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Sample records for lga mju vetisena

  1. Large for gestational age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002248.htm Large for gestational age (LGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Large for gestational age means that a fetus or infant is larger ...

  2. Safeguarding Post-Laming: Initial Scoping Study. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The Local Government Association (LGA) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to undertake an initial scoping study into safeguarding post-Laming, with a view to undertaking further work if relevant. The purpose of the study was to identify research and literature produced since the Laming report was published in…

  3. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  4. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Revision A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This follow-up report presents reliability test results conducted by thermal cycling of five CGA assemblies evaluated under two extreme cycle profiles, representative of use for high-reliability applications. The thermal cycles ranged from a low temperature of 55 C to maximum temperatures of either 100 C or 125 C with slow ramp-up rate (3 C/min) and dwell times of about 15 minutes at the two extremes. Optical photomicrographs that illustrate key inspection findings of up to 200 thermal cycles are presented. Other information presented include an evaluation of the integrity of capacitors on CGA substrate after thermal cycling as well as process evaluation for direct assembly of an LGA onto PCB. The qualification guidelines, which are based on the test results for CGA/LGA/HDI packages and board assemblies, will facilitate NASA projects' use of very dense and newly available FPGA area array packages with known reliably and mitigation risks, allowing greater processing power in a smaller board footprint and lower system weight.

  5. The Role of the Lead Member for Children's Services: Final Report (LGA Research Report F/SR268)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Harland, Jennie; Kendall, Sally; Kinder, Kay

    2008-01-01

    This research, commissioned by the LGA (Local Government Association), explores whether Lead Members for Children's Services [LMCS] have enough information and support to carry out their role effectively, especially for their corporate parenting role. It also explored the overall role, including issues like manageability; commissioning;…

  6. 75 FR 21692 - Denial of Airlines' Temporary Exemption Requests from DOT's Tarmac Delay Rules for JFK, EWR, LGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... travelers. 74 FR 68983. One of these provisions, which takes effect April 29, 2010, requires U.S... for JFK, EWR, LGA and PHL Operations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR),...

  7. The Impact of School Fires: A Study of the Wider Economic and Social Impacts on Schools and the Local Community. LGA Research Report 3/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Pauline; Teeman, David; Golden, Sarah; Wilson, Rebekah; Woodley, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    The findings presented in this report derive from a study undertaken by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) commissioned by Local Government Analysis and Research (LGAR) on behalf of the Local Government Association (LGA) and British Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association (BAFSA). The study employed a desk review of primarily…

  8. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth. PMID:26754660

  9. DISTRIBUTION AND UTILISATION OF IVERMECTIN (MECTIZAN): A CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH TO THE CONTROL OF ONCHOCERCIASIS IN OLD OHAOZARA LGA, EBONYI STATE, EASTERN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Okpara, Elom Michael; Mnaemeka, Alo Moses; Iyioku, Ugah Uchenna; Udoh, Usanga Victor

    2015-12-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a devastating, debilitating Stigmatising and incapacitating parasitic disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Nigeria. Mass distribution of ivermectin (Mectizan) to the endemic parts of the world was initiated by the Onchocerciasis Control Programmes (OCPs). Absolute compliance to the regimen for up to 15 years has been reported to be effective in the control of the disease. The study was carried out in Ohaozara LGA, Onicha LGA and Ivo LGA. The three (3) LGAs made up the defunct Old Ohaozara LGA. A structured questionnaire was used to generate information on knowledge of Onchocerciasis and on the use of ivermectin by the inhabitants of the communities of the study areas. The distribution coverage of ivermectin in the study areas dating from 2010 to 2014 was ascertained with drug distribution charts obtained from Ebonyi State Health Management Board (ESHMB), Abakaliki (the point source of distribution in the state), and from the health centres in communities of old Ohaozara LGA (the service delivery points (SDPs) to inhabitants of the communities. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Utilization of the regimen was ascertained by determining the actual number of tablets of mectizan that was administered to the patients at the various health cenrtes (service delivery points (SDPs) in the communities. The percentage utilization of the regimen was determined by dividing the number of mectizan tablets administered to the patients at SDPs with the number of mectizan tablets supplied from state point source of distribution and multiplying by 100. A total of 347, 299 out of 1, 919135 tablets of mectizan supplied to the study areas from 2010 to 2014 were actually utilized, forming an overall percentage utilization of 18.10%. There was adequate supply but very poor utilization of the regimen. The poor utilization resulted from factors including locating of health centres very far from

  10. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subjects Women's Health Issues Symptoms General Abdomen & Digestive Bleeding Brain & Nervous System Chest & Respiratory Children's Symptoms Eye ... a tube placed in the nose or intense intervention, such as respiratory support with a ventilator. Other ...

  11. USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikpitanyi, C. U.

    2012-12-01

    This Project research was carried out using seismic refraction method at st Patrick catholic church( site) ozalla owan west l.g.a Edo state. Nigeria A MCSEIS- 160M Seismograph was used as the recording instrument with 12 geophones as wave detectors in series with one another, each of 1.5m Perpendicular to a firing line of of36m long. but the geophones are spread at a predetermined distance. the impact of heavy metal(about 5kg) on a flat metal plate served as the source of artificial wave generation. The wave front method of interpretation was used in interpreting the field results at fine distance . Plot reveals that the subsurface under Investigation is three layers of velocities, 208ms-1 750ms-1 and 1250ms-1 for the first, second and third layers respectively. And the depth of the first and second layer is 12 .7m and 14.0m respectively. This investigation has further revealed that at approximately 27m from the surface a possible aquifer could be encountered, this result agreed with electrical resistivity Studies carried out in the past within the studied area.

  12. Development of LGA & LBE 2D Parallel Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagata, Satoru; Akiyama, Minoru; Naitoh, Masanori; Ohashi, Hirotada

    A lattice-gas Automata two-dimensional program was developed for analysis of single and two-phase flow behaviors, to support the development of integrated software modules for Nuclear Power Plant mechanistic simulations. The program has single-color, which includes FHP I, II, and III models, two-color (Immiscible lattice gas), and two-velocity methods including a gravity effect model. Parameter surveys have been performed for Karman vortex street, two-phase separation for understanding flow regimes, and natural circulation flow for demonstrating passive reactor safety due to the chimney structure vessel. In addition, lattice-Boltzmann Equation two-dimensional programs were also developed. For analyzing single-phase flow behavior, a lattice-Boltzmann-BGK program was developed, which has multi-block treatments. A Finite Differential lattice-Boltzmann Equation program of parallelized version was introduced to analyze boiling two-phase flow behaviors. Parameter surveys have been performed for backward facing flow, Karman vortex street, bent piping flow with/without obstacles for piping system applications, flow in the porous media for demonstrating porous debris coolability, Couette flow, and spinodal decomposition to understand basic phase separation mechanisms. Parallelization was completed by using a domain decomposition method for all of the programs. An increase in calculation speed of at least 25 times, by parallel processing on 32 processors, demonstrated high parallelization efficiency. Application fields for microscopic model simulation to hypothetical severe conditions in large plants were also discussed.

  13. Analysis of Youth Offending Team Inspection Reports. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; White, Richard; Bramley, George

    2010-01-01

    How well do youth offending teams (YOT) work? In which areas of their work is their performance excellent and where is improvement needed? This research examined annual performance assessments of services for children and young people undertaken by Ofsted in 57 local authorities from January 2006 to April 2009, together with relevant data relating…

  14. Intergenerational Practice: Outcomes and Effectiveness. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kerry; Springate, Iain; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This research looked at five intergenerational projects focusing on football, arts, knife crime, living history and personal and social education. Two projects ran in schools, one in a health centre, one in a youth drop-in centre and one at a football club. Each project had its own aims, but in addition to these, the projects aimed to improve…

  15. Children and Young People's Views on Web 2.0 Technologies. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Peter; Walker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies are online tools that allow users to share, collaborate and interact with one another. This small-scale project focused on young people's personal use of social media, and on the potential to use these tools to collect the views of young people and involve them in democracy in communities and local authorities. The main…

  16. Local Authorities' Experiences of Improving Parental Confidence in the Special Educational Needs Process. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Macleod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    How can we help parents to understand the special educational needs (SEN) process? What sort of information and support do they need? This report details the results of research with SEN officers (or their equivalent) in 26 local authorities, covering: (1) the referral process; (2) early identification and intervention; (3) local authority and…

  17. The MEST score provides earlier risk prediction in lgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Sean J; Espino-Hernandez, Gabriela; Reich, Heather N; Coppo, Rosanna; Roberts, Ian S D; Feehally, John; Herzenberg, Andrew M; Cattran, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    The Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) includes the following four histologic components: mesangial (M) and endocapillary (E) hypercellularity, segmental sclerosis (S) and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (T). These combine to form the MEST score and are independently associated with renal outcome. Current prediction and risk stratification in IgAN requires clinical data over 2 years of follow-up. Using modern prediction tools, we examined whether combining MEST with cross-sectional clinical data at biopsy provides earlier risk prediction in IgAN than current best methods that use 2 years of follow-up data. We used a cohort of 901 adults with IgAN from the Oxford derivation and North American validation studies and the VALIGA study followed for a median of 5.6 years to analyze the primary outcome (50% decrease in eGFR or ESRD) using Cox regression models. Covariates of clinical data at biopsy (eGFR, proteinuria, MAP) with or without MEST, and then 2-year clinical data alone (2-year average of proteinuria/MAP, eGFR at biopsy) were considered. There was significant improvement in prediction by adding MEST to clinical data at biopsy. The combination predicted the outcome as well as the 2-year clinical data alone, with comparable calibration curves. This effect did not change in subgroups treated or not with RAS blockade or immunosuppression. Thus, combining the MEST score with cross-sectional clinical data at biopsy provides earlier risk prediction in IgAN than our current best methods. PMID:26759049

  18. Collaborative Good Practice between Local Authorities and the Further Education Sector. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Tami; Southcott, Clare; Evans, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In 2010 planning and funding responsibilities for 16-19 year olds will be transferred from the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) back to the local authorities (LAs). LAs will have responsibility for commissioning and funding all education and training for young people up to the age of 19, making them the strategic lead for all children's services…

  19. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  20. Strategies for Dealing with Low Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Case Study of Farmers in Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguru, Chike; Ajayi, S. L.; Ogbu, Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    A study to access the level of acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State was carried out. The aim was to find out the reasons behind the low acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in the area and to suggest possible strategies to address this ugly situation; as a…

  1. Preliminary study on temporal variations in biting activity of Simulium damnosum s.l. in Abeokuta North LGA, Ogun State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Simulum damnosum Theobald sensu lato (s.l.) is the vector of the parasitic filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart which causes onchocerciasis. In order to understand the vector population dynamics, a preliminary 12 months entomological evaluation was carried out at Abeokuta, the Southwest Zone of Nigeria, an onchocerciasis endemic area, where vector control has not been previously initiated. S.damnosum s.l. flies were caught on human attractants between 700 to1800 hours each day, for 4 days each month, from August 2007 to July 2008. The flies caught were classified as either forest-dwelling or savanna-dwelling groups based on the colour of certain morphological characters. Climatic data such as rainfall, humidity and temperature were also collected monthly during the period of survey. Results A total of 1,139 flies were caught, 596 (52.33%) were forest-dwelling group while 543 (47.67%) were savanna-dwelling group of S. damnosum s.l. The highest percentage of forest-dwelling group was caught in the month of August 2007 (78.06%) and the least percentage of forest-dwelling groups was caught in November 2007 (8.14%). The highest percentage of savannah-dwelling group was caught in the month of November 2007 (91.86%) and the least percentage of savannah-dwelling group was caught in August 2007 (21.94%). There was no significant difference between the population of forest and savannah-dwelling groups of the fly when the means of the fly population were compared (P = 0.830). Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between monthly fly population with monthly average rainfall (r = 0.550, n = 12, P = 0.033), but no significant relationship with monthly average temperature (r = 0.291, n = 12, P = 0.179). There was also a significant relationship between monthly fly population and monthly average relative humidity (r = 0.783, n = 12 P = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the population of forest-dwelling group of S. damnosum s.l. and monthly average rainfall (r = 0.466, n = 12, P = 0.064) and monthly average temperature (r = 0.375, n = 12, P = 0.115) but there was significant correlation with monthly average relative humidity (r = 0.69, n = 12, P = 0.006). There was significant correlation between savannah-dwelling group and monthly average rainfall (r = 0.547, n = 12, P = 0.033), and monthly average relative humidity (r = 0.504, n = 12, P = 0.047) but there was no significant correlation with monthly average temperature (r = 0.142, n = 12, P = 0.329) Conclusion The results from this study showed that both the forest and the savannah dwelling groups of S. damnosum s.l. were caught biting in the study area. This could have implications on the transmission and epidemiology of human onchocerciasis if not monitored. PMID:19917134

  2. Effect of Concept Mapping and Outline Note-Taking Patterns in Students Academic Achievement in Geography in Secondary Schools in Enugu South Lga of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Gabriel A.

    2016-01-01

    The WAEC Chief Examiner's report of 2013 pointed out that mass failure in geography had badly affected students who have the desire to study science related subjects in our Universities. The poor image of geography among students was attributed partly to its wide content and partly to the old fashioned approach to its teaching. This study…

  3. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1Ω-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125Ωm

  4. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1Ω-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125Ωm

  5. 78 FR 32632 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...-36B Infrared Decoy Flares, 30,000 RR-188 w/BBU-35B Training Chaff, 3,750 BDU-33D/B w/lugs/ Mk4 spot... (RNLAF) F-16 Formal Training Unit (FTU), 50,000 MJU-7B w/BBU-36B Infrared Decoy Flares, 30,000 RR-188...

  6. Data link relay design. [space probe with entry at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, P.

    1974-01-01

    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.

  7. Asymmetric large-for-gestational-age infants of type 1 diabetic women: morbidity and abdominal growth.

    PubMed

    Bollepalli, Sureka; Dolan, Lawrence M; Miodovnik, Menachem; Feghali, Maisa; Khoury, Jane C

    2010-09-01

    We sought to examine neonatal morbidity in four groups of offspring (asymmetric large for gestational age [LGA], symmetric LGA, asymmetric non-LGA, symmetric non-LGA) exposed in utero to maternal type 1 diabetes, and the association between rate of fetal abdominal circumference growth and asymmetric LGA. We performed a secondary analysis of 302 singleton pregnancies. Neonatal morbidity (respiratory distress syndrome, polycythemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, acidosis, and composite morbidity [any of the five]) was assessed. Serial ultrasound examinations after 20 weeks' gestation were available for 35 fetuses. Logistic regression and general linear mixed modeling were used for analysis. Asymmetric LGA infants had 3.5-, 2.2-, and 3.2-fold greater odds of hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and composite morbidity, respectively, compared with symmetric non-LGA infants. The rate of growth of the abdominal circumference in asymmetric LGA infants (1.11 cm/wk) was greater than for both the symmetric LGA infants (0.87 cm/wk, P = 0.09) and the symmetric non-LGA infants (0.87 cm/wk, P = 0.03). Asymmetric LGA infants are at higher risk for morbidity than symmetric LGA and non-LGA infants. Intrauterine growth rate of the abdominal circumference may potentially be used as a marker to identify the asymmetric LGA and thereby aid in the identification of newborns at greatest risk for perinatal complications. PMID:20225174

  8. Mechanical analysis of lunar gravity assist in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the lunar gravity assist (LGA) is investigated under the planar circular restricted three-body problem (PCRTBP) and two-body model. In the PCRTBP, the approximate expression of energy of the LGA in a small region of the Moon is derived. The expression uncovers the mechanism and mechanical process of the LGA in the framework of the PCRTBP. Based on the expression, the change of energy during the LGA is obtained and analyzed. To solve the limitation of the expressions and complete the research range of the LGA, a numerical methodology based on the patched-conic model is presented to analyze the LGA in a large region near the Moon. This numerical methodology cannot only obtain the change of energy but also may classify the trajectories before and after the LGA. As an application, we present a method to design a special kind of double LGA orbit. The design method synthesizes the preliminary results in the patched-conic model and the optimization in the PCRTBP. We can quickly obtain abundant double LGA orbits for the Earth-Moon transfer and interplanetary spaceflight.

  9. Study of lunar gravity assist orbits in the restricted four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the lunar gravity assist (LGA) orbits starting from the Earth are investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft restricted four-body problem (RFBP). First of all, the sphere of influence of the Earth-Moon system (SOIEM) is derived. Numerical calculation displays that inside the SOIEM, the effect of the Sun on the LGA orbits is quite small, but outside the SOIEM, the Sun perturbation can remarkably influence the trend of the LGA orbit. To analyze the effect of the Sun, the RFBP outside the SOIEM is approximately replaced by a planar circular restricted three-body problem, where, in the latter case, the Sun and the Earth-Moon barycenter act as primaries. The stable manifolds associated with the libration point orbit and their Poincaré sections on the SOIEM are applied to investigating the LGA orbit. According to our research, the patched LGA orbits on the Poincaré sections can efficiently distinguish the transit LGA orbits from the non-transit LGA orbits under the RFBP. The former orbits can pass through the region around libration point away from the SOIEM, but the latter orbits will bounce back to the SOIEM. Besides, the stable transit probability is defined and analyzed. According to the variant requirement of the space mission, the results obtained can help us select the LGA orbit and the launch window.

  10. 77 FR 53249 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    .... The FAA has issued orders limiting operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), Newark... departure slots at JFK, EWR, and LGA. The designations resulted in part from increasing congestion and... and SFO. The information is reported to the FAA by carriers holding a slot at JFK, EWR, or LGA;...

  11. 78 FR 5856 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... orders limiting operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), Newark Liberty International... JFK, EWR, and LGA. The designations resulted in part from increasing congestion and delays at the... information is reported to the FAA by carriers holding a slot at JFK, EWR, or LGA; by carriers operating...

  12. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas…

  13. Study of lunar gravity assist orbits in the restricted four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the lunar gravity assist (LGA) orbits starting from the Earth are investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft restricted four-body problem (RFBP). First of all, the sphere of influence of the Earth-Moon system (SOIEM) is derived. Numerical calculation displays that inside the SOIEM, the effect of the Sun on the LGA orbits is quite small, but outside the SOIEM, the Sun perturbation can remarkably influence the trend of the LGA orbit. To analyze the effect of the Sun, the RFBP outside the SOIEM is approximately replaced by a planar circular restricted three-body problem, where, in the latter case, the Sun and the Earth-Moon barycenter act as primaries. The stable manifolds associated with the libration point orbit and their Poincaré sections on the SOIEM are applied to investigating the LGA orbit. According to our research, the patched LGA orbits on the Poincaré sections can efficiently distinguish the transit LGA orbits from the non-transit LGA orbits under the RFBP. The former orbits can pass through the region around libration point away from the SOIEM, but the latter orbits will bounce back to the SOIEM. Besides, the stable transit probability is defined and analyzed. According to the variant requirement of the space mission, the results obtained can help us select the LGA orbit and the launch window.

  14. Infants born large-for-gestational-age display slower growth in early infancy, but no epigenetic changes at birth

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Derraik, José G. B.; Pan, Zengxiang; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan; Craigie, Susan; Stone, Peter; Sadler, Lynn; Ahlsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the growth patterns of infants born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) from birth to age 1 year compared to those born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). In addition, we investigated possible epigenetic changes associated with being born LGA. Seventy-one newborns were classified by birth weight as AGA (10th–90th percentile; n = 42) or LGA (>90th percentile; n = 29). Post-natal follow-up until age 1 year was performed with clinical assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analysed on umbilical tissue in 19 AGA and 27 LGA infants. At birth, LGA infants had greater weight (p < 0.0001), length (p < 0.0001), ponderal index (p = 0.020), as well as greater head (p < 0.0001), chest (p = 0.044), and abdominal (p = 0.007) circumferences than AGA newborns. LGA infants were still larger at the age of 3 months, but by age 6 months there were no more differences between groups, due to higher length and weight increments in AGA infants between 0 and 6 months (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Genome-wide analysis showed no epigenetic differences between LGA and AGA infants. Overall, LGA infants had slower growth in early infancy, being anthropometrically similar to AGA infants by 6 months of age. In addition, differences between AGA and LGA newborns were not associated with epigenetic changes. PMID:26419812

  15. L-band mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T. K.; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using a low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for a helicopter is described in this paper. The objectives are to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a satellite, and to determine the best antenna position on the helicopter to mitigate the signal blockage due to rotor blades and the multipath effect from the helicopter's body. The omnidirectional LGA is selected because it is simple, reliable, and low cost. The helix antenna is selected among the many LGA's because it is the most economical one and has the widest elevation beamwidth. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter's body. It is found that the LGA should be located near the tail section and at least eight inches above the helicopter.

  16. Gene Expression in Placentas From Nondiabetic Women Giving Birth to Large for Gestational Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Ahlsson, F; Åkerud, H; Schijven, D; Olivier, J; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-10-01

    Gestational diabetes, obesity, and excessive weight gain are known independent risk factors for the birth of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. However, only 1 of the 10 infants born LGA is born by mothers with diabetes or obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare placental gene expression between healthy, nondiabetic mothers (n = 22) giving birth to LGA infants and body mass index-matched mothers (n = 24) giving birth to appropriate for gestational age infants. In the whole gene expression analysis, only 29 genes were found to be differently expressed in LGA placentas. Top upregulated genes included insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, aminolevulinate δ synthase 2, and prolactin, whereas top downregulated genes comprised leptin, gametocyte-specific factor 1, and collagen type XVII α 1. Two enriched gene networks were identified, namely, (1) lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and organismal development and (2) cellular development, cellular growth, proliferation, and tumor morphology. PMID:25824011

  17. The use of selected interventions in monitoring primary health care implementation in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egwu, I N

    1992-03-01

    Nigeria's Primary Health Care (PHC)-based health system development aims to strengthen PHC in the local government areas (LGA) through technical planning and implementation that emphasize maternal and child health services. Convenient variables, including expanded programme on immunization (EPI), antenatal care (ANC) utilization and attended births, were selected as interventions to monitor the progress of implementation of PHC activities during 1985-90 in Odukpani LGA. Analysis of available data at the LGA showed that immunization coverage for most EPI antigens increased; ANC services showed increased utilization; health worker-attended births increased as traditional birth deliveries declined during the period. Some of the increases were modest but are considered important. The study offers a pilot approach to monitoring implementation of PHC activities in Odukpani LGA. The implications of the findings for similar studies are discussed. PMID:1589661

  18. 76 FR 65773 - Petition for Waiver of the Terms of the Order Limiting Scheduled Operations at LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... operating authorizations (slots) at LaGuardia Airport (LGA). 76 FR 63702 (Oct. 13, 2011) (the Waiver). The... 0800 Daily 1150 0800 Daily 1056 0900 Daily 1030 1000 Daily 1083 1000 Daily 1223 1100 Daily 1027...

  19. A matter of size: Part 2. Evaluating the large-for-gestational-age neonate.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth J

    2007-08-01

    Large for gestational age (LGA) is another designation used to assess and monitor growth throughout the pregnancy and after delivery. Large for gestational age is an abnormal growth descriptor that assists in anticipating neonatal needs pre-and postnatally. Careful monitoring for abnormal growth trends in the fetus is imperative prenatally. The relative size of a neonate affects many aspects of prenatal and postnatal surveillance. Nursing care is guided by the maternal history and the delivery room complications that may occur. Anticipating complications in the delivery room is vital to the survival of LGA neonates. Nursing care for LGA neonates requires knowledge based on these potential complications. A thorough physical assessment with appropriate glucose monitoring and parental education is required. Size matters when it comes to the health and welfare of all sizes of neonates. Anticipatory guidance with prenatal monitoring and education can improve outcomes in the neonate at risk for LGA complications at birth. PMID:17700192

  20. The impact of excessive maternal weight on the nutritional status of the fetus – the role of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Głowacka, Ewa; Krekora, Michał; Sobantka, Stanisław; Krokocka, Aleksandra; Krasomski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of leptin concentration in the blood of pregnant women (leptin concentration – Lc) and in their newborns, according to their nutritional status. Material and methods Pregnant women (n = 42) were divided into normal body mass (NBM) and excessive body mass (EBM) groups. Neonates were divided into AGA (eutrophic) and LGA (macrosomic) groups. Leptin concentraction was studied in 4 subgroups: NBM/AGA, NBM/LGA, EBM/AGA, EBM/LGA. Results Mothers: A significant correlation was found between maternal Lc and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Maternal Lc was 3 times higher than neonatal Lc (p < 0.00001). The NBM mothers showed lower Lc compared to EBM mothers (p = 0.000018). Leptin concentration values in NBM/LGA and NBM/AGA mothers were similar (p = 0.6775). Newborns: Correlations were found between Lc and ponderal index (PI) (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.43, p = 0.004) and placental weight (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Girls presented higher Lc than boys (p = 0.0338). In LGA groups, newborns born to EBM mothers presented higher Lc than those born to NBM mothers (p = 0.0013). In both AGA groups, Lc was similar (AGA/EBM vs. AGA/NBM p = 0.1619). The highest Lc and the largest placentas were found in the group of LGA newborns born to EBM mothers. Conclusions Leptin concentration positively correlates with BMI in pregnant women, with PI and female sex in newborns as well as with placental weight. The nutritional status of fetuses does not affect the Lc of their non-obese mothers. The LGA neonates born to EBM women demonstrate higher Lc than LGA neonates born to NBM mothers, whereas Lc of AGA neonates is similar regardless of the nutritional status of their mothers. PMID:27186186

  1. Health care for under-fives in Ile-Ife, South-West Nigeria: Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) strategy on growth and development of under-fives

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The study obtained information on key growth promotion and developmental household and community health practices in Community-Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI) and non-C-IMCI in local government areas (LGAs) in Osun State, Nigeria, to determine the differences that existed, between these LGAs. Method A cross-sectional comparative study to compare Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) key growth promotion and development health practices in two LGAs in Osun State was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data analysis was done using Epi Info version 6.0 for the quantitative survey and a content analysis method for the qualitative survey. The subjects were mothers or caregivers of children 0–59 months of age, and their index children. Results Findings revealed that the IMCI key growth and development health practices were generally better rated in the CIMCI-compliant LGA than in the non-CIMCI compliant LGA. Breastfeeding practice was widespread in both LGAs. However, the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate among children under six months was higher in the compliant LGA (66.7%) than in the non-compliant LGA (25%). More caregivers (59.7%) from the non-compliant LGA introduced complementary feeds earlier than six months. Growth monitoring activities revealed that there were more underweight children (19.1%) in the non-compliant LGA. Community Resource Persons (CORPs) and health workers were the most popular sources of information on IMCI key practices in the compliant LGA, while in the non-compliant LGA the traditional healers, elders and, to a lesser extent, health workers provided information on these key practices. Conclusion The IMCI strategy, if well implemented, is an effective and low-cost intervention that is useful in achieving optimal growth, development and survival of Nigerian children.

  2. Mammalian Glutaminase Gls2 Gene Encodes Two Functional Alternative Transcripts by a Surrogate Promoter Usage Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Sandoval, José A.; Manzanares, Elisa; Lobo, Carolina; Segura, J. A.; Alonso, Francisco J.; Matés, José M.; Márquez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutaminase is expressed in most mammalian tissues and cancer cells, but the regulation of its expression is poorly understood. An essential step to accomplish this goal is the characterization of its species- and cell-specific isoenzyme pattern of expression. Our aim was to identify and characterize transcript variants of the mammalian glutaminase Gls2 gene. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate for the first time simultaneous expression of two transcript variants from the Gls2 gene in human, rat and mouse. A combination of RT-PCR, primer-extension analysis, bioinformatics, real-time PCR, in vitro transcription and translation and immunoblot analysis was applied to investigate GLS2 transcripts in mammalian tissues. Short (LGA) and long (GAB) transcript forms were isolated in brain and liver tissue of human, rat and mouse. The short LGA transcript arises by a combination of two mechanisms of transcriptional modulation: alternative transcription initiation and alternative promoter. The LGA variant contains both the transcription start site (TSS) and the alternative promoter in the first intron of the Gls2 gene. The full human LGA transcript has two in-frame ATGs in the first exon, which are missing in orthologous rat and mouse transcripts. In vitro transcription and translation of human LGA yielded two polypeptides of the predicted size, but only the canonical full-length protein displayed catalytic activity. Relative abundance of GAB and LGA transcripts showed marked variations depending on species and tissues analyzed. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report demonstrating expression of alternative transcripts of the mammalian Gls2 gene. Transcriptional mechanisms giving rise to GLS2 variants and isolation of novel GLS2 transcripts in human, rat and mouse are presented. Results were also confirmed at the protein level, where catalytic activity was demonstrated for the human LGA protein. Relative abundance of GAB and LGA transcripts was

  3. Genomic organization and transcriptional analysis of the human l-glutaminase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gómez, Cristina; Matés, José M; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; del Castillo-Olivares, Antonio; Alonso, Francisco J; Márquez, Javier

    2003-01-01

    In mammals, glutaminase (GA) is expressed in most tissues, but the regulation of organ-specific expression is largely unknown. Therefore, as an essential step towards studying the regulation of GA expression, the human liver-type GA (hLGA) gene has been characterized. LGA genomic sequences were isolated using the genome walking technique. Analysis and comparison of these sequences with two LGA cDNA clones and the Human Genome Project database, allowed the determination of the genomic organization of the LGA gene. The gene has 18 exons and is approx. 18 kb long. All exon/intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. Progressive deletion analysis of LGA promoter-luciferase constructs indicated that the core promoter is located between nt -141 and +410, with several potential regulatory elements: CAAT, GC, TATA-like, Ras-responsive element binding protein and specificity protein 1 (Sp1) sites. The minimal promoter was mapped within +107 and +410, where only an Sp1 binding site is present. Mutation experiments suggested that two CAAT recognition elements near the transcription-initiation site (-138 and -87), play a crucial role for optimal promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays confirmed the importance of CAAT- and TATA-like boxes to enhance basal transcription, and demonstrated that HNF-1 motif is a significant distal element for transcriptional regulation of the hLGA gene. PMID:12444921

  4. Diagnosing gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E A

    2011-03-01

    The newly proposed criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes will result in a gestational diabetes prevalence of 17.8%, doubling the numbers of pregnant women currently diagnosed. These new diagnostic criteria are based primarily on the levels of glucose associated with a 1.75-fold increased risk of giving birth to large-for-gestational age infants (LGA) in the Hyperglycemia Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study; they use a single OGTT. Thus, of 23,316 pregnancies, gestational diabetes would be diagnosed in 4,150 women rather than in 2,448 women if a twofold increased risk of LGA were used. It should be recognised that the majority of women with LGA have normal glucose levels during pregnancy by these proposed criteria and that maternal obesity is a stronger predictor of LGA. The expected benefit of a diagnosis of gestational diabetes in these 1,702 additional women would be the prevention of 140 cases of LGA, 21 cases of shoulder dystocia and 16 cases of birth injury. The reproducibility of an OGTT for diagnosing mild hyperglycaemia is poor. Given that (1) glucose is a weak predictor of LGA, (2) treating these extra numbers has a modest outcome benefit and (3) the diagnosis may be based on a single raised OGTT value, further debate should occur before resources are allocated to implementing this change. PMID:21203743

  5. Is Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Associated with Being Born Small and Large for Gestational Age?

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Diesse, Laura; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Giannini, Cosimo; Marcovecchio, Maria Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Low and high birth weights have been linked to increased susceptibility to cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. However, the natural history of cardiometabolic disturbances in children born small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age is still unclear and no reliable biomarker of cardiovascular risk has definitively been identified in these subjects. Interestingly, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), antagonist of nitric oxide (NO) production, has been recognized as novel cardiovascular marker able to identify subjects at higher risk of health disturbances. Despite the well-described role of ADMA as a predictor of degenerative disease in adults, its potential application in pediatrics, and specifically in SGA and LGA children, has not been explored as only few data in preterm infants and SGA newborns are available. Therefore, we investigated potential alterations in circulating ADMA and NO levels in SGA and LGA children compared with those born appropriate (AGA) for gestational age. Of note, ADMA was significantly higher in SGA and LGA children than AGA peers. Intriguingly, SGA and LGA categories as well as insulin resistance were independently related to ADMA. Our observations lead to the intriguing hypothesis that ADMA could be involved in the development of cardiometabolic alterations in SGA and LGA children already during the prepubertal age. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2317–2322. PMID:24350633

  6. Should an Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery Arising from the Left Gastric Artery Be Preserved during Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Su Mi; Seo, Jeong Eun; Ha, Man Ho; An, Ji Yeong; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Jeong, Woo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose During laparoscopic gastrectomy, an aberrant left hepatic artery (ALHA) arising from the left gastric artery (LGA) is occasionally encountered. The aim of this study was to define when an ALHA should be preserved during laparoscopic gastrectomy. Materials and Methods From August 2009 to December 2014, 1,340 patients with early gastric cancer underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. One hundred fifty patients presented with an ALHA; of the ALHA was ligated in 116 patients and preserved in 34 patients. Patient characteristics, postoperative outcomes and perioperative liver function tests were reviewed retrospectively. Correlations between the diameter of the LGA measured on preoperative abdominal computed tomography and postoperative liver enzyme levels were analyzed. Results Pearson's correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the diameter of the LGA and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels on postoperative day 1 in the ALHA-ligated group (P=0.039, P=0.026, respectively). Linear regression analysis estimated the diameter of the LGA to be 5.1 mm and 4.9 mm when AST and ALT levels were twice the normal limit on postoperative day 1. Conclusions We suggest preserving the ALHA arising from a large LGA, having diameter greater than 5 mm, during laparoscopic gastrectomy to prevent immediate postoperative hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27433391

  7. A lattice gas automata model for heterogeneous chemical reactions at mineral surfaces and in pore networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Janecky, D.R.; Travis, B.J. )

    1990-01-15

    A lattice gas automata (LGA) model is described, which couples solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces and in pore networks. Chemical reactions and transport are integrated into a FHP-I LGA code as a module so that the approach is readily transportable to other codes. Diffusion in a box calculations are compared to finite element Fickian diffusion results and provide an approach to quantifying space-time ratios of the models. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the LGA approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  8. κ Opioid Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediate Escalation of Methamphetamine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schlosburg, Joel E.; Wee, Sunmee; Gould, Adam; George, Olivier; Grant, Yanabel; Zamora-Martinez, Eva R.; Edwards, Scott; Crawford, Elena; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Koob, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Given that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated in psychostimulant abuse, we evaluated whether the selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor-BNI) would attenuate the escalation of methamphetamine (METH) intake in an extended-access self-administration model. Systemic nor-BNI decreased the escalation of intake of long-access (LgA) but not short-access (ShA) self-administration. nor-BNI also decreased elevated progressive-ratio (PR) breakpoints in rats in the LgA condition and continued to decrease intake after 17 d of abstinence, demonstrating that the effects of a nor-BNI injection are long lasting. Rats with an ShA history showed an increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in both the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell, but LgA animals showed a selective increase in the NAc shell. Other cohorts of rats received nor-BNI directly into the NAc shell or core and entered into ShA or LgA. nor-BNI infusion in the NAc shell, but not NAc core, attenuated escalation of intake and PR responding for METH in LgA rats. These data indicate that the development and/or expression of compulsive-like responding for METH under LgA conditions depends on activation of the KOR system in the NAc shell and suggest that the dynorphin–KOR system is a central component of the neuroplasticity associated with negative reinforcement systems that drive the dark side of addiction. PMID:25762676

  9. κ Opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell mediate escalation of methamphetamine intake.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Timothy W; Schlosburg, Joel E; Wee, Sunmee; Gould, Adam; George, Olivier; Grant, Yanabel; Zamora-Martinez, Eva R; Edwards, Scott; Crawford, Elena; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Koob, George F

    2015-03-11

    Given that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated in psychostimulant abuse, we evaluated whether the selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor-BNI) would attenuate the escalation of methamphetamine (METH) intake in an extended-access self-administration model. Systemic nor-BNI decreased the escalation of intake of long-access (LgA) but not short-access (ShA) self-administration. nor-BNI also decreased elevated progressive-ratio (PR) breakpoints in rats in the LgA condition and continued to decrease intake after 17 d of abstinence, demonstrating that the effects of a nor-BNI injection are long lasting. Rats with an ShA history showed an increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in both the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell, but LgA animals showed a selective increase in the NAc shell. Other cohorts of rats received nor-BNI directly into the NAc shell or core and entered into ShA or LgA. nor-BNI infusion in the NAc shell, but not NAc core, attenuated escalation of intake and PR responding for METH in LgA rats. These data indicate that the development and/or expression of compulsive-like responding for METH under LgA conditions depends on activation of the KOR system in the NAc shell and suggest that the dynorphin-KOR system is a central component of the neuroplasticity associated with negative reinforcement systems that drive the dark side of addiction. PMID:25762676

  10. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  11. Mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using an L-band low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters is described. The objective is to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a geosynchronous satellite. To ensure that all the antenna options are being considered, the steerable high gain reflector and medium gain array antennas as well as LGA are studied and compared in an exhaustive survey. The high gain reflector antenna in L-band is usually very large in size and heavy in weight. In addition, a bulky and expensive tracking system is needed to steer the antenna beam to the satellite direction. The medium gain antennas (including mechanically and electronically steered arrays) are also more expensive and less reliable than an LGA due to the addition of a beam steering system to track the satellite. The omni-directional LGA is simple, reliable, and inexpensive. It is typically ten times smaller than the medium gain antenna. This makes the position, selection, and mounting on the helicopter relatively easier. Therefore, the LGA is selected as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters. Among the many LGA's (cross-dipole, helix, spiral, and slot antennas), the helix antenna is the most inexpensive. One can also change the size, shape, or pitch angle of the helix to optimize the gain in the desired direction. Therefore, the helix antenna is selected for further study. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied theoretically and experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter body and the blades. The multipath, Doppler, and Doppler rate issues as well as the periodic fading effects caused by the helicopter rotor blades will be briefly discussed in the paper.

  12. Effect of Metals in Biomimetic Dimetal Complexes on Affinity and Gas-Phase Protection of Phosphate Esters.

    PubMed

    Svane, Simon; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; McKenzie, Christine J; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-07-21

    Although the biomimetic dimetal complex [LGa2(OH)2(H2O)2](3+) [L = 2,6-bis((N,N'-bis(2-picolyl)amino)methyl)-4-tertbutylphenolate] provides efficient protection against phosphate loss in phosphopeptides upon collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID MS/MS), the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we explored the mechanism in detail and investigated the selective binding to phosphate groups in solution. Dimetal complexes containing combinations of Ga(3+), In(3+), Fe(3+), Co(3+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and V(2+) were reacted with HPO4(2-), phosphoserine, and a phosphopeptide (FQpSEEQQQTEDELQDK, abbreviated "βcas") and studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), CID MS/MS, and density functional theory (DFT). Ka for HPO4(2-) binding scaled with the metal charge and was 35-fold larger for [LGa2(OH)2(H2O)2](3+) (3.08 ± 0.31 × 10(6) M(-1)) than for [LZn2(HCOO)2](+). CID MS/MS of [LGa2(βcas)](n+) revealed protection against phosphate detachment (<3% of the total ion intensity). Phosphate detachment from βcas was 22-40% and increased to 42-71% when bound to dimetal complexes of lower charge than {LGa2}(5+). CID data suggests that facile metal-phosphate dissociation is associated with proton transfer from the intermediate oxazoline ring formed in the phosphopeptide to the metal-phosphate complex. The observed phosphate stabilization was attributed to a significant reduction in the gas-phase basicity (GB) of the phosphate group when bound to {LGa2}(5+)/{LIn2}(5+) complex cores. Absence of proton transfer results in formation of an ion-zwitterion intermediate with a greater dissociation threshold. This hypothesis is supported by DFT calculations for [LGa2(PO4)](2+), [LGaZn(PO4)](+), [LZn2(PO4)], and 2,4-dimethyl-3-oxazoline showing that [LGa2(PO4)](2+) is the only compound with a substantial lower GB (321 kJ/mol less) than 2,4-dimethyl-3-oxazoline. PMID:26068532

  13. Teachers and Students' Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Implications for Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinsolu, A. Olatoun

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the number of qualified teachers and its relationship to students' academic performance in public secondary schools in a sample of Local Government Areas (LGA) of Osun State. This descriptive study used a post-hoc dataset. An instrument titled "Quantity and Quality of Teachers and Students' Academic Performance" (QQTSAP) was…

  14. CAMHS Funding and Priorities. LGAR Report 2/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Mary; Lamont, Emily; Downing, Dick

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments, such as passage of the Children Act 2004, subsequent implementation of "Every Child Matters: Change for Children" and increase in funding to councils for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), the Local Government Association (LGA) asked the NFER to examine the funding mechanisms and priorities in CAMHS. An…

  15. Perceptions of the LGE. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jean; Wilkin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Local Government Employers (LGE) was created by the Local Government Association (LGA) in April 2006. The aim of LGE is to work with local authorities, regional employers and other bodies to lead and create solutions on pay, pensions and the employment contract, to ensure the provision of excellent and affordable local services. The LGE…

  16. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Alhalawani, Adel M.F.; Curran, Declan J.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples. PMID:24956193

  17. Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Averett, Susan L; Fletcher, Erin K

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant. PMID:26515472

  18. Urtra-Hard Bonds in P-Carbon Stronger than Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-Feng; Wang, Ling-Sheng; Li, Zhi-Ping; Xia, Mei-Rong; Gao, Fa-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Not Available Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 21403188, the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province under Grant No B20150396, the Autonomic Research Project of Yanshan University under Grant No 14LGA017, and the Key Technology Research and Development Program of Qinhuangdao under Grant No 201401A025.

  19. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups: Overview and Analysis of Available Datasets on Vulnerable Groups and the Five ECM Outcomes. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This summary presents the main findings from a data mapping and analysis study commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) from the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) as part of a two-year development and research programme, Narrowing the Gap. This programme seeks to make a significant difference in "narrowing the gap"…

  20. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Further Overview of Data and Evidence on the ECM Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups. Progress Report and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Easton, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Narrowing the Gap (NtG) is a two-year development and research programme, funded by the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and the Local Government Association (LGA), working in partnership with other agencies, including local authorities. It seeks to make a significant difference, on a national scale, to the performance of…

  1. The Role of the Lead Member for Children's Services: A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for Educational Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Local Government Association (LGA) initially commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to explore: (1) whether Lead Members for Children's Services (LMCS) have sufficient information and support to carry out their role effectively, especially in relation to their corporate parenting role; (2) LMCSs' personal…

  2. 75 FR 15765 - Request for Comments on Carriers' Temporary Exemption Requests From DOT's Tarmac Delay Rules for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Docket: For access to the... strengthening protections afforded to air travelers. 74 FR 68983. One of these provisions, which takes effect... Delay Rules for JFK, EWR, LGA and PHL Operations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department...

  3. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  4. 78 FR 28278 - Operating Limitations at New York LaGuardia Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . You also may obtain a copy by sending a request to the Federal... LGA operations terminated as of January 1, 2007.\\2\\ \\1\\ 33 FR 17896 (Dec. 3, 1968). The FAA codified..., on October 7, 2009,\\8\\ and on April 4, 2011.\\9\\ \\3\\ 71 FR 51360 (August 29, 2006); Docket...

  5. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  6. Low dose of L-glutamic acid attenuated the neurological dysfunctions and excitotoxicity in bilateral common carotid artery occluded mice.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Muthiah; Abdul, Khadar K; Justin, Antony

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, produces excitotoxicity through its agonistic action on postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, resulting in neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that the administration of low doses of glutamate in cerebral ischemia could attenuate the excitotoxicity in neurons through its autoreceptor regulatory mechanism, and thereby control neurodegeneration. To test the hypothesis, the effect of L-glutamic acid (L-GA) 400 μmol/l/kg was evaluated in a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemic mouse model. Memantine was used as a positive control. Global ischemia in mice was induced by occlusion of both the common carotid artery (bilateral common carotid artery occlusion) for 20 min, followed by reperfusion injury. L-GA was infused slowly through the tail vein 30 min before the surgery and every 24 h thereafter until the end of the experiment. The time-dependent change in cerebral blood flow was monitored using a laser Doppler image analyzer. The neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neurobiochemicals ATP, glutathione, and nitric oxide were measured in the different regions of brain at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after reperfusion injury. L-GA increased locomotor activity, muscle coordination, and cerebral blood flow in ischemic mice at 72 h after ischemic insult. L-GA reduced glutamate levels in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus at 72 h, whereas GABA levels were elevated in all three brain regions studied. Further, L-GA elevated glutathione levels and attenuated nitric oxide levels, but failed to restore ATP levels 72 h after ischemia-reperfusion. We conclude that the gradual reduction of glutamate along with elevation of GABA in different brain regions could have contributed toward the neuroprotective effect of L-GA. Hence, a slow infusion of a low dose of L-GA could be beneficial in controlling excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration following ischemia

  7. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA) level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM) rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires) had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years), ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research. PMID:21138551

  8. Geogagnetic Activity and Effectiveness of Millimeter Electromagnetic Radiation in Unstable Angina Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Samsonov, S. N.; Afanasiyeva, T. N.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Petrova, V. D.; Dolgova, E. M.; Manykina, V. I.; Vodolagina, E. S.

    There had been performed a research of an effectiveness of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (MM EMR) use in patients with an unstable angina (UA) at periods of a lower (daily value of Kp-index 16,19±0,18) and a higher (daily value of Kp-index 17,25±0,21, p<0,05) gemagnetic activity (GA). It was found that involving of the MM EMR (the wave length 7.1 mm) into the treatment of the patients with an UA, enhances an antianginal effect of a drug therapy independently on the period of GA. The MM EMR at the period of a lower geomagnetic activity (LGA) enhances the decrease of diastolic blood pressure (BP), and at the period of a higher geomagnetic activity (HGA) - the decrease of systolic BP. At a HGA there were noted: a quick and more serious antianginal effect, maximal antihypertensive effect was achieved quicker, but (as opposed to the period of a LGA) there was no a pulse slowing effect of a MM EMR. Including the MM EMR into the treatment accelerates stabilization of the patients' condition only at a LGA. Positive effect on blood rheological properties is an independent effect of MM EMR, and it is in blood viscosity reduce in microcirculatory at both of the periods of GA. Normalization of blood viscosity under the MM EMR is only at the period of a LGA. So, the effect of MM EMR on a clinical condition of the patients is more evident at the period of a HGA, blood viscosity - at the period of a LGA.

  9. Temporal pattern of cocaine intake determines tolerance vs sensitization of cocaine effects at the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Roberts, David C S; Jones, Sara R

    2013-11-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for terminating dopamine (DA) signaling and is the primary site of cocaine's reinforcing actions. Cocaine self-administration has been shown previously to result in changes in cocaine potency at the DAT. To determine whether the DAT changes associated with self-administration are due to differences in intake levels or temporal patterns of cocaine-induced DAT inhibition, we manipulated cocaine access to produce either continuous or intermittent elevations in cocaine brain levels. Long-access (LgA, 6 h) and short-access (ShA, 2 h) continuous self-administration produced similar temporal profiles of cocaine intake that were sustained throughout the session; however, LgA had greater intake. ShA and intermittent-access (IntA, 6 h) produced the same intake, but different temporal profiles, with 'spiking' brain levels in IntA compared with constant levels in ShA. IntA consisted of 5-min access periods alternating with 25-min timeouts, which resulted in bursts of high responding followed by periods of no responding. DA release and uptake, as well as the potency of cocaine for DAT inhibition, were assessed by voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens slices following control, IntA, ShA, and LgA self-administration. Continuous-access protocols (LgA and ShA) did not change DA parameters, but the 'spiking' protocol (IntA) increased both release and uptake of DA. In addition, high continuous intake (LgA) produced tolerance to cocaine, while 'spiking' (IntA) produced sensitization, relative to ShA and naive controls. Thus, intake and pattern can both influence cocaine potency, and tolerance seems to be produced by high intake, while sensitization is produced by intermittent temporal patterns of intake. PMID:23719505

  10. Maternal 75-g OGTT glucose levels as predictive factors for large-for-gestational age newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brankica, Krstevska; Valentina, Velkoska Nakova; Slagjana, Simeonova Krstevska; Sasha, Jovanovska Mishevska

    2016-02-01

    Objective Our goal was to investigate which glucose measurement from the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has more capability of predicting large for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods The study group consisted of 118 consecutively pregnant women with singleton pregnancy, patients of Outpatients Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Disorders Clinic. All were prospectively screened for GDM between 24th and 28th week of pregnancy and followed to delivery. Outcome measures included: patients' ages, pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI before delivery, FPG, 1 and 2 hour OGTT glucose values, haemoglobin A1c at third trimester, gestational week of delivery, mode of delivery and baby birth weight. Results From 118 pregnancies, 78 (66.1%) women were with GDM, and 40 (33.9%) without GDM. There were statistically significant differences (30.7 versus 5.0%, p < 0.01) between LGA newborns from GDM and control group, respectively. Gestation week of delivery and fasting glucose levels were independent predictors for LGA (Beta = 0.58 and Beta = 0.37 respectively, p < 0.01). Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were compared for the prediction of LGA (0.782 (0.685-0.861) for fasting, 0.719 (0.607-0.815) for 1-hour and 0.51 (0.392-0.626) for 2-hour OGTT plasma glucose levels). Conclusion Fasting and 1-hour plasma glucose levels from OGTT may predict LGA babies in GDM pregnancies. PMID:26909480

  11. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Dysregulation of GABAergic Transmission in the Central Amygdala in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kallupi, Marsida; Wee, Sunmee; Edwards, Scott; Whitfield, Tim W.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Luu, George; Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated an enhanced dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system following repeated cocaine exposure, but few reports have focused on neuroadaptations within the central amygdala (CeA). Methods We identified KOR-related physiological changes in the CeA following escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats. We used in vitro slice electrophysiological (intracellular and whole-cell recordings) methods to assess whether differential cocaine access in either 1h (short access, ShA) or 6h (long access, LgA) sessions induced plasticity at CeA GABAergic synapses, or altered the sensitivity of these synapses to KOR agonism (U50488) or antagonism (nor-BNI). We then determined the functional effects of CeA KOR blockade in cocaine-related behaviors. Results Baseline evoked GABAergic transmission was enhanced in the CeA from ShA and LgA rats compared to cocaine-naïve rats. Acute cocaine (1 uM) application significantly decreased GABA release in all groups (naïve, ShA, and LgA rats). Application of U50488 (1 uM) significantly decreased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but increased it in LgA rats. Conversely, nor-BNI (200 nM) significantly increased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but decreased it in LgA rats. Nor-BNI did not alter the acute cocaine-induced inhibition of GABAergic responses. Finally, CeA microinfusion of nor-BNI blocked cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and attenuated the heightened anxiety-like behavior observed during withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure in the defensive burying paradigm. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that CeA dynorphin/KOR systems are dysregulated following excessive cocaine exposure and suggest KOR antagonism as a viable therapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction. PMID:23751206

  12. landgenreport: a new r function to simplify landscape genetic analysis using resistance surface layers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Bernd; Adamack, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    We describe functions recently added to the r package popgenreport that can be used to perform a landscape genetic analysis (LGA) based on landscape resistance surfaces, which aims to detect the effect of landscape features on gene flow. These functions for the first time implement a LGA in a single framework. Although the approach has been shown to be a valuable tool to study gene flow in landscapes, it has not been widely used to date, despite the type of data being widely available. In part, this is likely due to the necessity to use several software packages to perform landscape genetic analyses. To apply LGA functions, two types of data sets are required: a data set with spatially referenced and genotyped individuals, and a resistance layer representing the effect of the landscape. The function outputs three pairwise distance matrices from these data: a genetic distance matrix, a cost distance matrix and a Euclidean distance matrix. Statistical tests are performed to test whether the cost matrix contributes to the understanding of the observed population structure. A full report on the analysis and outputs in the form of plots and tables of all intermediate steps of the LGA is produced. It is possible to customize the LGA to allow for different cost path approaches and measures of genetic distances. The package is written in the r language and is available through the Comprehensive r Archive. Comprehensive tutorials and information on how to install and use the package are provided at the authors' website (www.popgenreport.org). PMID:25644761

  13. Constraints on timing and magnitude of early global expansion of the Moon from topographic features in linear gravity anomaly areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Natsuki; Morota, Tomokatsu; Kato, Shinsuke; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Gravity data obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory have revealed linear gravity anomalies (LGAs) formed by the early global expansion of the Moon and subsequent magma intrusion. In this study, using Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data, we investigated topographic profiles across LGAs to verify that they were formed by extensional tectonics. We found that 17 of the 20 LGAs investigated exhibited a valley structure, suggesting that they were formed by tensile stress. Assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied graben formation, the increase in the lunar radius is estimated to be on the order of several tens of meters. On the other hand, assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied flexure of elastic lithosphere due to the LGA load, the elastic thickness during the LGA formation is estimated as ~10 km. The crater frequencies in the vicinity of LGAs indicate that the peak tectonic activity occurred before the basin-forming epoch.

  14. EDGA: A Population Evolution Direction-Guided Genetic Algorithm for Protein-Ligand Docking.

    PubMed

    Guan, Boxin; Zhang, Changsheng; Ning, Jiaxu

    2016-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking can be formulated as a search algorithm associated with an accurate scoring function. However, most current search algorithms cannot show good performance in docking problems, especially for highly flexible docking. To overcome this drawback, this article presents a novel and robust optimization algorithm (EDGA) based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) for solving flexible protein-ligand docking problems. This method applies a population evolution direction-guided model of genetics, in which search direction evolves to the optimum solution. The method is more efficient to find the lowest energy of protein-ligand docking. We consider four search methods-a tradition genetic algorithm, LGA, SODOCK, and EDGA-and compare their performance in docking of six protein-ligand docking problems. The results show that EDGA is the most stable, reliable, and successful. PMID:26895461

  15. Right hepatic artery from splenic artery: the four-leaf clover of hepatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Dondossola, Daniele; Fornoni, Gianluca; Caccamo, Lucio; Rossi, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    The anatomy of hepatic arteries is one of the most variable. Accurate awareness of all the possible anatomic variations is crucial in the upper GI surgery and especially in liver and pancreas transplantation. The most frequent anatomical variants are: a replaced or accessory right hepatic artery (RHA) from the superior mesenteric artery (6.3-21 %), a replaced or accessory left hepatic artery (LHA) from the left gastric artery (LGA) (3-18 %) or a combination of these two variants (up to 7.4 %). Herein, we describe the case of a 67-year-old cadaveric organ donor who presented a RHA originating from the splenic artery (SA) associated with both a CHA originating from the celiac trunk (CT) and a LHA originating from the LGA. PMID:26769020

  16. A Survey and Recent Development of Lunar Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    Earth's moon is the largest in the solar system relative to its parent body, the Earth, and can have significant effect on the path of a spacecraft flying close by. This effect, when planned to benefit a specific mission, is called lunar gravity assist (LGA) , and assumes that one aims the spacecraft towards the Moon in such a way that the Moon's gravitational pull will alter the spacecraft's course in a favorable manner. The first application of LGA was in the Apollo program, where the command and lunar modules (and astronauts) were propelled to the Moon such that, if no additional course changes were made, they would swing around the backside of the Moon at a certain altitude and be flung back to Earth to enter the atmosphere at a specified location in the Pacific ocean. This LGA was an essential element saving the lives of the astronauts on Apollo 13. This paper will illustrate the basic mechanics of gravity assist, and list the many applications where it has been used effectively over the past 30 some years. These include missions to the sun and Earth libration points, redirecting a spacecraft from one of these point to a comet encounter, and enhancing payloads by providing an energy boost by the Moon. More recently, studies and actual missions have shown the benefits of LGA in: (1) assisting lunar capture, (2) repositioning geosynchronous communications satellites, (3) boosting spacecraft to Earth escape and departure to planets and other solar system bodies, and (4) allowing small spacecraft to be launched as secondary payloads and released into almost a random orbit from which each may depart and maneuver in space with gravity assists from the Earth and Moon to perform a specific planetary or other mission. This latter application is a recent development by the author and is being applied in 2002 and later years, with piggyback flights on the Ariane 5 which launches comsats to GEO.

  17. [Case of gastric perforation after TAI (trancatheter arterial infusion) of SMANCS with special reference to accessory left gastric artery].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Shioyama, Yasukazu

    2005-04-01

    In 1993, a 55-year-old-man was diagnosed with chronic active hepatitis (HCV). In January 1999, a solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was discovered in his liver S8, and a sub-segmental hepatectomy was performed. In July 1999, multiple recurrences in the liver were noticed, and on August 6, 1999, the first SMANCS-TAE was performed. After that, PEIT was added, and then on July 18, 2000 and November 9, 2000, a second and third SMANCS-TAE were carried out, respectively. This time multiple HCCs in the bilateral lobes were discovered, and the 4 th SMANCS-TAE was undergone on April 12, 2001. On a celiac angiogram, the right hepatic artery was shown to have been obliterated by the last TAE. In addition, accessory left gastric artery (accessory LGA) originating in the left hepatic artery (LHA) proximal to the umbilical point (UP) could be seen. So we advanced a microcatheter to the LHA distal to the accessory LGA and injected SMANCS (0.8 mg) into the left hepatic artery. On April 24, he was admitted to hospital by ambulance due to severe upper abdominal pain. The muscular defense was noticed, and an air pocket under the diaphragm was indicated on an X-ray. An emergency total gastrectomy and R-Y re-construction were performed under the diagnosis of gastric perforation. A hole of approximately 10 cm in diameter was found in the anterior wall between the cardia and the upper body, and the accessory left gastric artery (LGA) was obliterated. The principal known side effects of SMANCS are fever, nausea and vomiting. However, as far as this writer has investigated, gastric perforation has never been reported. SMANCS presumably can flow into the stomach wall through the accessory LGA, triggering necrosis of the gastric wall due to circulatory damage. Although arterial infusion of SMANCS is an effective treatment, it causes considerable vascular damage, so intensive follow-up treatment is necessary. PMID:15853226

  18. The association of gestational weight gain with birth weight in obese pregnant women by obesity class and diabetic status: a population-based historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gavard, Jeffrey A; Artal, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for gestational-age (LGA) infants are associated with increased adverse outcomes. While studies have estimated the association of gestational weight gain with birth weight in obese women, estimates are lacking by obesity class and diabetic status. A population-based historical cohort study of 66,010 obese pregnant women in Missouri delivering liveborn, singleton, term infants in 2002–2008 was conducted. Adjusted odds ratios for SGA and LGA infants were calculated for gestational weight gain categories with multiple logistic regression using the revised Institute of Medicine(IOM) recommended 11–20 pounds as the reference group. A weight gain of 3–10 pounds was not significantly associated with an increased risk of an SGA infant compared to 11–20 pounds in 5/6 obesity class/diabetic status combinations.The exception was Class I Obese non-diabetic women(adjusted odds ratio = 1.28, 95 % confidence interval 1.07, 1.52). When lower amounts of weight gain were considered, diabetic women who gained ≤2 pounds (including women who lost weight) did not have a significantly increased risk of an SGA infant compared to diabetic women who gained 11–20 pounds in any obesity class. Weight gains less than 11–20 pounds were significantly associated with a decreased risk of an LGA infant in 5/6 obesity class/diabetic status combinations. Weight gains lower than the IOM recommendation of 11–20 pounds during pregnancy for obese women generally were significantly associated with decreased risk of LGA infants without being significantly associated with increased risk of SGA infants and differed by obesity class and diabetic status. PMID:24077985

  19. A dysphoric-like state during early withdrawal from extended access to methamphetamine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Choon-Gon; Whitfield, Timothy; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F.; Wee, Sunmee

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Negative emotional states during drug withdrawal may contribute to compulsive drug intake and seeking in humans. Studies suggest that extended access to methamphetamine induces compulsive drug intake in rats. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that compulsive methamphetamine intake in rats with extended access is associated with negative emotional states during drug withdrawal. Methods Rats with short (1 h, ShA) and extended access (6 h, LgA) to methamphetamine self-administration (0.05 mg/kg/infusion) were tested for reward thresholds using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Different groups of ShA and LgA rats were examined for depression-like and anxiety-like states in the novelty-suppressed feeding, open field, defensive burying, and forced swim tests. Results With extended access, ICSS thresholds gradually increased, which was correlated with the increase of drug intake. During drug withdrawal, the increased ICSS thresholds returned to levels observed before exposure to extended access to methamphetamine. Upon re-exposure to extended access to methamphetamine, ICSS thresholds showed a more rapid escalation than during the initial exposure. LgA rats showed a longer latency to approach chow in the center of a novel field and remained immobile longer in the forced swim test than ShA rats did during early withdrawal. In contrast, ShA rats actively buried an aversive shock probe whereas LgA rats remained immobile in the defensive burying test. Conclusion The data suggest that extended access to methamphetamine produces a more depressive-like state than anxiety-like state in rats during early withdrawal. PMID:23007601

  20. 14 CFR 93.350 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... drawn direct to the southwestern tip of Governors Island, thence north along a line direct to the southwest tip of Manhattan Island, thence north along the west bank of the East River to the LGA VOR/DME 6... along the east bank of the East River to the point of beginning at lat. 40°38′39″ N., long 74°02′03″...

  1. Extended access methamphetamine decreases immature neurons in the hippocampus which results from loss and altered development of neural progenitors without altered dynamics of the S-phase of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Clara J.; Quiocho, Jovy Marie D.; Kim, Airee; Wee, Sunmee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine addicts demonstrate impaired hippocampal-dependent cognitive function that could result from methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. Reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in a rodent model of compulsive methamphetamine self-administration partially contributes to the maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis were identified in the present study. Key aspects of the cell cycle dynamics of hippocampal progenitors, including proliferation and neuronal development, were studied in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day: short access (ShA)-4 days and ShA-13 days) or extended access (6 h/day: long access (LgA)-4 days and LgA-13 days) paradigm. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 cells with 5-chloro-2’-deoxyuridine (CldU) demonstrated that LgA methamphetamine inhibited hippocampal proliferation by decreasing the proliferating pool of progenitors that are in the synthesis (S)-phase of the cell cycle. Double S-phase labeling with CldU and 5-iodo-2’-deoxyuridine (IdU) revealed that reduced S-phase cells were not due to alterations in the length of the S-phase. Further systematic analysis of Ki-67 cells with GFAP, Sox2, and DCX revealed that LgA methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis was attributable to impairment in the development of neuronal progenitors from preneuronal progenitors to immature neurons. Methamphetamine concomitantly increased hippocampal apoptosis, changes that were evident during the earlier days of self-administration. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine self-administration initiates allostatic changes in adult neuroplasticity maintained by the hippocampus, including increased apoptosis, and altered dynamics of hippocampal neural progenitors. These data suggest that altered hippocampal plasticity by methamphetamine

  2. Severe obesity, gestational weight gain, and adverse birth outcomes123

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Himes, Katherine P; Abrams, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Reevaluate Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines concluded that there were too few data to inform weight-gain guidelines by obesity severity. Therefore, the committee recommended a single range, 5–9 kg at term, for all obese women. Objective: We explored associations between gestational weight gain and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, spontaneous preterm births (sPTBs), and medically indicated preterm births (iPTBs) among obese women who were stratified by severity of obesity. Design: We studied a cohort of singleton, live-born infants without congenital anomalies born to obesity class 1 (prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)]: 30–34.9; n = 3254), class 2 (BMI: 35–39.9; n = 1451), and class 3 (BMI: ≥40; n = 845) mothers. We defined the adequacy of gestational weight gain as the ratio of observed weight gain to IOM-recommended gestational weight gain. Results: The prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain declined, and weight loss increased, as obesity became more severe. Generally, weight loss was associated with an elevated risk of SGA, iPTB, and sPTB, and a high weight gain tended to increase the risk of LGA and iPTB. Weight gains associated with probabilities of SGA and LGA of ≤10% and a minimal risk of iPTB and sPTB were as follows: 9.1–13.5 kg (obesity class 1), 5.0–9 kg (obesity class 2), 2.2 to <5.0 kg (obesity class 3 white women), and <2.2 kg (obesity class 3 black women). Conclusion: These data suggest that the range of gestational weight gain to balance risks of SGA, LGA, sPTB, and iPTB may vary by severity of obesity. PMID:20357043

  3. Intermittent cocaine self-administration produces sensitization of stimulant effects at the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2014-05-01

    Previous literature investigating neurobiological adaptations following cocaine self-administration has shown that high, continuous levels of cocaine intake (long access; LgA) results in reduced potency of cocaine at the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas an intermittent pattern of cocaine administration (intermittent access; IntA) results in sensitization of cocaine potency at the DAT. Here, we aimed to determine whether these changes are specific to cocaine or translate to other psychostimulants. Psychostimulant potency was assessed by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens following IntA, short access, and LgA cocaine self-administration, as well as in brain slices from naive animals. We assessed the potency of amphetamine (a releaser), and methylphenidate (a DAT blocker, MPH). MPH was selected because it is functionally similar to cocaine and structurally related to amphetamine. We found that MPH and amphetamine potencies were increased following IntA, whereas neither was changed following LgA or short access cocaine self-administration. Therefore, whereas LgA-induced tolerance at the DAT is specific to cocaine as shown in previous work, the sensitizing effects of IntA apply to cocaine, MPH, and amphetamine. This demonstrates that the pattern with which cocaine is administered is important in determining the neurochemical consequences of not only cocaine effects but potential cross-sensitization/cross-tolerance effects of other psychostimulants as well. PMID:24566123

  4. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  5. Earth-Facing Antenna Characterization in Complex Ground Plane/Multipath Rich Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Piasecki, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed was a Software Defined Radio (SDR)-based payload launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in July of 2012. The purpose of the SCAN Testbed payload was to investigate the applicability of SDRs to NASA space missions in an operational environment, which means that a proper model for system performance in said operational space environment is a necessary condition. The SCAN Testbed has line-of-sight connections to various ground stations with its S-Band Earth-facing Near-Earth-Network Low Gain Antenna (NEN-LGA). Any previous efforts to characterize the NEN-LGA proved difficult, therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center built its own S-Band ground station, which became operational in 2015, and has been used successfully to characterize the NEN-LGA's in-situ pattern measurements. This methodology allows for a more realistic characterization of the antenna performance, where the pattern oscillation induced by the complex ISS ground plane, as well as shadowing effects due to ISS structural blockage are included into the final performance model. This paper describes the challenges of characterizing an antenna pattern in this environment. It will also discuss the data processing, present the final antenna pattern measurements and derived model, as well as discuss various lessons learned

  6. Comparative genomics and transcriptional analysis of prophages identified in the genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; Canchaya, Carlos; Bernini, Valentina; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; McGrath, Stephen; Claesson, Marcus J; Li, Yin; Leahy, Sinead; Walker, Carey D; Zink, Ralf; Neviani, Erasmo; Steele, Jim; Broadbent, Jeff; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-05-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described prophage sequences revealed that they have not followed an evolutionary development similar to that of their bacterial hosts and that they show a high degree of diversity, even within a species. The attachment sites were determined for all these prophage elements; LgaI as well as Sal1 integrates in tRNA genes, while prophage Sal2 integrates in a predicted arginino-succinate lyase-encoding gene. In contrast, Lca1 and the Sal3 and Sal4 prophage remnants are integrated in noncoding regions in the L. casei ATCC 334 and L. salivarius UCC 118 genomes. Northern analysis showed that large parts of the prophage genomes are transcriptionally silent and that transcription is limited to genome segments located near the attachment site. Finally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis followed by Southern blot hybridization with specific prophage probes indicates that these prophage sequences are narrowly distributed within lactobacilli. PMID:16672450

  7. Hypocretin Receptor 2 Antagonism Dose-Dependently Reduces Escalated Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:25367502

  8. Insights in Quantum Dynamical Effects in the Infrared Spectroscopy of Liquid Water from a Semiclassical Study with an ab Initio-Based Flexible and Polarizable Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianbo; Miller, William H.; Fanourgakis, G. S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Imoto, Sho; Saito, Shinji

    2011-12-28

    The dynamical properties of liquid water play an important role in many processes in Nature. In this paper we focus on the infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of liquid water based on the linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) with the local Gaussian approximation (LGA) [Liu and Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074113 (2009)] and an ab initio based, flexible, polarizable Thole-type model (TTM3-F) [Fanourgakis and Xantheas, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 074506 (2008)]. Although the LSC-IVR (LGA) gives the exact result for the isolated 3-dimensional shifted harmonic stretching model, it yields a blue-shifted peak position for the more realistic anharmonic stretching potential. By using the short time information of the LSCIVR correlation function, however, it is shown how one can obtain more accurate results for the position of the stretching peak. Due to the physical decay in the condensed phase system, the LSC-IVR (LGA) is a good and practical approximate quantum approach for the IR spectrum of liquid water. The present results offer valuable insight into future attempts to improve the accuracy of the TTM3-F potential in reproducing the IR spectrum of liquid water.

  9. Exploring the Role of Different Neonatal Nutrition Regimens during the First Week of Life by Urinary GC-MS Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Dessì, Angelica; Murgia, Antonio; Agostino, Rocco; Pattumelli, Maria Grazia; Schirru, Andrea; Scano, Paola; Fanos, Vassilios; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics study was applied to examine urine metabolite profiles of different classes of neonates under different nutrition regimens. The study population included 35 neonates, exclusively either breastfed or formula milk fed, in a seven-day timeframe. Urine samples were collected from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), large for gestational age (LGA), and appropriate gestational age (AGA) neonates. At birth, IUGR and LGA neonates showed similarities in their urine metabolite profiles that differed from AGA. When neonates started milk feeding, their metabolite excretion profile was strongly characterized by the different diet regimens. After three days of formula milk nutrition, urine had higher levels of glucose, galactose, glycine and myo-inositol, while up-regulated aconitic acid, aminomalonic acid and adipic acid were found in breast milk fed neonates. At seven days, neonates fed with formula milk shared higher levels of pseudouridine with IUGR and LGA at birth. Breastfed neonates shared up-regulated pyroglutamic acid, citric acid, and homoserine, with AGA at birth. The role of most important metabolites is herein discussed. PMID:26907266

  10. Synthesis of substituted β-diketiminate gallium hydrides via oxidative addition of H-O bonds.

    PubMed

    Herappe-Mejía, Eduardo; Trujillo-Hernández, Karla; Carlos Garduño-Jiménez, Juan; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Martínez-Otero, Diego; Jancik, Vojtech

    2015-10-14

    Oxidative addition of LGa into the OH bonds from HCCCH2OH, Ph2Si(OH)2, (nBuO)2P(O)(OH) and 4-MeC6H4S(O)2(OH) results in the formation of four compounds of the general formula LGa(H)(O-X). The correlation of the Ga-O bond length and the strength of the Ga-H bond depending on the acidity of the OH group in the starting materials has been demonstrated. The molecular structures of all four compounds have been determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. DFT calculations were performed on the reacting complex of LGa with propargyl alcohol and show an OHGa hydrogen bond as the first interaction between the reagents. This reacting complex changes into a D-A complex where the oxygen atom of the propargyl alcohol coordinates to the gallium atom and in a concerted reaction the oxidative addition product is formed. PMID:26351779

  11. Extensive shift in placental transcriptome profile in preeclampsia and placental origin of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sõber, Siim; Reiman, Mario; Kikas, Triin; Rull, Kristiina; Inno, Rain; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Marti, Jesus M. Lopez; Mattila, Pirkko; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    One in five pregnant women suffer from gestational complications, prevalently driven by placental malfunction. Using RNASeq, we analyzed differential placental gene expression in cases of normal gestation, late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE), gestational diabetes (GD) and pregnancies ending with the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (n = 8/group). In all groups, the highest expression was detected for small noncoding RNAs and genes specifically implicated in placental function and hormonal regulation. The transcriptome of LO-PE placentas was clearly distinct, showing statistically significant (after FDR) expressional disturbances for hundreds of genes. Taqman RT-qPCR validation of 45 genes in an extended sample (n = 24/group) provided concordant results. A limited number of transcription factors including LRF, SP1 and AP2 were identified as possible drivers of these changes. Notable differences were detected in differential expression signatures of LO-PE subtypes defined by the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). LO-PE with IUGR showed higher correlation with SGA and LO-PE without IUGR with LGA placentas. Whereas changes in placental transcriptome in SGA, LGA and GD cases were less prominent, the overall profiles of expressional disturbances overlapped among pregnancy complications providing support to shared placental responses. The dataset represent a rich catalogue for potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26268791

  12. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  13. Behavioral and functional evidence of mGlu2/3 and mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptor dysregulation in cocaine-escalated rats: Factor in the transition to dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yue; Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Weiss, Friedbert

    2010-01-01

    Background Rats with extended daily cocaine access show escalating cocaine self-administration and behavioral signs of dependence. Regulation of glutamatergic transmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) has emerged as a mechanism in the addictive actions of drugs of abuse. We examined here whether neuroadaptive dysregulation of mGluR function is a factor in escalating cocaine self-administration. Methods Rats with 1 h daily cocaine access (short access, ShA) vs. 6 h access (long access, LgA) were tested for differences in the effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 and the mGluR5 antagonist MTEP on cocaine-reinforced progressive-ratio (PR) responding and differences in expression levels and functional activity of mGluR2/3 and mGluR5. Results The LgA groups showed higher PR breakpoints than ShA groups. LY379268 (0-3 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently lowered breakpoints in the LgA group but reduced breakpoints only at 3 mg/kg in the ShA group. Consistent with this behavioral effect, functional mGluR2/3 activity was significantly elevated following LgA cocaine exposure. MTEP (0-3 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced breakpoints in the ShA group only. LgA cocaine exposure was associated with decreased mGluR5 expression, accompanied by reduced functional mGluR5 activity in the nucleus accumbens. A downward trend developed in mGluR5 protein expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion Functional upregulation of mGluR2/3 and downregulation of mGluR5 are likely factors in the transition to cocaine dependence. The differential behavioral effects of LY379268 and MTEP in rats with a history of long access to cocaine have implications for the treatment target potential of mGluR2/3 and mGluR5. PMID:20416862

  14. Augmented cocaine seeking in response to stress or CRF delivered into the ventral tegmental area following long-access self-administration is mediated by CRF receptor type 1 but not CRF receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Seubert, Chad; Baker, David A; Ferda, Nathan; Lee, Geng; Graf, Evan N; Mantsch, John R

    2011-08-01

    Stressful events are determinants of relapse in recovering cocaine addicts. Excessive cocaine use may increase susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse through alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulation of neurocircuitry involved in drug seeking. We previously reported that the reinstatement of cocaine seeking by a stressor (footshock) is CRF dependent and is augmented in rats that self-administered cocaine under long-access (LgA; 6 h daily) conditions for 14 d when compared with rats provided shorter daily cocaine access [short access (ShA) rats; 2 h daily]. Further, we have demonstrated that reinstatement in response to intracerebroventricular CRF administration is heightened in LgA rats. This study examined the role of altered ventral tegmental area (VTA) responsiveness to CRF in intake-dependent increases in CRF- and stress-induced cocaine seeking. Bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF (250 or 500 ng/side) produced reinstatement in LgA but not ShA rats. In LgA rats, intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement was blocked by administration of the CRF-receptor type 1 (CRF-R1) antagonist antalarmin (500 ng/side) or CP-376395 (500 ng/side), but not the CRF-R2 antagonist astressin-2B (500 ng or 1 μg/side) or antisauvagine-30 (ASV-30; 500 ng/side) into the VTA. Likewise, intra-VTA antalarmin, but not astressin-2B, blocked footshock-induced reinstatement in LgA rats. By contrast, neither intra-VTA antalarmin nor CP-376395 altered food-reinforced lever pressing. Intra-VTA injection of the CRF-R1-selective agonist cortagine (100 ng/side) but not the CRF-R2-selective agonist rat urocortin II (rUCN II; 250 ng/side) produced reinstatement. These findings reveal that excessive cocaine use increases susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse in part by augmenting CRF-R1-dependent regulation of addiction-related neurocircuitry in the VTA. PMID:21813699

  15. [New opioids for general anaesthesia and in- and out-hospital analgesia].

    PubMed

    Dabrowska-Wójciak, Iwona; Piotrowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, three new opioids of the piperidine family have been introduced to anaesthesia clinical practice: sufentanil, alfentanil and remifentanil. Alfentanil is a derivative of fentanyl, with quicker onset than that of fentanyl and with shorter duration and more intense vagomimetic properties than those of fentanyl and sufentanil. It may cause less intense respiratory depression than equianalgesic doses of fentanyl. Clinical trials indicate that alfentanil can be used effectively as an analgesic, as an analgesic supplement to anaesthesia, and as the major component of a general anaesthetic. Its short duration of effect makes it attractive as an analgesic supplement for short ambulatory surgical procedures. Sufentanil is a more potent and more lipophilic analgesic than fentanyl. It would appear to maintain haemodynamic stability during surgery better than other opioids. Epidural sufentanil produces a rapid onset and good quality of analgesia. In addition, low doses administered intravenously via a PCA pump seem to have a potential role for analgesia during labour. Remifentanil is an opioid analgesic that is rapidly metabolized by non-specific blood and tissue esterases. According to its unique pharmacokinetic profile, remifentanil-based anaesthesia combines high-dosage opioid analgesia intraoperatively with a rapid and predictable postoperative awakening, even after long procedures. Its vagomimetic properties are especially pronounced in small children, the elderly and hypovolaemic patients, and in these groups atropine should be always given before remifentanil administration. Remifentanil also minimises the adrenergic response to endotracheal intubation. Three mju agonist-antagonists have been used for pain treatment: nalbuphine, butorphanol and buprenorphine. They can be used in ambulatory settings. Nalbuphine can be used parenterally. It reverses morphine-induced respiratory depression while maintaining adequate analgesic effect. Buprenorphine

  16. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  17. Inter-Pregnancy Weight Change and the Risk of Recurrent Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jacqueline M.; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Campbell, Doris M.; Horgan, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    Women with specific adverse pregnancy outcomes in their first pregnancy may be receptive to inter-pregnancy weight management guidance aimed at preventing these complications reoccurring in subsequent pregnancies. Thus the association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent pregnancy complications at the second pregnancy was investigated in a retrospective cohort study of 24,520 women with their first-ever and second consecutive deliveries in Aberdeen using logistic regression. Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>2BMI units) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of recurrent small for gestational age (SGA) birth and elective Cesarean-section, and was protective against recurrent pre-eclampsia, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth. Conversely weight gain (>2BMI units) between pregnancies increased the risk of recurrent gestational hypertension, placental oversize and LGA birth and was protective against recurrent low placental weight and SGA birth. The relationships between weight gain, and placental and birth weight extremes were evident only in women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI<25units), while that between weight gain and the increased risk of recurrent gestational hypertension was largely independent of first pregnancy BMI. No relationship was detected between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm delivery, labour induction, instrumental delivery, emergency Cesarean-section or postpartum hemorrhage. Therefor inter-pregnancy weight change impacts the risk of recurrent hypertensive disorders, SGA and LGA birth and women with a prior history of these specific conditions may benefit from targeted nutritional advice to either lose or gain weight after their first pregnancy. PMID:27145132

  18. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  19. Extended access to nicotine leads to a CRF1 receptor dependent increase in anxiety-like behavior and hyperalgesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ami; Treweek, Jennifer; Edwards, Scott; Leão, Rodrigo Molini; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F.; George, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco dependence is associated with the emergence of negative emotional states during withdrawal, including anxiety and nociceptive hypersensitivity. However, the current animal models of nicotine dependence have focused on the mechanisms that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and failed to link increased anxiety and pain during abstinence with excessive nicotine self-administration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the activation of corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) receptors and emergence of the affective and motivational effects of nicotine abstinence only occur in rats with long access (> 21 h/day, LgA) and not short (1 h/day, ShA) access to nicotine self-administration. Methods ShA and LgA rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior, nociceptive thresholds, somatic signs of withdrawal, and nicotine intake after 3 days of abstinence. The role of CRF1 receptors during abstinence was tested using systemic or intracerebral infusion of MPZP, a CRF1 receptor antagonist, in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Results LgA but not ShA rats exhibited abstinence-induced increases in anxiety-like behavior and nociceptive hypersensitivity, which both predicted subsequent excessive nicotine intake and were prevented by systemic administration of MPZP. Intra-CeA MPZP infusion prevented abstinence-induced increases in nicotine intake and nociceptive hypersensitivity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the model of short access to nicotine self-administration has limited validity for tobacco dependence, highlight the translational relevance of the model of extended-intermittent access to nicotine self-administration for tobacco dependence, and demonstrate that activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the emergence of abstinence-induced anxiety-like behavior, hyperalgesia, and excessive nicotine intake. PMID:23869743

  20. Long-term Survival (>13 Years) in a Child With Recurrent Diffuse Pontine Gliosarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Burzynski, Stanislaw R.; Janicki, Tomasz J.; Marszalek, Ania

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant of glioblastoma multiforme. The authors describe the case of an unusual pontine location of GS in a 9-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) that was successfully controlled for 4 years. Subsequently, his brain tumor transformed into a GS. Prior treatment of his LGA included subtotal tumor resection 3 times, standard radiation therapy, and Gamma Knife procedure twice. His LGA was also treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen of carboplatin and vincristine, and his GS with subtotal resection, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and thiotepa with stem cell rescue and temozolomide. Unfortunately, he developed disseminated disease with multiple lesions and leptomeningeal involvement including a tumor occupying 80% of the pons. Upon presentation at our clinic, he had rapidly progressing disease. He received treatment with antineoplastons (ANP) A10 and AS2-1 for 6 years and 10 months under special exception to our phase II protocol BT-22. During his treatment with ANP his tumor stabilized, then decreased, and, ultimately, did not show any metabolic activity. The patient’s response was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scans. His pathology diagnosis was confirmed by external neuropathologists, and his response to the treatment was determined by central radiology review. He experienced the following treatment-related, reversible toxicities with ANP: fatigue, xerostomia and urinary frequency (grade 1), diarrhea, incontinence and urine color change (grade 2), and grade 4 hypernatremia. His condition continued to improve after treatment with ANP and, currently, he complains only of residual neurological deficit from his previous surgery. He achieved a complete response, and his overall and progression-free survival is in excess of 13 years. This report indicates that it is possible to obtain long-term survival of a child with a highly aggressive recurrent GS

  1. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Whop, Lisa J.; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C.; O’Connell, Dianne L.; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M.; Moore, Suzanne P.; Condon, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20–69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000–2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010–2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6–18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3–7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3–1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1–2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9–2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies. PMID:27064273

  2. Prevalence of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes, by Maternal Diabetes Status at First and Second Deliveries, Massachusetts, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kotelchuck, Milton; Wilson, Hoyt G.; Diop, Hafsatou; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; England, Lucinda J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patterns of diabetes prevalence and diabetes-related complications across pregnancies could inform chronic disease prevention efforts. We examined adverse birth outcomes by diabetes status among women with sequential, live singleton deliveries. Methods We used data from the 1998–2007 Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data System, a population-based cohort of deliveries. We restricted the sample to sets of parity 1 and 2 deliveries. We created 8 diabetes categories using gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and chronic diabetes mellitus (CDM) status for the 2 deliveries. Adverse outcomes included large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, preterm birth, and cesarean delivery. We computed prevalence estimates for each outcome by diabetes status. Results We identified 133,633 women with both parity 1 and 2 deliveries. Compared with women who had no diabetes in either pregnancy, women with GDM or CDM during any pregnancy had increased risk for adverse birth outcomes; the prevalence of adverse outcomes was higher in parity 1 deliveries among women with no diabetes in parity 1 and GDM in parity 2 (for LGA [8.5% vs 15.1%], macrosomia [9.7% vs. 14.9%], cesarean delivery [24.7% vs 31.3%], and preterm birth [7.7% vs 12.9%]); and higher in parity 2 deliveries among those with GDM in parity 1 and no diabetes in parity 2 (for LGA [12.3% vs 18.2%], macrosomia [12.3% vs 17.2%], and cesarean delivery [27.0% vs 37.9%]). Conclusions Women with GDM during one of 2 sequential pregnancies had elevated risk for adverse outcomes in the unaffected pregnancy, whether the diabetes-affected pregnancy preceded or followed it. PMID:26652218

  3. Changes in Birth Weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Feng, Qiong; Larson, Charles P.; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China. Methods We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28–41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups. Results The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, −25 g; 95% CI, −30 to −19). The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (−6 g from 2002 to 2012) after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28–31 weeks), while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories. Conclusions Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age. PMID:25531295

  4. Effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children in Ile Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogundele, Olorunfemi Akinbode; Ogundele, Tolulope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Childhood malnutrition remains a widespread problem in developing world like Nigeria. The country ranks second among the ten countries contributing to sixty percent of the world's wasted under-five children. Community Integrated Management of Childhood illness (CIMCI) is a programme that employs the use of community based counsellors to address child health and nutritional challenges of the under-five and has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from poor nutritional and feeding practices. The study assessed the effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study that employed the use of multi stage cluster sampling techniques in selecting 722 mothers of index under five children. The study was done in two Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Quantitative techniques were used in data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive and bivariate analyses was performed. Results The two Local Government Area (LGA) did not differ significantly in their wealth index (p = 0.344). However, more children in the non-implementing LGA (16.1%) had low weight for age compared with 3.6% in the CIMCI implementing LGA (p = 0.000). A statistically significant difference exist in the MUAC measurement of children 12-23 months between the CIMCI implementing and non-implementing communities (p = 0.007). A higher percentage of caregivers (19.3%) introduced complementary feeding earlier than 6 months in the non-implementing area (p < 0.001). Conclusion Using community level nutritional counseling can greatly improve nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children. PMID:26958118

  5. [Obstetric consequences of uncontrolled gestational diabetes--a case study].

    PubMed

    Murlewska, Julia; Pietryga, Marek; Bagnosz-Magnuszewska, Alina; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Brazert, Jacek; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a case of a pregnant woman who was admitted to the obstetrics and gynecology department because of a new onset of uncontrolled diabetes in 27 weeks gestation. The maternal and fetal diabetic complications suggested a chronic character of the disease which must have been undiagnosed before pregnancy. Many of the co-existing infections caused a life-threatening ketoacidosis. Fortunately with the adequate treatment it was possible to ensure appropriate birth weight of the newborn baby despite the ultrasound markers for LGA (Large For Gestational Age) observed during pregnancy. Intensive insulin therapy was obligatorily continued by the mother after the delivery. PMID:21957610

  6. Local-global alignment for finding 3D similarities in protein structures

    DOEpatents

    Zemla, Adam T.

    2011-09-20

    A method of finding 3D similarities in protein structures of a first molecule and a second molecule. The method comprises providing preselected information regarding the first molecule and the second molecule. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Longest Continuous Segments (LCS) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Global Distance Test (GDT) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Local Global Alignment Scoring function (LGA_S) analysis. Verifying constructed alignment and repeating the steps to find the regions of 3D similarities in protein structures.

  7. Self-reported sleep in late pregnancy in relation to birth size and fetal distress: the E Moe, Māmā prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Lee, Kathy; Huthwaite, Mark; Gander, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore associations between features of sleep during pregnancy and adverse outcomes for the infant. Setting E Moe, Māmā is a cohort study in Aotearoa/New Zealand that investigates self-reported sleep and maternal health in late pregnancy and the postpartum period. Participants Women (N=633; 194 Māori) reported detailed information on their sleep duration, quality, disturbances, disorders (snoring, breathing pauses, twitching legs, restless legs) and daytime sleepiness between 35 and 37 weeks gestation. Outcome measures Birthweight and fetal distress during labour were extracted from medical records. Associations between each sleep variable and small or large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) using customised birthweight centile or fetal distress were estimated using multinomial/logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Secondary analyses considered differences in associations between Māori and non-Māori women. Results There was some indication that breathing pauses (a measure of sleep apnoea) were associated with both SGA (OR 2.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.0, p=0.08) and LGA (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.7, p=0.20), with the association for LGA being stronger when only pregnancy-onset breathing pauses were considered (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.6, p=0.01). There was also some evidence that pregnancy-onset leg twitching (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0, p=0.03) and frequent sleep disturbance due to feeling too hot or too cold (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.6, p=0.13) were associated with higher risk of fetal distress. Other sleep measures, including snoring, were not associated with SGA, LGA or fetal distress. Many of the associations we observed were considerably stronger in Māori compared with non-Māori women. Conclusions We did not find evidence of previously reported associations between snoring and SGA. Our findings tentatively suggest that self-reported breathing pauses and leg twitching in late pregnancy are associated with infant outcomes, and

  8. A Human-in-the Loop Evaluation of a Coordinated Arrival Departure Scheduling Operations for Managing Departure Delays at LaGuardia Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Smith, Nancy M.; Bienert, Nancy; Brasil, Connie; Buckley, Nathan; Chevalley, Eric; Homola, Jeffrey; Omar, Faisal; Parke, Bonny; Yoo, Hyo-Sang

    2016-01-01

    LaGuardia (LGA) departure delay was identified by the stakeholders and subject matter experts as a significant bottleneck in the New York metropolitan area. Departure delay at LGA is primarily due to dependency between LGA's arrival and departure runways: LGA departures cannot begin takeoff until arrivals have cleared the runway intersection. If one-in one-out operations are not maintained and a significant arrival-to-departure imbalance occurs, the departure backup can persist through the rest of the day. At NASA Ames Research Center, a solution called "Departure-sensitive Arrival Spacing" (DSAS) was developed to maximize the departure throughput without creating significant delays in the arrival traffic. The concept leverages a Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSS) operations that create and manage the arrival schedule to the runway threshold and added an interface enhancement to the traffic manager's timeline to provide the ability to manually adjust inter-arrival spacing to build precise gaps for multiple departures between arrivals. A more complete solution would include a TSS algorithm enhancement that could automatically build these multi-departure gaps. With this set of capabilities, inter-arrival spacing could be controlled for optimal departure throughput. The concept was prototyped in a human-in-the- loop (HITL) simulation environment so that operational requirements such as coordination procedures, timing and magnitude of TSS schedule adjustments, and display features for Tower, TRACON and Traffic Management Unit could be determined. A HITL simulation was conducted in August 2014 to evaluate the concept in terms of feasibility, controller workload impact, and potential benefits. Three conditions were tested, namely a Baseline condition without scheduling, TSS condition that schedules the arrivals to the runway threshold, and TSS+DSAS condition that adjusts the arrival schedule to maximize the departure throughput. The results showed that during high

  9. Levels of Neural Progenitors in the Hippocampus Predict Memory Impairment and Relapse to Drug Seeking as a Function of Excessive Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended

  10. Galileo spacecraft modeling for orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, Bruce A.; Nilsen, Erik N.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Jupiter orbital mission using the Low Gain Antenna (LGA) requires a higher degree of spacecraft state knowledge than was originally anticipated. Key elements of the revised design include onboard buffering of science and engineering data and extensive processing of data prior to downlink. In order to prevent loss of data resulting from overflow of the buffers and to allow efficient use of the spacecraft resources, ground based models of the spacecraft processes will be implemented. These models will be integral tools in the development of satellite encounter sequences and the cruise/playback sequences where recorded data is retrieved.

  11. Immiscible Lattice Gas with Long-Range Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumaya, Akira; Ohashi, Hirotada

    We developed a new LGA model which has the applicability for simulation of immiscible two phases with wide difference in density. We introduced long-range interparticle forces into the Rothman and Keller's ILG model to represent density difference between phases. We attempted some simulations of phase separation using our new model. Two-phase interfaces are stably made with density distribution coinciding with particle color distribution. Furthermore, the two-phase interface is clearer than that obtained by the Appert and Zaleski's LG model.

  12. Lattice Gas Model with Nonlocal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shankar P.

    We analyze the nature of the hydrodynamic modes in a Lattice Gas Automata (LGA) model defined on a hexagonal lattice and having nonlocal interactions of attractive and repulsive type simultaneously. The model is similar in spirit to the liquid gas model of Appert and Zaleski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1 (1990)]. The phase diagram for the model is computed using the kinetic pressure. The dynamics is studied with a mean field type approach in the Boltzmann approximation ignoring effects of correlated collisions. We compute the transport coefficients and the speed of sound propagation. The presence of attractive interactions show increase in the transport coefficients at intermediate densities.

  13. Youth Group Engagement in Noncompliant Communities During Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kaduna, Nigeria, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Audu; Mkanda, Pascal; Manneh, Fadinding; Korir, Charles; Warigon, Charity; Gali, Emmanuel; Banda, Richard; Umeh, Gregory; Nsubuga, Peter; Chevez, Ana; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the major challenges being faced in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative program is persistent refusal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and harassment of vaccination team members by youths. The objective of the study was to describe the strategy of collaborating with recognized youth groups to reduce team harassment during vaccination campaigns and improve vaccination coverage in noncompliant communities. Methods. We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in OPV-refusing communities in the Igabi and Zaria local government areas (LGAs) of Kaduna State in Nigeria. We evaluated the following factors to determine trends: enhanced independent monitoring data on the proportion of children missed by vaccination activities (hereafter, “missed children”), lot quality assurance surveys, and vaccination team harassment. Results. The proportion of missed children decreased in both LGAs after the intervention. In Igabi LGA and Zaria LGA, the lowest proportions of missed children before and after the intervention decreased from 7% to 2% and from 5% to 1%, respectively. Lot quality assurance survey trends showed an improvement in immunization coverage 1 year after youth groups' engagement in both LGAs. Conclusions. Systematic engagement of youth groups has a great future in polio interruption as we approach the endgame strategy for polio eradication. It promises to be a veritable innovation in reaching chronically missed children in OPV-refusing communities. PMID:26609003

  14. Repeated intravenous administrations of teneurin-C terminal associated peptide (TCAP)-1 attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in rats.

    PubMed

    Erb, Suzanne; McPhee, Matthew; Brown, Zenya J; Kupferschmidt, David A; Song, Lifang; Lovejoy, David A

    2014-08-01

    The teneurin c-terminal associated peptides (TCAP) have been implicated in the regulation of the stress response, possibly via a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related mechanism. We have previously shown that repeated intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of TCAP-1 attenuate the reinstatement of cocaine seeking by CRF in rats. Here, we determined whether intravenous (IV) administrations of TCAP-1 would likewise attenuate CRF-induced reinstatement, and whether this effect would vary depending on the rat's history of cocaine self administration. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days, during once daily sessions that were either 3h ("short access"; ShA) or 6h ("long access"; LgA). Rats were then given five daily injections of TCAP-1 (0, 300, or 3,000 pmol, IV) in their home cage. Subsequently, they were returned to the self-administration chambers where extinction of cocaine seeking and testing for CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking was carried out. Repeated IV administrations of TCAP-1 were efficacious in attenuating CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, but at different doses in ShA and LgA rats. Taken together, the findings extend previous work showing a consistent effect of repeated ICV TCAP-1 on CRF-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, and point to a potential therapeutic benefit of TCAP-1 in attenuating cocaine seeking behaviors. PMID:24768621

  15. Preliminary spatiotemporal analysis of the association between socio-environmental factors and suicide

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The seasonality of suicide has long been recognised. However, little is known about the relative importance of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence of suicide in different geographical areas. This study examined the association of climate, socioeconomic and demographic factors with suicide in Queensland, Australia, using a spatiotemporal approach. Methods Seasonal data on suicide, demographic variables and socioeconomic indexes for areas in each Local Government Area (LGA) between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Climate data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A multivariable generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide. Results The preliminary data analyses show that far north Queensland had the highest suicide incidence (e.g., Cook and Mornington Shires), while the south-western areas had the lowest incidence (e.g., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) in all the seasons. Maximum temperature, unemployment rate, the proportion of Indigenous population and the proportion of population with low individual income were statistically significantly and positively associated with suicide. There were weaker but not significant associations for other variables. Conclusion Maximum temperature, the proportion of Indigenous population and unemployment rate appeared to be major determinants of suicide at a LGA level in Queensland. PMID:19796389

  16. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Barbara; Schulz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2011-04-30

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds. PMID:21387347

  17. Earth-Facing Antenna Characterization in a Complex Ground Plane/Multipath Rich Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Piasecki, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed was a Software Defined Radio (SDR)-based payload launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in July of 2012. The purpose of the SCAN Testbed payload was to investigate the applicability of SDRs to NASA space missions in an operational space environment, which means that a proper model for system performance in said operational space environment is a necessary condition. The SCAN Testbed has line-of-sight connections to various ground stations with its S-Band Earth-facing Near-Earth Network Low Gain Antenna (NEN-LGA). Any previous efforts to characterize the NEN-LGA proved difficult, therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center built its own S-Band ground station, which became operational in 2015, and has been successfully used to characterize the NEN-LGAs in-situ pattern measurements. This methodology allows for a more realistic characterization of the antenna performance, where the pattern oscillation induced by the complex ISS ground plane, as well as shadowing effects due to ISS structural blockage are included into the final performance model. This paper describes the challenges of characterizing an antenna pattern in this environment. It will also discuss the data processing, present the final antenna pattern measurements and derived model, as well as discuss various lessons learned.

  18. Conformation of poly(γ-glutamic acid) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Muroga, Yoshio; Nakaya, Asami; Inoue, Atsuki; Itoh, Daiki; Abiru, Masaya; Wada, Kaori; Takada, Masako; Ikake, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Local conformation and overall conformation of poly(γ-DL-glutamic acid) (PγDLGA) and poly(γ-L-glutamic acid) (PγLGA) in aqueous solution was studied as a function of degree of ionization ε by (1) H-NMR, circular dichroism, and potentiometric titration. It was clarified that their local conformation is represented by random coil over an entire ε range and their overall conformation is represented by expanded random-coil in a range of ε > ε(*) , where ε(*) is about 0.3, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.5 for added-salt concentration of 0.02M, 0.05M, 0.1M, and 0.2M, respectively. In a range of ε < ε(*) , however, ε dependence of their overall conformation is significantly differentiated from each other. PγDLGA tends to aggregate intramolecularly and/or intermolecularly with decreasing ε, but PγLGA still behaves as expanded random-coil. It is speculated that spatial arrangement of adjacent carboxyl groups along the backbone chain essentially affects the overall conformation of PγGA in acidic media. PMID:26574908

  19. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-07-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance (C 2) and resistance (R 2) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process.

  20. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Korean Women with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Jang, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Moon-Young; Ko, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a retrospective survey of 163 pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes (n=13) and type 2 diabetes (n=150) treated from 2003 to 2010 at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center, Korea. We compared maternal characteristics as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes between groups. Results Differences in glycosylated hemoglobin between type 1 and type 2 diabetes were not significant. Birth weight (3,501±689.6 g vs. 3,366±531.4 g) and rate of major congenital malformations (7.7% vs. 5.6%) were not significantly different. However, women with type 1 diabetes had higher rates of preeclampsia (38.5% vs. 8.2%, P=0.006), large for gestational age (LGA; 46.2% vs. 20.4%, P=0.004), macrosomia (38.5% vs. 13.4%, P=0.032), and admission for neonatal care (41.7% vs. 14.8%, P=0.03) than women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Maternal and neonatal outcomes for women with type 1 diabetes were poorer than for women with type 2 diabetes, especially preeclampsia, LGA, macrosomia and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26301193

  1. Population Attributable Risk Fractions of Maternal Overweight and Obesity for Adverse Perinatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    MacInnis, Natasha; Woolcott, Christy G; McDonald, Sarah; Kuhle, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the proportion of adverse perinatal outcomes that could be potentially prevented if maternal obesity were to be reduced or eliminated (population attributable risk fractions, PARF); and the number needed to treat (NNT) of overweight or obese women to prevent one case of adverse perinatal outcome. Data from the Atlee Perinatal Database on 66,689 singleton infants born in Nova Scotia, Canada, between 2004 and 2014, and their mothers were used. Multivariable-adjusted PARFs and NNTs of maternal pre-pregnancy weight status were determined for various perinatal outcomes under three scenarios: If all overweight and obese women were to i) become normal weight before pregnancy; ii) shift down one weight class; or iii) lose 10% of their body weight, significant relative reductions would be seen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, 57/33/15%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, 26/16/6%), caesarean section (CS, 18/10/3%), and large for gestational age births (LGA, 24/14/3%). The NNT were lowest for the outcomes GDM, induction of labour, CS, and LGA, where they ranged from 13 to 73. The study suggests that a substantial proportion of adverse perinatal outcomes may be preventable through reductions in maternal pre-pregnancy weight. PMID:26961675

  2. Impact of Early Screening for Gestational Diabetes on Perinatal Outcomes in High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Hong, Winston Y; Biggio, Joseph R; Tita, Alan; Harper, Lorie M

    2016-07-01

    Objective To examine the benefits of early gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening in a high-risk population. Study Design Retrospective cohort of all singletons diagnosed with GDM with indications for early screening: GDM or macrosomia in a prior pregnancy or obesity. Subjects were classified as early (<20 weeks) or routine (>24 weeks) screening. Patients diagnosed with GDM were managed according to standard institutional protocols. Outcomes examined were cesarean delivery (CD), preeclampsia, large for gestational age (LGA), small for gestational age (SGA), macrosomia, and preterm birth (PTB). Results Subjects screened early were more likely to have had GDM in a prior pregnancy, hypertension, higher body mass index, and higher fasting glucose. Early and routine screening groups had similar incidences of CD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-1.64), preeclampsia (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.38-1.83), LGA (AOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.51-1.72), SGA (AOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.13-1.13), and macrosomia (AOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.53-1.87). Subjects in the early screening group had a higher incidence of PTB (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.08-2.99). Conclusion We did not detect a benefit to early screening for women who met the criteria. The utility of early GDM screening requires evaluation in a prospective trial. PMID:26890436

  3. Right Gastric Artery Embolization Prior to Treatment with Yttrium-90 Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Cosin, Octavio; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio Alvarez, Sergio; Luis, Esther de; Alonso, Alberto; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. Intra-arterial infusion of yttrium-90 microspheres is a form of radiation treatment for unresectable hepatic neoplasms. Misdeposition of particles in the gastroduodenal area such as the right gastric artery (RGA) may occur with serious consequences. We present a series of patients who underwent a detailed vascular study followed by RGA embolization. Special emphasis is placed on anatomic variations and technical considerations .Methods. In a 1 year period, 27 patients were treated. Initial vascular evaluation was performed, with careful attention to anatomic variants or extrahepatic arterial supply, especially to the gastroduodenal area. Embolization of such arteries was planned if needed. RGA embolization was performed antegradely from the hepatic artery or retrogradely via the left gastric artery (LGA). Postprocedural follow-up included clinical interview and gastroscopy if necessary. Results. RGA embolization was performed in 9 patients presenting with primary (n = 3) or metastatic liver tumors (n 6). Six patients underwent antegrade RGA embolization and 3 had embolization done retrogradely via the LGA. Retrograde access was chosen for anatomic reasons. None of the patients complained of gastroduodenal symptoms. Conclusion. RGA embolization can help minimize the gastroduodenal deposition of radioactive particles. RGA embolization should routinely be carried out. The procedure can be performed, with similar technical success, by both anterograde and retrograde approaches.

  4. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  5. Pregnancy outcome in immigrant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Masin, Michela; Bonsembiante, Barbara; Cosma, Chiara; Barison, Antonella; Toniato, Rosanna; Fedele, Domenico; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies show adverse outcomes of pregnancy among immigrant women from countries with high diabetes rates. We compared maternal and fetal outcomes in immigrant and Italian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) followed up at our center. Maternal characteristics considered were age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, frequency of insulin treatment, timing and mode of delivery, and hypertensive disorders; and, for fetal outcome, infants large or small for gestational age, and fetal complications. Pre-pregnancy BMI and HbA1c were higher in immigrant GDM women than in Italians, and more of them were on insulin. No differences in maternal outcome emerged between the two groups. More large for gestational age (LGA) babies were born to immigrant women than to Italians, but no other differences emerged. Apart from newborn LGA, maternal and fetal outcomes were comparable in our immigrant and Italian GDM women. Immigrant GDM women have favourable outcomes if given access to health care and language and cultural barriers are removed. PMID:20528567

  6. Partnering to proceed: scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about how to implement promising small-scale projects to reduce reproductive ill health and HIV vulnerability in young people on a large scale. This evaluation documents and explains how a partnership between a non-governmental organization (NGO) and local government authorities (LGAs) influenced the LGA-led scale-up of an innovative NGO programme in the wider context of a new national multisectoral AIDS strategy. Methods Four rounds of semi-structured interviews with 82 key informants, 8 group discussions with 49 district trainers and supervisors (DTS), 8 participatory workshops involving 52 DTS, and participant observations of 80% of LGA-led and 100% of NGO-led meetings were conducted, to ascertain views on project components, flow of communication and decision-making and amount of time DTS utilized undertaking project activities. Results Despite a successful ten-fold scale-up of intervention activities in three years, full integration into LGA systems did not materialize. LGAs contributed significant human resources but limited finances; the NGO retained control over finances and decision-making and LGAs largely continued to view activities as NGO driven. Embedding of technical assistants (TAs) in the LGAs contributed to capacity building among district implementers, but may paradoxically have hindered project integration, because TAs were unable to effectively transition from an implementing to a facilitating role. Operation of NGO administration and financial mechanisms also hindered integration into district systems. Conclusions Sustainable intervention scale-up requires operational, financial and psychological integration into local government mechanisms. This must include substantial time for district systems to try out implementation with only minimal NGO support and modest output targets. It must therefore go beyond the typical three- to four-year project cycles. Scale-up of NGO pilot projects of this nature also need NGOs to be

  7. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  8. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria’s Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Methods At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. Results For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Conclusions Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been

  9. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  10. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomicresponses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N. Ari; Heo, Hye J.; Tozour, Jessica N.; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M.; Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age (LGA) growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular aging and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life. PMID:25300954

  11. Analysis of the absorption spectra of gas emission of patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yurii V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgenii L.

    2013-02-01

    It is important to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer in the early stages of the disease. The method of laser opto-acoustic gas analysis, in this case, can act as a promising tool for diagnostics. The material for this study were the gas emission samples collected from patients and healthy volunteers - samples of exhaled air, swabs from teeth and cheeks. A set of material was formed three groups: healthy volunteers, patients with COPD, lung cancer patients. The resulting samples were analyzed by means of laser opto-acoustic gas analyzers: with intracavity location detector (ILPA-1), with extracavity location detector (LGA-2). Presentation of the results in an easy to visual form was performed using the method of elastic maps, based on the principal component analysis. The results of analysis show potentialities of usage of laser optoacoustic spectroscopy application to assess the status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  12. Urinary schistosomiasis in rural communities of some local government areas in Plateau State, Nigeria: a preliminary parasitological and malacological survey.

    PubMed

    Akufongwe, P F; Dakul, D A; Michael, P D; Dajagat, P D; Arabs, W L

    1996-03-01

    A preliminary parasitological and malacological survey was effected in rural communities of some Local Government Areas (LGA) in Plateau State, Nigeria, to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and identify active transmission foci. Out of 2888 persons examined in six LGAs, 1381 (47.82%) were excreting eggs of Schistosoma haematobium in their urine. Prevalence rates did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) between the LGAs: Pankshin (62.4%), Shendam (40.2%), Qua'an-Pan (22.9%), Langtang South (45.4%), Langtang North (58.8%) and Wase (50.0%). Infection rates were significantly different (P < 0.001) between the sexes. Many water bodies in the study communities were colonized by infected Bulinus snails. Snail infection rates varied significantly (P < 0.001) between the dry and wet seasons. A positive correlation was observed between snail infection rates and the prevalence of S. haematobium. PMID:8960195

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XUV-Disk galaxies in the Local Universe (Thilker+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, D. A.; Bianchi, L.; Meurer, G.; Gil de Paz, A.; Boissier, S.; Madore, B. F.; Boselli, A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Madsen, G. J.; Hameed, S.; Overzier, R. A.; Forster, K.; Friedman, P. G.; Martin, D. C.; Morrissey, P.; Neff, S. G.; Schiminovich, D.; Seibert, M.; Small, T.; Wyder, T. K.; Donas, J.; Heckman, T. M.; Lee, Y.-W.; Milliard, B.; Rich, R. M.; Szalay, A. S.; Welsh, B. Y.; Yi, S. K.

    2009-05-01

    GALEX obtained FUV and NUV direct imaging observations of our sample targets during primary mission surveys, principally the Nearby Galaxy Survey (NGS; Bianchi et al. 2003, in The Local Group as an Astrophysical Laboratory, ed. M. Livio & T. Brown (Baltimore: STScI), 10) and Medium Imaging Survey (MIS; Martin et al., 2005ApJ...619L...1M). Second-generation Digitial Sky Survey (DSS-II) imaging data were used for compared GALEX imagery to the visible morphology of targets. We obtained Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR5 ugriz imagery of confirmed XUV-disk objects whenever possible. 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas (LGA; Jarrett et al., 2003AJ....125..525J) was our preferred source for Ks data. (2 data files).

  14. Optimizing Weight for Maternal and Infant Health – Tenable, or Too Late?

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity, and gestational weight gain (GWG) is one modifiable risk factor that improves pregnancy outcomes. Most pregnant women gain more than the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, particularly overweight and obese women. GWG even less than the 2009 IOM guidelines in obese women may improve pregnancy outcomes and reduce large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, an independent risk factor for childhood obesity, without increasing small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Unfortunately, despite the fact that over 50 interventional trials designed to decrease excess GWG have been conducted, these interventions have been only modestly effective, and interventions designed to facilitate weight postpartum weight loss have also been disappointing. Successful interventions are of paramount importance not only to improve pregnancy outcomes but also for the future metabolic health of the mother and her infant, and may be key in attenuating the trans-generational risk on childhood obesity. PMID:26442123

  15. Optimizing the Galileo space communication link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1994-02-01

    The Galileo mission was originally designed to investigate Jupiter and its moons utilizing a high-rate, X-band (8415 MHz) communication downlink with a maximum rate of 134.4 kb/sec. However, following the failure of the high-gain antenna (HGA) to fully deploy, a completely new communication link design was established that is based on Galileo's S-band (2295 MHz), low-gain antenna (LGA). The new link relies on data compression, local and intercontinental arraying of antennas, a (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,M) variable-redundancy Reed-Solomon code, decoding feedback, and techniques to reprocess recorded data to greatly reduce data losses during signal acquisition. The combination of these techniques will enable return of significant science data from the mission.

  16. Optimizing the Galileo Space Communication Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1993-10-01

    The Galileo mission was originally designed to investigate Jupiter and its moons utilizing a high-rate, X-band (8415 MHz) communication downlink with a maximum rate of 134.4 kb/sec. However, following the failure of the high-gain antenna. (HGA) to fully deploy, a completely new communication link design was established that is based on Galileo's S-band (2295 MHz), low-gain antenna (LGA). The new link relies on data compression, local and intercontinental arraying of antennas, a (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,M) variable-redundancy Reed-Solomon code, decoding feedback, and techniques to reprocess recorded data to greatly reduce data losses during signal acquisition. The combination of these techniques will enable return of significant science data from the mission.

  17. Guidelines for Selection, Screening and Qualification of Low-Voltage Commercial Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors for Space Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    This document has been developed in the course of NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program and is not an official endorsement of the insertion of commercial capacitors in space programs or an established set of requirements for their testing. The purpose of this document is to suggest possible ways for selection, screening, and qualification of commercial capacitors for NASA projects and open discussions in the parts engineering community related to the use of COTS ceramic capacitors. This guideline is applicable to commercial surface mount chip, simple parallel plate design, multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) rated to voltages of 100V and less. Parts with different design, e.g. low inductance ceramic capacitors (LICA), land grid array (LGA) etc., might need additional testing and tailoring of the requirements described in this document. Although the focus of this document is on commercial MLCCs, many procedures discussed below would be beneficial for military-grade capacitors

  18. Joint and Independent Associations of Gestational Weight Gain and Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index with Outcomes of Pregnancy in Chinese Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunming; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the joint and independent effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes in a population of Chinese Han women and to evaluate pregnant women’s adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain guidelines. Methods This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 48,867 primiparous women from mainland China who had a full-term singleton birth between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2011. The independent associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and categories of combined pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with outcomes of interest were examined using an adjusted multivariate regression model. In addition, women with pre-pregnancy hypertension were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and women with gestational diabetes (GDM) were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. Results Only 36.8% of the women had a weight gain that was within the recommended range; 25% and 38.2% had weight gains that were below and above the recommended range, respectively. The contribution of GWG to the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes was modest. Women with excessive GWG had an increased likelihood of gestational hypertension (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI = 1.92–2.80), postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.30; 95% CI = 1.17–1.45), cesarean section (adjusted OR 1.31; 95% CI = 1.18–1.36) and delivery of an LGA infant (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.76–2.26) compared with women with normal weight gain. Conversely, the incidence of GDM (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI = 1.20–1.85) and SGA infants (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32–1.72) was increased in the group of women with inadequate GWG. Moreover, in the obese women, excessive GWG was associated with an apparent increased risk of delivering an LGA infant. In the women who were

  19. Optimizing the Galileo space communication link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission was originally designed to investigate Jupiter and its moons utilizing a high-rate, X-band (8415 MHz) communication downlink with a maximum rate of 134.4 kb/sec. However, following the failure of the high-gain antenna (HGA) to fully deploy, a completely new communication link design was established that is based on Galileo's S-band (2295 MHz), low-gain antenna (LGA). The new link relies on data compression, local and intercontinental arraying of antennas, a (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,M) variable-redundancy Reed-Solomon code, decoding feedback, and techniques to reprocess recorded data to greatly reduce data losses during signal acquisition. The combination of these techniques will enable return of significant science data from the mission.

  20. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  1. Classical nucleation theory with a radius-dependent surface tension: A two-dimensional lattice-gas automata model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Joseph; L'Heureux, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    The constant surface tension assumption of the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) is known to be flawed. In order to probe beyond this limitation, we consider a microscopic, two-dimensional Lattice-Gas Automata (LGA) model of nucleation in a supersaturated system, with model input parameters Ess (solid particle-to-solid particle bonding energy), Esw (solid particle-to-water bonding energy), η (next-to-nearest-neighbor bonding coefficient in solid phase), and Cin (initial solute concentration). The LGA method has the advantages of easy implementation, low memory requirements, and fast computation speed. Analytical results for the system's concentration and the crystal radius as functions of time are derived and the former is fit to the simulation data in order to determine the equilibrium concentration. The “Mean First-Passage Time” technique is used to obtain the nucleation rate and critical nucleus size from the simulation data. The nucleation rate and supersaturation data are evaluated using a modification to the CNT that incorporates a two-dimensional radius-dependent surface tension term. The Tolman parameter, δ, which controls the radius dependence of the surface tension, decreases (increases) as a function of the magnitude of Ess (Esw), at fixed values of η and Esw (Ess). On the other hand, δ increases as η increases while Ess and Esw are held constant. The constant surface tension term of the CNT, Σ0, increases (decreases) with increasing magnitudes of Ess (Esw) at fixed values of Esw (Ess) and increases as η is increased. Σ0 increases linearly as a function of the change in energy during an attachment or detachment reaction, |ΔE|, however, with a slope less than that predicted for a crystal that is uniformly packed at maximum density. These results indicate an increase in the radius-dependent surface tension, Σ, with respect to increasing magnitude of the difference between Ess and Esw.

  2. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade. PMID:10176270

  3. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Gongora, C.; Harrison, E. M.; Moodley, A.; Guardabassi, L.; Holmes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. Methods The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to SCCmec, virulence and resistance gene content. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using commercial broth microdilution tests. Results All the isolates belonged to spa type t528 ST130 and carried mecC. Based on WGS, mecC was 100% identical to the prototype sequence of S. aureus strain LGA251. The sequence of SCCmec type XI in the mara isolates had 23 SNPs compared with the one described in LGA251. The two sequenced strains harboured a set of virulence factors and other genomic features previously observed in ST130. Both strains carried norA as the only putative antimicrobial resistance gene in addition to mecC. Conclusions Our findings support the notion that a genetically conserved mecC-carrying MRSA ST130 clone is widespread in a variety of unrelated hosts in Denmark. Since the mara at Copenhagen Zoo have limited contact with humans and other animal species, it remains unclear whether mara are natural hosts of ST130 or acquired this lineage from unknown sources. The broad host range of MRSA ST130 supports its designation as a generalist lineage. PMID:25722301

  4. Visual function and vision-related quality of life in presbyopic adult population of Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Nasiru; Alhassan, Mahmoud B.; Umar, Murtala M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-related quality of life (QoL) and visual function (VF) among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu local government area (LGA) of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study in Bungudu LGA of Zamfara State Nigeria was conducted in 2012. Six-hundred and fifty persons at least 40 years of age were examined using a two-stage cluster random sampling-based on probability proportional to size. Presbyopia was defined as the inability to read N8 at 40 cm in an indoor illumination using LogMAR E-chart. Demographic information comprising of age, sex, occupation, and educational level among others was obtained from a pilot tested VF-14 and modified vision-related QoL questionnaire by trained interviewer. Results: Out Of the 650 subjects enumerated 635 were examined given a response rate of 97.7%. The mean age of participants was 53.59 years (95% confidence interval:52.75%-54.43%). The crude prevalence of presbyopia was 30.4%, (95% CI: 26.8%-34.1%). The mean VF score of persons with presbyopia was 85.09, (95% CI: 83.09%-87.09%) and being female was strongly associated with high VF scores (P = 0.003). The VFs most impaired were the ability to read, write, use mobile phones, and thread needles. The higher the degree of presbyopia the lower the mean VF score (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Uncorrected presbyopia is associated with functional visual impairment and reduce QoL especially in the ability to read, write, and usage of mobile cell phones among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu District. PMID:26778881

  5. Conditioned stress prevents cue-primed cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Natalie A; Wu, Lizhen; Hiller, Helmut; Krause, Eric G; Schwendt, Marek; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    Neurobiological mechanisms underlying comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cocaine use disorder (CUD) are unknown. We aimed to develop an animal model of PTSD + CUD to examine the neurobiology underlying cocaine-seeking in the presence of PTSD comorbidity. Rats were exposed to cat urine once for 10-minutes and tested for anxiety-like behaviors one week later. Subsequently, rats underwent long-access (LgA) cocaine self-administration and extinction training. Rats were re-exposed to the trauma context and then immediately tested for cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Plasma and brains were collected afterwards for corticosterone assays and real-time qPCR analysis. Urine-exposed (UE; n = 23) and controls not exposed to urine (Ctrl; n = 11) did not differ in elevated plus maze behavior, but UE rats displayed significantly reduced habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) relative to Ctrl rats. A median split of ASR habituation scores was used to classify stress-responsive rats. UE rats (n = 10) self-administered more cocaine on Day 1 of LgA than control rats (Ctrl + Coc; n = 8). Re-exposure to the trauma context prevented cocaine reinstatement only in stress-responsive rats. Ctrl + Coc rats had lower plasma corticosterone concentrations than Ctrls, and decreased gene expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and Glcci1 in the hippocampus. Rats that self-administered cocaine displayed greater CRH expression in the amygdala that was independent of urine exposure. While we did not find that cat urine exposure induced a PTSD-like phenotype in our rats, the present study underscores the need to separate stressed rats into cohorts based on anxiety-like behavior in order to study individual vulnerability to PTSD + CUD. PMID:27181613

  6. A qualitative study of internal wave ship wakes: Dependence on environmental conditions and experimental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, C.J.; Brase, J.M.

    1995-04-24

    For the past several years the UK-US Radar Ocean Imaging Program has conducted a series of field experiments with the primary purpose of gathering real aperture radar (RAR) imagery at low grazing angle of ship-generated internal wave (IW) wakes. The first observations with RAR`s were made in the 1989 Loch Linnhe experiment where it was observed that radar images at low grazing angles (LGA) of approximately six degrees had significantly higher modulation levels than SAR images made at higher grazing angles of 35 - 65 degrees. These initial observations have led to several more experiments designed to verify the phenomenon and to test its dependence on experimental and environmental conditions. A parallel effort began to develop theoretical models of the LGA imaging process. Through this series of experiments we have developed an extensive database of radar imagery and supporting environmental data. The objective of this report is twofold: (1) To describe the database and the associated space of parameters. We will look at the coverage of the parameter space within the database and at areas which should be covered. (2) To take an initial look at the dependence of qualitative modulation strength on the experimental and environmental parameters. This first look will indicate the strongest dependencies which can then be studied in more detail. Section 2 describes the experimental database and Section 3 discusses the parameter space, image quality, and their relationships based on the images in the database. In Section 4 we summarize our conclusions and make recommendations for both future analyses and experiments.

  7. Association of Second and Third Trimester Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Michele; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Kac, Gilberto; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional – EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.33), and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31); in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08–2.70) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.44). Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.96) than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. Conclusion Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:23382944

  8. Development of a Master Health Facility List in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Aderemi; Bamidele, Samson; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Adebayo, Wura; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Abioye, Abimbola; Mullen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) are increasingly transitioning to electronic platforms in several developing countries. Establishment of a Master Facility List (MFL) to standardize the allocation of unique identifiers for health facilities can overcome identification issues and support health facility management. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) recently developed a MFL, and we present the process and outcome. Methods The MFL was developed from the ground up, and includes a state code, a local government area (LGA) code, health facility ownership (public or private), the level of care, and an exclusive LGA level health facility serial number, as part of the unique identifier system in Nigeria. To develop the MFL, the LGAs sent the list of all health facilities in their jurisdiction to the state, which in turn collated for all LGAs under them before sending to the FMOH. At the FMOH, a group of RHIS experts verified the list and identifiers for each state. Results The national MFL consists of 34,423 health facilities uniquely identified. The list has been published and is available for worldwide access; it is currently used for planning and management of health services in Nigeria. Discussion Unique identifiers are a basic component of any information system. However, poor planning and execution of implementing this key standard can diminish the success of the RHIS. Conclusion Development and adherence to standards is the hallmark for a national health information infrastructure. Explicit processes and multi-level stakeholder engagement is necessary to ensuring the success of the effort. PMID:25422720

  9. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Marlon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA) rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample. Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA). Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed. Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995). When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975). Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends. PMID:26937270

  10. Spatial Patterns and Socioecological Drivers of Dengue Fever Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Understanding how socioecological factors affect the transmission of dengue fever (DF) may help to develop an early warning system of DF. Objectives: We examined the impact of socioecological factors on the transmission of DF and assessed potential predictors of locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases of DF in Queensland, Australia. Methods: We obtained data from Queensland Health on the numbers of notified DF cases by local government area (LGA) in Queensland for the period 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2005. Data on weather and the socioeconomic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the LGA level to quantify the relationship between DF and socioecological factors. Results: Our estimates suggest an increase in locally acquired DF of 6% [95% credible interval (CI): 2%, 11%] and 61% (95% CI: 2%, 241%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1°C increase in average monthly maximum temperature between 2002 and 2005, respectively. By contrast, overseas-acquired DF cases increased by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 3%) and by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 2%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1-unit increase in average socioeconomic index, respectively. Conclusions: Socioecological factors appear to influence the transmission of DF in Queensland, but the drivers of locally acquired and overseas-acquired DF may differ. DF risk is spatially clustered with different patterns for locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases. PMID:22015625

  11. Spontaneously induced prophages in Lactobacillus gasseri contribute to horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Baugher, J L; Durmaz, E; Klaenhammer, T R

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is an endogenous species of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina. With recent advances in microbial taxonomy, phylogenetics, and genomics, L. gasseri is recognized as an important commensal and is increasingly being used in probiotic formulations. L. gasseri strain ADH is lysogenic and harbors two inducible prophages. In this study, prophage adh was found to spontaneously induce in broth cultures to populations of ∼ 10(7) PFU/ml by stationary phase. The adh prophage-cured ADH derivative NCK102 was found to harbor a new, second inducible phage, vB_Lga_jlb1 (jlb1). Phage jlb1 was sequenced and found to be highly similar to the closely related phage LgaI, which resides as two tandem prophages in the neotype strain L. gasseri ATCC 33323. The common occurrence of multiple prophages in L. gasseri genomes, their propensity for spontaneous induction, and the high degree of homology among phages within multiple species of Lactobacillus suggest that temperate bacteriophages likely contribute to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in commensal lactobacilli. In this study, the host ranges of phages adh and jlb1 were determined against 16 L. gasseri strains. The transduction range and the rate of spontaneous transduction were investigated in coculture experiments to ascertain the degree to which prophages can promote HGT among a variety of commensal and probiotic lactobacilli. Both adh and jlb1 particles were confirmed to mediate plasmid transfer. As many as ∼10(3) spontaneous transductants/ml were obtained. HGT by transducing phages of commensal lactobacilli may have a significant impact on the evolution of bacteria within the human microbiota. PMID:24682298

  12. Inter-pregnancy weight change impacts placental weight and is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-pregnancy period is considered a teachable moment when women are receptive to weight- management guidance aimed at optimising pregnancy outcome in subsequent pregnancies. In population based studies inter-pregnancy weight change is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes but the impact on placental size is unknown. Methods The association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the primary risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy was investigated in 12,740 women with first two consecutive deliveries at a single hospital using logistic regression. Results Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>1BMI unit) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, low placental weight and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, while weight gain (>3BMI units) increased the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, emergency caesarean section, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth at the second pregnancy. The relationship between weight gain and pre-eclampsia risk was evident in women who were overweight at first pregnancy only (BMI ≥25 units), while that between weight loss and preterm delivery was confined to women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI <25 units). In contrast, the association between weight loss and SGA was independent of first pregnancy BMI. A higher percentage of women who were obese at first pregnancy were likely to experience a large weight gain (P < 0.01) or weight loss (P < 0.001) between consecutive pregnancies compared with the normal BMI reference group. Conclusion Inter-pregnancy weight change in either direction increases the risk of a number of contrasting pregnancy complications, including extremes of placental weight. The placenta may lie on the causal pathway between BMI change and the risk of LGA or SGA birth. PMID:24450357

  13. Morbidity and mortality amongst infants of diabetic mothers admitted into Soba university hospital, Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Abdelmoneim E.M.; Berair, Rabih; Gulfan, Islam G.I.; Karrar, Mohamed Z.; Mohammed, Zuhlel A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes during pregnancy is increasing and this is associated with an increased risk of complications in both mother and fetus. The aim of this research is to study the neonatal complications of maternal diabetes. This was a prospective observational study that was conducted in Soba university hospital between September 2010 and March 2011. All infants born to diabetic mothers during the study period were admitted to the neonatal care unit for evaluation. Data on sex, gestational age, and birth weight, mode of delivery, complications, investigations, birth injury, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Maternal data were retrieved from records. Data was analyzed using Minitab 15. A total of 50 infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) were included in the study. Thirty infants (60%) were females and 20 (40%) were males. Forty two (84%) of the neonates were born by caesarian section, only 7(14%) were born by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Birth injury was observed in 4% of them. The mean gestational age was 37.2±2.051 weeks. The median birth weight was 3.5 kg. 14 (28%) of the babies were macrosomic, and 17 (34%) were large for gestational age (LGA). Congenital anomalies were found in 3 (6%), hypoglycemia in 6 (12%), hyperbillirubinaemia in 10 (20%), hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia each occurred in 2%, transient tachypnea of the newborn occurred in 5 (10%) of the neonates and respiratory distress syndrome in 2%. Cardiomyopathy occurred in 2% and mortality was 4%. We concluded that macrosomia, LGA, and hyperbillirubinaemia were the commonest complications in IDMs, maternal glycaemic control was found to have a significant effect on a number of outcomes.

  14. Timing of treatment initiation for mild gestational diabetes and perinatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik, Anna; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B.; Reddy, Uma M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Saade, George R.; Caritis, Steve N.; Sorokin, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between gestational age (GA) at the time of treatment initiation for gestational diabetes (GDM) and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Study Design A secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized treatment trial of mild GDM in which women with mild GDM were randomized to treatment versus usual care. The primary outcome of the original trial, as well as this analysis, was a composite perinatal adverse outcome that included neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and perinatal mortality. Other outcomes examined included the frequency of large for gestational age (LGA), birth weight, neonatal intensive care unit admission (NICU), gestational hypertension / preeclampsia and cesarean delivery. The interaction between GA at treatment initiation (stratified as 24-26 weeks, 27 weeks, 28 weeks, 29 weeks, ≥30 weeks) and treatment group (treated vs. routine care), with the outcomes of interest, was used to determine whether GA at treatment initiation was associated with outcome differences. Results Of 958 women analyzed, those who initiated treatment at an earlier GA did not gain an additional treatment benefit compared to those who initiated treatment at a later GA (p-value for interaction with the primary outcome is 0.44). Similarly, there was no evidence that other outcomes were significantly improved by earlier initiation of GDM treatment (LGA p=0.76; NICU admission p=0.8; cesarean delivery p=0.82). The only outcome that had a significant interaction between GA and treatment was gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (p=0.04), although there was not a clear cut GA trend where this outcome improved with treatment. Conclusion Earlier initiation of treatment of mild GDM was not associated with stronger effect of treatment on perinatal outcomes. PMID:26071920

  15. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) in Victoria, Australia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Shafiei, Touran; Watson, Lyndsey F; Ridgway, Lael; Cramer, Rhian L; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and infants. Despite recommendations from the WHO, by 6 months of age 40% of Australian infants are receiving no breast milk. Increased early postpartum breastfeeding support may improve breastfeeding maintenance. 2 community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, were implemented and evaluated. Design 3-arm cluster randomised trial. Setting LGAs in Victoria, Australia. Participants LGAs across Victoria with breastfeeding initiation rates below the state average and > 450 births/year were eligible for inclusion. The LGA was the unit of randomisation, and maternal and child health centres in the LGAs comprised the clusters. Interventions Early home-based breastfeeding support by a maternal and child health nurse (home visit, HV) with or without access to a community-based breastfeeding drop-in centre (HV+drop-in). Main outcome measures The proportion of infants receiving ‘any’ breast milk at 3, 4 and 6 months (women's self-report). Findings 4 LGAs were randomised to the comparison arm and provided usual care (n=41 clusters; n=2414 women); 3 to HV (n=32 clusters; n=2281 women); and 3 to HV+drop-in (n=26 clusters; 2344 women). There was no difference in breastfeeding at 4 months in either HV (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29) or HV+drop-in (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.08) compared with the comparison arm, no difference at 3 or 6 months, nor in any LGA in breastfeeding before and after the intervention. Some issues were experienced with intervention protocol fidelity. Conclusions Early home-based and community-based support proved difficult to implement. Interventions to increase breastfeeding in complex community settings require sufficient time and partnership building for successful implementation. We cannot conclude that additional community-based support is ineffective in improving breastfeeding

  16. Beyond classical nucleation theory: A 2-D lattice-gas automata model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Joseph

    Nucleation is the first step in the formation of a new phase in a thermodynamic system. The Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) is the traditional theory used to describe this phenomenon. The object of this thesis is to investigate nucleation beyond one of the most significant limitations of the CNT: the assumption that the surface tension of a nucleating cluster of the new phase is independent of the cluster's size and has the same value that it would have in the bulk of the new phase. In order to accomplish this, we consider a microscopic, two-dimensional Lattice Gas Automata (LGA) model of precipitate nucleation in a supersaturated system, with model input parameters Ess (solid particle-to-solid particle bonding energy), Esw (solid particle-to-water particle bonding energy), eta (next-to-nearest neighbour bonding coeffiicent in solid phase), and Cin (initial solute concentration). The LGA method was chosen for its advantages of easy implementation, low memory requirements, and fast computation speed. Analytical results for the system's concentration and the crystal radius as functions of time are derived and the former is fit to the simulation data in order to determine the system's equilibrium concentration. A mean first-passage time (MFPT) technique is used to obtain the nucleation rate and critical nucleus size from the simulation data. The nucleation rate and supersaturation are evaluated using a modification to the CNT that incorporates a two-dimensional, radius-dependent surface tension term. The Tolman parameter, delta, which controls the radius-dependence of the surface tension, decreases (increases) as a function of the magnitude of Ess (Esw), at fixed values of eta and Esw (Ess). On the other hand, delta increases as eta increases while E ss and Esw are held constant. The constant surface tension term of the CNT, Sigma0, increases (decreases) with increasing magnitudes of Ess (Esw) fixed values of Esw (Ess), and increases as eta is increased. Together

  17. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  18. Celiac Axis, Common Hepatic and Hepatic Artery Variants as Evidenced on MDCT Angiography in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the increase in the hepatobiliary, pancreatic surgeries and liver transplantation, being aware of the anatomic variations of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries is of paramount importance. Aim To illustrate the normal anatomy and variants of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries with multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in South Indian population and determine the potential variations in the celiac axis anatomy and the hepatic arteries, thus assisting the hepatobiliary surgeon and the interventional radiologist in avoiding iatrogenic injury to the arteries. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients undergoing abdominal CT angiography from July 2014 till July 2015 were retrospectively studied for hepatic arterial and celiac axis anatomical variation. The anatomic variations in our study were correlated with other studies. Results The celiac axis (CA) and the hepatic artery (HA) variations were analysed as per criteria laid by Song et al., and Michel. Out of 15 possible CA variations, 5 types of celiac artery variations were seen in 14 patients. A normal CA was seen in 179(89.5%) patients of the 200 patients. In the remaining 7 patients, the CA anatomy was classified as ambiguous since there was separate origin of the right and left hepatic arteries from the CA with absent common hepatic artery (CHA). The CHA originated normally from the celiac axis in 94% of the cases. Variation of CHA origin was seen in 5 patients. Normal HA anatomy was seen in 114 (57%) patients. Variation in HA anatomy was seen in 86 (43%) patients. Origin of the right hepatic artery (RHA) from the hepatic artery proper was seen in 182 (91%) patients and replaced origin of RHA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was seen in 18 (9%) of the cases. Accessory RHA was seen in 7(3.5%) patients. The left hepatic artery (LHA) originated from the hepatic artery proper in 186 (93%) patients and replaced origin of LHA from the left gastric artery (LGA) was

  19. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been

  20. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a novel mecA homologue in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Laura; Holden, Matthew TG; Lindsay, Heather; Webb, Cerian R; Brown, Derek FJ; Curran, Martin D; Walpole, Enid; Brooks, Karen; Pickard, Derek J; Teale, Christopher; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Edwards, Giles F; Girvan, E Kirsty; Kearns, Angela M; Pichon, Bruno; Hill, Robert LR; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert L; Peacock, Sharon J; Maskell, Duncan J; Holmes, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Animals can act as a reservoir and source for the emergence of novel meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones in human beings. Here, we report the discovery of a strain of S aureus (LGA251) isolated from bulk milk that was phenotypically resistant to meticillin but tested negative for the mecA gene and a preliminary investigation of the extent to which such strains are present in bovine and human populations. Methods Isolates of bovine MRSA were obtained from the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in the UK, and isolates of human MRSA were obtained from diagnostic or reference laboratories (two in the UK and one in Denmark). From these collections, we searched for mecA PCR-negative bovine and human S aureus isolates showing phenotypic meticillin resistance. We used whole-genome sequencing to establish the genetic basis for the observed antibiotic resistance. Findings A divergent mecA homologue (mecALGA251) was discovered in the LGA251 genome located in a novel staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element, designated type-XI SCCmec. The mecALGA251 was 70% identical to S aureus mecA homologues and was initially detected in 15 S aureus isolates from dairy cattle in England. These isolates were from three different multilocus sequence type lineages (CC130, CC705, and ST425); spa type t843 (associated with CC130) was identified in 60% of bovine isolates. When human mecA-negative MRSA isolates were tested, the mecALGA251 homologue was identified in 12 of 16 isolates from Scotland, 15 of 26 from England, and 24 of 32 from Denmark. As in cows, t843 was the most common spa type detected in human beings. Interpretation Although routine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing will identify S aureus isolates with this novel mecA homologue as meticillin resistant, present confirmatory methods will not identify them as MRSA. New diagnostic guidelines for the detection of MRSA should consider the inclusion of tests for mecALGA251. Funding

  1. The association between maternal hyperglycemia and perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus patients: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Young; Jung, Inkyung; Kim, So Jung

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes differ depending on the glucose values among GDM patients. For accurate and effective prenatal counseling, it is necessary to understand the relationship between different maternal hyperglycemia values and the severity of adverse outcomes. With this objective, this study reexamines the relationship between maternal hyperglycemia versus maternal and perinatal outcomes in GDM patients. For this study, maternal hyperglycemia was diagnosed using the 2-step diagnostic approach.Medical records of 3434 pregnant women, who received the 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) between March 2001 and April 2013, were reviewed. As a result, 307 patients were diagnosed with GDM, and they were divided into 2 groups according to their fasting glucose levels. A total of 171 patients had normal fasting glucose level (<95 mg/dL), and 136 patients had abnormal fasting glucose level (≥95 mg/dL). The 50-g GCT results were subdivided by 20-unit increments (140-159, n = 123; 160-179, n = 84; 180-199, n = 50; and ≥200, n = 50), and the maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared against the normal 50-g GCT group (n = 307).Maternal fasting blood glucose (FBG) level showed clear association with adverse perinatal outcomes. The odds ratio (OR) of macrosomia was 6.72 (95% CI: 2.59-17.49, P < 0.001) between the 2 groups. The ORs of large for gestational age (LGA) and neonatal hypoglycemia were 3.75 (95% CI: 1.97-7.12, P < 0.001) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.79-3.43, P  =  0.183), respectively. Also, the results of the 50-g GCT for each category showed strong association with increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to the normal 50-g GCT group. The OR of macrosomia (up to 20.31-fold), LGA (up to 6.15-fold), and neonatal hypoglycemia (up to 84.00-fold) increased with increasing 50-g GCT result

  2. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  3. Minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies in the management of complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A case report.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Kang, Kyungmin; Fan, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from simple steatosis to inflammation leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes, major risk factors in the development and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma is expected to increase by 2030 with an enormous health and economic impact. We present a patient who developed Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. Due to morbid obesity, she was not an optimal transplant candidate and was not initially listed. After attempts for lifestyle modifications failed to lead to weight reduction, a transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery was performed. This is the sixth such procedure in humans in literature. Subsequently she had a meaningful drop in BMI from 42 to 36 over the following 6 months ultimately leading to her being listed for transplant. During this time, the left hepatic HCC was treated with chemoembolization without evidence of recurrence. In this article, we wish to highlight the use of minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the comprehensive management of the NAFLD spectrum and percutaneous transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method, for the management of obesity. PMID:26629307

  4. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subarna; Misra, Sujata; Nayak, Prasanta K.; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results: Large for gestational age (LGA) babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (P < 0.001). Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS) had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05). However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01). Conclusion: The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies. PMID:23087859

  5. Minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies in the management of complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A case report

    PubMed Central

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Kang, Kyungmin; Fan, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from simple steatosis to inflammation leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes, major risk factors in the development and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma is expected to increase by 2030 with an enormous health and economic impact. We present a patient who developed Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. Due to morbid obesity, she was not an optimal transplant candidate and was not initially listed. After attempts for lifestyle modifications failed to lead to weight reduction, a transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery was performed. This is the sixth such procedure in humans in literature. Subsequently she had a meaningful drop in BMI from 42 to 36 over the following 6 months ultimately leading to her being listed for transplant. During this time, the left hepatic HCC was treated with chemoembolization without evidence of recurrence. In this article, we wish to highlight the use of minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the comprehensive management of the NAFLD spectrum and percutaneous transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method, for the management of obesity. PMID:26629307

  6. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  7. [Regional and national stroke units in Germany: amended certification criteria].

    PubMed

    Nabavi, D G; Ringelstein, E B; Faiss, J; Kessler, C; Röther, J; Busse, O

    2012-08-01

    Stroke units (SU) have been certified for many years by the German Stroke Society (DSG) and the German Stroke Aid Foundation (SDSH). Since 2009 this is now undertaken in the third generation by the LGA InterCert of the Technical Surveillance Society of Rhineland (TÜV Rheinland). This article presents the amended certification criteria which came into effect in 2012. Many criteria and definitions could be further defined and specified and residual grey areas and fields of conflict could be reduced. For the first time a distinction has been made between the minimum requirements relevant for certification and additional recommendations by the SU Commission of the DSG. In this manner the authors are aiming to motivate SU operators not just to align quality assurance measures to the minimum requirements but to deliberately go beyond them. There is a great deal of evidence to indicate that this will not only serve to increase the motivation of personnel and the quality of treatment but simultaneously the economic situation can also be improved. PMID:22801666

  8. Old Drugs To Treat Resistant Bugs: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with mecC Are Susceptible to a Combination of Penicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Lovering, Andrew L.; Gleadall, Nicholas; Zadoks, Ruth; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Holmes, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    β-Lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mediated by the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA, known as mecC, was identified in MRSA isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate that mecC-encoded PBP2c does not mediate resistance to penicillin. Rather, broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in MRSA strains carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA strains) is mediated by a combination of both PBP2c and the distinct β-lactamase encoded by the blaZ gene of strain LGA251 (blaZLGA251), which is part of mecC-encoding staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. We further demonstrate that mecC-MRSA strains are susceptible to the combination of penicillin and the β-lactam inhibitor clavulanic acid in vitro and that the same combination is effective in vivo for the treatment of experimental mecC-MRSA infection in wax moth larvae. Thus, we demonstrate how the distinct biological differences between mecA- and mecC-encoded PBP2a and PBP2c have the potential to be exploited as a novel approach for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections. PMID:26392513

  9. Direct-referencing Two-dimensional-array Digital Microfluidics Using Multi-layer Printed Circuit Board

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”

    2008-01-01

    Digital (i.e. droplet-based) microfluidics, by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) mechanism, has shown great potential for a wide range of applications, such as lab-on-a-chip. While most reported EWOD chips use a series of electrode pads essentially in one-dimensional line pattern designed for specific tasks, the desired universal chips allowing user-reconfigurable paths would require the electrode pads in two-dimensional pattern. However, to electrically access the electrode pads independently, conductive lines need to be fabricated underneath the pads in multiple layers, raising a cost issue especially for disposable chip applications. In this article, we report the building of digital microfluidic plates based on a printed-circuit-board (PCB), in which multilayer electrical access lines were created inexpensively using mature PCB technology. However, due to its surface topography and roughness and resulting high resistance against droplet movement, as-fabricated PCB surfaces require unacceptably high (~500 V) voltages unless coated with or immersed in oil. Our goal is EWOD operations of aqueous droplets not only on oil-covered but also on dry surfaces. To meet varying levels of performances, three types of gradually complex post-PCB microfabrication processes are developed and evaluated. By introducing land-grid-array (LGA) sockets in the packaging, a scalable digital microfluidics system with reconfigurable and low-cost chip is also demonstrated. PMID:19234613

  10. Mapping Nucleotide Sequences that Encode Complex Binary Disease Traits with HapMap

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuehua; Fu, Wenjiang; Sun, Kelian; Romero, Roberto; Wu, Rongling

    2007-01-01

    Detecting the patterns of DNA sequence variants across the human genome is a crucial step for unraveling the genetic basis of complex human diseases. The human HapMap constructed by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provides efficient sequence variation information that can speed up the discovery of genes related to common diseases. In this article, we present a generalized linear model for identifying specific nucleotide variants that encode complex human diseases. A novel approach is derived to group haplotypes to form composite diplotypes, which largely reduces the model degrees of freedom for an association test and hence increases the power when multiple SNP markers are involved. An efficient two-stage estimation procedure based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is derived to estimate parameters. Non-genetic environmental or clinical risk factors can also be fitted into the model. Computer simulations show that our model has reasonable power and type I error rate with appropriate sample size. It is also suggested through simulations that a balanced design with approximately equal number of cases and controls should be preferred to maintain small estimation bias and reasonable testing power. To illustrate the utility, we apply the method to a genetic association study of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates. The model provides a powerful tool for elucidating the genetic basis of complex binary diseases. PMID:19384427

  11. A cellular automaton simulation of contaminant transport in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, D.M.; Simonson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    A simulation tool to investigate radionuclide transport in porous groundwater flow is described. The flow systems of interest are those important in determining the fate of radionuclides emplaced in an underground repository, such as saturated matrix flow, matrix and fracture flow in the unsaturated zone, and viscous fingering in porous fractures. The work discussed here is confined to consideration of saturated flow in porous media carrying a dilute, sorptive species. The simulation technique is based on a special class of cellular automata known as lattice gas automata (LGA) which are capable of predicting hydrodynamic behavior. The original two-dimensional scheme (that of Frisch et. al. known as the FHP model) used particles of unit mass traveling on a triangular lattice with unit velocity and undergoing simple collisions which conserve mass and momentum at each node. These microscopic rules go over to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the macroscopic limit. One of the strengths of this technique is the natural way that heterogeneities, such as boundaries, are accommodated. Complex geometries such as those associated with porous microstructures can be modeled effectively. Several constructions based on the FHP model have been devised, including techniques to eliminate statistical noise, extension to three dimensions, and the addition of surface tension which leads to multiphase flow.

  12. The Global Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Epidemic: What a Radiologist Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Keith; Salsamendi, Jason; Casillas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from a benign steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metabolic syndrome, mainly obesity, plays an important role, both as an independent risk factor and in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications is expected to increase dramatically. Therapeutic strategies for treating NAFLD and metabolic syndrome, particularly obesity, are continuously being refined. Their goal is the prevention of NAFLD by the management of risk factors, prevention of progression of the disease, as well as management of complications, ultimately preventing morbidity and mortality. Optimal management of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome requires a multidisciplinary collaboration between the government as well as the health system including the nutritionist, primary care physician, radiologist, hepatologist, oncologist, and transplant surgeon. An awareness of the clinical presentation, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management is of paramount importance to a radiologist, both from the clinical perspective as well as from the imaging standpoint. With expertise in imaging modalities as well as minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies, radiologists play an essential role in the comprehensive management, which is highlighted in this article, with cases from our practice. We also briefly discuss transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method that promises to have an enormous potential in the minimally invasive management of obesity, with details of a case from our practice. PMID:26167390

  13. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Akinwale Sangodoyin, Abimbola; Sridhar, Mynepalli; Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix

    2009-02-15

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  14. Singleton Pregnancy Outcomes after In Vitro Fertilization with Fresh or Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and Incidence of Placenta Praevia

    PubMed Central

    Korosec, Sara; Kladnik, Urska; Kotar, Vanja; Virant-Klun, Irma; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in the in vitro fertilization programme (IVF). The study focused on clinical and laboratory factors affecting the abnormal placentation, especially placenta praevia, in patients conceiving in the IVF programme. The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). Moreover, the birth weight distribution in singletons was found to shift towards “large for gestation” (LGA) after frozen-thawed ET. On the other hand, the pregnancies after fresh ET were characterized by a higher incidence of placenta praevia and 3rd trimester bleeding. Placenta praevia was more common in IVF patients with fresh ET in a stimulated cycle than in patients with ET in a spontaneous cycle. It occurred more frequently in patients with transfer of 2 embryos. From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous cycle should be encouraged in good prognosis patients in the future with more than two good quality embryos developed. An important issue arose of how the ovarian hormonal stimulation relates to abnormal placentation and if the serum hormone levels interfere with in the IVF treatment results. PMID:24822209

  15. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  16. Thermodynamics of reaction of praseodymium with gallium-indium eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchakov, S. Yu.; Ivanov, V. A.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Volkovich, V. A.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2013-06-01

    Thermodynamic properties of Ga-In eutectic alloys saturated with praseodymium were determined for the first time employing the electromotive force method. The equilibrium potentials of the Pr-In alloys saturated with praseodymium (8.7-12.1 mol.% Pr) and Pr-Ga-In alloys (containing 0.0012-6.71 mol.% Pr) were measured between 573-1073 K. Pr-In alloy containing solid PrIn3 with known thermodynamic properties was used as the reference electrode when measuring the potentials of ternary Pr-In-Ga alloys. Activity, partial and excessive thermodynamic functions of praseodymium in alloys with indium and Ga-In eutectic were calculated. Activity (a), activity coefficients (γ) and solubility (X) of praseodymium in the studied temperature range can be expressed by the following equations: lgaα-Pr(In) = 4.425 - 11965/T ± 0.026. lgаα-Pr(Ga-In) = 5.866 - 14766/T ± 0.190. lgγα-Pr(Ga-In) = 2.351 - 9996/T ± 0.39. lgХPr(Ga-In) = 3.515 - 4770/T ± 0.20.

  17. Primary Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns by Lifestyle Counseling: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, Riitta; Kinnunen, Tarja I.; Aittasalo, Minna; Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Ojala, Katriina; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Lamberg, Satu; Vasankari, Tommi; Komulainen, Tanja; Tulokas, Sirkku

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or newborns' high birthweight can be prevented by lifestyle counseling in pregnant women at high risk of GDM. Method and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized trial, the NELLI study, in 14 municipalities in Finland, where 2,271 women were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 8–12 wk gestation. Euglycemic (n = 399) women with at least one GDM risk factor (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2, glucose intolerance or newborn's macrosomia (≥4,500 g) in any earlier pregnancy, family history of diabetes, age ≥40 y) were included. The intervention included individual intensified counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits. Primary outcomes were incidence of GDM as assessed by OGTT (maternal outcome) and newborns' birthweight adjusted for gestational age (neonatal outcome). Secondary outcomes were maternal weight gain and the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy. Adherence to the intervention was evaluated on the basis of changes in physical activity (weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes) and diet (intake of total fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharose, and fiber). Multilevel analyses took into account cluster, maternity clinic, and nurse level influences in addition to age, education, parity, and prepregnancy BMI. 15.8% (34/216) of women in the intervention group and 12.4% (22/179) in the usual care group developed GDM (absolute effect size 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–2.62, p = 0.36). Neonatal birthweight was lower in the intervention than in the usual care group (absolute effect size −133 g, 95% CI −231 to −35, p = 0.008) as was proportion of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (26/216, 12.1% versus 34/179, 19.7%, p = 0.042). Women in the intervention group increased their intake of dietary fiber (adjusted coefficient 1.83, 95% CI 0.30–3.25, p = 0

  18. The Reinforcing and Rewarding Effects of Methylone, a Synthetic Cathinone Commonly Found in "Bath Salts"

    PubMed

    Watterson, Lucas R; Hood, Lauren; Sewalia, Kaveish; Tomek, Seven E; Yahn, Stephanie; Johnson, Craig Trevor; Wegner, Scott; Blough, Bruce E; Marusich, Julie A; Olive, M Foster

    2012-12-01

    Methylone is a member of the designer drug class known as synthetic cathinones which have become increasingly popular drugs of abuse in recent years. Commonly referred to as "bath salts", these amphetamine-like compounds are sold as "legal" alternatives to illicit drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy). Following their dramatic rise in popularity along with numerous reports of toxicity and death, several of these drugs were classified as Schedule I drugs in the United States in 2012. Despite these bans, these drugs and other new structurally similar analogues continue to be abused. Currently, however, it is unknown whether these compounds possess the potential for compulsive use and addiction. The present study sought to determine the relative abuse liability of methylone by employing intravenous self-administration (IVSA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms in rats. We demonstrate that methylone (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg/infusion) dose-dependently functions as a reinforcer, and that there is a significant positive relationship between methylone dose and reinforcer efficacy. Furthermore, responding during short access sessions (ShA, 2 hr/day) appeared more robust than previous IVSA studies with MDMA. However, unlike previous findings with abused stimulants such as cocaine or methamphetamine, long access sessions (LgA, 6 hr/day) did not lead to escalated drug intake or increased reinforcer efficacy. Finally, methylone produced a dose-dependent, but statistically non-significant, trend towards reductions in ICSS thresholds. Together these results reveal that methylone may possess an addiction potential similar to or greater than MDMA, yet patterns of self-administration and effects on brain reward function suggest that this drug may have a lower potential for abuse and compulsive use than prototypical psychostimulants. PMID:24244886

  19. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  20. Customized Nutritional Enhancement for Pregnant Women Appears to Lower Incidence of Certain Common Maternal and Neonatal Complications: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, P. Michael; Rydbom, Emily A.; Stone, Lucas A.; Stone, T. Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E.; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  1. The obese woman with gestational diabetes: effects of body mass index and weight gain in pregnancy on obstetric and glycaemic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Flora; Bradford, Jennifer; Hng, Tien-Ming; Hendon, Susan; McLean, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represent a high-risk group in pregnancy, although the effects of increasing degrees of obesity and weight gain in pregnancy in this group is poorly defined. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 375 singleton pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity and GDM. Women with a body mass index (BMI) of 30–35 kg/m2 were compared with those with a BMI of ≥ 35 kg/m2. Additionally, women were categorized according to weight gain in pregnancy: Group A (<0.18 kg/week), Group B (0.18–0.27 kg/week), Group C (>0.27 kg/week). Results Obstetric outcomes did not differ between the groups; however, postpartum dysglycaemia was more likely in women with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–8.9). Group B and Group C had higher odds of LGA (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 1.3–11.3; OR 5.0, 95% CI: 2.0–12.1, respectively) compared with Group A. Group C also had a lower risk of SGA (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–1.0) and a higher risk of postpartum dysglycaemia (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 1.7–26.9) compared with Group A. Conclusion Greater degrees of obesity are associated with higher risk of abnormal metabolic outcomes after pregnancy. Excessive weight gain in pregnancy in obese women increases adverse obstetric and glycaemic outcomes. Our findings suggest that targets for weight gain in pregnancy for obese women should be reduced from current recommendations.

  2. The outcome of a surgical protocol based on ischemia overprotection in large and giant aneurysms of the anterior cerebral circulation.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hideaki; Watanabe, Katsushige; Miyagishima, Takaaki; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Kin, Taichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2016-07-01

    Aiming to define the optimal treatment of large and giant aneurysms (LGAs) in the anterior circulation, we present our surgical protocol and patient outcome. A series of 42 patients with intracavernous LGAs (n = 16), paraclinoid (C2) LGAs (n = 17), and peripheral (middle cerebral artery-MCA or anterior cerebral artery-ACA) LGAs (n = 9) were treated after bypass under motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring. Preoperatively, three categories of ischemic tolerance during internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion were defined on conventional angiography: optimal, suboptimal, and insufficient collaterals. Accordingly, three types of bypass: low flow (LFB), middle flow (MFB) and high flow (HFB) were applied for the cases with optimal, suboptimal, and insufficient collaterals, respectively. Outcome was evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). All patients had excellent GOS score except one, who suffered a major ischemic stroke immediately after surgery for a paraclinoid lesion. Forty-one patients were followed up for 87.1 ± 40.1 months (range 13-144 months). Intracavernous LGAs were all treated by proximal occlusion with bypass surgery. Of paraclinoid LGA patients, 15 patients had direct clipping under suction decompression and other 2 patients with recurrent aneurysms had ICA (C2) proximal clipping with HFB. MEP monitoring guided for temporary clipping time and clip repositioning, observing significant MEP changes for up to 6 min duration. Of 9 peripheral LGAs patients 7 MCA LGAs had reconstructive clipping (n = 4) or trapping (n = 3) with bypass including LFB in 3 cases, MFB in 1 and HFB in 1. Two ACA LGAs had clipping (n = 1) or trapping (n = 1) with A3-A3 bypass. The applied protocol provided excellent results in intracavernous, paraclinoid, and peripheral thrombosed LGAs of the anterior circulation. PMID:27149879

  3. Mothers’ human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezenwa, Beatrice N; Balogun, Mobolanle R; Okafor, Ifeoma P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess mothers’ HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi Info™ version 7. Results The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9%) and HPV vaccines (19.7%) among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P < 0.05). There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9%) and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%). Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers’ knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization schedule to eliminate the financial barrier. PMID:23874123

  4. Proposed data compression schemes for the Galileo S-band contingency mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Tong, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft is currently on its way to Jupiter and its moons. In April 1991, the high gain antenna (HGA) failed to deploy as commanded. In case the current efforts to deploy the HGA fails, communications during the Jupiter encounters will be through one of two low gain antenna (LGA) on an S-band (2.3 GHz) carrier. A lot of effort has been and will be conducted to attempt to open the HGA. Also various options for improving Galileo's telemetry downlink performance are being evaluated in the event that the HGA will not open at Jupiter arrival. Among all viable options the most promising and powerful one is to perform image and non-image data compression in software onboard the spacecraft. This involves in-flight re-programming of the existing flight software of Galileo's Command and Data Subsystem processors and Attitude and Articulation Control System (AACS) processor, which have very limited computational and memory resources. In this article we describe the proposed data compression algorithms and give their respective compression performance. The planned image compression algorithm is a 4 x 4 or an 8 x 8 multiplication-free integer cosine transform (ICT) scheme, which can be viewed as an integer approximation of the popular discrete cosine transform (DCT) scheme. The implementation complexity of the ICT schemes is much lower than the DCT-based schemes, yet the performances of the two algorithms are indistinguishable. The proposed non-image compression algorith is a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) variant, which is a lossless universal compression algorithm based on a dynamic dictionary lookup table. We developed a simple and efficient hashing function to perform the string search.

  5. Optical hybrid package with an 8-channel 18GT/s CMOS transceiver for chip-to-chip optical interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, E.; Liao, J.; Kern, A.; Lu, D.; Braunisch, H.; Thomas, T.; Hyvonen, S.; Palermo, S.; Young, I. A.

    2008-02-01

    We describe the design and development of a high-speed 8-channel hybrid integrated optical transceiver package with Clock and Data Recovery (CDR) circuits. The package concept has been developed to be compatible with microprocessor package technology and at the same time allow the integration of low cost, high-performance optical components. A 90nm CMOS optical transceiver chip, 850nm 10Gb/s GaAs based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array and PIN photodiode array are flip-chip mounted on a standard microprocessor Land Grid Array (LGA) package substrate. The CMOS drivers and receivers on the transceiver chip and the optical components (VCSEL and Photodiode arrays) are electrically coupled using a short transmission line routed on the top surface of the package. VCSEL and photodiode arrays are optically coupled to on-package integrated polymer waveguide arrays with metallized 45° mirrors. The waveguides, which are terminated with multi-terminal (MT) fiber optic connectors, couple out/in high-speed optical signals to/from the chip. The CMOS transceiver chip fully integrates all analog optical circuits such as VCSEL drivers, transimpedance amplifiers and clock and data recovery (CDR) retiming circuit with a low jitter LC-PLL. Digital circuits for pseudorandom bit-pattern sequence generators (PRBS) and bit-error rate test (BERT) are fully integrated. 20Gb/s electrical and 18Gb/s optical eye diagrams for the transmitter were measured out of the package. A fully packaged transmitter and receiver including clock data recovery at 10Gb/s have also been measured.

  6. Ethnobotanical study of fuelwood and timber wood consumption and replenishment in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunkunle, A T J; Oladele, F A

    2004-02-01

    A survey of both urban and rural communities in five Local Government Areas (LGA) of Oyo State in Nigeria showed that 76% of households depend on fuelwood for cooking. The total annual wood consumption for fuelling by bread bakers, food sellers and in domestic cooking was 5984 metric tons for the region. The sawmills in the study area also convert 79 889 metric tons of wood yearly into boards of different grades. Total wood consumption outstrips the quantity of wood extracted from the forests. The balance of over 60 000 metric tons of wood is sourced from neighbouring forest locations. The quantity of wood harvested for various purposes did not show a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the five LGAs. However, a significant difference at p > 0.05 existed in the quantity of wood actually consumed in the various LGAs. Moreover. the number of trees cut down outstrips the number of trees planted with a significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean quantity of wood removed from the forests and the mean quantity replaced by reforestation. The practice in the study area was that of 'cut-eight-plant-one' which is at variance to the much publicized operation 'cut-one-plant-one'. The study concludes that residents of Ogbomoso in Nigeria have not shown positive disposition to tree planting. It therefore suggests scientific tree conservation strategies aimed at improved burning of fuel wood and maximized use of timber products as complementary efforts to enforced tree planting for conservation of our forests. PMID:14969446

  7. The Effectiveness of a Route Crossing Tool in a Simulated New York Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Chevalley, Eric; Bienert, Nancy; Lee, Paul; Gonter, Kari; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Borade, Abhay; Gabriel, Conrad; Rein-Weston, Daphne; Palmer, Everett

    2015-01-01

    Congested airspace is the cause of many delays in the terminal area and these delays can have a ripple effect on the rest of a nation's airspace. The New York terminal area is an example of where this happens in the U. S. An important goal, therefore, is to increase the efficiency of operations in congested terminal airspace where possible. Modeling studies of arrival and departure flows have shown that sharing of arrival and departure airspace increases efficiency in terminal operations. One source of inefficiency in terminal operations is that departure aircraft are frequently held level under arrival flows when it would be more efficient to climb the departure aircraft earlier. A Route Crossing Tool was developed to help controllers climb Newark (EWR) departures to the south earlier by temporarily sharing airspace with arrivals coming into LaGuardia (LGA) from the south. Instead of flying under the arrivals, a departure to the south could climb earlier by flying through the arrival airspace if there was a suitable gap between arrivals. A Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation was conducted in this environment which compared three tool conditions: Baseline (no tool), a Single Route Crossing tool in which one route through the arrival flow was evaluated for crossing, and a Multi-Route Crossing tool in which five parallel routes were evaluated. In all conditions, the departures could be held level under the arrival flow. The results showed that controllers climbed a higher proportion of departures in the Multi-Route tool condition than in the other two conditions, with a higher proportion of departures climbed in smaller gaps and in front of trailing arrivals. The controllers indicated that the Multi-Route and Single Route tools helped them estimate distances more accurately and rated safety, workload, and coordination in the simulation as acceptable.

  8. Maternal Snoring May Predict Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of snoring during pregnancy and its effects on key pregnancy outcomes. Methods Pregnant women were consecutively recruited in their first trimester. Habitual snoring was screened by using a questionnaire in the 1st and 3rd trimester, respectively. According to the time of snoring, participants were divided into pregnancy onset snorers, chronic snorers and non-snorers. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between snoring and pregnancy outcomes. Results Of 3 079 pregnant women, 16.6% were habitual snorers, with 11.7% were pregnancy onset snorers and 4.9% were chronic snorers. After adjusting for potential confounders, chronic snorers were independently associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (RR 1.66, 95%CI 1.09–2.53). Both pregnancy onset and chronic snorers were independently associated with placental adhesion (RR 1.96, 95%CI 1.17–3.27, and RR 2.33, 95%CI 1.22–4.46, respectively). Pregnancy onset snorers were at higher risk of caesarean delivery (RR 1.37, 95%CI 1.09–1.73) and having macrosomia (RR 1.54, 95%CI 1.05–2.27) and large for gestational age (LGA) (RR 1.71, 95%CI 1.31–2.24) infants. In addition, being overweight or obese before pregnancy plays an important role in mediating snoring and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Maternal snoring may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and being overweight or obese before pregnancy with snoring is remarkable for researchers. Further studies are still needed to confirm our results. PMID:26871434

  9. Application of physical optics to ocean surface radar scattering with CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling-Hu, Long-xiang; Wu, Zhen-sen; Guo, Xing

    2013-09-01

    The problem of electromagnetic waves scattering at rough boundaries is of practical interest and has been addressed many times in different papers. Theories for investigation of rough surface scattering primarily two kinds of methods: numerical method and approximate method. As the classic analytical methods cannot calculate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics at Low Grazing Angle (LGA) accurately, in this paper, a novel method is presented by utilizing the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the low grazing two-dimensional sea surface based on the triangles-based Physical Optics (PO) method. Firstly, the Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate the two-dimension rough sea surface in different wind speeds based on the PM sea spectrum. Then, the sea surface is generally meshed by 1/8~1/10 length of the incident wave. Secondly, the complex permittivity of the sea surface is calculated by two-Debye method and compared with the experiment. The physical optical is used to calculate the backscattering coefficient of the random rough sea surface. Considering the problem of low grazing, it is especially sampled more densely between the scattering angles 70°~90°. Then the self-shadow and inter-shadow of the sea surface at low grazing angle is taken into account, the Z-BUFFER method is used to judgment of the shadow effect. The numerical result is compared with the FEKO and good agreement is obtained. As the frequency increasing, the sea surface will have more triangles to be calculated, it will take more time. Finally, we propose a novel graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated decoding system. The result is 68.96 faster than its CPU counterpart.

  10. Solving molecular docking problems with multi-objective metaheuristics.

    PubMed

    García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; García-Nieto, José; Aldana-Montes, Antonio J Nebroand José F

    2015-01-01

    Molecular docking is a hard optimization problem that has been tackled in the past with metaheuristics, demonstrating new and challenging results when looking for one objective: the minimum binding energy. However, only a few papers can be found in the literature that deal with this problem by means of a multi-objective approach, and no experimental comparisons have been made in order to clarify which of them has the best overall performance. In this paper, we use and compare, for the first time, a set of representative multi-objective optimization algorithms applied to solve complex molecular docking problems. The approach followed is focused on optimizing the intermolecular and intramolecular energies as two main objectives to minimize. Specifically, these algorithms are: two variants of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), speed modulation multi-objective particle swarm optimization (SMPSO), third evolution step of generalized differential evolution (GDE3), multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and S-metric evolutionary multi-objective optimization (SMS-EMOA). We assess the performance of the algorithms by applying quality indicators intended to measure convergence and the diversity of the generated Pareto front approximations. We carry out a comparison with another reference mono-objective algorithm in the problem domain (Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) provided by the AutoDock tool). Furthermore, the ligand binding site and molecular interactions of computed solutions are analyzed, showing promising results for the multi-objective approaches. In addition, a case study of application for aeroplysinin-1 is performed, showing the effectiveness of our multi-objective approach in drug discovery. PMID:26042856

  11. The inhibition of apoptosis by melatonin in VSC4.1 motoneurons exposed to oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, or TNF-α toxicity involves membrane melatonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arabinda; McDowell, Misty; Pava, Matthew J; Smith, Joshua A.; Reiter, Russel J.; Woodward, John J.; Varma, Abhay K.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of motoneurons may underlie some of the deficits in motor function associated with CNS injuries and diseases. We tested whether melatonin, a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger, would prevent motoneuron apoptosis following exposure to toxins and whether this neuroprotection is mediated by melatonin receptors. Exposure of VSC4.1 motoneurons to either 50 μM H2O2, 25 μM glutamate (LGA), or 50 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) for 24 h caused significant increases in apoptosis, as determined by Wright staining and ApopTag assay. Analyses of mRNA and proteins showed increased expression and activities of stress kinases and cysteine proteases and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential during apoptosis. These insults also caused increases in intracellular free [Ca2+] and activities of calpain and caspases. Cells exposed to stress stimuli for 15 min were then treated with 200 nM melatonin. Post-treatment of cells with melatonin attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of p38, MAPK, and JNK1, prevented cell death, and maintained whole-cell membrane potential, indicating functional neuroprotection. Melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) were upregulated following treatment with melatonin. To confirm the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in providing neuroprotection, cells were post-treated (20 min) with 10 μM luzindole (melatonin receptor antagonist). Luzindole significantly attenuated melatonin-induced neuroprotection, suggesting that melatonin worked, at least in part, via its receptors to prevent VSC4.1 motoneuron apoptosis. Results suggest that neuroprotection rendered by melatonin to motoneurons is receptor mediated and melatonin may be an effective neuroprotective agent to attenuate motoneuron death in CNS injuries and diseases. PMID:20082663

  12. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP. PMID:25571119

  13. Effects of Community Health Nurse-Led Intervention on Childhood Routine Immunization Completion in Primary Health Care Centers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brown, V B; Oluwatosin, O A; Akinyemi, J O; Adeyemo, A A

    2016-04-01

    Immunization coverage of vulnerable children is often sub-optimal in many low- and middle-income countries. The use of a reminder/recall (R/R) system has been one of the strategies shown to be effective in improving immunization rates. In the resent study, we evaluated the effect of R/R and Primary Health Care Immunization Providers' Training (PHCIPT) intervention on routine immunization completion among 595 infants in Ibadan, Nigeria. The design was a group randomized controlled trial with Local Government Area (LGA) being the unit of randomization. Four randomly selected LGAs were randomized to receive a cellphone R/R only (A), a PHCIPT only (B); combined R/R and PHCIPT (C) intervention or serve as a control group (D). Children aged 0-12 weeks were consecutively recruited into each group and followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome measure was routine immunization completion at 12 months of age. At the study endpoint, immunization completion rates were: group A, 98.6 %; group B, 70 %; group C, 97.3 %; and group D, 57.3 %. Compared to the control group, the cellphone R/R group was 72 % (RR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.50-1.98) and the combined RR/PHCIPT group 70 % (RR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.47-1.95) more likely to complete immunization. In contrast, immunization completion in the PHCIPT group was marginally different from the control group (RR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.03-1.45). These findings remained robust to adjustment for potential predictors of immunization completion as covariates. In conclusion, cellphone reminder/recall was effective in improving immunization completion in this Nigerian setting. Its use is recommended for large scale implementation. PMID:26395786

  14. Analysis of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 reveals the molecular basis of an autochthonous intestinal organism.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Altermann, Eric; Goh, Yong Jun; Tallon, Richard; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary B; Pfeiler, Erika A; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Buck, B Logan; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Miller, Michael J; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2008-08-01

    This study presents the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, a neotype strain of human origin and a native species found commonly in the gastrointestinal tracts of neonates and adults. The plasmid-free genome was 1,894,360 bp in size and predicted to encode 1,810 genes. The GC content was 35.3%, similar to the GC content of its closest relatives, L. johnsonii NCC 533 (34%) and L. acidophilus NCFM (34%). Two identical copies of the prophage LgaI (40,086 bp), of the Sfi11-like Siphoviridae phage family, were integrated tandomly in the chromosome. A number of unique features were identified in the genome of L. gasseri that were likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer and may contribute to the survival of this bacterium in its ecological niche. L. gasseri encodes two restriction and modification systems, which may limit bacteriophage infection. L. gasseri also encodes an operon for production of heteropolysaccharides of high complexity. A unique alternative sigma factor was present similar to that of B. caccae ATCC 43185, a bacterial species isolated from human feces. In addition, L. gasseri encoded the highest number of putative mucus-binding proteins (14) among lactobacilli sequenced to date. Selected phenotypic characteristics that were compared between ATCC 33323 and other human L. gasseri strains included carbohydrate fermentation patterns, growth and survival in bile, oxalate degradation, and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, in vitro. The results from this study indicated high intraspecies variability from a genome encoding traits important for survival and retention in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18539810

  15. Detection of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type XI Carrying Highly Divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr Genes in Human Clinical Isolates of Clonal Complex 130 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿†

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Deasy, Emily C.; Slickers, Peter; Brennan, Grainne; O'Connell, Brian; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon. PMID:21636525

  16. A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Mary O; John-Akinola, Yetunde O

    2015-09-01

    Negative health outcomes caused by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been recognized as a public health problem with extensive effects on the society. Cultural and traditional beliefs that reinforce IPV in Nigeria need to be understood to guide public health approaches aimed at preventing IPV. The purpose of this study was to determine women's attitudes and societal norms that support IPV, causes and consequences of IPV, and coping strategies, and to document suggested measures to prevent it. Six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among 56 women aged 15 to 49 years purposively selected from rural and urban communities in Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The FGDs were conducted in Yoruba language, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic approach. Findings were grouped into six major themes: triggers, societal norms, attitude, consequences, coping strategies, and preventive measures. Women reported experience of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and controlling behavior. Major causes of IPV reported by the women were having more money than partner, and building a house or having a business without partner's knowledge. Most participants reported that social norms dictate that a woman should have full regard for in-laws, and submit to and agree with all that the partner says and does. Most of the discussants in both the urban and rural areas reported that violence in any form is not justifiable or acceptable. Participants mentioned various ways through which IPV negatively impacted on women's health such as depression, hypertension, and damage to the reproductive system. They were however willing to endure suffering because of their children. Women who experienced IPV reported to close relatives but did not seek legal redress because these were unavailable. Ending IPV requires long-term commitment and strategies involving contributions from the government, community, and the family. PMID:25392394

  17. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a

  18. Physical Activity in Pregnancy and Neonatal Body Composition: The Healthy Start Study

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, Curtis S; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Reynolds, Regina M; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Glueck, Deborah H; Brinton, John T; Dabelea, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between pregnancy physical activity and neonatal fat mass and fat-free mass, birth weight and small for gestational age (SGA). Methods We analyzed 826 mother-neonate pairs (term births) participating in the longitudinal Healthy Start study. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess total energy expenditure and meeting American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College) guidelines for physical activity during early pregnancy, mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy. Models were adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics. Results Neonates had mean fat mass of 292.9 grams, fat-free mass of 2,849.8 g, and birth weight of 3,290.7 g. We observed 107 (12.9%) SGA and 30 (3.6%) large-for-gestational age (LGA) births. A significant inverse linear trend between total energy expenditure during late pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (Ptrend = 0.04) was detected. Neonates of mothers in the highest compared to lowest quartile of total energy expenditure during late pregnancy had 41.1 g less fat mass (249.4 vs. 290.5 g; P = 0.03). No significant trend was found with total energy expenditure and neonatal fat-free mass or birth weight. Early-pregnancy and mid-pregnancy total energy expenditure were not associated with neonatal outcomes. No significant trend was observed between late-pregnancy total energy expenditure and SGA (Ptrend = 0.07), but neonates of mothers in the highest compared to the lowest quartile had a 3.0 (95% CI 1.4–6.7) higher likelihood of SGA. Meeting the College’s physical activity guidelines during pregnancy was not associated with differences in neonatal outcomes. Conclusions Increasing levels of late-pregnancy total energy expenditure are associated with decreased neonatal adiposity without significantly reduced neonatal fat-free mass. PMID:25004346

  19. Identifying Multi-Dimensional Co-Clusters in Tensors Based on Hyperplane Detection in Singular Vector Spaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongya; Wang, Debby D; Chen, Long; Liu, Xinyu; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Co-clustering, often called biclustering for two-dimensional data, has found many applications, such as gene expression data analysis and text mining. Nowadays, a variety of multi-dimensional arrays (tensors) frequently occur in data analysis tasks, and co-clustering techniques play a key role in dealing with such datasets. Co-clusters represent coherent patterns and exhibit important properties along all the modes. Development of robust co-clustering techniques is important for the detection and analysis of these patterns. In this paper, a co-clustering method based on hyperplane detection in singular vector spaces (HDSVS) is proposed. Specifically in this method, higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) transforms a tensor into a core part and a singular vector matrix along each mode, whose row vectors can be clustered by a linear grouping algorithm (LGA). Meanwhile, hyperplanar patterns are extracted and successfully supported the identification of multi-dimensional co-clusters. To validate HDSVS, a number of synthetic and biological tensors were adopted. The synthetic tensors attested a favorable performance of this algorithm on noisy or overlapped data. Experiments with gene expression data and lineage data of embryonic cells further verified the reliability of HDSVS to practical problems. Moreover, the detected co-clusters are well consistent with important genetic pathways and gene ontology annotations. Finally, a series of comparisons between HDSVS and state-of-the-art methods on synthetic tensors and a yeast gene expression tensor were implemented, verifying the robust and stable performance of our method. PMID:27598575

  20. Associations of Pregnancy Complications with Calculated CVD Risk and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle Age: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Cherry, Lynne; Butler, Elaine; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The nature and contribution of different pregnancy related complications to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, as well as mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. Methods and Results We studied associations of pregnancy diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), preterm delivery and size for gestational age with calculated 10 year CVD risk (based on the Framingham score) and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured 18 years after pregnancy (mean age at outcome assessment: 48 years) in a prospective cohort of 3,416 women. Gestational diabetes (GDM) was positively associated with fasting glucose and insulin, even after adjusting for potential confounders whilst HDP were associated with BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and insulin. Large for gestational age (LGA) was associated with greater waist circumference and glucose concentrations, whilst small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm delivery were associated with higher blood pressure. The association with the calculated 10 year CVD risk based on the Framingham prediction score was OR=1.31 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.53) for preeclampsia and 1.26 (0.95, 1.68) for GDM compared to women without preeclampsia and GDM respectively. Conclusions HDP and pregnancy diabetes are independently associated with an increased calculated 10 year CVD risk. Preeclampsia may be the better predictor of future CVD since it was associated with a wider range of cardiovascular risk factors. Our results suggest that pregnancy may be an important opportunity for early identification of women at increased risk of CVD later in life. PMID:22344039

  1. A Look into the Melting Pot: The mecC-Harboring Region Is a Recombination Hot Spot in Staphylococcus stepanovicii

    PubMed Central

    Semmler, Torsten; Harrison, Ewan M.; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wieler, Lothar H.; Guenther, Sebastian; Stamm, Ivonne; Hanssen, Anne-Merethe; Holmes, Mark A.; Vincze, Szilvia; Walther, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important driver for resistance- and virulence factor accumulation in pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Here, we have investigated the downstream region of the bacterial chromosomal attachment site (attB) for the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element of a commensal mecC-positive Staphylococcus stepanovicii strain (IMT28705; ODD4) with respect to genetic composition and indications of HGT. S. stepanovicii IMT28705 was isolated from a fecal sample of a trapped wild bank vole (Myodes glareolus) during a screening study (National Network on “Rodent-Borne Pathogens”) in Germany. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of IMT28705 together with the mecC-negative type strain CM7717 was conducted in order to comparatively investigate the genomic region downstream of attB (GenBank accession no. KR732654 and KR732653). Results The bank vole isolate (IMT28705) harbors a mecC gene which shares 99.2% nucleotide (and 98.5% amino acid) sequence identity with mecC of MRSA_LGA251. In addition, the mecC-encoding region harbors the typical blaZ-mecC-mecR1-mecI structure, corresponding with the class E mec complex. While the sequences downstream of attB in both S. stepanovicii isolates (IMT28705 and CM7717) are partitioned by 15 bp direct repeats, further comparison revealed a remarkable low concordance of gene content, indicating a chromosomal “hot spot” for foreign DNA integration and exchange. Conclusion Our data highlight the necessity for further research on transmission routes of resistance encoding factors from the environmental and wildlife resistome. PMID:26799070

  2. Methodology for Analysis, Modeling and Simulation of Airport Gate-waiting Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation presents methodologies to estimate gate-waiting delays from historical data, to identify gate-waiting-delay functional causes in major U.S. airports, and to evaluate the impact of gate operation disruptions and mitigation strategies on gate-waiting delay. Airport gates are a resource of congestion in the air transportation system. When an arriving flight cannot pull into its gate, the delay it experiences is called gate-waiting delay. Some possible reasons for gate-waiting delay are: the gate is occupied, gate staff or equipment is unavailable, the weather prevents the use of the gate (e.g. lightning), or the airline has a preferred gate assignment. Gate-waiting delays potentially stay with the aircraft throughout the day (unless they are absorbed), adding costs to passengers and the airlines. As the volume of flights increases, ensuring that airport gates do not become a choke point of the system is critical. The first part of the dissertation presents a methodology for estimating gate-waiting delays based on historical, publicly available sources. Analysis of gate-waiting delays at major U.S. airports in the summer of 2007 identifies the following. (i) Gate-waiting delay is not a significant problem on majority of days; however, the worst delay days (e.g. 4% of the days at LGA) are extreme outliers. (ii) The Atlanta International Airport (ATL), the John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) experience the highest gate-waiting delays among major U.S. airports. (iii) There is a significant gate-waiting-delay difference between airlines due to a disproportional gate allocation. (iv) Gate-waiting delay is sensitive to time of a day and schedule peaks. According to basic principles of queueing theory, gate-waiting delay can be attributed to over-scheduling, higher-than-scheduled arrival rate, longer-than-scheduled gate-occupancy time, and reduced gate

  3. Impact of PermaNet 3.0 on entomological indices in an area of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae in south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background PermaNet® 3.0 is an insecticide synergist-combination long-lasting insecticidal net designed to have increased efficacy against malaria vectors with metabolic resistance, even when combined with kdr. The current study reports on the impact of this improved tool on entomological indices in an area with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Nigeria. Methods Baseline entomological indices across eight villages in Remo North LGA of Ogun State provided the basis for selection of three villages (Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa) for comparing the efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 (PN3.0), PermaNet® 2.0 (PN2.0) and untreated polyester nets as a control (UTC). In each case, nets were distributed to cover all sleeping spaces and were evaluated for insecticidal activity on a 3-monthly basis. Collection of mosquitoes was conducted monthly via window traps and indoor resting catches. The arithmetic means of mosquito catches per house, entomological inoculation rates before and during the intervention were compared as well as three other outcome parameters: the mean mosquito blood feeding rate, mean mortality and mean parity rates. Results Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main malaria vector in the three villages, accounting for >98% of the Anopheles population and found in appreciable numbers for 6–7 months. Deltamethrin, permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin resistance were confirmed at Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa. The kdr mutation was the sole resistance mechanism at Ilara, whereas kdr plus P450-based metabolic mechanisms were detected at Irolu and Ijesa. Bioassays repeated on domestically used PN 2.0 and PN 3.0 showed persistent optimal (100%) bio-efficacy for both net types after the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month following net distribution. The use of PN 3.0 significantly reduced mosquito densities with a ‘mass killing’ effect inside houses. Households with PN 3.0 also showed reduced blood feeding as well as lower mosquito parity and sporozoite rates compared to the PN 2.0 and the

  4. Aeroflex Technology as Class-Y Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook; Agarwal, Shri; Popelar, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Modern space field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices with increased functional density and operational frequency, such as Xilinx Virtex 4 (V4) and S (V5), are packaged in non-hermetic ceramic flip chip forms. These next generation space parts were not qualified to the MIL-PRF-38535 Qualified Manufacturer Listing (QML) class-V when they were released because class-V was only intended for hermetic parts. In order to bring Xilinx V5 type packages into the QML system, it was suggested that class-Y be set up as a new category. From 2010 through 2014, a JEDEC G12 task group developed screening and qualification requirements for Class-Y products. The Document Standardization Division of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has completed an engineering practice study. In parallel with the class-Y efforts, the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program has funded JPL to study potential reliability issues of the class-Y products. The major hurdle of this task was the absence of adequate research samples. Figure 1-1 shows schematic diagrams of typical structures of class-Y type products. Typically, class-Y products are either in ceramic flip chip column grid array (CGA) or land grid array (LGA) form. In class-Y packages, underfill and heat spread adhesive materials are directly exposed to the spacecraft environment due to their non-hermeticity. One of the concerns originally raised was that the underfill material could degrade due to the spacecraft environment and negatively impact the reliability of the package. In order to study such issues, it was necessary to use ceramic daisy chain flip chip package samples so that continuity of flip chip solder bumps could be monitored during the reliability tests. However, none of the commercially available class-Y daisy chain parts had electrical connections through flip chip solder bumps; only solder columns were daisy chained, which made it impossible to test continuity of flip chip solder bumps without using extremely

  5. Socio-environmental drivers and suicide in Australia: Bayesian spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide has been examined in many studies. Few of them, however, have explored these associations from a spatial perspective, especially in assessing the association between meteorological factors and suicide. This study examined the association of meteorological and socio-demographic factors with suicide across small areas over different time periods. Methods Suicide, population and socio-demographic data (e.g., population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (ATSI), and unemployment rate (UNE) at the Local Government Area (LGA) level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1986 to 2005. Information on meteorological factors (rainfall, temperature and humidity) was supplied by Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) Model was applied to explore the association of socio-demographic and meteorological factors with suicide across LGAs. Results In Model I (socio-demographic factors), proportion of ATSI and UNE were positively associated with suicide from 1996 to 2000 (Relative Risk (RR)ATSI = 1.0107, 95% Credible Interval (CI): 1.0062-1.0151; RRUNE = 1.0187, 95% CI: 1.0060-1.0315), and from 2001 to 2005 (RRATSI = 1.0126, 95% CI: 1.0076-1.0176; RRUNE = 1.0198, 95% CI: 1.0041-1.0354). Socio-Economic Index for Area (SEIFA) and IND, however, had negative associations with suicide between 1986 and 1990 (RRSEIFA = 0.9983, 95% CI: 0.9971-0.9995; RRATSI = 0.9914, 95% CI: 0.9848-0.9980). Model II (meteorological factors): a 1°C higher yearly mean temperature across LGAs increased the suicide rate by an average by 2.27% (95% CI: 0.73%, 3.82%) in 1996–2000, and 3.24% (95% CI: 1.26%, 5.21%) in 2001–2005. The associations between socio-demographic factors and suicide in Model III (socio-demographic and meteorological factors) were similar to those in Model I; but, there is no substantive association between climate and

  6. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital in Kano, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors contributing to maternal undernutrition in pregnancy. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore some of the taboos and nutritional practices among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 220 pregnant women. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents, which showed various sociodemographic information, cultural nutritional processes, taboos of the community, and a 24 h food recall. The ages, parities, and gestational ages of the women were collated. Descriptive statistics was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritional practices and taboos was determined using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, 200 participants (91%) gave complete information. Most of the women, 70% (140/200) were in the 20–39 years age range with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 23.7 (6.1) years, mostly uneducated, 70% (140/200), and unemployed, 51% (102/200). Most of the women did a child spacing of 12–24 months, 62% (124/200) with mean (SD) child spacing interval of 26.32 (10.19) months. Gestational age at booking was mostly 13–26 weeks, 48% (96/200) with an average of 26.60 (8.01). Most of the women had 1–4 children, 54.5% (109/200) with mean (SD) of 2.47 (2.50). Most of the women agreed that they had adequate intake of oil, 86% (172/200), meat/fish, 92% (194/200), fruit/vegetables 56% (112/200), and had 3 meals/day 80% (152/200), and did not practice pica 83% (166/200). All of the women, 100% (200/200) believe that women should eat more during pregnancy in order to have healthy babies. They were mostly supported by their husbands, 53% (106/200) and

  7. A Report of At-Scale Distribution of Chlorhexidine Digluconate 7.1% Gel for Newborn Cord Care to 36,404 Newborns in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Initial Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Orobaton, Nosakhare; Abegunde, Dele; Shoretire, Kamil; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Lamiri, Goli; Maishanu, Abubakar; Ganiyu, Akeem; Ndifon, Eric; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Osborne-Smith, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background With an annual estimated 276,000 neonatal deaths, Nigeria has the second highest of any country in the world. Global progress in accelerating neonatal deaths is hinged to scaled-up interventions in Nigeria. We used routine data of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel utilized by 36,404 newborns delivered by 36,370 mothers, to study lessons associated with at-scale distribution in Sokoto State, North West Nigeria. Methods and Findings Under state government leadership, a community-based distribution system overseen by 244 ward development committees and over 3,440 community-based health volunteers and community drug keepers, was activated to deliver two locally stored medicines to women when labor commenced. Newborns and their mothers were tracked through 28 days and 42 days respectively, including verbal autopsy results. 36,404 or 26.3% of expected newborns received the gel from April 2013 to December 2013 throughout all 244 wards in the State. 99.97% of newborns survived past 28 days. There were 124 pre-verified neonatal deaths reported. Upon verification using verbal autopsy procedures, 76 deaths were stillborn and 48 were previously live births. Among the previous 48 live births, the main causes of death were sepsis (40%), asphyxia (29%) and prematurity (8%). Underuse of logistics management information by government in procurement decisions and not accounting for differences in LGA population sizes during commodity distribution, severely limited program scalability. Conclusions Enhancements in the predictable availability and supply of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel to communities through better, evidence-based logistics management by the state public sector will most likely dramatically increase program scalability. Infections as a cause of mortality in babies delivered in home settings may be much higher than previously conceived. In tandem with high prevalence of stillborn deaths, delivery, interventions designed to increase mothers’ timely

  8. Virtual Dual inhibition of COX-2 / 5-LOX enzymes based on binding properties of alpha-amyrins, the anti-inflammatory compound as a promising anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi; Assadolahi, Vahideh; Yazdani, Mohsen; Nikaein, Donya; Rashidieh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Cordia myxa was considerably effective on curing acute inflammation in mouse model. Previous studies suggested significant anti-inflammatory activities as well as potential anticancer agent of α-amyrins in seeds. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is significant in cancer prevention and therapeutics although this inhibition with chemo-drugs has its own side-effects. It is shown that these enzymes pathways are related to several cancers including colon, breast and lung cancer. This study was conducted based on Cordia species' α-amyrins as a safer natural anti-cancer compound for inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes by molecular docking. The X-ray crystal structure of COX2 / 5-LOX enzymes and α-amyrins was retrieved and energetically minimized respectively. The binding site and surface of enzymes were detected. Docking studies were performed by AutoDock 4.2 using Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Finally drug likeness, molecular pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of α-amyrins was calculated. Molecular Docking revealed hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions between α-amyrins with both active sites of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Interestingly, it covalently bonded to Fe cofactor of 5-LOX enzyme and chelated this molecule. Base on binding energies (∆G) α-amyrin has more inhibitory effects on 5-LOX (-10.45 Kcal/mol) than COX-2 (-8.02 Kcal/mol). Analysis of molecular pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that α-amyrins complied with most sets of Lipinski's rules, and so it could be a suitable ligand for docking studies. Eventually, bioactivity score showed α-amyrins possess considerable biological activities as nuclear receptor, enzyme inhibitor, GPCR and protease inhibitor ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that α-amyrins could act as potential highly selective COX-/5-LOX inhibitor. Also, it is a safe compound in comparison with classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs

  9. Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

    The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0

  10. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  11. [VACCINE-ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION DURING THE PERIOD OF CHANGES IN VACCINATION SCHEDULE (2006-2013 yy.)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Morozova, N S; Shakaryan, A K; Gmyl, A P; Yakovenko, M L; Korotkova, E A; Chernjavskaja, O P; Baykova, O Yu; Silenova, O V; Krasota, A Yu; Krasnoproshina, L I; Mustafina, A N; Kozlovskaja, L I

    2016-01-01

    The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were VAPP. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73.3%); 53.3% of children were vaccinated with OPV; the time period between receipt of OPV and onset of palsy was from 2 to 32 days (18.7 ± 8.2). Lower paraparesis was documented in 48.3% of patients; lower monoparesis in 37.9%; upper monoparesis, in 6.9%; tetraparesis with bulbar syndrome, in 6%. The majority of the patients (85.7%) had an unfavorable premorbid status. The violations of the humoral immunity were found in 73.9% cases: CVID (52.9%), hypogammaglobulinemia (41.2%); selective lgA deflciency (5.9%). In 70.6% cases damage to humoral immunity was combined with poor premorbid status. The most frequently observed (76%, p < 0.05) represented the single type of poliovirus--type 2 (44%) and type 3 (32%). All strains were of the vaccine origin, the divergence from the homotypic Sabin strains fell within the region of the gene encoding VPI protein, which did not exceed 0.5% of nucleotide substitutions except vaccine derived poliovirus type 2--multiple recombinant (type 2/type 3/ type 2/type 1) with the degree of the divergence of 1.44% isolated from 6-month old unvaccinated child (RUS08063034001). The frequency of the VAPP cases was a total of 1 case per 3.4 million doses of distributed OPV in 2006-2013; 2.2 cases per 1 million of newborns were observed. This frequency decreased after the introduction of the sequential scheme of vaccination (IPV, OPV) in 2008-2013 as compared with the period of exclusive use of OPV in 2006-2007: 1 case per 4.9 million

  12. Exploring Consumer Perceptions and Economic Burden of Onchocerciasis on Households in Enugu State, South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Ogochukwu; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ajuba, Miriam; Okonkwo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Onchocerciasis or river blindness constitutes a major burden to households especially in resource-poor settings, causing a significant reduction in household productivity. There has been renewed interest from policy makers to reduce the burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as onchocerciasis on individuals and households. This paper provides new information on the patient’s perceptions of onchocerciasis and its economic burden on households in South-eastern Nigeria. The information will be useful to health providers and policy makers for evidence-informed resource allocation decisions. Methods Information was generated from a cross-sectional household survey conducted in Achi community, Oji River Local Government Area (LGA) of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 747 households were visited randomly and data were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire from 370 respondents. The respondents’ knowledge of the cause of symptoms of the disease, costs incurred for seeking treatment and productivity losses were elicited. Data were analyzed using tabulations and inferential statistics. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to disaggregate some key variables by SES quintiles for equity analysis. Results Many people had more than one type of manifestation of onchocerciasis. However, more than half of the respondents (57%) had no knowledge of the cause of their symptoms. Male respondents had significantly more knowledge of the cause of symptoms than females (P = 0.04) but knowledge did not differ across SES (P = 0.82). The average monthly treatment cost per respondent was US$ 14.0. Drug cost (US$10) made up about 72% of total treatment cost. The per capita productivity loss among patients was US$16 and it was higher in the poorest (Q1) (US$20) and the third SES quintiles (Q3) (US$21). The average monthly productivity loss among

  13. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status. PMID:21682928

  14. Association of BMI and interpregnancy BMI change with birth outcomes in an Australian obstetric population: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Agarwal, Catherine R; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) and interpregnancy BMI changes in an Australian obstetric population. Methods A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. BMI for 14 875 women was categorised as follows: underweight (≤18 kg/m2); normal weight (19–24 kg/m2); overweight (25–29 kg/m2); obese class I (30–34 kg/m2); obese class II (35–39 kg/m2) and obese class III (40+ kg/m2). BMI categories and maternal, neonatal and birthing outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Interpregnancy change in BMI and the risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy were also examined. Results Within this cohort, 751 (5.1%) women were underweight, 7431 (50.0%) had normal BMI, 3748 (25.1%) were overweight, 1598 (10.8%) were obese class I, 737 (5.0%) were obese class II and 592 (4.0%) were obese class III. In bivariate adjusted models, obese women were at an increased risk of caesarean section, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal morbidities including macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA), hypoglycaemia, low 5 min Apgar score and respiratory distress. Multiparous women who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher adjusted OR (AOR) (CI) of the following adverse outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy: low 5-min Apgar score 3.242 (1.557 to 7.118); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 3.258 (1.129 to 10.665) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 3.922 (1.243 to 14.760). These women were more likely to give birth vaginally 2.030 (1.417 to 2.913). Conversely, women whose parity changed from 0 to 1 and who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher AOR (CI) of caesarean section in their second pregnancy 1.806 (1.139 to 2.862). Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese have a significantly increased risk of various adverse outcomes. Interpregnancy weight gain, regardless

  15. Virtual Dual inhibition of COX-2 / 5-LOX enzymes based on binding properties of alpha-amyrins, the anti-inflammatory compound as a promising anti-cancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi; Assadolahi, Vahideh; Yazdani, Mohsen; Nikaein, Donya; Rashidieh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Cordia myxa was considerably effective on curing acute inflammation in mouse model. Previous studies suggested significant anti-inflammatory activities as well as potential anticancer agent of α-amyrins in seeds. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is significant in cancer prevention and therapeutics although this inhibition with chemo-drugs has its own side-effects. It is shown that these enzymes pathways are related to several cancers including colon, breast and lung cancer. This study was conducted based on Cordia species' α-amyrins as a safer natural anti-cancer compound for inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes by molecular docking. The X-ray crystal structure of COX2 / 5-LOX enzymes and α-amyrins was retrieved and energetically minimized respectively. The binding site and surface of enzymes were detected. Docking studies were performed by AutoDock 4.2 using Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Finally drug likeness, molecular pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of α-amyrins was calculated. Molecular Docking revealed hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions between α-amyrins with both active sites of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Interestingly, it covalently bonded to Fe cofactor of 5-LOX enzyme and chelated this molecule. Base on binding energies (∆G) α-amyrin has more inhibitory effects on 5-LOX (-10.45 Kcal/mol) than COX-2 (-8.02 Kcal/mol). Analysis of molecular pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that α-amyrins complied with most sets of Lipinski's rules, and so it could be a suitable ligand for docking studies. Eventually, bioactivity score showed α-amyrins possess considerable biological activities as nuclear receptor, enzyme inhibitor, GPCR and protease inhibitor ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that α-amyrins could act as potential highly selective COX-/5-LOX inhibitor. Also, it is a safe compound in comparison with classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs

  16. Correlated-Data Fusion and Cooperative Aiding in GNSS-Stressed or Denied Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hamid

    , and BCInf filter measurement update equations. Furthermore, characteristics important to the proper implementation of CI and BCInf in practice are discussed. A new covariance normalization step is proposed as necessary to properly apply CI or BCInf. Lastly, both centralized and decentralized implementations of cooperative aiding are analyzed and evaluated using experimental data in the three applications. In the commercial aviation study aircraft are simulated to use their Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) systems to cooperatively aid their on board INS during a 60 min GPS outage in the national airspace. An availability study of cooperative navigation as proposed in this work around representative United States airports is performed. Availabilities between 70-100% were common at major airports like LGA and MSP in a 30 nmi radius around the airport during morning to evening hours. A GPS-denied navigation system for small UAVs based on cooperative information sharing is described. Experimentally collected flight data from 7 small UAV flights are played-back to evaluate the performance of the navigation system. The results show that the most effective of the architectures can lead to 5+ minutes of navigation without GPS maintaining position errors less than 200 m (1-sigma). The automotive case study considers 15 minutes of automotive traffic (2,000 + vehicles) driving through a half-mile stretch of highway without access to GPS. Automotive radar coupled with Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol are used to implement cooperative aiding to a low-cost 2-D INS on board each vehicle. The centralized system achieves an order of magnitude reduction in uncertainty by aggressively aiding the INS on board each vehicle. The proposed CI-based decentralized estimator is demonstrated to be conservative and maintain consistency. A quantitative analysis of bandwidth requirements shows that the proposed

  17. AE (Acoustic Emission) for Flip-Chip CGA/FCBGA Defect Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    that could be detected using the most advanced C-SAM equipment with a skilled operator. Investigation continued using in-house equipment with its limitations. For comparison, representative X-rays of the assemblies were also gathered to show key defect detection features of these non-destructive techniques. Key images gathered and compared are: Compared the images of 2D X-ray and C-SAM for a plastic LGA assembly showing features that could be detected by either NDE technique. For this specific case, X-ray was a clear winner. Evaluated flip-chip CGA and FCBGA assemblies with and without heat sink by C-SAM. Only the FCCGA package that had no heat sink could be fully analyzed for underfill and bump quality. Cross-sectional microscopy did not revealed peripheral delamination features detected by C-SAM. Analyzed a number of fine pitch PBGA assemblies by C-SAM. Even though the internal features of the package assemblies could be detected, C-SAM was unable to detect solder joint failure at either the package or board level. Twenty times touch ups by solder iron with 700degF tip temperature, each with about 5 second duration, did not induce defects to be detected by C-SAM images. Other techniques need to be considered to induce known defects for characterization. Given NASA's emphasis on the use of microelectronic packages and assemblies and quality assurance on workmanship defect detection, understanding key features of various inspection systems that detect defects in the early stages of package and assembly is critical to developing approaches that will minimize future failures. Additional specific, tailored non-destructive inspection approaches could enable low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages having hidden and fine features.

  18. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Mission (ARCM) nominal design and performance costs associated with an Orion based crewed rendezvous mission to a captured asteroid in an Earth-Moon DRO. The ARM study includes two fundamental mission phases: 1) The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) and 2) the ARCM. The ARRM includes a solar electric propulsion based robotic asteroid return vehicle (ARV) sent to rendezvous with a selected near Earth asteroid, capture it, and return it to a DRO in the Earth-Moon vicinity. The DRO is selected over other possible asteroid parking orbits due to its achievability (by both the robotic and crewed vehicles) and by its stability (e.g., no orbit maintenance is required). After the return of the asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, the ARCM is executed and carries a crew of two astronauts to a DRO to rendezvous with the awaiting ARV with the asteroid. The outbound and inbound transfers employ lunar gravity assist (LGA) flybys to reduce the Orion propellant requirement for the overall nominal mission, which provides a nominal mission with some reserve propellant for possible abort situations. The nominal mission described in this report provides a better understanding of the mission considerations as well as the feasibility of such a crewed mission, particularly with regard to spacecraft currently undergoing development, such as the Orion vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS).

  19. FLIRT-ing with Zika: A Web Application to Predict the Movement of Infected Travelers Validated Against the Current Zika Virus Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Andrew; Allen, Toph; Whiting, Karissa; Breit, Nathan; Arnold, Brock

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Beginning in 2015, Zika virus rapidly spread throughout the Americas and has been linked to neurological and autoimmune diseases in adults and babies. Developing accurate tools to anticipate Zika spread is one of the first steps to mitigate further spread of the disease. When combined, air traffic data and network simulations can be used to create tools to predict where infectious disease may spread to and aid in the prevention of infectious diseases. Specific goals were to: 1) predict where travelers infected with the Zika Virus would arrive in the U.S.; and, 2) analyze and validate the open access web application’s (i.e., FLIRT) predictions using data collected after the prediction was made. Method: FLIRT was built to predict the flow and likely destinations of infected travelers through the air travel network. FLIRT uses a database of flight schedules from over 800 airlines, and can display direct flight traffic and perform passenger simulations between selected airports. FLIRT was used to analyze flights departing from five selected airports in locations where sustained Zika Virus transmission was occurring. FLIRT’s predictions were validated against Zika cases arriving in the U.S. from selected airports during the selected time periods.  Kendall’s τ and Generalized Linear Models were computed for all permutations of FLIRT and case data to test the accuracy of FLIRT’s predictions. Results: FLIRT was found to be predictive of the final destinations of infected travelers in the U.S. from areas with ongoing transmission of Zika in the Americas from 01 February 2016 - 01 to April 2016, and 11 January 2016 to 11 March 2016 time periods. MIA-FLL, JFK-EWR-LGA, and IAH were top ranked at-risk metro areas, and Florida, Texas and New York were top ranked states at-risk for the future time period analyzed (11 March 2016 - 11 June 2016). For the 11 January 2016 to 11 March 2016 time period, the region-aggregated model indicated 7.24 (95% CI 6.85

  20. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    ), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370??C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370??C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature ( 0.41 (> 628??C). This is followed by precipitation of sulfates of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Al at lg/a ratios between 0.41 and -0.4 (628-178??C). At a lg/r ratio of < - 0.4 (178??C), anhydrous sulfates are replaced by their hydrated forms and hygroscopic sulfuric acid forms. At these low g/a ratios, hydrated sulfuric acid becomes the dominant phase in the system. Comparison of the thermochemical modeling results with the natural samples suggests that the alteration assemblages include: (1) minerals that precipitate from direct cooling of the volcanic gas; (2) phases that form by volcanic gases mixing with air; and (3) phases that form by volcanic gas-air-rock reaction. A complex interplay of the three processes produces the observed mineral zoning. Another implication of the numerical simulation results is that most of the observed incrustation and sublimate minerals apparently formed below 700??C.