic Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments we test the assumption that idioms have their own lexical entry, which is linked to its constituent lemmas (Cutting & Bock, 1997). Speakers produced idioms or literal phrases (Experiment 1), completed idioms (Experiment 2), or switched between idiom completion and naming (Experiment 3). The results of Experiment 1 show that…

Sprenger, Simone A.; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Kempen, Gerard

2006-01-01

211

Orthographic Neighborhood and Concreteness Effects in the Lexical Decision Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment reported here investigated the sensitivity of concreteness effects to orthographic neighborhood density and frequency in the visual lexical decision task. The concreteness effect was replicated with a sample of concrete and abstract words that were not matched for orthographic neighborhood features and in which concrete words turned…

Samson, Dana; Pillon, Agnesa

2004-01-01

212

Dissociating Visual Form from Lexical Frequency Using Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japanese, the same word can be written in either morphographic Kanji or syllabographic Hiragana and this provides a unique opportunity to disentangle a word's lexical frequency from the frequency of its visual form--an important distinction for understanding the neural information processing in regions engaged by reading. Behaviorally,…

Twomey, Tae; Duncan, Keith J. Kawabata; Hogan, John S.; Morita, Kenji; Umeda, Kazumasa; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Devlin, Joseph T.

2013-01-01

213

Using Latent Semantic Analysis to Explore Second Language Lexical Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores how Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) can be used as a method to examine the lexical development of second language (L2) speakers. This year long longitudinal study with six English learners demonstrates that semantic similarity (using LSA) between utterances significantly increases as the L2 learners study English. The findings demonstrate that L2 learners begin to develop tighter semantic

Scott A. Crossley; Thomas Salsbury; Philip M. Mccarthy; Danielle S. Mcnamara

2008-01-01

214

Cooperative Tasks and Lexical Development of EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study has been an attempt to investigate the impact of cooperative tasks on the lexical development of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Sixty male and female students, who had scored homogeneously in a teacher-made proficiency test, participated in this study. Both the control and the experimental groups participated in a multiple-choice…

Yazdani Moghaddam, Masoud; Fakhraee Faruji, Laleh

2013-01-01

215

Semantic Facilitation and Lexical Competition in Picture Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments are reported to study lexical access in picture naming. Interference was found when semantically related word primes were presented, but no effect was obtained using picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiments 2a, 2b and 3, we introduced a new technique: Double-priming. The technique requires naming a picture target after…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, M. Teresa

2004-01-01

216

Relationship between Lexical Competence and Language Proficiency: Variable Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to determine what features associated with the macrolevel of lexical competence vary as a function of an increase in second language (L2) proficiency. The macrolevel of participants' word knowledge was described with respect to six variables that are commonly associated with three proposed macrolevel…

Zareva, Alla; Schwanenflugel, Paula; Nikolova, Yordanka

2005-01-01

217

The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages.

Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

2014-01-01

218

Lexical Translator from Arabic to Latin in Pascal Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lexical translator is a program written in Turbo PASCAL to generate a Latin PASCAL source code from an Arabic PASCAL source code. The Arabic code is written under a bilingual operating system transparent to the DOS on personal computers. The bilingual...

S. S. Aljuhaiman

1986-01-01

219

Repetition reduction: Lexical repetition in the absence of referent repetition.  

PubMed

Compared to words that are new to a discourse, repeated words are produced with reduced acoustic prominence. Although these effects are often attributed to priming in the production system, the locus of the effect within the production system remains unresolved because, in natural speech, repetition often involves repetition of referents and lexical items simultaneously. Therefore, repetition reduction could be due to repeated mention of a referent or to repetition of a word or referring expression. In our study, we use an event description task to test whether repetition reduction is due to repetition of lexical items or to repeated mention of referents. The results show that repeated lexical items lead to reduced duration and intensity even in the absence of referent repetition, whereas repeated referents lead to reduced intensity alone. The general pattern suggests that repetition reduction is due most strongly to repetition of the lexical item, rather than repeated mention of the referent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24548320

Lam, Tuan Q; Watson, Duane G

2014-05-01

220

Lexical and Default Stress Assignment in Reading Greek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greek is a language with lexical stress that marks stress orthographically with a special diacritic. Thus, the orthography and the lexicon constitute potential sources of stress assignment information in addition to any possible general default metrical pattern. Here, we report two experiments with secondary education children reading aloud…

Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana; Alexandri, Stella

2006-01-01

221

Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

222

Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

1997-01-01

223

Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

2009-10-01

224

Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

2007-01-01

225

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

226

Lexical Diversity in Writing and Speaking Task Performances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the rating scales of major international language tests, as well as in automated evaluation systems (e.g. e-rater), a positive relationship is often claimed between lexical diversity, holistic quality of written or spoken discourses, and language proficiency of candidates. This article reports a "posteriori" validation study that analysed a…

Yu, Guoxing

2010-01-01

227

The Effects of Bilateral Presentations on Lateralized Lexical Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated how lateralized lexical decision is affected by the presence of distractors in the visual hemifield contralateral to the target. The study had three goals: first, to determine how the presence of a distractor (either a word or a pseudoword) affects visual field differences in the processing of the target; second, to identify the…

Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco; Zaidel, Eran

2007-01-01

228

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

Kilickaya, Ferit

2007-01-01

229

Speech Perception and Lexical Effects in Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6-9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CVtsets [word-word (WW), nonword-nonword (NN), word-nonword (WN) and…

Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

2013-01-01

230

Lexical cohesion for evaluation of machine translation at document level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how granularity of machine translation evaluation can be extended from sentence to document level. While most state-of-the-art evaluation metrics focus on the sentence level, we emphasize the importance of document structure, showing that lexical cohesion is a critical feature to highlight the superior quality of human translation to machine translation, which uses cohesive devices to tie salient

Billy T. M. Wong; Cecilia F. K. Pun; Chunyu Kit; Jonathan J. Webster

2011-01-01

231

Word onset patterns and lexical stress in English  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of English phonology regard syllable onset patterns as irrelevant to the assignment of lexical stress. This paper describes three studies that challenge this position. Study 1 tested whether stress patterns on a large sample of disyllabic English words varied as a function of word onset. The incidence of trochaic stress increased significantly with the number of consonants in word

Michael H Kelly

2004-01-01

232

Lexical Borrowing in Modern Icelandic and Syllabic Structure Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of the nature of the lexical borrowing of Icelandic from American English focuses on the phonological processes occurring in the adoption of American English forms. Background information on borrowing in Icelandic is provided, and a crucial distinction is made between aural borrowing and loanwords from written sources. The role of…

Richter, Gregory C.

233

Linguistic, Cognitive, and Social Constraints on Lexical Entrenchment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do new words become established in a speech community? This dissertation documents linguistic, cognitive, and social factors that are hypothesized to affect "lexical entrenchment," the extent to which a new word becomes part of the lexicon of a speech community. First, in a longitudinal corpus study, I find that linguistic properties such as…

Chesley, Paula

2011-01-01

234

The Relation between Teacher Input and Lexical Growth of Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the growth of receptive lexical skills in preschoolers over an academic year in relation to teacher speech. The participating students were English language learners and their monolingual English-speaking peers from the same classrooms. The measures of teacher input included indicators of the amount of speech (total…

Bowers, Edmond P.; Vasilyeva, Marina

2011-01-01

235

Interaction of characteristic structural elements of persimmon tannin with Chinese cobra PLA2.  

PubMed

To more fully understand the mechanism by which persimmon tannin (PT) inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the structural requirements of PT for the inhibition, the interactions between PLA2 and seven characteristic structural elements of PT including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), myricetin, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epicatechin-3-gallate-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epicatechin-3-gallate (A-type ECG dimer), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer), epicatechin-(4? ? 8, 2? ? O ? 7)-epicatechin (A-type EC dimer) and epicatechin-(4? ? 8)-epicatechin (B-type EC dimer) were studied by enzymatic and spectroscopic methods. Molecular docking was also used to explore the possible residues involved in the interactions. The results revealed that A-type EGCG dimer and A-type ECG dimer showed higher inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PLA2 than monomers and B-type dimer. They induced greater conformational changes in PLA2 than other structural elements. In addition, molecular docking studies revealed that expect for lysine residues, other residues such as Trp18, Try27, Gly29, His47 and Tyr63 were involved in the interactions. We propose that A-type EGCG and ECG dimer units may be structural requirements for the interaction between PT and PLA2. Our data provide an additional structural basis for anti-PLA2 activity of persimmon tannin. PMID:23916601

Zhang, Ying; Zhong, Li; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Jin-yu; Li, Chun-mei

2013-11-01

236

Developmental Changes in Mismatch Responses to Mandarin Consonants and Lexical Tones from Early to Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use mismatch responses (MMRs) to explore the dynamic changes of Mandarin speech perception abilities from early to middle childhood. Twenty preschoolers, 18 school-aged children, and 26 adults participated in this study. Two sets of synthesized speech stimuli varying in Mandarin consonant (alveolo-palatal affricate vs. fricative) and lexical tone features (rising vs. contour tone) were used to examine the developmental course of speech perception abilities. The results indicated that only the adult group demonstrated typical early mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, suggesting that the ability to discriminate specific speech cues in Mandarin consonant and lexical tone is a continuing process in preschool- and school-aged children. Additionally, distinct MMR patterns provided evidence indicating diverse developmental courses to different speech characteristics. By incorporating data from the two speech conditions, we propose using MMR profiles consisting of mismatch negativity (MMN), positive mismatch response (p-MMR), and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as possible brain indices to investigate speech perception development.

Liu, Huei-Mei; Chen, Yuchun; Tsao, Feng-Ming

2014-01-01

237

Lexical and gestural symbols in left-damaged patients.  

PubMed

Motor activations reported during action-word understanding have raised the question as to whether the system for motor production contains semantically-relevant information. Cognitive neuropsychologists have provided compelling evidence that damage to the system for production of object-directed (transitive) actions does not necessarily lead to detrimental changes in the individuals' ability to understand the corresponding action words, and vice versa. We addressed this question focusing on intransitive symbolic gestures (emblems; e.g., waving goodbye), which are known to engage different resources, or neural representations, than object-directed actions, and are thought to enjoy a special relationship with language, due to a lexicalized relation between form (the gesture) and its meaning. We tested 12 left-damaged patients (and 17 healthy controls) on praxis (imitation and gesturing-to-verbal-command) and lexical-semantic tasks (naming and word-picture matching) involving the same emblems. With the group-level analyses, we replicated correlations between praxis and language deficits typically observed in left-damaged patients. The analyses of patients' performance at the single-case level, however, revealed double dissociations between the ability to produce emblems and the ability to retrieve and recognize their lexical-semantic definition. Double dissociations, even in the event of positive group-level correlations across tasks, imply that the motor representation of a gesture and the lexical-semantic representation of the corresponding word rely on functionally independent system. This study is the first systematic neuropsychological investigation of the relationship between the lexical-semantic and the motor representation of emblems, the closest counterpart of words in the gestural domain. PMID:23107378

Papeo, Liuba; Rumiati, Raffaella I

2013-06-01

238

One process, not two, in reading aloud: Lexical analogies do the work of non-lexical rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely held that there are two (non-semantic) processes by which oral reading may be achieved: (a) by known words visually addressing lexical storage of their complete orthography and phonology; (b) by parsing a letter string into graphemes which are translated by rule into phonemes. Irregular words (HAVE) rely on the former, new and non-words rely on the latter.

Janice Kay; Anthony Marcel

1981-01-01

239

The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

2004-01-01

240

Changes in social density: Relationships with functional interaction and perceptions of job characteristics, role stress, and work satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social density changes occurred in a petroleum-related organization as a result of a physical movement to a new building. This study examined the relationship of these changes to 96 professional employees' functional interactions and job characteristics, role stress, and work satisfaction (measured by the Job Characteristics Inventory; a role stress scale developed by J. R. Rizzo et al, 1970; and

Andrew D. Szilagyi; Winford E. Holland

1980-01-01

241

Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context  

PubMed Central

Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.

Biggio, Gianluca

2013-01-01

242

The Impact of Sonority on Onset-Rime and Peak-Coda Lexical Decision and Naming of Lexical Items by Children with Different Spelling Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used the lexical decision (making YES/NO decision) and the vocalization (naming) paradigms in two reaction time experiments to examine the cohesiveness of onset-rime and peak-coda in the syllable structure of English lexical items. The aim was to study the effect of sonority hierarchy of liquids, nasals and obstruents on the…

Leong, Che Kan

2008-01-01

243

The role of visual representations during the lexical access of spoken words.  

PubMed

Do visual representations contribute to spoken word recognition? We examine, using MEG, the effects of sublexical and lexical variables at superior temporal (ST) areas and the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) compared with that of word imageability at visual cortices. Embodied accounts predict early modulation of visual areas by imageability - concurrently with or prior to modulation of pMTG by lexical variables. Participants responded to speech stimuli varying continuously in imageability during lexical decision with simultaneous MEG recording. We employed the linguistic variables in a new type of correlational time course analysis to assess trial-by-trial activation in occipital, ST, and pMTG regions of interest (ROIs). The linguistic variables modulated the ROIs during different time windows. Critically, visual regions reflected an imageability effect prior to effects of lexicality on pMTG. This surprising effect supports a view on which sensory aspects of a lexical item are not a consequence of lexical activation. PMID:24814579

Lewis, Gwyneth; Poeppel, David

2014-07-01

244

Determiner primes as facilitators of lexical retrieval in English.  

PubMed

Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner plus noun phrase production. Few studies demonstrate gender priming effects in bare noun production (i.e., nouns in isolation). We investigated the effects of English determiner primes on bare mass and count noun production. In two experiments, participants named pictures after exposure to primes involving congruent, incongruent and neutral determiners. Facilitation of noun production by congruent and neutral determiner primes was found in both experiments. The results suggest that noun phrase syntax is activated in lexical retrieval, even when not explicitly required for production. Post hoc analysis of the relative frequency of congruent and incongruent prime-target pairs provides support for a frequency-based interpretation of the data. PMID:22411592

Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

2012-12-01

245

Lexical Allocation in Interlingua-based Machine Translation of Spatial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a spatial expression, or its computational semantic form, how is the expression's spatial semantics to be allocated lexically, i.e., among entries in the lexicon? In interlingua-based ma- chine translation (MT) research, lexical alloca- tion is the problem of allocating or subdividing a linguistic expression's full interlingual (IL) structure into the substructures that are lexical IL forms, i.e., in the

Clare R. Voss; Bonnie J. Dorr

246

The basis of preference for lexical words in 6-month-old infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-month-old English-learning infants have been shown to prefer English lexical over English grammatical words. The preference is striking because there are few grammatical words in total number but each occurs far more frequently in input speech than any individual lexical word. This could be because lexical words are universally more salient and interesting acoustic and phono- logical forms than are

Rushen Shi; Janet F. Werker

2003-01-01

247

Effects of working memory load on lexical-semantic encoding in language production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some models of lexical access in language production postulate that lexical-semantic encoding is driven bottom-up, by the\\u000a conceptual input, and top-down, by a representation of the task. In the cyclic semantic blocking paradigm, participants repeatedly\\u000a name sets of objects that are either semantically related or unrelated. Whereas the manipulation of semantic relatedness affects\\u000a lexical-semantic encoding in a bottom-up fashion, the

Eva Belke

2008-01-01

248

Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i. e., retrieving a word's morphemic pho-nological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corre-sponding articulatory gestures. The theory is based on chronomet-ric measurements of spoken word production, obtained, for instance, in picture-naming tasks. The theory is largely computa-tionally implemented. It provides a handle on the analysis

Willem J. M. Levelt

2001-01-01

249

Hemispheric asymmetries in the resolution of lexical ambiguity.  

PubMed

The linguistic phenomenon of lexical ambiguity has been intensively investigated as a means of gaining insight into general mechanisms of lexical access. It is now evident that both context and meaning frequency are significant factors in the determination of lexical outcomes. This suggests that hemispheric processes may be relevant to the resolution of lexical ambiguity, because both factors have been shown to have differential implications for the processing of language in the hemispheres. This study set out to examine the effects of context and meaning frequency on the resolution of ambiguous word meanings within the hemispheres. Sentences presented at the beginning of each trial embodied contexts which expressed either the dominant or subordinate meaning of a terminating homographic prime. Laterally presented target words reflected senses of the prime which were either consistent with, or inconsistent with, the context created by the preceding sentence. The most interesting results were observed at short prime-target intervals where it was found that although dominant meanings of the target did not give rise to visual field differences, subordinate meanings evoked facilitated responses only in the left visual field. This result suggests that the right hemisphere immediately and exhaustively activates the various meanings associated with a word, while in the left hemisphere initial access is selectively restricted to the dominant meaning. It is proposed that this reflects a model of language comprehension in which the right hemisphere plays a supportive role by making available a set of alternative and less probable word meanings, thus freeing the left hemisphere to focus cognitive resources upon the most probable meaning of a word in a given context. PMID:10678693

Coney, J; Evans, K D

2000-01-01

250

An improved hybrid semantic matching algorithm with lexical similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed an improved hybrid semantic matching algorithm combining Input\\/Output (I\\/O) semantic matching with\\u000a text lexical similarity to overcome the disadvantage that the existing semantic matching algorithms were unable to distinguish\\u000a those services with the same I\\/O by only performing I\\/O based service signature matching in semantic web service discovery\\u000a techniques. The improved algorithm consists of two

Rongqun Peng; Zhengkun Mi; Lingjiao Wang

2010-01-01

251

Syntactic Clues and Lexical Resources in Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

CL Research's question-answering system (DIMAP-QA) for TREC-9 significantly extends its semantic relation triple (logical form) technology in which documents are fully parsed and databases built around discourse e ntities. This extension further exploits parsing output, most notably appositives and relative clauses, which are quite useful for question-answering. Further, DIMAP-QA integrated machine-readable lexical resources: a full-sized dictionary and a thesaurus with

Kenneth C. Litkowski

2000-01-01

252

The Mnemonic Effect of Noticing Alliteration in Lexical Chunks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If good proficiency in L2 entails the acquisition not only of many single words but of many lexical chunks as well, it must then be asked how all this additional lexis is to be committed to long-term memory in the limited time available on non-intensive classroom-based language courses. If it is the case that a significant fraction of…

Lindstromberg, Seth; Boers, Frank

2008-01-01

253

Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation in Multilingual Text Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical semantics and knowledge representationin multilingual sentence generationManfred StedeDoctor of PhilosophyGraduate Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Toronto1996This thesis develops a new approach to automatic language generation that focuses on the needto produce a range of different paraphrases from the same input representation. One novelty ofthe system is its solidly grounding representations of word meaning in a background knowledgebase, which enables

Manfred Stede

1996-01-01

254

An unsupervised method for lexical acquisition based on Bootstrapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an unsupervised method called Mutual Screening Graph Algorithm based on Bootstrapping (MSGA-Bootstrapping) for lexical acquisition. Bootstrapping is a weakly supervised algorithm that has been the focus of attention in many Natural Language Processing(NLP) and Information Extraction(IE) fields, especially in learning semantic lexicons. Our approach only needs unannotated corpuses to learn new words for each semantic

Yuhan Zhang; Yanquan Zhou

2009-01-01

255

Using Textual and Lexical Resources in Developing Serbian Wordnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present two techniques for using textual and lexical resources, such as corpora and dictionaries, in validation and renemen t of Serbian wordnet. We rst describe how the existing monolingual Serbian cor- pus, the bilingual Serbian\\/English (S\\/E) and Serbian\\/French (S\\/F) aligned cor- pora, and the appropriate morphological e-dictionaries can be used in validation and enhancement of Serbian

Cvetana KRSTEV; Gordana PAVLOVI C-LA ZETI

256

Measuring the lexical semantics of picture description in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Individuals with non?fluent aphasia have difficulty producing syntactically laden words, such as function words, whereas individuals with fluent aphasia often have difficulty producing semantically specific words. It is hypothesised that such dissociations arise, at least in part, from a trade?off between syntactic and semantic sources of input to lexical retrieval.Aims: The aims of this study were (a) to identify

Jean K. Gordon

2008-01-01

257

The Acquisition of Some Lexical Constraints from Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to acquisition of some lexical and grammatical constraints from large corpora. Constraints\\u000a that are discussed are related to grammatical features of a preposition and the corresponding noun phrase that constitute\\u000a a prepositional phrase. The approach is based on the extraction of a textual environment of a preposition from a corpus, which\\u000a is then tagged using

Goran Nenadic; Irena Spasic

1999-01-01

258

Effects of phonological similarity on priming in auditory lexical decision  

PubMed Central

Two auditory lexical decision experiments were conducted to determine whether facilitation can be obtained when a prime and a target share word-initial phonological information. Subjects responded “word” or “nonword” to monosyllabic words and nonwords controlled for frequency. Each target was preceded by the presentation of either a word or nonword prime that was identical to the target or shared three, two, or one phonemes from the beginning. The results showed that lexical decision times decreased when the prime and target were identical for both word and nonword targets. However, no facilitation was observed when the prime and target shared three, two, or one initial phonemes. These results were found when the interstimulus interval between the prime and target was 500 msec or 50 msec. In a second experiment, no differences were found between primes and targets that shared three, one, or zero phonemes, although facilitation was observed for identical prime-target pairs. The results are compared to recent findings obtained using a perceptual identification paradigm. Taken together, the findings suggest several important differences in the way lexical decision and perceptual identification tasks tap into the information-processing system during auditory word recognition.

SLOWIACZEK, LOUISA M.; PISONI, DAVID B.

2012-01-01

259

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA.

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

260

Speech perception and lexical effects in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Using an identification task, we examined lexical effects on the perception of vowel duration as a cue to final consonant voicing in 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 13 age-matched (6;6–9;6) peers with typical language development (TLD). Naturally recorded CV/t/sets [word–word (WW), nonword–nonword (NN), word–nonword (WN) and nonword–word (NW)] were edited to create four 12-step continua. Both groups used duration as an identification cue but it was a weaker cue for children with SLI. For NN, WN and NW continua, children with SLI demonstrated certainty at shorter vowel durations than their TLD peers. Except for the WN continuum, children with SLI demonstrated category boundaries at shorter vowel durations. Both groups exhibited lexical effects, but they were stronger in the SLI group. Performance on the WW continuum indicated adequate perception of fine-grained duration differences. Strong lexical effects indicated reliance on familiar words in speech perception.

Schwartz, Richard G.; Scheffler, Frances L. V.; Lopez, Karece

2014-01-01

261

Automatic Prosodic Event Detection Using Acoustic, Lexical, and Syntactic Evidence  

PubMed Central

With the advent of prosody annotation standards such as tones and break indices (ToBI), speech technologists and linguists alike have been interested in automatically detecting prosodic events in speech. This is because the prosodic tier provides an additional layer of information over the short-term segment-level features and lexical representation of an utterance. As the prosody of an utterance is closely tied to its syntactic and semantic content in addition to its lexical content, knowledge of the prosodic events within and across utterances can assist spoken language applications such as automatic speech recognition and translation. On the other hand, corpora annotated with prosodic events are useful for building natural-sounding speech synthesizers. In this paper, we build an automatic detector and classifier for prosodic events in American English, based on their acoustic, lexical, and syntactic correlates. Following previous work in this area, we focus on accent (prominence, or “stress”) and prosodic phrase boundary detection at the syllable level. Our experiments achieved a performance rate of 86.75% agreement on the accent detection task, and 91.61% agreement on the phrase boundary detection task on the Boston University Radio News Corpus.

Ananthakrishnan, Sankaranarayanan; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

2008-01-01

262

Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children With Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical–semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive vocabulary matches (VM) generated 3 associations to each of 48 words. Associations were coded as semantic (e.g., dog–pet), clang (e.g., cow–how), or erroneous (e.g., spoon–Disney). Results Relative to the AM children, children with SLI produced fewer semantic responses, more clangs, and more errors. Relative to the VM children, fewer semantic responses and more errors in the children with SLI were found in by-item analyses. Across elicitation trials, semantic responses decreased in the AM and VM children but remained stable in the SLI children. Examination of individual performance in the SLI group revealed that poor semantic performance was associated with a deficit in expressive vocabulary and a gap between receptive and expressive vocabularies. Conclusions Significant variability in lexical–semantic organization skills exists among children with SLI. Deficits in lexical–semantic organization were demonstrated by a subgroup of children with SLI who likely had concomitant word-finding difficulties.

Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

2012-01-01

263

Neural correlates of rhyming vs. lexical and semantic fluency.  

PubMed

Rhyming words, as in songs or poems, is a universal feature of human language across all ages. In the present fMRI study a novel overt rhyming task was applied to determine the neural correlates of rhyme production. Fifteen right-handed healthy male volunteers participated in this verbal fluency study. Participants were instructed to overtly articulate as many words as possible either to a given initial letter (LVF) or to a semantic category (SVF). During the rhyming verbal fluency task (RVF), participants had to generate words that rhymed with pseudoword stimuli. On-line overt verbal responses were audiotaped in order to correct the imaging results for the number of generated words. Fewer words were generated in the rhyming compared to both the lexical and the semantic condition. On a neural level, all language tasks activated a language network encompassing the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle and superior temporal gyri as well as the contralateral right cerebellum. Rhyming verbal fluency compared to both lexical and semantic verbal fluency demonstrated significantly stronger activation of left inferior parietal region. Generating novel rhyme words seems to be mainly mediated by the left inferior parietal lobe, a region previously found to be associated with meta-phonological as well as sub-lexical linguistic processes. PMID:21447325

Kircher, Tilo; Nagels, Arne; Kirner-Veselinovic, André; Krach, Sören

2011-05-19

264

"M" to "Moonless": Lexical Databases in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the characteristics of lexicographic software programs used in a module on Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock," a major component of a course on computer-assisted learning (CAL) at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Two of the databases are specific to that school and are small, individualized, and frequently…

Beam, Paul; Huntley, Frank

265

Phonology and Lexicon in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective: The Importance of Phonetics--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her interesting article, Stoel-Gammon (this issue) reviews studies concerning the interactions between lexical and phonological development. While the focus of the review is on vocabulary production from children acquiring American English, she also suggests that cross-linguistic research be undertaken to examine how universal and…

Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lum, Jarrad; Vach, Werner

2011-01-01

266

Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

1979-01-01

267

Reduced Resource Optimization in Male Alcoholics: N400 in a Lexical Decision Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Background Event Related Potential (ERP) studies have highlighted some measures, notably P3 amplitude, that are associated with both state and trait deficits in alcoholism, while studies examining N400 amplitude in alcoholism are few. The present study aims to examine changes in the N400 component, an electrophysiological correlate of semantic priming, in event-related potentials from a lexical decision task in 87 alcohol dependent subjects and 57 community controls. Method Each subject was presented with 300 stimuli sequentially in a quasi-randomized design, where 150 stimuli were words and 150 were non-words. The subjects made a lexical decision indicating the word/nonword status with a button press. Among the words, 50 words (primed) were always preceded by their antonyms (prime, n=50), whereas the remaining 50 words were unrelated. N400 amplitude and latency measures were compiled from ERPs to the primed and unprimed words. Corresponding reaction time and response characteristics were also analyzed. Results Control subjects revealed a significant attenuation of the N400 response to the primed word when compared to the unprimed word. Significantly less attenuation was observed in alcohol dependent subjects. No significant group differences were seen for latency and behavioral measures. All subjects had slower RT for unprimed words compared to primed words; however significantly less reaction time savings between the unprimed and primed condition was noted for alcoholics. Conclusion These results suggest a reduced flexibility in the cognitive networks and a lack of resource optimization in alcoholics. The reduced attenuation of N400 during the primed condition in the alcohol dependent subjects may reflect an inability to engage similar neuronal substrates associated with semantic relatedness as seen in the controls. As diminished N400 attenuation during priming is observed in both alcoholics and high risk subjects, it may be a marker of risk and a good endophenotype for alcoholism.

Roopesh, Bangalore N; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Kamarajan, Chella; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K; Porjesz, Bernice

2011-01-01

268

Lexical diversity for adults with and without aphasia across discourse elicitation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Differences in lexical diversity (LD) across different discourse elicitation tasks have been found in neurologically intact adults (NIA) (Fergadiotis, Wright, & Capilouto, 2010) but have not been investigated systematically in people with aphasia (PWA). Measuring lexical diversity in PWA may serve as a useful clinical tool for evaluating the impact of word retrieval difficulties at the discourse level. Aims: The

Gerasimos Fergadiotis; Heather Harris Wright

2011-01-01

269

Testing for Lexical Competition during Reading: Fast Priming with Orthographic Neighbors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the fast priming…

Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

270

"The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

Cortes, Viviana

2013-01-01

271

Visual Word Recognition by Bilinguals in a Sentence Context: Evidence for Nonselective Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on bilingualism has shown that lexical access in visual word recognition by bilinguals is not selective with respect to language. In the present study, the authors investigated language-independent lexical access in bilinguals reading sentences, which constitutes a strong unilingual linguistic context. In the first experiment,…

Duyck, Wouter; Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2007-01-01

272

Disambiguating Form and Lexical Frequency Effects in MEG Responses Using Homonyms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an MEG study of homonym recognition in reading, identifying effects of a semantic measure of homonym ambiguity. This measure sheds light on two competing theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing; and the "late access" theory, which…

Simon, Dylan Alexander; Lewis, Gwyneth; Marantz, Alec

2012-01-01

273

Aspects of Lexical Proficiency in Writing Summaries in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of aspects of the lexical proficiency of EFL students on their summary writing in English (L2) by controlling for the impact of a range of linguistic abilities in English and Japanese (L1). Sixty-eight Japanese undergraduate students wrote two summaries of English texts in English. Their English lexical

Baba, Kyoko

2009-01-01

274

Lexical and Sublexical Components of Age-related Changes in Neural Activation during Visual Word Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography data (Madden, Langley, et al., 2002) were analyzed to investigate adult age differences in the relation between neural activation and the lexical (word frequency) and sublexical (word length) components of visual word identification. The differential influence of these components on reaction time (RT) for word\\/nonword discrimination (lexical decision) was generally similar for the two age groups, with

Wythe L. Whiting; David J. Madden; Linda K. Langley; Laura L. Denny; Timothy G. Turkington; James M. Provenzale; Thomas C. Hawk; R. Edward Coleman

2003-01-01

275

Evidence for a cascade model of lexical access in speech production  

Microsoft Academic Search

How word production unfolds remains controversial. Serial models posit that phonological encoding begins only after lexical node selection, whereas cascade models hold that it can occur before selection. Both models were evaluated by testing whether unselected lexical nodes influence phonological encoding in the picture-picture interference paradigm. English speakers were shown pairs of superimposed pictures and were instructed to name one

Ezequiel Morsella; Michele Miozzo

2002-01-01

276

English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

2009-01-01

277

The Role of Low-Spatial Frequencies in Lexical Decision and Masked Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial frequency filtering was used to test the hypotheses that low-spatial frequency information in printed text can: (1) lead to a rapid lexical decision or (2) facilitate word recognition. Adult proficient readers made lexical decisions in unprimed and masked repetition priming experiments with unfiltered, low-pass, high-pass and notch…

Boden, C.; Giaschi, D.

2009-01-01

278

The Role of Lexical Frequency in Syntactic Variability: Variable Subject Personal Pronoun Expression in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much recent work argues that lexical frequency plays a central explanatory role in linguistic theory, but the status, predicted effects, and methodological treatment of frequency are controversial, especially so in the less-investigated area of syntactic variation. This article addresses these issues in a case study of lexical frequency effects on…

Erker, Daniel; Guy, Gregory R.

2012-01-01

279

ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2013-01-01

280

Lexical Enrichment of a Human Anatomy Ontology using WordNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with lexical enrichment of ontolo- gies, i.e. how to enrich a given ontology with lexical entries derived from a semantic lexicon. We present an approach towards the integration of both types of resources, in particular for the human anatomy domain as represented by the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). The paper describes our approach on combining

Nils Reiter; Paul Buitelaar

281

The Acquisition of Lexical Phrases in Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical phrases are both numerous and functionally important in written texts. Despite this, L2 learners often find their use problematic, typically overusing a limited number of well-known phrases, while at the same time lacking a diverse enough phrasal repertoire to employ lexical phrases in a native-like manner. While a number of studies have…

Li, Jie; Schmitt, Norbert

2009-01-01

282

Lexical Bundles in the Academic Writing of Advanced Chinese EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the use of lexical bundles in the academic writing of advanced Chinese EFL learners. A corpus of doctoral dissertations by the learners and a corpus of published journal articles by professional writers were collected for the study. Four-word lexical bundles in the two corpora were identified and analysed. Results…

Wei, Yaoyu; Lei, Lei

2011-01-01

283

Distinguishing the Time Course of Lexical and Discourse Processes through Context, Coreference, and Quantified Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does prior context influence lexical and discourse-level processing during real-time language comprehension? Experiment 1 examined whether the referential ambiguity introduced by a repeated, anaphoric expression had an immediate or delayed effect on lexical and discourse processing, using an eye-tracking-while-reading task. Eye movements…

Huang, Yi Ting; Gordon, Peter C.

2011-01-01

284

The Rank Hypothesis and Lexical Decision: A Reply to Adelman and Brown (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

J. S. Adelman and G. D. A. Brown (2008) provided an extensive analysis of the form of word frequency and contextual diversity effects on lexical decision time. In this reply, the current authors suggest that their analysis provides a valuable tool for the evaluation of models of lexical access and that the results they report are broadly…

Murray, Wayne S.; Forster, Kenneth I.

2008-01-01

285

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

286

Structure of the Second Language Mental Lexicon: How Does It Compare to Native Speakers' Lexical Organization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the questions frequently asked in second language (L2) lexical research is how L2 learners' patterns of lexical organization compare to those of native speakers (NSs). A growing body of research addresses this question by using word association (WA) tests. However, little research has been done on the role of language proficiency in the…

Zareva, Alla

2007-01-01

287

Effects of Perceptual Learning Style Preferences on L2 Lexical Inferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of perceptual learning style preferences on L2 lexical inferencing and whether learners with certain perceptual learning styles benefited more from an explicitly instructional program. Joy Reid's (1995) Perceptual Learning Style Preferences (PLSP) Inventory and a lexical inferencing test…

Shen, Ming-yueh

2010-01-01

288

Reduction of Left Visual Field Lexical Decision Accuracy as a Result of Concurrent Nonverbal Auditory Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate whether concurrent nonverbal sound sequences would affect visual-hemifield lexical processing, lexical-decision performance of 24 strongly right-handed students (12 men, 12 women) was measured in three conditions: baseline, concurrent neutral sound sequence, and concurrent emotional sound sequence. With the neutral sequence,…

Van Strien, Jan W.

2004-01-01

289

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

290

Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

2013-01-01

291

Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

2011-01-01

292

Building Synsets for Indonesian WordNet with Monolingual Lexical Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to build synsets for Indonesian Word Net semi-automatically using monolingual lexical resources available freely in Bahasa Indonesia. Monolingual lexical resources refer to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indoensia or KBBI (monolingual dictionary of Bahasa Indonesia) and Tesaurus Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian thesaurus). We assume that monolingual resources will play an important role in synsets building, because it will

G. Gunawan; Andy Saputra

2010-01-01

293

Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

2013-01-01

294

The Metamorphosis of the Statistical Segmentation Output: Lexicalization during Artificial Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combined artificial language learning (ALL) with conventional experimental techniques to test whether statistical speech segmentation outputs are integrated into adult listeners' mental lexicon. Lexicalization was assessed through inhibitory effects of novel neighbors (created by the parsing process) on auditory lexical decisions to…

Fernandes, Tania; Kolinsky, Regine; Ventura, Paulo

2009-01-01

295

Rater Sensitivity to Lexical Accuracy, Sophistication and Range when Assessing Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although raters can be trained to evaluate the lexical qualities of student essays, the question remains as to what extent raters follow the "lexis" scale descriptors in the rating scale when evaluating or rate according to their own criteria. The current study examines the extent to which 27 trained university EFL raters take various lexical

Fritz, Erik; Ruegg, Rachael

2013-01-01

296

Depth versus Breadth of Lexical Repertoire: Assessing Their Roles in EFL Students' Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the roles of depth and breadth of lexical repertoire in L2 lexical inferencing success and incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Students read a graded reader containing 13 pseudo-words and attempted to infer the meanings of underlined target words. The Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) and the Vocabulary…

Ehsanzadeh, Seyed Jafar

2012-01-01

297

Another Look at Cross-Language Competition in Bilingual Speech Production: Lexical and Phonological Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does lexical selection function in highly-proficient bilingual speakers? What is the role of the non-response language during the course of lexicalization? Evidence of cross-language interference was obtained by Hermans, Bongaerts, De Bot and Schreuder (1998) using the picture-word interference paradigm: participants took longer to name the…

Costa, Albert; Colome, Angels; Gomez, Olga; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

2003-01-01

298

Assessing the Presence of Lexical Competition across Languages: Evidence from the Stroop Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do the lexical representations of the non-response language enter into lexical competition during speech production? This issue has been studied by means of the picture-word interference paradigm in which two paradoxical effects have been observed. The so-called CROSS-LANGUAGE IDENTITY EFFECT (Costa, Miozzo and Caramazza, 1999) has been taken as…

Costa, Albert; Albareda, Barbara; Santesteban, Mikel

2008-01-01

299

Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning.  

PubMed

Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle were negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production. PMID:24478675

Crowther, Jason E; Martin, Randi C

2014-01-01

300

Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: the role of cognitive control and learning  

PubMed Central

Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span), lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference), and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task) would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle was negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production.

Crowther, Jason E.; Martin, Randi C.

2014-01-01

301

The Relation between Mother-Infant Interactional Characteristics in Early Infancy and Later Attachment as Assessed in the Strange Situation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and infant interactional characteristics in early infancy were investigated in order to examine their causal relationship with later attachment as assessed in the Strange Situation. Although the results of rating for maternal variables at four months of age exhibited significant differences between the set (S1) composed of attachment type…

Kanaya, Yuko; Miyake, Kazuo

302

Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics x Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics x instruction (CxI) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether CxI…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

2011-01-01

303

Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

2011-01-01

304

A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

Reigeluth, Charles M.

305

Lexical viability constraints on speech segmentation by infants.  

PubMed

The Possible Word Constraint limits the number of lexical candidates considered in speech recognition by stipulating that input should be parsed into a string of lexically viable chunks. For instance, an isolated single consonant is not a feasible word candidate. Any segmentation containing such a chunk is disfavored. Five experiments using the head-turn preference procedure investigated whether, like adults, 12-month-olds observe this constraint in word recognition. In Experiments 1 and 2, infants were familiarized with target words (e.g., rush), then tested on lists of nonsense items containing these words in "possible" (e.g., "niprush" [nip+rush]) or "impossible" positions (e.g., "prush" [p+rush]). The infants listened significantly longer to targets in "possible" versus "impossible" contexts when targets occurred at the end of nonsense items (rush in "prush"), but not when they occurred at the beginning (tan in "tance"). In Experiments 3 and 4, 12-month-olds were similarly familiarized with target words, but test items were real words in sentential contexts (win in "wind" versus "window"). The infants listened significantly longer to words in the "possible" condition regardless of target location. Experiment 5 with targets at the beginning of isolated real words (e.g., win in "wind") replicated Experiment 2 in showing no evidence of viability effects in beginning position. Taken together, the findings suggest that, in situations in which 12-month-olds are required to rely on their word segmentation abilities, they give evidence of observing lexical viability constraints in the way that they parse fluent speech. PMID:12646156

Johnson, Elizabeth K; Jusczyk, Peter W; Cutler, Anne; Norris, Dennis

2003-02-01

306

An fMRI study of visual lexical decision in patients with schizophrenia and clinical high-risk individuals.  

PubMed

Disturbances in semantic and phonological aspects of language processing are indicated in patients with schizophrenia, and in high-risk individuals for schizophrenia. To uncover neural correlates of the disturbances, a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a visual lexical decision task in block design reported less leftward lateralization in the inferior frontal cortices, in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with high genetic risk for psychosis compared with normal control subjects. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has investigated contrasts between word and non-word processing that allow dissociation between semantic and phonological processing using event-related design visual lexical decision fMRI tasks in subjects with ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) and patients with schizophrenia. In the current study, 20 patients with schizophrenia, 11 UHR, and 20 demographically matched controls underwent lexical decision fMRI tasks. Compared with controls, both schizophrenia and UHR groups showed significantly decreased activity in response to non-words compared with words in the inferior frontal regions. Additionally, decreased leftward lateralization in the non-word compared with word activity contrast was found in subjects with UHR compared with controls, which was not evident in patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest neural correlates of difficulty in phonological aspects of language processing during non-word processing in contrast to word, which at least partially commonly underlies the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and UHR. Together with a previous study in genetic high-risk subjects, the current results also suggest that reduced functional lateralization in the language-related frontal cortex may be a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia. Furthermore, the current result may suggest that the genetic basis of psychosis is presumed to be related to the evolution of the language capacity characteristic of humans. PMID:24893907

Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Yahata, Noriaki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Koike, Shinsuke; Gonoi, Wataru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

2014-08-01

307

Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis to Refine the Prediction of Potential Digoxin Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC50 ([I1]/IC50) is ?0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC50 ([I2]/IC50) is ?10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC50 values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC50 values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I1]/IC50 ? 0.03 and [I2]/IC50 ? 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC50 values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC50 values, translating into a range of [I1]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50 values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC50 values.

Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, JoAnn; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E.; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P.; Heredi-Szabo, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O'Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M.; Li, LiBin; Pak, Anne Y.; Perloff, Elke S.; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

308

Interaction between Shiga Toxin and Monoclonal Antibodies: Binding Characteristics and in Vitro Neutralizing Abilities  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been employed either for diagnosis or treatment of infections caused by different pathogens. Specifically for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), numerous immunoassays have been developed for STEC diagnosis, showing variability in sensitivity and specificity when evaluated by reference laboratories, and no therapy or vaccines are currently approved. Thus, the aim of this work was the characterization of the interaction between MAbs against Stx1 and Stx2 toxins and their neutralizing abilities to enable their use as tools for diagnosis and therapy. The selected clones designated 3E2 (anti-Stx1) and 2E11 (anti-Stx2) were classified as IgG1. 3E2 recognized the B subunit of Stx1 with an affinity constant of 2.5 × 10?10 M, detected as little as 6.2 ng of Stx1 and was stable up to 50 ºC. In contrast, 2E11 recognized the A subunit of Stx2, was stable up to 70 ºC, had a high dissociation constant of 6.1 × 10?10 M, and detected as little as 12.5 ng of Stx2. Neutralization tests showed that 160 ng of 3E2 MAb inhibited 80% of Stx1 activity and 500 µg 2E11 MAb were required for 60% inhibition of Stx2 activity. These MAb amounts reversed 25 to 80% of the cytotoxicity triggered by different STEC isolates. In conclusion, these MAbs show suitable characteristics for their use in STEC diagnosis and encourage future studies to investigate their protective efficacy.

Rocha, Leticia B.; Luz, Daniela E.; Moraes, Claudia T. P.; Caravelli, Andressa; Fernandes, Irene; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

2012-01-01

309

Exploring medical diagnostic performance using interactive, multi-parameter sourced receiver operating characteristic scatter plots.  

PubMed

Determining diagnostic criteria for specific disorders is often a tedious task that involves determining optimal diagnostic thresholds for symptoms and biomarkers using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. To help this endeavor, we developed softROC, a user-friendly graphic-based tool that lets users visually explore possible ROC tradeoffs. The software requires MATLAB installation and an Excel file containing threshold symptoms/biological measures, with corresponding gold standard diagnoses for a set of patients. The software scans the input file for diagnostic and symptom/biomarkers columns, and populates the graphical-user-interface (GUI). Users select symptoms/biomarkers of interest using Boolean algebra as potential inputs to create diagnostic criteria outputs. The software evaluates subtests across the user-established range of cut-points and compares them to a gold standard in order to generate ROC and quality ROC scatter plots. These plots can be examined interactively to find optimal cut-points of interest for a given application (e.g. sensitivity versus specificity needs). Split-set validation can also be used to set up criteria and validate these in independent samples. Bootstrapping is used to produce confidence intervals. Additional statistics and measures are provided, such as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). As a testing set, softROC is used to investigate nocturnal polysomnogram measures as diagnostic features for narcolepsy. All measures can be outputted to a text file for offline analysis. The softROC toolbox, with clinical training data and tutorial instruction manual, is provided as supplementary material and can be obtained online at http://www.stanford.edu/~hyatt4/software/softroc or from the open source repository at http://www.github.com/informaton/softroc. PMID:24561350

Moore, Hyatt E; Andlauer, Olivier; Simon, Noah; Mignot, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

310

Application of receiver operating characteristic analysis to refine the prediction of potential digoxin drug interactions.  

PubMed

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC?? ([I?]/IC??) is ?0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC?? ([I?]/IC??) is ?10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC?? values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC?? values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I?]/IC?? ? 0.03 and [I?]/IC?? ? 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC?? values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC?? values, translating into a range of [I?]/IC?? and [I?]/IC?? values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC?? values. PMID:23620486

Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, Joann; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O'Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M; Li, Libin; Pak, Anne Y; Perloff, Elke S; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Xia, Cindy Q; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Lee, Caroline A

2013-07-01

311

The Effect of Grammatical Gender and Semantic Context on Lexical Access in Italian Using a Timed Word-Naming Paradigm  

PubMed Central

The effects of sentence context and grammatical gender on lexical access were investigated in Italian using a timed word-naming paradigm. Large main effects of both sentence context and the gender of the article were observed; the interaction between gender and semantics was significant over subjects. Strong facilitation by both gender and semantics was observed, relative to a neutral-control baseline condition. Results are compared with (1) a prior study with the same design, using a picture-naming paradigm, except that objects described by written words were replaced by pictures (Bentrovato, Devescovi, D’Amico, & Bates, 1999); (2) a separate norming study of timed word reading in a list format, using the same stimuli (D’Amico, Devescovi, & Bates, 2001); and (3) a prior study of German comparing word and picture naming in short, semantically neutral phrases (Jacobsen, 1999). Differences in methodology and in findings between the Italian word naming and the German word naming are compared and discussed. Findings of the present study are interpreted in support of interactive-activation models in which different sources of information are combined on-line to predict, anticipate, or preactivate lexical targets.

Bentrovato, Simone; Devescovi, Antonella; D'Amico, Simona; Wicha, Nicole; Bates, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

312

Structural characteristics of an antigen required for its interaction with Ia and recognition by T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of the residues within an immunogenic peptide that endow it with the capacity to interact with Ia and to be recognized by T cells is presented. Ia interacts with only a few of the peptide residues and overall exhibits a very broad specificity. Some residues appear to interact both with Ia and with T cells, leading to

Alessandro Sette; Søren Buus; Sonia Colon; John A. Smith; Craig Miles; Howard M. Grey

1987-01-01

313

What lexical decision and naming tell us about reading  

PubMed Central

The lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) tasks are ubiquitous paradigms that employ printed word identification. They are major tools for investigating how factors like morphology, semantic information, lexical neighborhood and others affect identification. Although use of the tasks is widespread, there has been little research into how performance in LD or NAM relates to reading ability, a deficiency that limits the translation of research with these tasks to the understanding of individual differences in reading. The present research was designed to provide a link from LD and NAM to the specific variables that characterize reading ability (e.g., decoding, sight word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) as well as to important reading-related abilities (phonological awareness and rapid naming). We studied 99 adults with a wide range of reading abilities. LD and NAM strongly predicted individual differences in word identification, less strongly predicted vocabulary size and did not predict comprehension. Fluency was predicted but with differences that depended on the way fluency was defined. Finally, although the tasks did not predict individual differences in rapid naming or phonological awareness, the failures nevertheless assisted in understanding the cognitive mechanisms behind these reading-related abilities. The results demonstrate that LD and NAM are important tools for the study of individual differences in reading.

Katz, Leonard; Brancazio, Larry; Irwin, Julia; Katz, Stephen; Magnuson, James; Whalen, D. H.

2011-01-01

314

Context Effects in Embodied Lexical-Semantic Processing  

PubMed Central

The embodied view of language comprehension proposes that the meaning of words is grounded in perception and action rather than represented in abstract amodal symbols. Support for embodied theories of language processing comes from behavioral studies showing that understanding a sentence about an action can modulate congruent and incongruent physical responses, suggesting motor involvement during comprehension of sentences referring to bodily movement. Additionally, several neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that comprehending single words denoting manipulable objects elicits specific responses in the neural motor system. An interesting question that remains is whether action semantic knowledge is directly activated as motor simulations in the brain, or rather modulated by the semantic context in which action words are encountered. In the current paper we investigated the nature of conceptual representations using a go/no-go lexical decision task. Specifically, target words were either presented in a semantic context that emphasized dominant action features (features related to the functional use of an object) or non-dominant action features. The response latencies in a lexical decision task reveal that participants were faster to respond to words denoting objects for which the functional use was congruent with the prepared movement. This facilitation effect, however, was only apparent when the semantic context emphasized corresponding motor properties. These findings suggest that conceptual processing is a context-dependent process that incorporates motor-related knowledge in a flexible manner.

van Dam, Wessel O.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

2010-01-01

315

Bilingual vocabulary size and lexical reading in Italian.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated how the vocabulary size of English-Italian bilinguals affects reading aloud in Italian (L2) modulating the reader's sensitivity to lexical aspects of the language. We divided adult bilinguals in two groups according to their vocabulary size (Larger - LV, and smaller - SV), and compared their naming performance to that of native Italian (NI) readers. In Experiment 1 we investigated the lexicality and word frequency effects in reading aloud. Similarly to NI, both groups of bilinguals showed these effects. In Experiment 2 we investigated stress assignment - which is not predictable by rule - to Italian words. The SV group made more stress errors in reading words with a non-dominant stress pattern compared to the LV group. The results suggest that the size of the reader's L2 lexicon affects the probability of correct reading aloud. Overall, the results indicate that proficient adult bilinguals show a similar sensibility to the statistical and distributional properties of the language as compared to Italian monolinguals. PMID:24140823

Primativo, Silvia; Rinaldi, Pasquale; O'Brien, Shaunna; Paizi, Despina; Arduino, Lisa S; Burani, Cristina

2013-11-01

316

Lexical access in sign language: a computational model  

PubMed Central

Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

Caselli, Naomi K.; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

2014-01-01

317

The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

2012-01-01

318

Qualitatively different organizational structures of lexical knowledge in the left and right hemisphere.  

PubMed

The present study investigates and discusses the organization of lexical knowledge in the intact left and right hemisphere within the framework of hemisphere-specific cognitive modes of processing. Using a divided visual field technique, word pairs of concrete nouns had to be judged. Semantic relation was either intraconceptual (coordinates) or interconceptual (locative). The results suggest that the left hemisphere, lexical structures are predominantly based on intraconceptual relationships corresponding to its analytic sequential processing mechanism, whereas in the right hemisphere, lexical entries are exclusively associated by means of interconceptual relationships in accordance with its "gestalthaft" holistic processor. PMID:3601046

Drews, E

1987-01-01

319

Love is... an abstract word: the influence of lexical semantics on verbal short-term memory in Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that verbal short-term memory in Williams syndrome is characterised by an over-use of phonological coding alongside a reduced contribution of lexical semantics. We critically examine this hypothesis and present results from a memory span task comparing performance on concrete and abstract words, together with a replication of a span task using phonologically similar and phonologically dissimilar words. Fourteen participants with Williams syndrome were individually matched to two groups of typically developing children. The first control group was matched on digit span and the second on vocabulary level. Significant effects were found for both the semantic and the phonological variables in the WS group as well as in the control groups, with no interaction between experimental variable and group in either experiment. The results demonstrate that, despite claims to the contrary, children and adults with WS are able to access and make use of lexical semantics in a verbal short-term memory task in a manner comparable to typically developing individuals. PMID:15714899

Laing, Emma; Grant, Julia; Thomas, Michael; Parmigiani, Charlotte; Ewing, Sandra; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

2005-04-01

320

Analysis of performance of jet engine from characteristics of components II : interaction of components as determined from engine operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

1949-01-01

321

The determinants of negative maternal parenting behaviours: maternal, child, and paternal characteristics and their interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess their parenting attitudes and behaviours, as well as their five-year-old child's (202 boys, 177

Daniel C. Kopala-Sibley; David C. Zuroff; Richard Koestner

2012-01-01

322

Radiation characteristics and turbulence–radiation interactions in sooting turbulent jet flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive modeling strategy including detailed chemistry, soot and radiation models coupled with state-of-the-art closures for turbulence–chemistry interactions and turbulence–radiation interactions is applied to various luminous turbulent jet flames. Six turbulent jet flames are simulated with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15,000, two fuel types (pure ethylene, 90% methane–10% ethylene blend) and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream

R. S. Mehta; M. F. Modest; D. C. Haworth

2010-01-01

323

Physicochemical Characteristics of Styrene-Butadiene Latex modified Mortar Composite vis-à-vis Preferential Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) film and the ions from C2S and C3S hydration of Portland cement mortar composites has been evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and the morphology of the composites characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimen used was cured for 28 days. FTIR spectrum supports the interaction of SBR with cement in the

B. B. Konar; Arpita Das; Prabir K. Gupta; Mausumi Saha

2011-01-01

324

Characteristics of widespread pyroclastic deposits formed by the interaction of silicic magma and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recognized a type of pyroclastic deposit formed by the interaction of water and silicic magma during explosive eruptions.\\u000a These deposits have a widespread dispersal, similar to plinian tephra, but the overall grain size is much tiner. Several deposits\\u000a studied can be associated with caldera lakes or sea water and water\\/magma interaction is proposed to account for the fine

S. Self; R. S. J. Sparks

1978-01-01

325

Lexical category influences in Persian children who stutter.  

PubMed

This article explores the effect that words from different lexical categories have on disfluency in 12 Persian children, ten boys and two girls, who stutter. They were aged 7 years 5 months to 10 years 6 months. Words from the participants' narrative and reading samples (sub-tests of the Reading and Dyslexia Test validated for Persian school-aged children) were categorized as content, function, or content-function, and stuttering-like disfluencies were coded in each speech sample. Content and content-function words were significantly more likely to show stuttering-like disfluencies than function words. The distribution of symptom types over content and content-function words was similar, and differed from the distribution seen in function words. The symptom type analysis also supported the view that whole-word repetitions should not be grouped with other stuttering-like disfluencies. PMID:23941107

Vahab, Maryam; Zandiyan, Azadeh; Falahi, Mohammad Hadi; Howell, Peter

2013-12-01

326

Aralex: a lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic.  

PubMed

In this article, we present a new lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic: Aralex. Based on a contemporary text corpus of 40 million words, Aralex provides information about (1) the token frequencies of roots and word patterns, (2) the type frequency, or family size, of roots and word patterns, and (3) the frequency of bigrams, trigrams in orthographic forms, roots, and word patterns. Aralex will be a useful tool for studying the cognitive processing of Arabic through the selection of stimuli on the basis of precise frequency counts. Researchers can use it as a source of information on natural language processing, and it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists. Aralex is distributed under a GNU-like license, allowing people to interrogate it freely online or to download it from www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk:8081/aralex.online/login.jsp. PMID:20479179

Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

2010-05-01

327

Lexical, Syntactic, and Stress-Pattern Cues for Speech Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Many sources of segmentation information are available in speech. Previous research has shown that one or another segmentation cue is used by listeners under certain circumstances. However, it has also been shown that none of the cues are absolutely reliable. Therefore, it is likely that people use a combination of segmentation cues when listening to normal speech. This study addresses the issue of how young adults use multiple segmentation cues (lexical, syntactic, and stress-pattern) in combination to break up continuous speech. Evidence that people use more than one cue at a time was found. Furthermore, the results suggest that people can use segmentation cues flexibly such that remaining cues are relied upon more heavily when other information is missing.

Sanders, Lisa D.; Neville, Helen J.

2008-01-01

328

Lexical Access and Dual-Task Performance: Determining the Locus of the Bottleneck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the two years of funding for NASA Grant "NCC21325, Lexical access and dual-task performance: Determining the locus of the bottleneck," we completed three experiments involving the psychological refractory period (PRP) and word frequency.

Allen, Phil

2004-01-01

329

LIFG-based attentional control and the resolution of lexical ambiguities in sentence context  

PubMed Central

The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively unimpaired. Experiment 2 showed that all three patients did as well as normal controls in using biasing sentence context to resolve lexical ambiguities involving balanced ambiguous words, but only the LIFG patients took an abnormally long time on lexical ambiguities that resolved toward a subordinate meaning of biased ambiguous words. Taken together, the results suggest that attentional control plays an important role in the resolution of certain lexical ambiguities – those that induce strong interference from context-inappropriate meanings (i.e., dominant meanings of biased ambiguous words).

Vuong, Loan C.; Martin, Randi C.

2010-01-01

330

Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self-esteem than adolescents from the other two regions.

Klarin, Mira; Pororokovic, Ana; Sasic, Slavica Simic; Arnaudova, Violeta

2012-01-01

331

Mixing characteristics of compressible vortex rings interacting with normal shock waves  

SciTech Connect

Current interest in the interaction between compressible vortical flows and shock waves is largely motivated by the need to promote rapid, loss-effective mixing and combustion of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels for supersonic combustor applications. The instability mechanisms and mixing enhancement arising from the interaction of a compressible vortex ring with a normal shock wave were studied in a colinear, dual-shock tube. This flow geometry simulates features of the interaction of a shock wave with a jet containing streamwise vorticity, a configuration of significant interest for supersonic combustion applications. Flow visualization and quantitative concentration measurements were performed by planar laser Rayleigh scattering. For a given primary shock strength, interfacial instability is more evident in a weak vortex ring than in a strong vortex ring. In all cases, the identity of the vortex ring is lost after a sufficiently long time of interaction. The probability density function of the mixed fluid changes rapidly from a bimodal distribution to a single peak upon processing by a shock wave. The most probable concentration decreases with time, indicating a rapid increase in mixing and dilution of the vortex fluid. The mixing enhancement is most rapid for the case of a strong vortex ring interacting with a strong shock wave, somewhat slower for a weak vortex ring and a strong shock wave, and significantly slower for the case of a strong vortex ring and a weaker shock wave. These observations are consistent with the earlier numerical predictions.

Cetegen, B.M. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Hermanson, J.C. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States))

1995-01-01

332

Application of atomic force microscopy for characteristics of single intermolecular interactions.  

PubMed

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to make measurements in vacuum, air, and water. The method is able to gather information about intermolecular interaction forces at the level of single molecules. This review encompasses experimental and theoretical data on the characterization of ligand-receptor interactions by AFM. The advantage of AFM in comparison with other methods developed for the characterization of single molecular interactions is its ability to estimate not only rupture forces, but also thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the rupture of a complex. The specific features of force spectroscopy applied to ligand-receptor interactions are examined in this review from the stage of the modification of the substrate and the cantilever up to the processing and interpretation of the data. We show the specificities of the statistical analysis of the array of data based on the results of AFM measurements, and we discuss transformation of data into thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (kinetic dissociation constant, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy). Particular attention is paid to the study of polyvalent interactions, where the definition of the constants is hampered due to the complex stoichiometry of the reactions. PMID:23379527

Safenkova, I V; Zherdev, A V; Dzantievf, B B

2012-12-01

333

2004 Special issue Early lexical development in a self-organizing neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a self-organizing neural network model of early lexical development called DevLex. The network consists of two self-organizing maps (a growing semantic map and a growing phonological map) that are connected via associative links trained by Hebbian learning. The model captures a number of important phenomena that occur in early lexical acquisition by children, as it

Ping Li; Igor Farkas; Brian MacWhinney

334

Lack of inhibition in Parkinson's disease: evidence from a lexical decision task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) often show an increased semantic priming effect from target words in lexical decision tasks (hyper-priming) as compared to age-matched controls. In this study, a lexical decision task was used to investigate both semantic priming (Experiment 1) and repetition priming (Experiment 2) from distractor words in PD patients and age-matched controls. With this negative priming

Paloma Marí-Beffa; Amy E. Hayes; Liana Machado; John V. Hindle

2005-01-01

335

Are There Mental Lexicons? The Role of Semantics in Lexical Decision  

PubMed Central

What is the underlying representation of lexical knowledge? How do we know whether a given string of letters is a word, whereas another string of letters is not? There are two competing models of lexical processing in the literature. The first proposes that we rely on mental lexicons. The second claims there are no mental lexicons; we identify certain items a swords based on semantic knowledge. Thus, the former approach – the multiple-systems view – posits that lexical and semantic processing are subserved by separate systems, whereas the latter approach – the single-system view – holds that the two are interdependent. Semantic dementia patients, who have a cross-modal semantic impairment, show an accompanying and related lexical deficit. These findings support the single-system approach. However, a report of an SD patient whose impairment on lexical decision was not related to his semantic deficits in item-specific ways has presented a challenge to this view. If the two types of processing rely on a common system, then shouldn’t damage impair the same items on all tasks? We present a single-system model of lexical and semantic processing, where there are no lexicons, and performance on lexical decision involves the activation of semantic representations. We show how, when these representations are damaged, accuracy on semantic and lexical tasks falls off together, but not necessarily on the same set of items. These findings are congruent with the patient data. We provide an explicit explanation of this pattern of results in our model, by defining and measuring the effects of two orthogonal factors – spelling consistency and concept consistency.

Dilkina, Katia; McClelland, James L.; Plaut, David C.

2010-01-01

336

Redintegration and lexicality effects in children: Do they depend upon the demands of the memory task?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of long-term knowledge upon performance in short-term memory tasks was examined for children from 5 to 10 years\\u000a of age. The emergence of a lexicality effect, in which familiar words were recalled more accurately than unfamiliar words,\\u000a was found to depend upon the nature of the memory task. Lexicality effects were interpreted as reflecting the use of redintegration,

Judy E. Turner; Lucy A. Henry; Philip T. Smith; Penelope A. Brown

2004-01-01

337

Real-time lexical competitions during speech-in-speech comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at characterizing the cognitive processes that come into play during speech-in-speech comprehension by examining lexical competitions between target speech and concurrent multi-talker babble. We investigated the effects of number of simultaneous talkers (2, 4, 6 or 8) and of the token frequency of the words that compose the babble (high or low) on lexical decision to target

Véronique Boulenger; Michel Hoen; Emmanuel Ferragne; François Pellegrino; Fanny Meunier

2010-01-01

338

Characteristic parameters of superconductor-coolant interaction including high Tc current density limits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area of basic mechanisms of helium heat transfer and related influence on super-conducting magnet stability, thermal boundary conditions are important constraints. Characteristic lengths are considered along with other parameters of the superconducting composite-coolant system. Based on helium temperature range developments, limiting critical current densities are assessed at low fields for high transition temperature superconductors.

Frederking, T. H. K.

1989-01-01

339

Validity and fairness of college admissions: Model choices and interaction with college characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study employed two-level hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLM) to compare the admission validity and fairness with respect to gender, ethnicity, and first language between two admission models, and examined whether institutional characteristics can explain the variations across colleges. The two admission models included the Combined model, where students were admitted based on a multiple regression with HSGPA and

Guangming Ling

2007-01-01

340

The Relationship between Marital Characteristics, Marital Interaction Processes, and Marital Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to clarify the relationship between marital characteristics, marital processes, and the dependent variable--marital satisfaction--in a sample of 201 participants who were in 1st marriages. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) and the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues,…

Rosen-Grandon, Jane R.; Myers, Jane E.; Hattie, John A.

2004-01-01

341

Hiring Discrimination Against Arab Minorities: Interactions Between Prejudice and Job Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of Arab descent have increasingly experienced prejudice and employment discrimination. This study used the social identity paradigm to investigate whether greater Arab identification of applicants led to hiring discrimination and whether job characteristics and raters' prejudice moderated this effect. One hundred forty-one American and 153 Dutch participants rated résumés on job suitability. Résumés with Arab name and affiliations negatively

Eva Derous; Hannah-Hanh Nguyen; Ann Marie Ryan

2009-01-01

342

The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

343

Integration of lexical and sublexical processing in the spelling of regular words: a multiple single-case study in Italian dysgraphic patients.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated 12 cases of "mixed dysgraphia", a spelling impairment where regular words are spelt better than either ambiguous words or regular non-words. Two explanations of mixed dysgraphia were formerly offered by Luzzatti et al. (1998): (i) a double functional lesion of the orthographic output lexicon (or damage to its access) and of the acoustic-to-phonological conversion; and (ii) some kind of interaction/summation between lexical and sublexical spelling routes when processing regular words. We first analysed whether a double functional lesion was sufficient to explain the mixed dysgraphia, checking acoustic-to-phonological conversion by means of the repetition of words and non-words: the answer was positive in five cases and uncertain in three. We tested the remaining four cases to see if there was an interaction between lexical and sublexical processing of regular words, quantifying for each patient, on a probabilistic basis, the separate contribution of the residual lexical and sublexical resources. We investigated whether the processing along these routes was simultaneous but independent ("independent cooperation") or if instead there was "interaction", i.e., the simultaneous activity led to an added increase of efficiency over and above the mere combination of separate success probabilities. For one case the processing along the two routes was independent, in the other three cases an interaction resulted. Following the same approach, we found that for the five cases with a double functional lesion, the observed success on regular word spelling was higher than that expected on a probabilistic basis, but the interpretation of this finding was different. PMID:19103445

Laiacona, Marcella; Capitani, Erminio; Zonca, Giusy; Scola, Ilaria; Saletta, Paola; Luzzatti, Claudio

2009-01-01

344

Activation of lexical and semantic representations without intention along GPC-sublexical and orthographic-lexical reading pathways in a Stroop paradigm.  

PubMed

Dual route models of reading suggest there are 2 pathways for reading words: an orthographic-lexical pathway, used to read familiar regular words and exception words, and a grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion-(GPC)-sublexical pathway, used to read unfamiliar regular words, pseudohomophones (PHs), and nonwords. It is unclear, however, whether PHs activate lexical and semantic representations without intention in the GPC-sublexical pathway to the same extent as words along the orthographic-lexical pathway. The present study explored this by introducing a novel condition, color pseudohomophone associates (CPHAs; e.g., "skigh"), in 3 experiments using the Stroop paradigm. Experiment 1 examined 4 types of stimuli: color words (CWs), color word associates (CWAs), color PHs (CPHs), and color PH associates (CPHAs), in a mixed list context. Significant Stroop effects were found for all 4 types of stimuli. To ensure the robustness of this effect, Experiment 2 was conducted using pure list contexts whereby participants received only word stimuli (e.g., CWs, CWAs) or only PH stimuli (e.g., CPHs, CPHAs). The results replicated those of Experiment 1, suggesting that CPHAs activate lexical and semantic representations without intention in the GPC-sublexical pathway. Experiment 3 added 2 novel conditions: color exception word associates (which can only be pronounced correctly using the orthographic-lexical pathway) to compare the effects obtained with color exception PH associates (which rely on the GPC-sublexical pathway for correct pronunciation). Stroop effects of similar magnitude were found for both types of stimuli, suggesting lexical and semantic representations are accessed without intention in either reading pathway to a similar degree. Implications for models of reading are discussed. PMID:24294918

Anton, Kathryn F; Gould, Layla; Borowsky, Ron

2014-05-01

345

Sonorant onset pitch as a perceptual cue of lexical tones in Mandarin.  

PubMed

Lexical tone identification requires a number of secondary cues, when main tonal contours are unavailable. In this article, we examine Mandarin native speakers' ability to identify lexical tones by extracting tonal information from sonorant onset pitch (onset contours) on syllable-initial nasals ranging from 50 to 70 ms in duration. In experiments I and II we test speakers' ability to identify lexical tones in a second syllable with and without onset contours in isolation (experiment I) and in a sentential context (experiment II). The results indicate that speakers can identify lexical tones with short distinctive onset contour patterns,they also indicate that misperception of tones 213 and 24 are common. Furthermore, in experiment III, we test whether onset contours in a following syllable can be utilized by listeners in tone identification. We find that onset contours in the following syllable also contribute to the identification of the target lexical tones. The conclusions are twofold: (1) Mandarin lexical tones can be identified with onset contours; (2) tonal domain must be extended to include not just typical cues of tones but also coarticulated tonal patterns. PMID:24281066

Chen, Tsung-Ying; Tucker, Benjamin V

2013-01-01

346

Characteristics of social interaction between unfamiliar male rats ( Rattus norvegicus ): comparison of juvenile and adult stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Social interaction between juvenile male rats that were unfamiliar with one another (JNI) was compared with that of adult\\u000a unfamiliar animals (ANI). In their home cages, subjects were confronted with a stimulus conspecific and their agonistic behavior\\u000a patterns were analyzed. It was found that behaviors that characterize \\

Yuko Yamada-Haga

2002-01-01

347

Attribution Characteristics of Chinese Teachers and Students: From Some Interaction Experiences on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher-student conflict is attracting people's attention in China. This study utilized attribution theories to investigate the attribution features of Mainland Chinese teacher and student groups for negative events in their interactions. It found out that due to the factor of social identity, the two groups revealed a significant self-serving…

Geyang, Zhou

2006-01-01

348

Classroom Interaction Patterns, Teacher and Student Characteristics and Students' Learning Outcomes in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine the patterns of interdependency among classroom interaction patterns, teacher and student variables and students' learning outcomes in physics, comprising their post-instructional attitude and achievement in "low" and "high" academic tasks. Seven instruments were used in collecting data from 516 Senior…

Kalu, Iroha; Ali, A. N.

2004-01-01

349

On the Characteristics of Interactional Argument: A Response to Jackson, Jacobs, Burrell, and Allen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to an article criticizing the author's inclusion of unresolved argument as a feature characterizing interactional argumentation (published in an earlier issue). Traces the disagreement to different uses of "paradigm case" and "prototypical case," and attempts to clarify these differences. (MM)

Trapp, Robert

1987-01-01

350

Surface characteristics of projectiles after frictional interaction with metal matrix composites under ballistic condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface characteristics of the AK-47 (7.62mm×39mm Armour Piercing) and G3 (7.62mm×51mm Armour Piercing) projectile tips were investigated after impacting an Al alloy reinforced with Al2O3 particles at high velocity. The composite samples were manufactured from Al-7075 by the squeeze casting method and they were subjected to ballistic impact tests as defined in related ballistic standards of the National Institute

M. Baki Karam??; A. Alper Cerit; Fehmi Nair

2006-01-01

351

Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: Evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24446754

Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

2014-05-01

352

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among words. While children with SLI have well documented memory difficulties, it is not clear whether these language knowledge factors also influence recall in this population. Methods & Procedures 16 children with SLI (mean age 10;2) and CAM controls recalled lists of words differing in phonological similarity, word frequency, and phonotactic pattern frequency. While previous studies used a small set of words appearing in multiple word lists, the current study used a larger set of words, without replacement, so that children could not gain practice with individual test items. Outcomes & Results All main effects were significant. Interactions revealed that children with SLI were affected by similarity, but less so than their peers, comparably affected by word frequency, and unaffected by phonotactic pattern frequency. Conclusions Results due to phonological similarity suggest that children with SLI use less efficient encoding, while results due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency were mixed. Children with SLI used coarse-grained language knowledge (word frequency) comparably to peers, but were less able to use fine-grained knowledge (phonotactic pattern frequency). Paired with phonological similarity results, this suggests that children with SLI have difficulty establishing robust phonological knowledge for use in language tasks.

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

353

Wakayama Symposium: Epithelial-mesenchymal interaction regulates tissue formation and characteristics: insights for corneal development.  

PubMed

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are essential during tissue formation and organ morphogenesis. The roles of Wnt/?-catenin signaling have been studied in many organ systems. In this review, we describe the importance of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by comparing skin and corneal development of Wnt/?-catenin gain of function (GOF) mutant mice. In the skin, Wnt/?-catenin signals have been suggested to play essential roles in regulating cell-cell interaction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt signaling may be associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin. In the case of cornea, ?-catenin GOF mutation leads to epithelial hyperplasia. Investigation of the mechanisms of growth factor signaling as a reference to general organogenesis could provide profound insights for understanding corneal development and pathogenesis. PMID:23084142

Suzuki, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Chikako; Higashi, Yujiro; Daikoku, Takiko; Mizoguchi, Shin; Saika, Shizuya; Yamada, Gen

2012-10-01

354

Changes in the characteristics of atmosphere-ocean interactions over the South China Sea during summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines changes in air-sea interactions over the South China Sea (SCS) over the period of 1979-2011 during the boreal summer (June-July-August) using observations and two simulations of the atmospheric regional climate model (RCM) forced by historical sea surface temperature (SST). We find that the simultaneous correlation coefficient between SST and precipitation changes significantly over the SCS around the late-1990s. That is, variation in precipitation over the SCS is negatively (positively) correlated with SST variations before (after) 1999. Further analysis indicates that atmospheric forcing to the ocean is dominant over the SCS before 1999. In contrast, after 1999, oceanic forcing to the atmosphere through latent heat flux is dominant. RCM simulations forced by the historical SST also support the notion that there are significant changes in air-sea interactions over the SCS before and after 1999, which affects the ability of the RCM to simulate precipitation variability accurately relative to observations.

Jang, Hye-Yeong; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Chul; Kim, Baek-Min

2014-05-01

355

General characteristics of particle production in 16 GeV\\/c pi-p interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial cross sections are presented for the various topologies and the various reaction channels in 16 GeV\\/c pi-p interactions. Their energy dependence is discussed. The distributions of events as a function of the squared four-momentum transfer are presented, as well as the transverse and c.m. longitudinal momenta distributions. The predictions of the Chan, Loskiewicz and Allison model describe some of

R. Honecker; B. Junkmann; R. Schulte; R. Steinberg; N. Tsanos; J. Klugow; S. Nowak; E. Ryseck; M. Walter; K. Böckmann; H. Drevermann; W. Johnssen; K. Sternberger; B. Wagini; H. Böttcher; V. T. Cocconi; J. D. Hansen; G. Kellner; D. R. O. Morrison; K. Paler; A. Mihul; V. Moskalev; T. Coghen; O. Czyzewski; K. Eskreys; J. Loskiewicz; J. Zaorska; S. Brandt; O. Braun; V. Lüth; T. P. Shah; H. Wenninger; M. Bardadin-Otwinowska; T. Hofmokl; L. Michejda; S. Otwinowski; R. Sosnowski; M. Szeptycka; W. Wójcik; A. Wróblewski

1969-01-01

356

ATM traffic experiments: A laboratory study of service interaction, loss fairness and loss characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference measurement scenario is defined, where an ATM switch (OCTOPUS) is offered traffic from three source types representing the traffic resulting from typical services to be carried by an ATM network. These are high quality video (HQTV), high speed data (HSD) and constant bitrate transfer (CBR). In addition to be typical, these have widely different characteristics. Detailed definitions for these, and other actual source types, are made and entered into the Synthetic Traffic Generator (STG) database. Recommended traffic mixes of these sources are also made. Based on the above, laboratory measurements are carried out to study how the various kinds of traffic influence each other, how fairly the loss is distributed over services and connections, and what are the loss characteristics experienced. (Due to a software error detected in the measurement equipment after the work was concluded, the measurements are carried out with a HSD source with a load less 'aggressive' than intended.) The main findings are: Cell loss is very unfairly distributed among the various connections. During a loss burst, which occurs less frequently than the duration of a typical connection, affects mainly one or a few connections; Cell loss is unfairly distributed among the services. The ratios in the range from HSD: HQTV: CBR = 5 : 1 : 0.85 are observed, and unfairness increases with decreasing load burstiness; The loss characteristics vary during a loss burst, from one burst to the next and between services. Hence, it does not seem feasible to use 'typical-loss-statistics' to study the impairments on various services. In addition some supplementing work is reported.

Helvik, B. E.; Stol, N.

1995-04-01

357

Lexical training through modeling and elicitation procedures with late talkers who have specific language impairment and developmental delays.  

PubMed

Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and developmental disabilities. Children were randomly assigned to either a mand-elicited imitation (MEI) condition in which elicitations and imitative prompts were used or to a modeling with auditory bombardment (Mod-AB) condition in which auditory bombardment and play modeling were incorporated with no response demands on participants. Lexical production of target vocabulary words already comprehended was measured during a 10-session training period and then during two 50-min play interactions with a parent/caretaker in the home after treatment was completed. Results indicated that the MEI procedure was relatively more effective in facilitating frequency and rate of target word learning in the treatment setting, but no significant differences were found between conditions in the number or percentage of target words generalized to the home setting. Mod-AB children produced more target words that were limited to the home setting than did MEI children, whose productivity was more balanced across settings. Treatment by aptitude regression analyses indicated that none of the preintervention language, cognitive, or total development aptitude scores were predictive of child performance in 1 treatment condition or the other, although Battelle Developmental Inventory communication scores and sizes of preintervention lexicons were predictive of child performance across conditions. Empirical and clinical issues pertaining to the efficacy of modeling- and elicitation-based procedures for late-talking preschoolers are discussed. PMID:15934450

Kouri, Theresa A

2005-02-01

358

Characteristics of corium debris bed generated in large-scale fuel-coolant interaction experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of corium debris as the result of fuel-coolant interaction (energetic or not) has been studied experimentally in the FARO and KROTOS facilities operated at JRC-Ispra between 1991 and 1999. Experiments were performed with 3–177kg of UO2–ZrO2 and UO2–ZrO2–Zr melts, quenched in water at depth between 1 and 2m, and pressure between 0.1 and 5.0MPa. The effect of various

D. Magallon

2006-01-01

359

Shear deformation characteristics of single walled carbon nanotube with water interactions by using molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with water interactions are studied in this work using molecular dynamics simulation method. The elastic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a biological/fluidic medium such as water are critical for its key role in determining the lifetime and stability of CNT based nano-fluidic devices. The effect of chirality, defects and the density of water encapsulation is studied by subjecting the SWCNT to shear loading. The findings show that the interaction of water molecules and defect density and distribution will reduce the mechanical strength of SWCNT. We also conducted studies on the mechanical response of free standing and water submerged capped SWCNTs filled with water molecules under axial shear loading. We find that the mechanical strength of the water encapsulated SWCNTs is affected by the density of water encapsulation. Our findings and conclusions obtained from this paper is expected to further compliment the potential applications of CNTs as promising candidates for applications in nano-biological and nano-fluidic devices.

Vijayaraghavan, V.; Wong, C. H.

2013-12-01

360

Characteristics of social anxiety from virtual interpersonal interactions in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Dysfunctional emotional processing affects social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationship between emotional perception and response in social interaction has not been elucidated. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 27 normal controls performed a virtual reality social encounter task in which they introduced themselves to avatars expressing happy, neutral, or angry emotions while verbal response duration and onset time were measured and perception of emotional valence and arousal, and state anxiety were rated afterwards. Self-reported trait-affective scale scores and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings were also obtained. Patient group significantly underestimated the valence and arousal of angry emotions expressed by an avatar. While valence and arousal ratings of happy avatars were comparable between groups, patient group reported significantly higher state anxiety in response to happy avatars. State anxiety ratings significantly decreased from encounters with neutral to happy avatars in normal controls while no significant decrease was observed in the patient group. The Social Anhedonia Scale and PANSS negative symptom subscale scores (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, and passive/ apathetic social withdrawal items) were significantly correlated with state anxiety ratings of the encounters with happy avatars. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have interference with the experience of pleasure in social interactions which may be associated with negative symptoms. PMID:19366296

Park, Il Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Ku, Jeonghun; Jang, Hee Jeong; Park, Sung-Hyouk; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

2009-01-01

361

Rotor wake characteristics relevant to rotor-stator interaction noise generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mean and turbulent wake properties at three axial locations behind the rotor of an aerodynamically loaded 1.2 pressure ratio fan were measured using a stationary cross film anemometer in an anechoic wind tunnel. Wake characteristics at four radial immersions across the duct at four different fan speeds were determined utilizing a signal enhancement technique. The shapes of the waveforms of the mean rotor relative and mean upwash velocities were shown to change significantly across the span of the blades. In addition, an increase in fan rotational speed caused an increase in the maximum wake turbulence intensity levels near the hub and tip. Spectral analysis was used to described the complex nature of the rotor wake.

Shaw, L. M.; Balombin, J. R.

1981-01-01

362

Lexical association and false memory for words in two cultures.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The average co-occurrence rate of the list word and the critical word was calculated based on two large Chinese corpuses. List-level analyses revealed that the correlation between the American and Taiwanese participants was significant only in false recognition. More importantly, the co-occurrence rate was significantly correlated with false recall and recognition of Taiwanese participants, and not of American participants. In addition, the backward association strength based on Nelson et al. (The University of South Florida word association, rhyme and word fragment norms, 1999) was significantly correlated with false recall of American participants and not of Taiwanese participants. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between language experiences and lexical association in creating false memory for word lists. PMID:17624610

Lee, Yuh-shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

363

From gr8 to great: Lexical Access to SMS Shortcuts  

PubMed Central

Many contemporary texts include shortcuts, such as cu or phones4u. The aim of this study was to investigate how the meanings of shortcuts are retrieved. A primed lexical decision paradigm was used with shortcuts and the corresponding words as primes. The target word was associatively related to the meaning of the whole prime (cu/see you – goodbye), to a component of the prime (cu/see you – look), or unrelated to the prime. In Experiment 1, primes were presented for 57?ms. For both word and shortcut primes, responses were faster to targets preceded by whole-related than by unrelated primes. No priming from component-related primes was found. In Experiment 2, the prime duration was 1000?ms. The priming effect seen in Experiment 1 was replicated. Additionally, there was priming from component-related word primes, but not from component-related shortcut primes. These results indicate that the meanings of shortcuts can be retrieved without translating them first into corresponding words.

Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Krott, Andrea; Meyer, Antje S.

2012-01-01

364

Processing of lexical stress cues by young children.  

PubMed

Although infants learn an impressive amount about their native-language phonological system by the end of the first year of life, after the first year children still have much to learn about how acoustic dimensions cue linguistic categories in fluent speech. The current study investigated what children have learned about how the acoustic dimension of pitch indicates the location of the stressed syllable in familiar words. Preschoolers (2.5- to 5-year-olds) and adults were tested on their ability to use lexical-stress cues to identify familiar words. Both age groups saw pictures of a bunny and a banana and heard versions of "bunny" and "banana" in which stress either was indicated normally with convergent cues (pitch, duration, amplitude, and vowel quality) or was manipulated such that only pitch differentiated the words' initial syllables. Adults (n=48) used both the convergent cues and the isolated pitch cue to identify the target words as they unfolded. Children (n=206) used the convergent stress cues but not pitch alone in identifying words. We discuss potential reasons for children's difficulty in exploiting isolated pitch cues to stress despite children's early sensitivity to pitch in language. These findings contribute to a view in which phonological development progresses toward the adult state well past infancy. PMID:24705094

Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

2014-07-01

365

Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement  

PubMed Central

Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes.

Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry

2011-01-01

366

Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

Erickson, Gary E.

1991-01-01

367

The Interplay of Teacher and Student Characteristics that Affect Student Learning, Attitudes, and Coping Skills. Final Report of the Teaching-Learning Interaction Study. Volumes I-III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teaching-Learning Interaction Study tested the separate and interactive effects of teacher and student entry characteristics on their subsequent classroom behavior, and the effect of that behavior on students' regressed gain, over a school year, in achievement, attitudes toward school, self-esteem, and coping skills. Fifty-three tri-ethnic…

Peck, Robert F.; And Others

368

Matching is not naming: a direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks.  

PubMed

The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of "automatic activation" of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a nonreading task for studying "reading effects" by directly comparing blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in "reading-related" regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs. naming) by string type (word vs. pseudoword vs. nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type × timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions and is thus nonautomatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. PMID:22711620

Vogel, Alecia C; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2013-10-01

369

Characteristics of sarcoplasmic proteins and their interaction with surimi and kamaboko gel.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of adding common carp sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp- P) on the gel characteristics of threadfin bream surimi and kamaboko while maintaining constant moisture and myofibrillar levels. Based on the temperature sweep test, which is involved in heating of surimi gel from 10 to 80 degrees C to monitor the viscoelastic properties, at temperature range of 40 to 50 degrees C, the decrease level (depth of valley) in storage modulus (G') thermograph was in proportion to the concentration of added Sp- P. Storage modulus (G') showed greater elasticity after adding Sp- P compared with the control without Sp- P. Furthermore, the breaking force and distance and consequently gel strength of the resultant kamaboko were improved significantly (P > 0.05). Thus, added Sp- P did not interfere with myofibrillar proteins during sol-gel transition phase but associated with textural quality enhancement of resultant kamaboko; however, addition of Sp- P from the dark muscle of the carp decreased the whiteness of the resultant surimi. Furthermore, according to the SEM micrographs, the gel strength could not be associated with either the number of polygonal structures/mm(2) or the area of the polygonal structures in the kamaboko gel microstructure. PMID:19200110

Jafarpour, A; Gorczyca, E M

2009-01-01

370

Magellan Aerodynamic Characteristics During the Termination Experiment Including Thruster Plume-Free Stream Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Magellan spacecraft during the October 1994 Termination Experiment, including the effects of the thruster engine exhaust plumes upon the molecular free stream around the spacecraft and upon the aerodynamics coefficients. As Magellan passed through the Venusian atmosphere, the solar arrays were turned in opposite directions relative to the free stream creating a torque on the spacecraft. The spacecraft control system was programmed to counter the effects of this torque with attitude control engines to maintain an inertially fixed attitude. The orientation and reaction engine telemetry returned from Magellan are used to create a model of the aerodynamic torques. Geometric models of the Magellan spacecraft are analyzed with the aid of both free molecular and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes. The simulated aerodynamic torques determined are compared to the measured torques. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is also used to model the attitude engine exhaust plumes, the free stream disturbance caused by these plumes, and the resulting torques acting on the spacecraft compared to no-exhaust plume cases. The effect of the exhaust plumes was found to be sufficiently large that thrust reversal is possible.

Cestero, Francisco J.; Tolson, Robert H.

1998-01-01

371

Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recent evidence from neuroimaging studies on lexical-semantic processing. Furthermore, evidence on dissociations between implicit and explicit lexical-semantic processing reported in the literature will be discussed and interpreted by referring to functional neuroimaging evidence from healthy populations. There is evidence that semantic priming effects can be found both in fluent and in non-fluent aphasias, and that these effects are related to an extensive network which includes the temporal lobe, the pre-frontal cortex, the left frontal gyrus, the left temporal gyrus and the cingulated cortex. PMID:22990731

Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Holderbaum, Candice Steffen; Parente, Maria Alice Mattos Pimenta; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Ansaldo, Ana Inès

2012-09-01

372

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition.

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2011-01-01

373

ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency  

PubMed Central

The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition.

Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2013-01-01

374

Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., "Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil", preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

Boudewyn, Megan A; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y

2012-06-01

375

ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency.  

PubMed

The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (experiment 1) and lexical decision (experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y

2013-04-01

376

Myoblast alignment on 2D wavy patterns: Dependence on feature characteristics and cell-cell interaction.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate the effects of micron-scale surface patterns on the alignment of individual cells and groups of cells. Using a simple replication molding process we produce a number of micron-scale periodic wavy patterns with different pitch and depth. We observe C2C12 cells as they grow to confluence on these patterns and find that, for some geometries, cell-cell interaction leads to global alignment in a confluent culture when individual cells would not align on the same pattern. Three types of alignment behavior are thus defined: no alignment, immediate alignment, and alignment upon confluence. To further characterize this response, we introduce a non-dimensional parameter that describes the aligning power of a periodic pattern based on its geometry. The three types of alignment behavior can be distinguished by the value of the alignment parameter, and we identify values at which the transitions in alignment behavior occur. Applying this parameter to data from the current and several earlier studies reveals that the parameter successfully describes substrate aligning power over a wide range of length scales for both wavy and grooved features. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1617-1626. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24643546

Grigola, Michael S; Dyck, Casey L; Babacan, Derin S; Joaquin, Danielle N; Hsia, K Jimmy

2014-08-01

377

Investigation of interactions between limb-manipulator dynamics and effective vehicle roll control characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed-base simulation was performed to identify and quantify interactions between the pilot's hand/arm neuromuscular subsystem and such features of typical modern fighter aircraft roll rate command control system mechanization as: (1) force sensing side-stick type manipulator; (2) vehicle effective role time constant; and (3) flight control system effective time delay. The simulation results provide insight to high frequency pilot induced oscillations (PIO) (roll ratchet), low frequency PIO, and roll-to-right control and handling problems previously observed in experimental and production fly-by-wire control systems. The simulation configurations encompass and/or duplicate actual flight situations, reproduce control problems observed in flight, and validate the concept that the high frequency nuisance mode known as roll ratchet derives primarily from the pilot's neuromuscular subsystem. The simulations show that force-sensing side-stick manipulator force/displacement/command gradients, command prefilters, and flight control system time delays need to be carefully adjusted to minimize neuromuscular mode amplitude peaking (roll ratchet tendency) without restricting roll control bandwidth (with resulting sluggish or PIO prone control).

Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

1986-01-01

378

Turbulent flow downstream of a large solidity perforated plate: near-field characteristics of interacting jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of streamwise velocity characteristics in a flow downstream of a perforated plate with 96% solidity were obtained using a single-component laser Doppler system. The channel bulk velocity was 1 m s-1, the diameter D of the holes was 5 mm and the Reynolds number of the flow through the holes was around 10?000. The results are presented in terms of profiles of the mean and rms of streamwise velocity, their decay behaviour on the jet centre line, probability density functions (PDFs) of velocity fluctuations, velocity autocorrelation functions and integral time scales. In comparison with the literature data, the mean velocity decay on the centre line was much larger than that for a free jet but smaller than that for a confined jet. There was a mean reverse flow between the jets, and instantaneous reverse flow events were found also on the centre line of the jets. These were quantified based on the PDF of velocities, and at streamwise position x/D = 12 around 5% of the flow events on the centre line of the jet had negative streamwise velocities. Flow visualizations and laser Doppler anemometer measurements showed that this reverse flow is highly turbulent, and suggest that the penetration of a turbulent fluid is larger than that of a laminar or low-turbulence fluid. Finally, the consequences of the instantaneous flow reversals for droplet injection downstream of the perforated plate were analysed, and it was estimated that a small fraction of 10 ?m water droplets injected at x/D = 12 could reverse their direction of flight and deposit on the plate.

Horender, Stefan

2013-04-01

379

Liquid lithium divertor characteristics and plasma-material interactions in NSTX high-performance plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. The LLD consisted of a copper-backed structure with a porous molybdenum front face. Nominal Li filling levels by the end of the run campaign exceeded the porosity void fraction by 150%. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. In addition, no substrate line emission was observed after achieving lithium-melt temperatures indicating the lithium wicks and provides a protective coating on the molybdenum porous layer. Impurity emission from the divertor suggests that the plasma is interacting with oxygen-contaminated lithium whether diverted on the LLD or not. A database of LLD discharges is analysed to consider whether there is a net effect on the discharges over the range of total deposited lithium in the machine. Examination of H-97L indicates that performance was constant throughout the run, consistent with the hypothesis that it is the quality of the surface layers of the lithium that impact performance. The accumulation of impurities suggests a fully flowing liquid lithium system to obtain a steady-state PFC on timescales relevant to NSTX.

Jaworski, M. A.; Abrams, T.; Allain, J. P.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Menard, J.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stotler, D. P.; the NSTX Team

2013-08-01

380

Characteristics of the interaction of calcium with casein submicelles as determined by analytical affinity chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of calcium with casein submicelles was investigated in CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers and with synthetic milk salt solutions using the technique of analytical affinity chromatography. Micelles that had been prepared by size exclusion chromatography with glycerolpropyl controlled-pore glass from fresh raw skim milk that had never been cooled, were dialyzed at room temperature against calcium-free imidazole buffer, pH 6.7. Resulting submicelles were covalently immobilized on succinamidopropyl controlled-pore glass (300-nm pore size). Using 45Ca to monitor the elution retardation, the affinity of free Ca2+ and calcium salt species was determined at temperatures of 20 to 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 to 7.5. Increasing the pH in this range or increasing the temperature strengthened the binding of calcium to submicelles, similar to previous observations with individual caseins. However, the enthalpy change obtained from the temperature dependence was considerably greater than that reported for alpha s1- and beta-caseins. Furthermore, the elution profiles for 45Ca in milk salt solutions were decidedly different from those in CaCl2 or calcium phosphate buffers and the affinities were also greater. For example, at pH 6.7 and 30 degrees C the average dissociation constant for the submicelle-calcium complex is 0.074 mM for CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers, vs 0.016 mM for the milk salt solution. The asymmetric frontal boundaries and higher average affinities observed with milk salts may be due to binding of calcium salts with greater affinity in addition to the binding of free Ca2+ in these solutions.

Jang, H.D.; Swaisgood, H.E. (North Carolina State Univ. (USA))

1990-12-01

381

Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

Smith, D. R.; Pooler, P. S.; Loveland, R. E.; Botton, M. L.; Michels, S. F.; Weber, R. G.; Carter, D. B.

2002-01-01

382

Characteristics of the Dust-Plasma Interaction Near Enceladus' South Pole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present RPWS Langmuir probe data from the third Enceladus flyby (E3) showing (he presence of dusty plasma near Enceladus' South Pole. There is a sharp rise in both the electron and ion number densities when the spacecraft traverses through Enceladus plume. The ion density near Enceladus is found to increase abruptly from about 10(exp 2) cm (exp -3) before the closest approach to 10(exp 5) cm (exp -3) just 30 s after the closest approach, an amount two orders of magnitude higher than the electron density. Assuming that the inconsistency between the electron and ion number densities is due to the presence of dust particles that are collecting the missing electron charges, we present dusty plasma characteristics down to sub-micron particle sizes. By assuming a differential dust number density for a range in dust sizes and by making use of Langmuir probe data, the dust densities for certain lower limits in dust size distribution were estimated. In order to achieve the dust densities of micrometer and larger sized grains comparable to the ones reported in the literature. we show that the power law size distribution must hold down to at least 0.03 micron such that the total differential number density is dominated by the smallest sub-micron sized grains. The total dust number density in Enceladus' plume is of the order of l0(exp 2) cm(exp -3) reducing to 1 cm(exp -3) in the E- ring. The dust density for micrometer and larger sized grains is estimated to be about 10(exp -4) cm(exp -3) in the plume while it is about 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -7) cm(exp -3) in the E-ring. Dust charge for micron sized grains is estimated to be about eight thousand electron charges reducing to below one hundred electron charges for 0.03 micron sized grains. The effective dusty plasma Debye length is estimated and compared with intergrain distance as well as the electron Debye length. The maximum dust charging time of 1.4 h is found for 0.03 11mmicron sized grains just 1 min before the closest approach. The charging time decreases substantially in the plume where it is only a fraction of a second for 1 micron sized grains, 1 s for 0.l micron sized grains and about 10 s for 0.03 micron sized grains.

Shafiq, Muhammad; Wahlund, J.-E.; Morooka, M. W; Kurth, W. S.; Farrell, W. M.

2010-01-01

383

How strongly do word reading times and lexical decision times correlate? Combining data from eye movement corpora and megastudies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the amount of shared variance between three measures of visual word recognition latencies: eye movement latencies, lexical decision times, and naming times. After partialling out the effects of word frequency and word length, two well-documented predictors of word recognition latencies, we see that 7–44% of the variance is uniquely shared between lexical decision times and naming times, depending

Victor Kuperman; Denis Drieghe; Emmanuel Keuleers; Marc Brysbaert

2012-01-01

384

No Lexical-Prelexical Feedback during Speech Perception or: Is It Time to Stop Playing Those Christmas Tapes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of "Christma?" should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous…

McQueen, James M.; Jesse, Alexandra; Norris, Dennis

2009-01-01

385

Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

2009-01-01

386

Aspects of Lexical Sophistication in Advanced Learners' Oral Production: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use in L2 French and Italian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the design and use of a profiler for lexical sophistication (i.e., use of advanced vocabulary), which was created to assess the lexical richness of intermediate and advanced Swedish second language (L2) learners' French and Italian. It discusses how teachers' judgments (TJs) of word difficulty can contribute to the…

Bardel, Camilla; Gudmundson, Anna; Lindqvist, Christina

2012-01-01

387

Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

2013-01-01

388

Strategies of Communication through Lexical Avoidance in the Speech and Writing of Second Language Teachers and Learners and in Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent paper (1977) Levenston and Blum suggested that lexical simplification operates according to universal principles, and that these derive from the individual's semantic competence in his mother tongue. This paper examines the validity of this suggestion by means of a comparative study of lexical simplification in three different…

Blum, Shoshana; Levenston, Eddie

389

Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

2014-01-01

390

The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

2010-01-01

391

The Crucial Role of Thiamine in the Development of Syntax and Lexical Retrieval: A Study of Infantile Thiamine Deficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effect of thiamine deficiency during early infancy on the development of syntax and lexical retrieval. We tested syntactic comprehension and production, lexical retrieval abilities and conceptual abilities of 59 children aged 5-7 years who had been fed during their first year of life with a thiamine-deficient milk…

Fattal, Iris; Friedmann, Naama; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

2011-01-01

392

A population-based statistical approach identifies parameters characteristic of human microRNA-mRNA interactions  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs are ~17–24 nt. noncoding RNAs found in all eukaryotes that degrade messenger RNAs via RNA interference (if they bind in a perfect or near-perfect complementarity to the target mRNA), or arrest translation (if the binding is imperfect). Several microRNA targets have been identified in lower organisms, but only one mammalian microRNA target has yet been validated experimentally. Results We carried out a population-wide statistical analysis of how human microRNAs interact complementarily with human mRNAs, looking for characteristics that differ significantly as compared with scrambled control sequences. These characteristics were used to identify a set of 71 outlier mRNAs unlikely to have been hit by chance. Unlike the case in C. elegans and Drosophila, many human microRNAs exhibited long exact matches (10 or more bases in a row), up to and including perfect target complementarity. Human microRNAs hit outlier mRNAs within the protein coding region about 2/3 of the time. And, the stretches of perfect complementarity within microRNA hits onto outlier mRNAs were not biased near the 5'-end of the microRNA. In several cases, an individual microRNA hit multiple mRNAs that belonged to the same functional class. Conclusions The analysis supports the notion that sequence complementarity is the basis by which microRNAs recognize their biological targets, but raises the possibility that human microRNA-mRNA target interactions follow different rules than have been previously characterized in Drosophila and C. elegans.

Smalheiser, Neil R; Torvik, Vetle I

2004-01-01

393

From sound to syntax: phonological constraints on children's lexical categorization of new words.  

PubMed

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality - an aggregate measure of the relationship between the phonology of a word and the phonology of words in the same lexical class. Experiment 1 showed that when monolingual English-speaking seven-year-olds could rely on learning by exclusion, phonological typicality only affected their initial inferences about the words. Consistent with recent computational analyses, phonological cues had stronger impact on the processing of verb-like than noun-like items. Experiment 2 revealed an impact of French on the performance of seven-year-olds in French immersion when tested in a French language environment. Thus, phonological knowledge may affect lexical categorization even in the absence of extensive experience. PMID:19105858

Fitneva, Stanka A; Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-11-01

394

Experiments on moving interaction boundaries and their characteristics of focusing and probing of both guest and host target molecules.  

PubMed

In this paper, the concept of a moving interaction boundary (MIB) is proposed with regard to guest and host molecules. With 2-naphthalene-sulfonate (2-NS) and beta-cyclodextrin (CD) as the model guest and host compounds, respectively, the relevant experiments were carried out on the MIB in capillary electrophoresis (CE). The experiments show that (1) there are a MIB and a complex boundary (CB) if proper guest and host molecules are used; (2) the MIB system has the characteristic of selective focusing and probing of the target 2-NS; (3) the system also has the characteristic of selective probing of the target host molecule beta-CD without UV-absorbance, making the direct UV determination of beta-CD from other CDs possible; (4) interestingly, the focusing of the guest molecule is a kind of leaky-sample stacking rather than a collection of analytes in sample sweeping; (5) the mechanism of MIB-induced separation of target analyte from unwanted ones is similar to but different from that of an affinity chromatography. In addition, the utility of MIB was briefly tested for a real sample of wastewater spiked with 2-NS. PMID:19720181

Fan, Liuyin; Yan, Wei; Cao, Chengxi; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qian

2009-09-14

395

An analysis of perspectives in interactive settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the effect of the context of interaction on the extent to which a contributor's perspective bias is displayed through their lexical choice. We present a series of experiments on political discussion data. Our experiments indicate that (i) when people quote contributors with an opposing view, they tend to quote the words that are less strongly

Dong Nguyen; Elijah Mayfield; Carolyn P. Rosé

2010-01-01

396

Building Specialized Multilingual Lexical Graphs Using Community Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are describing methods for compiling domain-dedicated multilingual terminological data from various resources. We focus on collecting data from online community users as a main source, therefore, our approach depends on acquiring contributions from volunteers (explicit approach), and it depends on analyzing users' behaviors to extract interesting patterns and facts (implicit approach). As a generic repository that can handle the collected multilingual terminological data, we are describing the concept of dedicated Multilingual Preterminological Graphs MPGs, and some automatic approaches for constructing them by analyzing the behavior of online community users. A Multilingual Preterminological Graph is a special lexical resource that contains massive amount of terms related to a special domain. We call it preterminological, because it is a raw material that can be used to build a standardized terminological repository. Building such a graph is difficult using traditional approaches, as it needs huge efforts by domain specialists and terminologists. In our approach, we build such a graph by analyzing the access log files of the website of the community, and by finding the important terms that have been used to search in that website, and their association with each other. We aim at making this graph as a seed repository so multilingual volunteers can contribute. We are experimenting this approach with the Digital Silk Road Project. We have used its access log files since its beginning in 2003, and obtained an initial graph of around 116000 terms. As an application, we used this graph to obtain a preterminological multilingual database that is serving a CLIR system for the DSR project.

Daoud, Mohammad; Boitet, Christian; Kageura, Kyo; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Mangeot, Mathieu; Daoud, Daoud

397

CNVs-microRNAs Interactions Demonstrate Unique Characteristics in the Human Genome. An Interspecies in silico Analysis  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and copy number variations (CNVs) represent two classes of newly discovered genomic elements that were shown to contribute to genome plasticity and evolution. Recent studies demonstrated that miRNAs and CNVs must have co-evolved and interacted in an attempt to maintain the balance of the dosage sensitive genes and at the same time increase the diversity of dosage non-sensitive genes, contributing to species evolution. It has been previously demonstrated that both the number of miRNAs that target genes found in CNV regions as well as the number of miRNA binding sites are significantly higher than those of genes found in non-CNV regions. These findings raise the possibility that miRNAs may have been created under evolutionary pressure, as a mechanism for increasing the tolerance to genome plasticity. In the current study, we aimed in exploring the differences of miRNAs-CNV functional interactions between human and seven others species. By performing in silico whole genome analysis in eight different species (human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, chicken, dog and cow), we demonstrate that miRNAs targeting genes located within CNV regions in humans have special functional characteristics that provide an insight into the differences between humans and other species.

Dweep, Harsh; Georgiou, George D.; Gretz, Norbert; Deltas, Constantinos; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Felekkis, Kyriacos

2013-01-01

398

Ionospheric characteristics associated with wave-particle interactions in a SED plume during a super geomagnetic storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report some interesting ionospheric characteristics associated with wave-particle interactions with observations of the ionosonde and co-located incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Millstone Hill in a storm-enhanced density (SED) plume identified from two-dimensional GPS TEC maps during a super geomagnetic storm on Nov. 20, 2003. Firstly, the digisonde ionogram only contained echoes for scanning frequencies from 6.2 MHz to 9.3 MHz. The lack of echoes at frequencies below 6.2 MHz is attributed to enhancements of sub-ionospheric absorption caused by precipitating RC electrons in the SED plume. Secondly, there was an obvious F1 layer, as well as an Es layer, appearing on the ISR profile, that was not observed by the digisonde due to strong sub-ionospheric absorption. For echoes at frequencies from 6.2 MHz to 9.3 MHz, a comparison of the virtual height obtained from the digisonde ionogram and that derived from the ISR electron density profile, demonstrated that an Es layer appeared with a peak altitude of 123 km. The occurrence of the Es layer is attributed to enhancements of precipitating energetic ion fluxes in the SED plume. Our result suggests that the ionospheric behavior in the SED plume is controlled not only by ionospheric dynamical process but also by precipitating energetic RC ions/ electrons as a consequence of wave-particle interactions in the plasmaspheric plume.

Yuan, Zhigang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Shunrong; Deng, Xiaohua; Wang, Jingfang

2013-04-01

399

Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information  

PubMed Central

During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on “kept in mind” rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.

Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E.; Aboitiz, Francisco

2013-01-01

400

Oscillatory brain responses in spoken word production reflect lexical frequency and sentential constraint.  

PubMed

Two fundamental factors affecting the speed of spoken word production are lexical frequency and sentential constraint, but little is known about their timing and electrophysiological basis. In the present study, we investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory brain responses induced by these factors, using a task in which participants named pictures after reading sentences. Sentence contexts were either constraining or nonconstraining towards the final word, which was presented as a picture. Picture names varied in their frequency of occurrence in the language. Naming latencies and electrophysiological responses were examined as a function of context and lexical frequency. Lexical frequency is an index of our cumulative learning experience with words, so lexical-frequency effects most likely reflect access to memory representations for words. Pictures were named faster with constraining than nonconstraining contexts. Associated with this effect, starting around 400 ms pre-picture presentation, oscillatory power between 8 and 30 Hz was lower for constraining relative to nonconstraining contexts. Furthermore, pictures were named faster with high-frequency than low-frequency names, but only for nonconstraining contexts, suggesting differential ease of memory access as a function of sentential context. Associated with the lexical-frequency effect, starting around 500 ms pre-picture presentation, oscillatory power between 4 and 10 Hz was higher for high-frequency than for low-frequency names, but only for constraining contexts. Our results characterise electrophysiological responses associated with lexical frequency and sentential constraint in spoken word production, and point to new avenues for studying these fundamental factors in language production. PMID:24291513

Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Maris, Eric

2014-01-01

401

Evoking biphone neighborhoods with verbal transformations: Illusory changes demonstrate both lexical competition and inhibition  

PubMed Central

When a recorded verbal stimulus repeats over and over, perceptual changes occur and listeners hear competing forms. These verbal transformations (VTs) were obtained for a phonemically related set of 24 consonant-vowel syllables that varied widely in frequency-weighted neighborhood density (FWND). Listener’s initial transformations involving substitution of consonants versus vowels were strongly correlated with the lexical substitution neighborhood [r= +0.82, p<0.0001]. Interestingly, as stimulus FWND increased, average time spent hearing illusory forms substantially decreased [r=?0.75, p<0.0001]. These results suggest that VTs not only reveal underlying competitors, but also provide a highly sensitive measure of lexical inhibition.

Warren, Richard M.; Lenz, Peter W.

2008-01-01

402

Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

403

Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid  

PubMed Central

During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions.

Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

2014-01-01

404

Differentiating Cantonese-Speaking Preschool Children with and without SLI Using MLU and Lexical Diversity (D)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of a composite clinical assessment measure based on mean length of utterance (MLU), lexical diversity (D), and age (Klee, Stokes, Wong, Fletcher, & Gavin, 2004) in a second, independent sample of 4-year-old Cantonese-speaking children with and without specific language impairment…

Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Leonard, Laurence B.

2010-01-01

405

The Development of Lexical Bundle Accuracy and Production in English Second Language Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six adult, second language (L2) English learners were observed over a period of one year to explore the development of lexical bundles (i.e., bigrams) in naturally produced, oral English. Total bigrams produced by the L2 learners over the year of observation that were shared with native speakers were compared using a frequency index to explore L2…

Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Thomas Lee

2011-01-01

406

Reading Polymorphemic Dutch Compounds: Toward a Multiple Route Model of Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports an eye-tracking experiment with 2,500 polymorphemic Dutch compounds presented in isolation for visual lexical decision while readers' eye movements were registered. The authors found evidence that both full forms of compounds ("dishwasher") and their constituent morphemes (e.g., "dish," "washer," "er") and morphological…

Kuperman, Victor; Schreuder, Robert; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

2009-01-01

407

Decision Lists for Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical ambiguity resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given ambiguity. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies.

David Yarowsky

1994-01-01

408

Effects of Prosodic and Lexical Constraints on Parsing in Young Children (and Adults)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing [Trueswell, J.C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N.M., & Logrip, M.L, (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: Studying on-line sentence processing in young children.…

Snedeker, Jesse; Yuan, Sylvia

2008-01-01

409

Bilingual Lexical Access in Context: Evidence from Eye Movements during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current models of bilingualism (e.g., BIA+) posit that lexical access during reading is not language selective. However, much of this research is based on the comprehension of words in isolation. The authors investigated whether nonselective access occurs for words embedded in biased sentence contexts (e.g., A. I. Schwartz & J. F. Kroll, 2006).…

Libben, Maya R.; Titone, Debra A.

2009-01-01

410

Modelling Lexical Decision Using Corpus Derived Semantic Representations in a Connectionist Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connectionist models of the mapping from orthography or phonology to random binary semantic vectors allow the simulation of lexical decision with reaction times that show patterns of semantic and associative priming similar to those found experimentally with human subjects. The co-occurrence statistics of words in large corpora allow the generation of vectors whose distribution correlates with the perceived semantic relatedness

John A. Bullinaria; Christopher C. Huckle

1997-01-01

411

From melody to lexical tone: Musical ability enhances specific aspects of foreign language perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research shows that music ability provides positive effects on language processing. This study aims at better clarifying the involvement of different linguistic subdomains in this cross-domain link, assessing whether or not musicality and music expertise enhance phonological and lexical tone processing of Mandarin Chinese. In two experiments different groups of adults and children with no previous experience in tonal

Franco Delogu; Giulia Lampis; Marta Olivetti Belardinelli

2010-01-01

412

Functional lateralization of lexical stress representation: a systematic review of patient data  

PubMed Central

According to the functional lateralization hypothesis (FLH) the lateralization of speech prosody depends both on its function (linguistic = left, emotional = right) and on the size of the units it operates on (small = left, large = right). In consequence, according to the FLH, lexical stress should be processed by the left (language-dominant) hemisphere, given its linguistic function and small unit size. We performed an exhaustive search for case studies of patients with acquired dysprosody due to unilateral brain damage. In contrast to previous reviews we only regarded dysprosody at the lexical level (excluding phrasal stress). Moreover, we focused on the representational stage of lexical stress processing, excluding more peripheral perceptual or motor deficits. Applying these criteria, we included nine studies reporting on 11 patients. All of these patients showed representational deficits in word stress processing following a lesion in their language-dominant hemisphere. In 9 out of 11 patients, it was the left hemisphere which was affected. This is a much more consistent pattern as found in previous reviews, in which less rigorous inclusion criteria may have blurred the pattern of results. We conclude that the representation of lexical stress crucially relies on the functioning of the language-dominant (mostly left) hemisphere.

Hauser, Katja; Domahs, Frank

2014-01-01

413

Lexical Selection Is Competitive: Evidence from Indirectly Activated Semantic Associates during Picture Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm,…

Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

2013-01-01

414

An Analysis of the Multiword Lexical Units in Contemporary ELT Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, the importance of multiword lexical units has been receiving an extraordinary amount of attention, and is now almost a must-have component in the practice of English language teaching. The field of English for Business Purposes was among the first to recognize the uniqueness of multiword units, establishing the initial…

Hsu, Jeng-yih

2006-01-01

415

The Cascaded Nature of Lexical Selection and Integration in Auditory Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal relationship between lexical selection and the semantic integration in auditory sentence processing. Participants were presented with spoken sentences that ended with a word that was either semantically congruent or anomalous. Information about the moment in…

van den Brink, Danielle; Brown, Colin M.; Hagoort, Peter

2006-01-01

416

Are non-semantic morphological effects incompatible with a distributed connectionist approach to lexical processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a distributed connectionist approach, morphology reflects a learned sensitivity to the systematic relationships among the surface forms of words and their meanings. Performance on lexical tasks should thus exhibit graded effects of both semantic and formal similarity. Although there is evidence for such effects, there are also demonstrations of morphological effects in the absence of semantic similarity (when formal

David C. Plaut; Laura M. Gonnerman

2000-01-01

417

Focus on Form, Learner Uptake and Subsequent Lexical Gains in Learners' Oral Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study reports findings on the relationship between focus on form, learner uptake and subsequent lexical gains in learners' oral production. The data for the study consisted in 17 45-minute audio-recorded teacher-led conversations, 204 learners' diaries (17 sessions x 12 learners) reporting what they had learned after each…

Alcon-Soler, Eva

2009-01-01

418

Temporal relation between top-down and bottom-up processing in lexical tone perception  

PubMed Central

Speech perception entails both top-down processing that relies primarily on language experience and bottom-up processing that depends mainly on instant auditory input. Previous models of speech perception often claim that bottom-up processing occurs in an early time window, whereas top-down processing takes place in a late time window after stimulus onset. In this paper, we evaluated the temporal relation of both types of processing in lexical tone perception. We conducted a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments that recruited Mandarin participants and adopted three experimental paradigms, namely dichotic listening, lexical decision with phonological priming, and semantic violation. By systematically analyzing the lateralization patterns of the early and late ERP components that are observed in these experiments, we discovered that: auditory processing of pitch variations in tones, as a bottom-up effect, elicited greater right hemisphere activation; in contrast, linguistic processing of lexical tones, as a top-down effect, elicited greater left hemisphere activation. We also found that both types of processing co-occurred in both the early (around 200 ms) and late (around 300–500 ms) time windows, which supported a parallel model of lexical tone perception. Unlike the previous view that language processing is special and performed by dedicated neural circuitry, our study have elucidated that language processing can be decomposed into general cognitive functions (e.g., sensory and memory) and share neural resources with these functions.

Shuai, Lan; Gong, Tao

2013-01-01

419

Object Interference in Children's Colour and Position Naming: Lexical Interference or Task-Set Competition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cascade models of word production assume that during lexical access all activated concepts activate their names. In line with this view, it has been shown that naming an object's colour is facilitated when colour name and object name are phonologically related (e.g., "blue" and "blouse"). Prevor and Diamond's (2005) recent observation that…

La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke

2010-01-01

420

Conscious Intention to Speak Proactively Facilitates Lexical Access during Overt Object Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored when and how the top-down intention to speak influences the language production process. We did so by comparing the brain's electrical response for a variable known to affect lexical access, namely word frequency, during overt object naming and non-verbal object categorization. We found that during naming, the…

Strijkers, Kristof; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Costa, Albert

2011-01-01

421

Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

2005-01-01

422

Semantic Development of Lexical Items as Studied through the Process of Equivalence Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the semantic development of individual lexical items, as viewed from a semantic features perspective. It involves four narrow semantic domains, a sample of elementary school-children and their teachers, and two native language groups, English and Spanish. Semantic development is studied through the process of equivalence…

Dillon, David

423

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

424

Cross-Language Mediated Priming: Effects of Context and Lexical Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined how linguistic context influences the nature of bilingual lexical activation. We hypothesized that in single-word context, form-related words would receive the strongest activation while, in sentence context, semantically related words would receive the strongest activation. Spanish-English bilinguals performed a semantic verification…

Schwartz, Ana I.; Areas Da Luz Fontes, Ana B.

2008-01-01

425

Knowledge Sources in EFL Learners' Lexical Inferencing across Reading Proficiency Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing concerns have been voiced about strategies employed in L2 reading in general and dealing with unknown words in particular. Among other strategies, lexical inferencing has received attention in the literature. However, more research is needed to further clarify how different levels of L2 reading proficiency may affect the readers'…

Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Soltani Moghaddam, Majid

2012-01-01

426

Lexical Diversity and Productivity in French Preschoolers: Developmental, Gender and Sociocultural Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of child gender and sociocultural (SCL) factors in language production. Subjects were French Parisian children in nine age groups (24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45 and 48 months). A total of 316 language samples were recorded during a 20-min standardized play session. Measures of grammatical and lexical

Le Normand, Marie-Therese; Parisse, Christophe; Cohen, Henri

2008-01-01

427

A cross-linguistic and bilingual evaluation of the interdependence between lexical and grammatical domains  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine within and across language relationships between lexical and grammatical domains by focusing on measures of lexical diversity and grammatical complexity in Spanish and English. One hundred and ninety-six preschool and school-aged Latino children with different levels of English and Spanish proficiencies and different language abilities produced narratives in Spanish, English, or both. Analyses revealed strong associations between lexical (number of different words and number of different verbs) and grammatical measures (mean length of utterances in words and use of ditransitive predicates), supporting the domain interdependence hypothesis within a language. Cross-linguistic comparisons indicate a greater diversity of verbs and ditransitive predicates in Spanish compared to English for this population. In the language samples of children who produced narratives in the two languages, there was no relationship between the two domains across languages. The lack of cross-language correlations may be related to other variables influencing lexical and semantic development in bilingual learners. Methodological issues to be considered in future studies with bilingual speakers are discussed.

Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.

2009-01-01

428

The Role of Visual Form in Lexical Access: Evidence from Chinese Classifier Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interface between the conceptual and lexical systems was investigated in a word production setting. We tested the effects of two conceptual dimensions--semantic category and visual shape--on the selection of Chinese nouns and classifiers. Participants named pictures with nouns ("rope") or classifier-noun phrases ("one-"classifier"-rope") in…

Bi, Yanchao; Yu, Xi; Geng, Jingyi; Alario, F. -Xavier.

2010-01-01

429

Scope of Lexical Access in Spoken Sentence Production: Implications for the Conceptual-Syntactic Interface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on P. H. Allum and L. Wheeldon (2007), the authors conducted 5 experiments to investigate the scope of lexical access during spoken sentence production in Japanese and English. Speakers described pairs of pictured objects, and on critical trials, 1 object was previewed. In Japanese, sentence onset is speeded by the preview of each of the…

Allum, Paul H.; Wheeldon, L.

2009-01-01

430

Lexical Bundles in Published and Student Disciplinary Writing: Examples from History and Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than a century, linguists have been interested in the study of frequent word combinations. The present study investigated a special type of word combination, lexical bundles, defined as a sequence of three or more words that co-occur frequently in a particular register [Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Longman, London,…

Cortes, Viviana

2004-01-01

431

Theology Lectures as Lexical Environments: A Case Study of Technical Vocabulary Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a descriptive case study on the use of technical vocabulary in the lectures of a first-year graduate theology course in Canada. It first contextualizes this research by noting four kinds of English vocabulary and the study of classrooms as lexical environments. Next it outlines the study's methodology, including the…

Lessard-Clouston, Michael

2010-01-01

432

Lexical processing in the bilingual brain: Evidence from grammatical\\/morphological deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A few studies have recently documented cases of proficient bilingual individuals who, subsequent to neural injury, suffered selective deficits affecting specific aspects of lexical processing. These cases involved disruption affecting the production of words from a specific grammatical category (verbs or nouns) or the production of irregular versus regular verb forms. Critically, these selective deficits were manifested in a

Michele Miozzo; Albert Costa; Mireia Hernández; Brenda Rapp

2010-01-01

433

The Integration of Lexical, Syntactic, and Discourse Features in Bilingual Adolescents' Writing: An Exploratory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the bilingual writing of adolescent English language learners (ELLs) using quantitative tools. Linguistic measures were applied to the participants' writing at the lexical, syntactic, and discourse levels, with the goal of comparing outcomes at each of these levels across languages (Spanish/English)…

Danzak, Robin L.

2011-01-01

434

The Simultaneous Effects of Inflectional Paradigms and Classes on Lexical Recognition: Evidence from Serbian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigate the relevance of inflectional paradigms and inflectional classes for lexical processing. We provide an information-theoretical measure of the divergence in the frequency distributions of two of the paradigms to which a word simultaneously belongs: the paradigm of the stem and the more general paradigm of the nominal…

Milin, Petar; Filipovic Durdevic, Dusica; Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin

2009-01-01

435

Early Relations between Lexical and Grammatical Development in Very Immature Italian Preterms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate early lexical and grammatical development and their relations in a sample of very immature healthy preterms, in order to assess whether their linguistic development was typical, at risk or atypical. The effects of biological factors and parental level of education on preterms' linguistic development were also…

Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Giovanelli, Giuliana; Salvioli, Gianpaolo

2006-01-01

436

Lexical and Segmental Influences on Child and Adult Learners' Production of Second Language Vowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how two segmental or sound-related factors (cross- language perceptual similarity, syllabic context) as well as two lexical or word- related factors (word frequency, subjective word familiarity) influenced the production of eight English vowels by 40 Korean children and adults exposed to English in the U.S. for an average of 1 and 7 years. Results of two experiments

Wendy Baker; Pavel Trofimovich

2008-01-01

437

A Theory of If: A Lexical Entry, Reasoning Program, and Pragmatic Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory has 3 parts: (a) A lexical entry defines the information about if in semantic memory; its core comprises 2 inference schemas, Modus Ponens and a schema for Conditional Proof; the latter operates under a constraint that explains differences between if and the material conditional of standard logic. (b) A propositional-logic reasoning program specifies a routine for reasoning from

Martin D. S. Braine; David P. O’Brien

1991-01-01

438

Lexical Representations in Children with SLI: Evidence from a Frequency-Manipulated Gating Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated lexical representations of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing, chronological age-matched (CA) peers on a frequency-manipulated gating task. The study tested the hypothesis that children with SLI have holistic phonological representations of words, that is, that children with…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

2008-01-01

439

Lexicality and Frequency in Specific Language Impairment: Accuracy and Error Data from Two Nonword Repetition Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Deficits in phonological working memory and deficits in phonological processing have both been considered potential explanatory factors in specific language impairment (SLI). Manipulations of the lexicality and phonotactic frequency of nonwords enable contrasting predictions to be derived from these hypotheses. Method: Eighteen typically…

Jones, Gary; Tamburelli, Marco; Watson, Sarah E.; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

2010-01-01

440

The Search for Common Ground: Part I. Lexical Performance by Linguistically Diverse Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines lexical performance by 3 groups of linguistically diverse school-age learners: English-only speakers with primary language impairment (LI), typical English-only speakers (EO), and typical bilingual Spanish-English speakers (BI). The accuracy and response time (RT) of 100 8- to 13-year-old children in word recognition and…

Windsor, Jennifer; Kohnert, Kathryn

2004-01-01

441

Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: pressure, select, adapt, need, and must. We utilized a new technological tool known as the Assessment Cascade System (ACS) to investigate the frequency with which biology majors spontaneously used lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations, as well as their definitions and explanations of what they meant when they used such terms. Three categories of language were identified and examined in this study: terms with Dual Ambiguity, Incompatible Ambiguity, and Unintended Ambiguity. In the sample of 1282 initial evolutionary explanations, 81 % of students spontaneously incorporated lexically ambiguous language at least once. Furthermore, the majority of these initial responses were judged to be inaccurate from a scientific point of view. While not significantly related to gender, age, or reading/writing ability, students' use of contextually appropriate evolutionary language ( pressure and adapt) was significantly associated with academic performance in biology. Comparisons of initial responses to follow-up responses demonstrated that the majority of student explanations were not reinterpreted after consideration of the follow-up response; nevertheless, a sizeable minority was interpreted differently. Most cases of interpretation change were a consequence of resolving initially ambiguous responses, rather than a change of accuracy, resulting in an increased understanding of students' evolutionary explanations. We discuss a series of implications of lexical ambiguity for evolution education.

Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

2013-06-01

442

Lexical biases in aphasic sentence comprehension: An experimental and corpus linguistic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study investigates the role of lexical information in normal and aphasic sentence comprehension. Effects of verb biases in normal comprehension have been well documented in previous studies (e.g., Spivey-Knowlton & Sedivy, 1995; Trueswell, Tanenhaus, & Kello, 1993), but their role in aphasic language processing has largely been ignored (with the exceptions of Menn et al., 1998, and Russo,

Susanne Gahl

2002-01-01

443

FBK-irst: Lexical Substitution Task Exploiting Domain and Syntagmatic Coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes FBK-irst participa- tion at the lexical substitution task of the SEMEVAL competition. We submitted two different systems, both exploiting synonym lists extracted from dictionaries. For each word to be substituted, the systems rank the associated synonym list according to a simi- larity metric based on Latent Semantic Anal- ysis and to the occurrences in the Web 1T

Claudio Giuliano; Alfio Gliozzo; Carlo Strapparava

2007-01-01

444

Modeling of Word Translation: Activation Flow from Concepts to Lexical Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas most theoretical and computational models assume a continuous flow of activation from concepts to lexical items in spoken word production, one prominent model assumes that the mapping of concepts onto words happens in a discrete fashion (Bloem & La Heij, 2003). Semantic facilitation of context pictures on word translation has been taken to…

Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Gerakaki, Svetlana

2013-01-01

445

The Strength and Time Course of Lexical Activation of Pronunciation Variants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken words undergo frequent and often predictable variation in pronunciation. One form of variation is medial /t/ deletion, in which words like "center" and "cantaloupe" are pronounced without acoustic cues indicative of syllable-initial /t/. Three experiments examined the consequences of this missing phonetic information on lexical activation.…

Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

446

Sandwich Priming: A Method for Overcoming the Limitations of Masked Priming by Reducing Lexical Competitor Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An orthographically similar masked nonword prime facilitates responding in a lexical decision task (Forster & Davis, 1984). Recently, this masked priming paradigm has been used to evaluate models of orthographic coding--models that attempt to quantify prime-target similarity. One general finding is that priming effects often do not occur when…

Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

2009-01-01

447

The Lexical Status of Basic Arabic Verb Morphemes among Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The masked priming paradigm was used to examine the role of the root and verb pattern morphemes in lexical access within the verb system of Arabic. Three groups participated in the study: grade 6 dyslexics, a reading-level-matched group and grade 6 normal readers. The first group consisted of: 28 grade 6 reading disabled (RD) students, 8 girls and…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Saliba, Fadi

2008-01-01

448

Masked Priming with Orthographic Neighbors: A Test of the Lexical Competition Assumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In models of visual word identification that incorporate inhibitory competition among activated lexical units, a word's higher frequency neighbors will be the word's strongest competitors. Preactivation of these neighbors by a prime is predicted to delay the word's identification. Using the masked priming paradigm (K. I. Forster & C. Davis, 1984,…

Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

449

Decomposition into Multiple Morphemes during Lexical Access: A Masked Priming Study of Russian Nouns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) "transparent," in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the…

Kazanina, Nina; Dukova-Zheleva, Galina; Geber, Dana; Kharlamov, Viktor; Tonciulescu, Keren

2008-01-01

450

Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

2005-01-01

451

Lexical Entrainment in Written Discourse: Is Experts' Word Use Adapted to the Addressee?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overlaps with one's interlocutor in the choice of words are called lexical entrainment. This article looks at accounts for these overlaps in word use. The question addressed is the extent to which the word use of the addressee, as opposed to available words from other sources, has a special impact on experts' choice of words. A laboratory…

Jucks, Regina; Becker, Bettina-Maria; Bromme, Rainer

2008-01-01

452

Bare Forms and Lexical Insertions in Code-Switching: A Processing-Based Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bare forms (or [slashed O] forms), uninflected lexical L2 insertions in contexts where the matrix language expects morphological marking, have been recognized as an anomaly in different approaches to code-switching. Myers-Scotton (1997, 2002) has explained their existence in terms of structural incongruity between the matrix and embedded…

Owens, Jonathan

2005-01-01

453

From Sound to Syntax: Phonological Constraints on Children's Lexical Categorization of New Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality--an aggregate measure of the relationship between the…

Fitneva, Stanka A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-01-01

454

Effects of Text Length on Lexical Diversity Measures: Using Short Texts with Less than 200 Tokens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of lexical diversity (LD) in L2 speaking and writing performance, LD assessment measures are known to be affected by the number of words analyzed in the text. This study aims to identify LD measures that are least affected by text length and can be used for the analysis of short L2 texts (50-200 tokens). We compared the…

Koizumi, Rie; In'nami, Yo

2012-01-01

455

Use of Minimal Lexical Conceptual Structures for Single-Document Summarization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports provides an overview of the findings and software that have evolved from the Use of Minimal Lexical Conceptual Structures for Single-Document Summarization project over the last six months. We present the major goals that have been achieved a...

B. J. Dorr C. Monz N. Y. Habash R. Schwartz

2004-01-01

456

Lexical and Child-Related Factors in Word Variability and Accuracy in Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the effects of lexical age of acquisition (AoA), phonological complexity, age and expressive vocabulary on spoken word variability and accuracy in typically developing infants, aged 1;9-3;1. It was hypothesized that later-acquired words and those with more complex speech sounds would be produced more variably and…

Macrae, Toby

2013-01-01

457

A Contrastive Study of Prosody and Lexical Stress Placement in Singapore English and British English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests experimentally whether stress placement in polysyllabic words differs in Singapore English (SE) and British English (BE), or whether acoustic correlates of stress differ in the two English varieties. Results suggest word-final stress in SE is not result of lexical stress placement, but combination of lengthening of final-syllable words in…

Ling, Low Ee; Grabe, Esther

1999-01-01

458

Computational Assessment of Lexical Differences in L1 and L2 Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how lexical differences related to cohesion and connectionist models can distinguish first language (L1) writers of English from second language (L2) writers of English. Key to this analysis is the use of the computational tool Coh-Metrix, which measures cohesion and text difficulty at…

Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

459

Newborn Infants' Sensitivity to Perceptual Cues to Lexical and Grammatical Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented neonates with lexical and grammatical words prepared from natural maternal speech. Found that neonates could categorically discriminate the sets based on a constellation of perceptual cues that distinguished them. Suggested that this ability to discriminate words on basis of multiple acoustic/phonological cues provides a perceptual base…

Shi, Rushen; Werker, Janet F.; Morgan, James L.

1999-01-01

460

Inner Speech Slips Exhibit Lexical Bias, But Not the Phonemic Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inner speech, that little voice that people often hear inside their heads while thinking, is a form of mental imagery. The properties of inner speech errors can be used to investigate the nature of inner speech, just as overt slips are informative about overt speech production. Overt slips tend to create words ("lexical bias") and involve similar…

Oppenheim, Gary M.; Dell, Gary S.

2008-01-01

461

Lexical and Clause-Linkage Properties of the Converbal Constructions in Sakha (Yakut)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis is a comprehensive study of lexical and clause-linkage properties of converbs in an underdescribed language, Sakha (aka Yakut). Following Haspelmath (1995b) a converb is defined as a non-finite verb form which mainly indicates an adverbial subordination. Converbs are attested in diverse languages of the world, but are used extensively…

Petrova, Nyurguyana

2011-01-01

462

From Spelling Pronunciation to Lexical Access: A Second Step in Word Decoding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a gap between "w..aa..sss" and "woz" ("was"). This is a gap between the output from a phonological recoding of a word and its lexical pronunciation. We suggest that ease of recognition of words from spelling pronunciations (like "w..aa..sss") contributes independent variance to word decoding ability with both regularly and irregularly…

Elbro, Carsten; de Jong, Peter F.; Houter, Daphne; Nielsen, Anne-Mette

2012-01-01

463

Integrating a Lexical Database and a Training Collection for Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text categorization is a complex and useful task for many natural language processing applications. Recent approaches to text categorization focus more on algorithms than on resources involved in this operation. In contrast to this trend, we present an approach based on the integration of widely available resources as lexical databases and training collections to overcome current limitations of the

Jose Maria Gomez Hidalgo; Manuel de Buenaga Rodriguez

1997-01-01

464

Integrating a Lexical Database and a Training Collection for Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text categorization is a complex and useful task for many natural language processing applications. Recent approaches to text cat- egorization focus more on algorithms than on resources involved in this operation. In contrast to this trend, we present an approach based on the integration of widely available resources as lexical databases and train- ing collections to overcome current limitations

Jose Mar ´ õa; Manuel de Buenaga Rodr ´ õguez

465

The Independent Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Acquisition by Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research was to disentangle effects of phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, and neighbourhood density, the number of phonologically similar words, in lexical acquisition. Two-word learning experiments were conducted with 4-year-old children. Experiment 1 manipulated phonotactic probability…

Storkel, Holly L.; Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

466

Structural Correlates for Lexical Efficiency and Number of Languages in Non-Native Speakers of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers.…

Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M. L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J.

2012-01-01

467

The Developmental Course of Lexical Tone Perception in the First Year of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual reorganisation of infants' speech perception has been found from 6 months for consonants and earlier for vowels. Recently, similar reorganisation has been found for lexical tone between 6 and 9 months of age. Given that there is a close relationship between vowels and tones, this study investigates whether the perceptual reorganisation…

Mattock, Karen; Molnar, Monika; Polka, Linda; Burn, Denis

2008-01-01

468

Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: "pressure", "select", "adapt", "need", and "must". We utilized a new technological tool known as the…

Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

2013-01-01

469

The Effect of Teaching English Phonotactics on the Lexical Segmentation of English as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an intervention study which investigated the effect of teaching English phonotactics upon Arabic speakers' lexical segmentation of running speech in English. The study involved a native English-speaking group (N = 12), a non-native control group (N = 20); and a non-native experimental group (N = 20). Each group was pre-tested…

Al-jasser, Faisal

2008-01-01

470

Do picture?naming tests provide a valid assessment of lexical retrieval in conversation in aphasia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Word?finding problems commonly occur in aphasia and can significantly affect communication. Assessment of this deficit typically involves naming pictures. However, this method has been criticised as lacking ecological validity. Alternative methods include the measurement of lexical retrieval in narration or conversation, although few published studies have quantified word finding in the latter.Aims: We aimed to identify a reliable and

Ruth Herbert; Julie Hickin; David Howard; Felicity Osborne; Wendy Best

2008-01-01

471

Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

472

Lexicality and Interference in Working Memory in Children and in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments investigated the impact of the lexical status of memory and processing stimuli on complex memory performance, with the aim of exploring mechanisms of interference in working memory. In a complex memory task, participants recalled words or nonwords while either monitoring words or nonwords for phonological content, or suppressing…

Conlin, Juliet A.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2006-01-01

473

Object naming and later lexical development: From baby bottle to beer bottle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite arguments for the relative ease of learning common noun meanings, semantic development continues well past the early years of language acquisition even for names of concrete objects. We studied evolution of the use of common nouns during later lexical development. Children aged 5–14 years and adults named common household objects and their naming patterns were compared. Children showed a

Eef Ameel; Barbara Malt; Gert Storms

2008-01-01

474

A Comparison of Word Lexicality in the Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research programme was to evaluate the role of word lexicality in effecting phonological change in children's sound systems. Four children with functional speech sound disorders (SSDs) were enrolled in an across-subjects multiple baseline single-subject design; two were treated using high-frequency real words (RWs) and two were…

Cummings, Alycia E.; Barlow, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

475

Effect of Instruction with Expert Patterns on the Lexical Learning of English as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to show the importance of instruction in learning a specific set of words. Two different tasks were used in the experiment: one in which subjects were required to fill in sentences and choose the appropriate answer in a multiple choice exercise (lexical test), and the other was a rating task designed to assess semantic…

Sanchez, Maria Jesus

2004-01-01

476

What Is Morphological Awareness? Tapping Lexical Compounding Awareness in Chinese Third Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred twenty-one third-grade Chinese children were assessed with a new morphological awareness task involving open-ended lexical compounding, in addition to completing other measures. With children's age, nonverbal intelligence, phonological awareness, and previously established measures of morphological awareness statistically controlled,…

Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2010-01-01

477

Dissociable lexical and phonological inuences on serial recognition and serial recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the lexicality of memory items on memory performance was compared in two paradigms, serial recall and serial recognition. Experiments 1 to 3 tested 7- and 8-year-old children. Memory accuracy was only mildly impaired in lists containing nonwords compared with words in a serial recognition task involving judgements of whether the items in two sequences were in the

Susan E. Gathercole; Susan J. Pickering; Sarah M. Peaker

478

The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

2012-01-01

479

Priming of Code-Switches in Sentences: The Role of Lexical Repetition, Cognates, and Language Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, we tested the role of lexical repetition, cognates, and second language (L2) proficiency in the priming of code-switches, using the structural priming technique. Dutch-English bilinguals repeated a code-switched prime sentence (starting in Dutch and ending in English) and then described a target picture by means of a…

Kootstra, Gerrit Jan; van Hell, Janet G.; Dijkstra, Ton

2012-01-01

480

A Lexical Basis for N400 Context Effects: Evidence from MEG  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrophysiological response to words during the "N400" time window (approximately 300-500 ms post-onset) is affected by the context in which the word is presented, but whether this effect reflects the impact of context on "access" of the stored lexical information itself or, alternatively, post-access "integration" processes is still an open…

Lau, Ellen; Almeida, Diogo; Hines, Paul C.; Poeppel, David

2009-01-01

481

Real-time lexical competitions during speech-in-speech comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates speech comprehension in competing multi-talker babble. We examined the effects of number of simultaneous talkers and of frequency of words in the babble on lexical decision to target words. Results revealed better performance at a low talker number (n = 2). Importantly, frequency of words in the babble significantly affected performance: high frequency word babble interfered more

Véronique Boulenger; Michel Hoen; François Pellegrino; Fanny Meunier

2009-01-01

482