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Sample records for lhc helium relief

  1. Specifications and Performances of Series Superfluid Helium Safety Relief Valves for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, A.; Fontanive, V.

    2006-04-01

    Protecting the LHC magnets requires safety relief valves operating with 1.9 K pressurized superfluid helium at their inlet. Following the evaluation of prototype valves, a specification for the production of the 360 safety relief valves needed for the LHC was issued. The production of the safety valves was then awarded to an industrial contractor. The performances of pre-series valves were assessed for a variety of aspects including thermal performance, leak tightness in superfluid helium, dynamic behavior and resistance to intensive mechanical cycling. After the initial validation phase the series production was completed within the technical requirements of the specification. This paper describes the characteristics of the safety relief valves and the specifications for their industrial production. The performances of the pre-series valves are presented and an overview of the series production phase is given.

  2. Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths is considered. It is shown that under all reasonable circumstances the dewar will safely relieve itself, and the pressure will not exceed 85 percent of the proof pressure or 63 percent of the burst pressure.

  3. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufay-Chanat, L.; Bremer, J.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jedrusyna, A.; Lindell, G.; Nonis, M.; Koettig, T.; Vauthier, N.; van Weelderen, R.; Winkler, T.

    2015-12-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium were released under standard operational tunnel conditions. The data recorded include oxygen concentration, temperature and flow speed measurements, and video footage used to assess qualitatively the visibility. These measurements have been made in the up- and downstream directions, with respect to the air ventilation flow, of the spill point. This paper presents the experimental set-up under which these release tests were made, the effects of these releases on the atmospheric tunnel condition as a function of the release flow rate. We discuss the modification to the personnel access conditions to the LHC tunnel that are presently implemented as a result of these tests.

  4. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Cold Helium Safety Discharges into a Long Relief Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, R.; Fydrych, J.; Weisend, J. G.

    All existing and currently constructed large superconducting particle accelerators use liquid or supercritical helium for transferring cooling power from the cryogenic plant to the accelerator magnets and cavities. These accelerators have extremely elongated structures and therefore require widespread cryogenic distribution systems as well as advanced gas management systems. The design and operation of their cryogenic system are strongly affected by the requirements of high reliability and operating cost minimization. This strongly influences pressure equipment safety strategies. Becauseaccidental helium discharges from the accelerator cryostats and cryomodules cannot be excluded, possibilities of recovering helium releases from safety devices are taken into consideration. Collecting discharged helium and transferring it back to the cryoplant via a long recovery line is not only an option, but also a must. Usually the baseline design choice for the helium recovery system is a set of safety valves connected to a bare relief line that ends in a gas bag. However, rapid and fast discharges of cold helium into warm relief lines can result in significantly unsteady, compressible and thermal flows. Therefore the proper designing and sizing of the recovery system have to be supported by detailed analyses of all expected fluid dynamics and thermodynamics phenomena. This paper describes the numerical simulations of cold helium discharges into a long, warm safety relief line. The simulations have been done for the helium recovery system of the superconducting proton accelerator that is under construction at ESS in Lund, Sweden. The paper discusses the model assumptions and presents some example results.

  6. Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    An updated analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 Infrared Telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process considered as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths. It was previously assumed that the burst diaphragms in the dewar relief paths would rupture at a pressure of 65 psi differential or 4.4 atmospheres. In fact, it has proved necessary to use burst diaphragms in the dewar which rupture at 115 psid or 7.8 atmospheres. An analysis of this case was carried out and shows that when the high pressure diaphragm rupture occurs, the dewar pressure falls within 8 s to below the 4.4 atmospheres for which the original analysis was performed, and thereafter it remains below that level.

  7. Large volume liquid helium relief device verifacation apparatus for the alpha magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, Richard John; McIntyre, P.; Colvin, John; Zeigler, John; Van Sciver, Steven; Ting, Samual

    2012-06-01

    Here we present details of an experiment for verifying the liquid helium vessel relief device for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02). The relief device utilizes a series of rupture discs designed to open in the event of a vacuum failure of the AMS-02 cryogenic system. A failure of this type is classified to be a catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum accident. This apparatus differs from other approaches due to the size of the test volumes used. The verification apparatus consists of a 250 liter vessel used for the test quantity of liquid helium that is located inside a vacuum insulated vessel. A large diameter valve is suddenly opened to simulate the loss of insulating vacuum in a repeatable manner. Pressure and temperature vs. time data are presented and discussed in the context of the AMS-02 hardware configuration.

  8. EXERGY ANALYSIS OF THE CRYOGENIC HELIUM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, S.; Lebrun, Ph.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.

    2010-04-09

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world's largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility.

  9. Modelling of helium-mediated quench propagation in the LHC prototype test string-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Grzegory, P.; Serio, L.; van Weelderen, R.

    2000-08-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype test string-1, hereafter referred to as the string, is composed of three 10-m long prototype dipole magnets and one 6-m long prototype quadrupole magnet. The magnets are immersed in a pressurized static bath of superfluid helium that is maintained at a pressure of about 1 bar and at a temperature of about 1.9 K. This helium bath constitutes one single hydraulic unit, extending along 42.5 m of the string length. We have measured the triggering of quenches of the string magnets due to the quenching of a single dipole magnet located at the string's extremity, i.e., "quench propagation". Previously reported measurements enabled to establish that in this configuration the quench propagation is mediated by the helium and not by the inter-magnet bus bar connections [L. Coull, D. Hagedorn, G. Krainz, F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, Quench propagation tests on the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: S. Myers, A. Pacheco, R. Pascual, C. Petit-Jean-Genaz, J. Poole (Eds.), Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference - EPAC '96, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, 10-14 June 1996, IOP, Bristol, 1996; F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, L. Serio, Thermo-hydraulic quench propagation at the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: D. Dew-Hughes, R.G. Scurlock, J.H.P. Watson (Eds), 17th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC-17), Bournemouth, UK, 14-17 July 1998, IOP, Bristol, 1998]. We present a model of helium-mediated quench propagation based on the qualitative conclusions of these two previous papers, and on additional information gained from a dedicated series of quench propagation measurements that were not previously reported. We will discuss the specific mechanisms and their main parameters involved at different timescales of the propagation process, and apply the model to make quantitative predictions.

  10. Summary of the Experimental Studies of Cold Helium Propagation along a Scale Model of the LHC Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Chorowski, M.; Fydrych, J.; Konopka-Cupial, G.; Riddone, G.

    2004-06-23

    The Large Hadron Collider will contain more than 95 tons of liquid and supercritical helium. The accelerator will be located in the 26.7 km underground tunnel. Some potential failures of the LHC cryogenic system might be followed by helium discharge into the tunnel and as a consequence the oxygen concentration might decrease below the safe level or the ambient temperature might drop significantly. In order to investigate the helium propagation in the tunnel a dedicated test rig, representing a section of the LHC tunnel at scale 1:13 has been designed and built. The basic construction of the scale model has been also modified by adding special modules to simulate the presence of the LHC accelerator inside the tunnel, tunnel enlargements and the influences of the LHC tunnel elevation. This paper presents and discusses the results of the performed experiments. Helium-air mixture flows corresponding to different initial conditions of the ventilation air and discharged helium have been visualized. Five types of mixture flow have been observed. Measured oxygen concentration and temperature profiles have been presented for the different flow patterns. The results have been scaled to the LHC conditions.

  11. Lambda Front Propagation in the Superfluid Helium Contained in the External Auxiliary Bus-Bar Line of the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capatina, O.; Poncet, A.; Skoczen, B.

    2004-06-01

    The array of the corrector magnets of the LHC arc, associated with the main and some dispersion suppressor quadrupoles are powered by a special line routed inside the cryostat, running alongside the cold mass of the half-cell. This line, composed of a 50 mm diameter stainless steel tube fixed to the cold mass, houses the superconducting multi-wire cable(s) carrying the 600 A and 6 kA current to the corrector magnets and special quadrupoles. It is cooled down to 1.9 K with pressurized superfluid helium provided by links to the cold-mass placed at regular intervals (one half-cell). The paper is focused on the process of sub-cooling the long channel from 4.5 K down to 1.9 K, including the propagation of the lambda front along the pipeline. The mechanism of sub-cooling is based on a zone of phase transformation traveling along the channel, with the heat transport both in helium and in the copper wires. A new 2-D model, including the radial heat exchange between copper and He II, has been used to study the process. A clamped temperature problem with a jump-like variable section of the channel has been solved. The model has been applied to the analysis of recovery of the line after a quench in the main magnets. A comparison with the measurements in the LHC prototype cell (String 2) is shown.

  12. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  13. Pressure relief subsystem design description

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    The primary function of the Pressure Relief Subsystem, a subsystem of the Vessel System, is to provide overpressure protection to the Vessel System. When the overpressure setpoint is reached, pressure is reduced by permitting the flow of primary coolant out of the Vessel System. This subsystem also provides the flow path by which purified helium is returned to the vessel system, either as circulating purge/flow from the Helium Purification Subsystem or make-up helium from the Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem.

  14. Drumlin relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.

    2012-06-01

    Drumlin relief is a key parameter for testing predictions of models of drumlin formation. Although this metric is commonly described in textbooks as being of the order of a few tens of metres, our critical review of the literature suggests an average value of about 13 m, but with much uncertainty. Here we investigate a large sample of drumlins (25,848) mapped from a high resolution digital terrain model of Britain, which allowed the identification of extremely shallow drumlins. Results indicate that most drumlins have a relief between 0.5 and 40 m (with a surprisingly low average value of only 7.1 m) a mode of 3.5-4 m, and with 41% of all drumlins characterized by a relief < 5 m. Drumlin relief is found to never exceed 7% of the width and is positively correlated with this parameter, possibly indicating that drumlins need a large base to stand against the flow of the ice. Drumlin relief is also positively correlated with the length, which shows that drumlins do not grow in length by redistributing sediments from their summits to their downflow (lee) end, as previously hypothesised.

  15. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    MedlinePlus

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... you repeat a positive statement over and over. Hypnosis may help relieve pain for: After surgery or labor Arthritis Cancer Fibromyalgia ...

  16. COPD - quick-relief drugs

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - quick-relief drugs; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Chronic obstructive airways disease - quick-relief drugs; Chronic obstructive lung disease - quick-relief drugs; Chronic bronchitis - quick-relief ...

  17. Sonic helium detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years.

  18. Sonic Helium Detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossert, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years.

  19. LHC Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-07-28

    The LHC is the world’s highest energy particle accelerator and scientists use it to record an unprecedented amount of data. This data is recorded in electronic format and it requires an enormous computational infrastructure to convert the raw data into conclusions about the fundamental rules that govern matter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln gives us a sense of just how much data is involved and the incredible computer resources that makes it all possible.

  20. Characterization of relief printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Chen, Lin; Ortiz-Segovia, Maria-Valezzka; Ferwerda, James; Allebach, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Relief printing technology developed by Océ allows the superposition of several layers of colorant on different types of media which creates a variation of the surface height defined by the input to the printer. Evaluating the reproduction accuracy of distinct surface characteristics is of great importance to the application of the relief printing system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop quality metrics to evaluate the relief process. In this paper, we focus on the third dimension of relief printing, i.e. height information. To achieve this goal, we define metrics and develop models that aim to evaluate relief prints in two aspects: overall fidelity and surface finish. To characterize the overall fidelity, three metrics are calculated: Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), difference and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) between the input height map and scanned height map, and print surface angle accuracy. For the surface finish property, we measure the surface roughness, generate surface normal maps and develop a light reflection model that serves as a simulation of the differences between ideal prints and real prints that may be perceived by human observers. Three sets of test targets are designed and printed by the Océ relief printer prototypes for the calculation of the above metrics: (i) twisted target, (ii) sinusoidal wave target, and (iii) ramp target. The results provide quantitative evaluations of the printing quality in the third dimension, and demonstrate that the height of relief prints is reproduced accurately with respect to the input design. The factors that affect the printing quality include: printing direction, frequency and amplitude of the input signal, shape of relief prints. Besides the above factors, there are two additional aspects that influence the viewing experience of relief prints: lighting condition and viewing angle.

  1. Asthma Medicines: Quick Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Quick Relief Page Content Article Body Short-Acting ...

  2. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  3. LHC detector upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Green

    2003-09-15

    The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

  4. Pressure Relief Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manha, William D.

    2010-09-01

    Pressure relief devices are used in pressure systems and on pressure vessels to prevent catastrophic rupture or explosion from excessive pressure. Pressure systems and pressure vessels have manufacturers maximum rated operating pressures or maximum design pressures(MDP) for which there are relatively high safety factors and minimum risk of rupture or explosion. Pressure systems and pressure vessels that have a potential to exceed the MDP by being connected to another higher pressure source, a compressor, or heat to water(boiler) are required to have over-pressure protecting devices. Such devices can be relief valves and/or burst discs to safely relieve potentially excessive pressure and prevent unacceptable ruptures and explosions which result in fail-safe pressure systems and pressure vessels. Common aerospace relief valve and burst disc requirements and standards will be presented. This will include the NASA PSRP Interpretation Letter TA-88-074 Fault Tolerance of Systems Using Specially Certified Burst Disks that dictates burst disc requirements for payloads on Shuttle. Two recent undesirable manned space payloads pressure relief devices and practices will be discussed, as well as why these practices should not be continued. One example for discussion is the use of three burst discs that have been placed in series to comply with safety requirements of three controls to prevent a catastrophic hazard of the over-pressurization and rupture of pressure system and/or vessels. The cavities between the burst discs are evacuated and are the reference pressures for activating the two upstream burst discs. If the upstream burst disc leaks into the reference cavity, the reference pressure increases and it can increase the burst disc activating pressure and potentially result in the burst disc assembly being ineffective for over pressure protection. The three burst discs-in-series assembly was found acceptable because the burst discs are designed for minimum risk(DFMR) of

  5. Hydrogen gas relief valve

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C.

    1985-01-01

    An improved battery stack design for an electrochemical system having at least one cell from which a gas is generated and an electrolyte in communication with the cell is described. The improved battery stack design features means for defining a substantially closed compartment for containing the battery cells and at least a portion of the electrolyte for the system, and means in association with the compartment means for selectively venting gas from the interior of the compartment means in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. The venting means includes a relief valve having a float member which is actuated in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. This float member is adapted to close the relief valve when the level of the electrolyte is above a predetermined level and open the relief valve when the level of electrolyte is below this predetermined level.

  6. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  7. Vent Relief Valve Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  8. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  9. Relief of vasospasm by intravascular ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Kanji; Morimoto, Yuji; Ito, Hirotaka; Kominami, Kimito; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1998-05-01

    We investigated the photovasorelaxation with intravascular transluminal irradiation using in vivo model. A 2.5 Fr. catheter was inserted in the femoral artery of a rabbit under anesthesia. A 400 micrometers diameter quartz fiber was inserted through the catheter. The catheter was withdrawn from the distal end to the proximal end of the exposed femoral artery without laser irradiation in order to observe the mechanical dilation by the procedure. The femoral artery lumen was irradiated by a Helium-Cadmium(He-Cd) laser (wavelength; 325 nm) with 8 mW through the fiber during 30 s. We carried out that the laser irradiation produced vasorelaxation (185% on the average) compared with mechanical vasodilation (150% on the average) with angiography. The results suggest that intravascular transluminal irradiation with low-power UV laser might be applicable to the relief of acute arterial vasospasm.

  10. Anti–nuclei production at the LHC measured with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalino, Stefania; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities of the ALICE apparatus combined with the high particle production rates reached at the LHC in pp, p–Pb and in particular in Pb–Pb collisions allow for detailed study of the production of nuclei and anti-nuclei. In this paper, recent results on the production of the (anti-)deuteron and (anti-)helium are presented and compared with the expectations from statistical (thermal) particle production and coalescence models.

  11. Phytotherapy for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Zareba, Grazyna

    2009-06-01

    Pain is considered the third most common healthcare problem disabling more individuals than heart disease and cancer together. Although pharmacological pain management offers a significant relief in several pain-related diseases, many patients turn to its supplementation with complementary and alternative medicine. Botanicals used in pain therapy can contribute to restoring the quality of life to a patient and may effect and enhance conventional pain management. Herbal analgesic use in several pain-related diseases such as rheumatologic diseases, back pain, cancer, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and migraine will be discussed. In addition, this review describes botanicals with known analgesic activity for which randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials assessing their efficacy in different pain-related diseases have been published and which have been recently evaluated in many systematic reviews with well-described methodology. PMID:19649334

  12. Force Augmentation for Relief Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luger, J.

    1982-01-01

    Simple design change for poppet relief valve enables flow through valve to exert additional force to help keep valve open. Although originally intended for relief valves for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen in Space Shuttle orbiter, concept is applicable to pressure-or flow-actuated valves for wide range of fluids and temperatures.

  13. Supersymmetry At LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Shaaban

    2008-04-21

    One of the main motivation of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), scheduled to start around 2006, is to search for supersymmetric particles. The region of the parameter space of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, where supersymmetry can be discovered is investigated. We show that if supersymmetry exists at electroweak scale, it would be easy to find signals for it at the LHC. If the LHC does find supersymmetry, this would be one of the greatest achievements in the history of theoretical physics.

  14. The LHC Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-11

    The Large Hadron Collider or LHC is the world’s biggest particle accelerator, but it can only get particles moving very quickly. To make measurements, scientists must employ particle detectors. There are four big detectors at the LHC: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln introduces us to these detectors and gives us an idea of each one’s capabilities.

  15. Compression relief engine brake

    SciTech Connect

    Meneely, V.A.

    1987-10-06

    A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

  16. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in §§ 69.709(c) or 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  17. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in § 69.709(c) or § 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  18. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in § 69.709(c) or § 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  19. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in § 69.709(c) or § 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  20. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in § 69.709(c) or §69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  1. Modeling the pressure increase in liquid helium cryostats after failure of the insulating vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, C.; Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The pressure relief system of liquid helium cryostats requires a careful design, due to helium's low enthalpy of vaporization and due to the low operating temperature. Hazard analyses often involve the failure of the insulating vacuum in the worst-case scenario. The venting of the insulating vacuum and the implications for the pressure increase in the helium vessel, however, have not yet been fully analyzed. Therefore, the dimensioning of safety devices often requires experience and reference to very few experimental data. In order to provide a better foundation for the design of cryogenic pressure relief systems, this paper presents an analytic approach for the strongly dynamic process induced by the loss of insulating vacuum. The model is based on theoretical considerations and on differential equation modeling. It contains only few simplifying assumptions, which will be further investigated in future experiments. The numerical solutions of example calculations are presented with regard to the heat flux into the helium vessel, the helium pressure increase and the helium flow rate through the pressure relief device. Implications concerning two-phase flow and the influence of kinetic energy are discussed.

  2. Modeling the pressure increase in liquid helium cryostats after failure of the insulating vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, C.; Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-29

    The pressure relief system of liquid helium cryostats requires a careful design, due to helium's low enthalpy of vaporization and due to the low operating temperature. Hazard analyses often involve the failure of the insulating vacuum in the worst-case scenario. The venting of the insulating vacuum and the implications for the pressure increase in the helium vessel, however, have not yet been fully analyzed. Therefore, the dimensioning of safety devices often requires experience and reference to very few experimental data. In order to provide a better foundation for the design of cryogenic pressure relief systems, this paper presents an analytic approach for the strongly dynamic process induced by the loss of insulating vacuum. The model is based on theoretical considerations and on differential equation modeling. It contains only few simplifying assumptions, which will be further investigated in future experiments. The numerical solutions of example calculations are presented with regard to the heat flux into the helium vessel, the helium pressure increase and the helium flow rate through the pressure relief device. Implications concerning two-phase flow and the influence of kinetic energy are discussed.

  3. The Descending Helium Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  4. Noncavitating Pump For Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael; Swift, Walter; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    Immersion pump features high efficiency in cryogenic service. Simple and reliable centrifugal pump transfers liquid helium with mass-transfer efficiency of 99 percent. Liquid helium drawn into pump by helical inducer, which pressurizes helium slightly to prevent cavitation when liquid enters impeller. Impeller then pressurizes liquid. Purpose of pump to transfer liquid helium from supply to receiver vessel, or to provide liquid helium flow for testing and experimentation.

  5. Inexpensive Pressure-Relief Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theordore, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simple device vents excess low-pressure gas. Inexpensive pressure relief valve built from polyvinylchloride pipe. Valve suitable for low pressure-- 25 to 50 cm of mercury-- and flow rates up to 14 m3/min.

  6. Steady State Heat Deposits Modeling in the Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the Upgrade of the LHC Inner Triplet

    SciTech Connect

    Bocian, D.; Ambrosio, G.; Felice, H.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidze, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; /Fermilab /Lawrence Berkeley Lab /Brookhaven

    2011-09-01

    In hadron colliders such as the LHC, the energy deposited in the superconductors by the particles lost from the beams or coming from the collision debris may provoke quenches detrimental to the accelerator operation. In previous papers, a Network Model has been used to study the thermodynamic behavior of magnet coils and to calculate the quench levels in the LHC magnets for expected beam loss profiles. This model was subsequently used for thermal analysis and design optimization of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets, which LARP (US LHC Accelerator Research Program) is developing for possible use in the LHC luminosity upgrade. For these new magnets, the heat transport efficiency from the coil to the helium bath needs to be determined and optimized. In this paper the study of helium cooling channels and the heat evacuation scheme are presented and discussed.

  7. Helium-refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, J.R.; Millar, B.; Sutherland, A.

    1995-08-01

    The design, procurement, and preliminary construction was completed for adding two more wet expansion engines to two helium refrigerators. These will be added in mid-year FY 1995. In addition a variable speed drive will be added to an existing helium compressor. This is part of an energy conservation upgrade project to reduce operating costs from the use of electricity and liquid nitrogen. This project involves the replacement of Joule-Thompson valves in the refrigerators with expansion engines resulting in system efficiency improvements of about 30% and improved system reliability.

  8. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  9. [Symptom relief in terminal illness].

    PubMed

    Gleim, Martin; Schulzeck, Sabine; Siebrecht, Dieter

    2007-04-01

    It is the goal of palliative care to provide as large a relief of the disease symptoms as possible for patients, who are incurably sick, in order to improve the quality of the remaining life. Some of the symptoms can hardly be treated; others like pain, dyspnea, gastrointestinal complaints or sweating can usually be well alleviated. The condition for this is a careful evaluation of the clinical status before the treatment, in order to reach symptom relief by purposeful actions without new side effects. PMID:17457778

  10. LOX, GOX and Pressure Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, Ken; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen relief systems present a serious fire hazard risk with often severe consequences. This presentation offers a risk management solution strategy which encourages minimizing ignition hazards, maximizing best materials, and utilizing good practices. Additionally, the relief system should be designed for cleanability and ballistic flow. The use of the right metals, softgoods, and lubricants, along with the best assembly techniques, is stressed. Materials should also be tested if data is not available and a full hazard analysis should be conducted in an effort to minimize risk and harm.

  11. Pressure relief valve/safety relief valve testing

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.A.; Hamm, E.R.; Barber, J.R.

    1994-02-01

    Pressure vessels and piping systems are protected form overpressurization by pressure relief valves. These safety features are required to be tested-inspected on some periodic basis and, in most cases witnessed by a third party inspector. As a result nonconformances found by third parties Westinghouse Hanford Company initiated a task team to develop a pressure safety program. This paper reveals their findings.

  12. 76 FR 57082 - Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief AGENCY: Pension Benefit... relief upon reconsideration based on the facts and circumstances. PBGC spent considerable time...

  13. The Kaonic Helium Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lucherini, V.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Ishiwatari, T.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Zmeskal, J.; Fiorini, C.; Longoni, A.; Frizzi, T.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Koike, T.; Ponta, T.; Soltau, H.; Lechner, P.; Struder, L.

    2005-12-01

    The only three existent kaonic helium X-ray transition measurements at present are referring to the transitions to 2p level. These measurements are more than 30 years old and the obtained results, affected by big errors, are much larger than those predicted by optical models. It is thought that the optical model is inadequate, due to the presence of the ∧(1405) resonance, not properly taken into account. Because the nucleons in the helium nucleus are tightly bound, the effective energy of the K-p interaction (1432 MeV at threshold) is in helium much closer to the energy of the resonance than in other nuclei. It is then planned to measure the kaonic helium X-ray transitions to the 2p level in the framework of the SIDDHARTA (SIlicon Drift Detector for Hadronic Atom Research by Timing Application) experiment, at the DAΦNE collider of Frascati National Laboratories, and to confirm or not the discrepancy reported by the previous experiments with a much smaller error.

  14. On Helium Anions in Helium Droplets: Interpreting Recent Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauracher, Andreas; Huber, Stefan E.

    2014-10-01

    Helium droplets provide an ideal environment to study elementary processes in atomic systems at very low temperatures. Here, we discuss properties of charged and neutral, atomic and molecular helium species formed in helium droplets upon electron impact. By studying their interaction with atomic ground state helium we find that He, He2 and excited (metastable) He*- are well bound within the helium droplet. In comparison, He* , He2* and He2* are found to be squeezed out due to energetic reasons. We also present the formation pathways of atomic and molecular helium anions in helium droplets. Transition barriers in the energetic lowest He*- - He interaction potentials prevent molecule formation at the extremely low temperatures in helium droplets. In contrast, some excited states allow a barrier-free formation of molecular helium (anions). With these theoretical results at hand we can interpret recent experiments in which the resonant formation of atomic and molecular helium anions was observed. Furthermore, we give an outlook on the implications of the presence of these anionic species in doped helium droplets with regard to charge transfer reactions. Austrian Fund Agency (FWF, I 978-N20, DK+ project Computational Interdisciplinary Modelling W1227-N16)/Austrian Ministry of Science (BMWF, Konjunkturpaket II, UniInfrastrukturprogramm of the Focal Point Scientific Computing).

  15. Helium anion formation inside helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour Al Maalouf, Elias; Reitshammer, Julia; Ribar, Anita; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The formation of He∗- is examined with improved electron energy resolution of about 100 meV utilizing a hemispherical electron monochromator. The work presented provides a precise determination of the three previously determined resonance peak positions that significantly contribute to the formation of He∗- inside helium nanodroplets in the energy range from 20 eV to 29.5 eV. In addition, a new feature is identified located at 27.69 ± 0.18 eV that we assign to the presence of O2 as a dopant inside the droplet. With increasing droplet size a small blue shift of the resonance positions is observed. Also for the relatively low electron currents used in the present study (i.e., 15-70 nA) a quadratic dependence of the He∗- ion yield on the electron current is observed.

  16. Test results of LHC interaction regions quadrupoles produced by Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Chichili, D.R.; Feher, S.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, A.; Nicol, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Orris, D.; Page, T.; Peterson, T.; Rabehl, R.; Robotham, W.; Scanlan, R.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Strait, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Velev, G.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The US-LHC Accelerator Project is responsible for the production of the Q2 optical elements of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. As part of this program Fermilab is in the process of manufacturing and testing cryostat assemblies (LQXB) containing two identical quadrupoles (MQXB) with a dipole corrector between them. The 5.5 m long Fermilab designed MQXB have a 70 mm aperture and operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a peak field gradient of 215 T/m. This paper summarizes the test results of several production MQXB quadrupoles with emphasis on quench performance and alignment studies. Quench localization studies using quench antenna signals are also presented.

  17. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  18. Dual rate pressure relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeneken, J.

    1968-01-01

    Pressure relief valve vents at a slow bleed rate at one pressure level and at a higher bleed rate at a higher pressure level. The value housing contains a sleeve, inlet port, outlet port, an orifice, a ball and seat arrangement, and a belleville spring diaphragm.

  19. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, a great discovery emerged at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. A plethora of new precision data had already by then been collected by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC, providing further extensive support for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics. But what now appeared was the first evidence for what was not only the last unverified prediction of the Standard Model, but also perhaps the most decisive one: the prediction made already in 1964 of a unique scalar boson required by the theory of François Englert and Peter Higgs on how fundamental particles acquire mass. At that moment in 2012, it seemed particularly appropriate to start planning a gathering of world experts in particle physics to take stock of the situation and try to answer the challenging question: what next? By May 2013, when the LHC Nobel Symposium was held at the Krusenberg Mansion outside Uppsala in Sweden, the first signs of a great discovery had already turned into fully convincing experimental evidence for the existence of a scalar boson of mass about 125 GeV, having properties compatible with the 50-year-old prediction. And in October 2013, the evidence was deemed so convincing that the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Englert and Higgs for their pioneering work. At the same time the search at the LHC for other particles, beyond those predicted by the Standard Model, with heavier masses up to—and in some cases beyond—1 TeV, had provided no positive result. The triumph of the Standard Model seems resounding, in particular because the mass of the discovered scalar boson is such that, when identified with the Higgs boson, the Standard Model is able to provide predictions at energies as high as the Planck mass, although at the price of accepting that the vacuum would be metastable. However, even if there were some feelings of triumph, the ambience at the LHC Nobel Symposium was more one of

  20. TEST RESULTS FOR LHC INSERTION REGION DEPOLE MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    MURATORE, J.; JAIN, A.; ANERELLA, M.; COSSOLINO, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has made 20 insertion region dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These 9.45 m-long, 8 cm aperture magnets have the same coil design as the arc dipoles now operating in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL and are of single aperture, twin aperture, and double cold mass configurations. They are required to produce fields up to 4.14 T for operation at 7.56 TeV. Eighteen of these magnets have been tested at 4.5 K using either forced flow supercritical helium or liquid helium. The testing was especially important for the twin aperture models, whose construction was very different from the RHIC dipoles, except for the coil design. This paper reports on the results of these tests, including spontaneous quench performance, verification of quench protection heater operation, and magnetic field quality.

  1. LHC forward physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cartiglia, N.; Royon, C.

    2015-10-02

    The goal of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the rich field of forward physics, with a special attention to the topics that can be studied at the LHC. The report starts presenting a selection of the Monte Carlo simulation tools currently available, chapter 2, then enters the rich phenomenology of QCD at low, chapter 3, and high, chapter 4, momentum transfer, while the unique scattering conditions of central exclusive production are analyzed in chapter 5. The last two experimental topics, Cosmic Ray and Heavy Ion physics are presented in the chapter 6 and 7 respectively. Chapter 8 is dedicated to the BFKL dynamics, multiparton interactions, and saturation. The report ends with an overview of the forward detectors at LHC. Each chapter is correlated with a comprehensive bibliography, attempting to provide to the interested reader with a wide opportunity for further studies.

  2. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs... relief is granted. (4) The public interest....

  3. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs... relief is granted. (4) The public interest....

  4. Rotating Machinery for LHC Cryogenics: First Analysis of Reliability and Origins of Downtime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudet, S.; Brodzinski, K.; Duret-Bourgoz, E.; Ferlin, G.; Knoops, S.; Wagner, U.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is cooled by eight independent helium cryogenic plants. Each cryogenic plant combines an 18 kW at 4.5 K refrigerator and a 2.4 kW at 1.8 K refrigeration unit totaling 64 oil lubricated screw compressors, 74 expansion turbines and 28 cold hydrodynamic compressors. Since the first cool-down of LHC in 2007, the large number of running hours and start-stop sequences accumulated allow to draw some tendency for reliability of such key components for present refrigeration technology. Statistics and origins of downtime will be presented, with possible typical failure rates.

  5. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the participant may request equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. (b) If, during the term of a WHIP cost... provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4. ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If...

  6. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  7. Helium anion formation inside helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, Elias Jabbour Al; Reitshammer, Julia; Ribar, Anita; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The formation of He∗- is examined with improved electron energy resolution of about 100 meV utilizing a hemispherical electron monochromator. The work presented provides a precise determination of the three previously determined resonance peak positions that significantly contribute to the formation of He∗- inside helium nanodroplets in the energy range from 20 eV to 29.5 eV. In addition, a new feature is identified located at 27.69 ± 0.18 eV that we assign to the presence of O2 as a dopant inside the droplet. With increasing droplet size a small blue shift of the resonance positions is observed. Also for the relatively low electron currents used in the present study (i.e., 15-70 nA) a quadratic dependence of the He∗- ion yield on the electron current is observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  8. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  9. Higgs Boson Search at LHC (and LHC/CMS status)

    SciTech Connect

    Korytov, Andrey

    2008-11-23

    Presented are the results of the most recent studies by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations on the expected sensitivity of their detectors to observing a Higgs boson at LHC. The overview is preceded with a brief summary of the LHC and the CMS Experiment status.

  10. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles; Chrul, Anna; Damianoglou, Dimitrios; Strychalski, Michał; Wright, Loren

    2014-01-29

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  11. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Chrul, Anna; Damianoglou, Dimitrios; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Strychalski, Michał; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles; Wright, Loren

    2014-01-01

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  12. LNV Higgses at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nemevšek, Miha; Nesti, Fabrizio

    2016-06-01

    Lepton number is a fundamental symmetry that can be probed at the LHC. Here, we study the Higgs sector of theories responsible for neutrino mass generation. After a brief discussion of simple see-saw scenarios, we turn to theories where heavy Majorana neutrino mass is protected by a gauge symmetry and focus on the Left-Right symmetric theory. There, the SM-like Higgs boson can decay to a pair of heavy neutrinos and provide enough information to establish the origin of neutrino mass.

  13. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, a great discovery emerged at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. A plethora of new precision data had already by then been collected by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC, providing further extensive support for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics. But what now appeared was the first evidence for what was not only the last unverified prediction of the Standard Model, but also perhaps the most decisive one: the prediction made already in 1964 of a unique scalar boson required by the theory of François Englert and Peter Higgs on how fundamental particles acquire mass. At that moment in 2012, it seemed particularly appropriate to start planning a gathering of world experts in particle physics to take stock of the situation and try to answer the challenging question: what next? By May 2013, when the LHC Nobel Symposium was held at the Krusenberg Mansion outside Uppsala in Sweden, the first signs of a great discovery had already turned into fully convincing experimental evidence for the existence of a scalar boson of mass about 125 GeV, having properties compatible with the 50-year-old prediction. And in October 2013, the evidence was deemed so convincing that the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Englert and Higgs for their pioneering work. At the same time the search at the LHC for other particles, beyond those predicted by the Standard Model, with heavier masses up to—and in some cases beyond—1 TeV, had provided no positive result. The triumph of the Standard Model seems resounding, in particular because the mass of the discovered scalar boson is such that, when identified with the Higgs boson, the Standard Model is able to provide predictions at energies as high as the Planck mass, although at the price of accepting that the vacuum would be metastable. However, even if there were some feelings of triumph, the ambience at the LHC Nobel Symposium was more one of

  14. Monotops at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea, J.; Fuks, B.

    2011-10-01

    We explore scenarios where top quarks may be produced singly in association with missing energy, a very distinctive signature, which, in analogy with monojets, we dub monotops. We find that monotops can be produced in a variety of modes, typically characterized by baryon number-violating or flavorchanging neutral interactions. We build a simplified model that encompasses all the possible (tree-level) production mechanisms and study the LHC sensitiveness to a few representative scenarios by considering fully hadronic top decays. We find that constraints on such exotic models can already be set with 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at {radical}(s)=7 TeV.

  15. Helium jet dispersion to atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Hasna J.

    On the event of loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated helium dewar, high rate of heat transfer into the tank occurs. The rapid boiling of liquid helium causes the burst disk to rupture at four atmospheres and consequently the helium passes to the atmosphere through vent lines. The gaseous helium forms a vertical buoyant jet as it exits the vent line into a stagnant environment. Characterization of the gaseous jet is achieved by detailed analysis of the axial and radial dependence of the flow parameters.

  16. Helium cryopumping for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1988-05-01

    Large quantities of helium and hydrogen isotopes will be exhausted continuously from fusion power reactors. This paper summarizes two development programs undertaken to address vacuum pumping for this application: (i) A continuous duty cryopump for pumping helium and/or hydrogen species using charcoal sorbent and (ii) a cryopump configuration with an alternative shielding arrangement using charcoal sorbent or argon spray. A test program evaluated automatic pumping of helium, helium pumping by charcoal cryosorption and with argon spray, and cryosorption of helium/hydrogen mixtures. The continuous duty cryopump pumped helium continuously and conveniently. Helium pumping speed was 7.7 l/s/cm/sup 2/ of charcoal, compared to 5.8 l/s/cm/sup 2/ for the alternative pump. Helium speed using argon spray was 18% of that obtained by charcoal cryosorption in the same (W-panel) pump. During continuous duty cryopump mixture tests with helium and hydrogen copumped on charcoal, gas was released sporadically. Testing was insufficient to explain this unacceptable event.

  17. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  18. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2014) (a)...

  19. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  2. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  3. Supersymmetry at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Bartl, A.; Soederqvist, J.; Paige, F.

    1996-11-22

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is an appealing concept which provides a plausible solution to the fine tuning problem, while leaving the phenomenological success of the Standard Model (SM) unchanged. Moreover, some SUSY models allow for the unification of gauge couplings at a scale of M{sub GUT} {approx} 10{sup 16} GeV. A further attractive feature is the possibility of radiative breaking of the electro-weak symmetry group SU(2) {times} U(1). The masses of the SUSY partners of the SM particles are expected to be in the range 100 GeV to 1 TeV. One of the main goals of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be either to discover weak-scale SUSY or to exclude it over the entire theoretically allowed parameter space. The authors have developed a strategy for the analysis of experimental data at LHC which will allow them to determine the scale for supersymmetry, to limit the model parameter space, and to make precision measurements of model parameters.

  4. The LHC Vacuum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, O.

    1997-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting bending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at 1.9 K and therefore a very good cryo-pump. To reduce the cryogenic power consumption, the heat load from synchrotron radiation and from the image currents in the vacuum chamber will be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K, inserted in the magnet cold bore. The design pressure necessary for operation must provide a lifetime of many days and a stringent requirement comes from the power deposition in the superconducting magnet coils due to protons scattered on the residual gas which could lead to a magnet quench. Cryo-pumping of gas on the cold surfaces provides the necessary low gas densities but it must be ensured that the vapour pressure of cryo-sorbed molecules, of which H2 and He would be the most critical species, remains within acceptable limits. The room temperature sections of the LHC, specifically in the experiments, the vacuum must be stable against ion induced desorption and ISR-type 'pressure bumps'.

  5. LHC - a "Why" Facility

    ScienceCinema

    Gordon Kane

    2010-01-08

    The Standard Models of particle physics and cosmology describe the world we see, and how it works, very well. But we want to understand (not just accommodate) much more ? how does the Higgs mechanism work, what is the dark matter, why is the universe matter and not antimatter, why is parity violated, why are the particles (quarks and leptons) what they are, and why are the forces that act on them to make our world what they are, and more. Today is an exciting time to be doing particle physics ? on the experimental side we have data coming from LHC and dark matter experiments that will provide clues to these questions, and on the theoretical side we have a framework (string theory) that addresses all these ?why? questions. LHC data will not qualitatively improve our description ? rather, it may provide the data that will allow us to learn about the dark matter, the Higgs physics, the matter asymmetry, etc, to test underlying theories such as string theory, and begin to answer the ?why? questions. Supersymmetry is the best motivated discovery, and it would also open a window to the underlying theory near the Planck scale.

  6. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  7. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  8. A helium regenerative compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors.

  9. Magnetic field measurements of LHC inner triplet quadrupoles fabricated at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Orris, D.; Schlabach, P.; Strait, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Fermilab, as part of the US-LHC Accelerator Project, is producing superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These 5.5 m long magnets are designed to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal gradient of 205 T/m in the 70 mm bore. Two quadrupoles separated by a dipole orbit corrector in a single cryogenic assembly comprise the Q2 optical elements of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. The field quality of the quadrupoles is measured at room temperature during construction of the cold masses as well as during cold testing of the cryogenic assembly. We summarize data from the series measurements of the magnets and discuss various topics of interest.

  10. Final Design and Experimental Validation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Lattice Cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourcey, N.; Capatina, O.; Parma, V.; Poncet, A.; Rohmig, P.; Serio, L.; Skoczen, B.; Tock, J.-P.; Williams, L. R.

    2004-06-01

    The recent commissioning and operation of the LHC String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the global thermal performance of the LHC lattice cryostat at nominal cryogenic conditions. The cryostat designed to minimize the heat inleak from ambient temperature, houses under vacuum and thermally protects the cold mass, which contains the LHC twin-aperture superconducting magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel, such as support posts and insulation vacuum barriers are designed with efficient thermalisations for heat interception to minimise heat conduction. Heat inleak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation (MLI) wrapped around the cold mass and around an aluminium thermal shield cooled to about 60 K. Measurements of the total helium vaporization rate in String 2 gives, after substraction of supplementary heat loads and end effects, an estimate of the total thermal load to a standard LHC cell (107 m) including two Short Straight Sections and six dipole cryomagnets. Temperature sensors installed at critical locations provide a temperature mapping which allows validation of the calculated and estimated thermal performance of the cryostat components, including efficiency of the heat interceptions.

  11. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; De Roeck, Albert; Feltesse, Joël; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Glazov, Sasha; Huston, Joey; Kassabov, Zahari; McNulty, Ronan; Morsch, Andreas; Nadolsky, Pavel; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Thorne, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+{α }s uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. We finally discuss tools which allow for the delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Guido Altarelli (1941-2015), whose seminal work made possible the quantitative study of PDFs.

  12. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Roeck, Albert De; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Glazov, Sasha; Huston, Joey; Kassabov, Zahari; et al

    2016-01-06

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+αs uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. Lastly, we finally discuss tools which allow for themore » delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology.« less

  13. The development of children's regret and relief.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Daniel P; Beck, Sarah R

    2012-01-01

    Previous research found that children first experience regret at 5 years and relief at 7. In two experiments, we explored three possibilities for this lag: (1) relief genuinely develops later than regret; (2) tests of relief have previously been artefactually difficult; or (3) evidence for regret resulted from false positives. In Experiment 1 (N=162 4- to 7-year-olds) children chose one of two cards that led to winning or losing tokens. Children rated their happiness then saw a better (regret) or worse (relief) alternative. Children re-rated their happiness. Regret after winning was first experienced at 4, regret after losing and relief after winning were experienced at 5 years and relief after losing at 7 years. Experiment 2 (N=297 5- to 8-year-olds) used a similar task but manipulated children's responsibility for the outcome. Greater responsibility for the outcome resulted in a greater likelihood of an experience of regret and relief. Results support that previous tests of relief were artefactually difficult and regret and relief are experienced earlier than previously thought. PMID:22077850

  14. Formulating disaster relief when needs are unknown.

    PubMed

    May, P J

    1982-01-01

    As in most cases of natural disasters, relief needs arising out of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions in May 1980 were greatly overestimated. Technical, bureaucratic, and political considerations all contribute to the upward bias in such cases. The errors in early estimates of relief needs can be reduced by systematic means. But more important than obtaining good early estimates is maintaining an effective control over actual disaster relief expenditures. As it turns out, the more effective systems of control usually go hand in hand with poorer early estimates, creating a dilemma for the management for disaster relief. PMID:10257572

  15. Precision spectroscopy of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Cancio, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.; De Mauro, C.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    Accurate Quantum-Electrodynamics (QED) tests of the simplest bound three body atomic system are performed by precise laser spectroscopic measurements in atomic Helium. In this paper, we present a review of measurements between triplet states at 1083 nm (23S-23P) and at 389 nm (23S-33P). In 4He, such data have been used to measure the fine structure of the triplet P levels and, then, to determine the fine structure constant when compared with equally accurate theoretical calculations. Moreover, the absolute frequencies of the optical transitions have been used for Lamb-shift determinations of the levels involved with unprecedented accuracy. Finally, determination of the He isotopes nuclear structure and, in particular, a measurement of the nuclear charge radius, are performed by using hyperfine structure and isotope-shift measurements.

  16. A Structured Approach to Analyze the Influence of Channel Dimensions on Heat Extraction via Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielert, E. R.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Verweij, A. P.

    For the luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, the final focusing quadrupole magnets will be exposed to an increased energy deposition in their coil windings. To have a higher heat transfer rate between cable and superfluid helium bath, the cable insulation has been subject of many studies. Improved cable insulation designs, making use of several layers of Kapton tape wound around Rutherford type cables, allow helium to penetrate via micro-channels, which are left open between adjacent Kapton tape sections. To better understand the thermal behaviour at operating temperatures below and some degrees above the helium lambda transition, besides experimental work, several numerical models have been developed to study the influence of the cable insulation. Here we present a new numerical model based on an earlier presented FEM model, which makes use of coupling variables such that the user can easily and quickly change the parameters of interest, giving the possibility to analyse new ideas effectively.

  17. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  18. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  19. Data Analysis Techniques at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Boccali, Tommaso

    2005-10-12

    A review of the recent developments on data analysis techniques for the upcoming LHC experiments is presented, with the description of early tests ('Data Challenges'), which are being performed before the start-up, to validate the overall design.

  20. A successful traffic relief program

    SciTech Connect

    Dimino, R.A.; Bezkorovainy, G.; Campbell, B.

    1987-08-01

    This article reports that in August 1986, under the direction of Mayor Raymond Flynn, the City of Boston initiated Phase I of a Traffic Relief Program (TRP). The program was an interagency effort of the Boston Transportation Department and the Boston Police Department, to provide increased enforcement of the city's traffic and parking regulations on congested roadways in downtown Boston. The TRP is a reaffirmation of the city's philosophy that major arterials' primary function is the movement of traffic during periods of heavy traffic flow. There were six objectives: to reduce vehicular travel time along travel corridors; to increase street/intersection capacity; to eliminate vehicular blockage at intersections; to eliminate double parking; to eliminate pedestrian/vehicular conflicts at intersections and thus reduce the potential number of accidents; and to provide clear regulatory and street name signage.

  1. Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium…

  2. Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

  3. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

  4. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  5. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  6. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  7. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  8. 7 CFR 1465.33 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635, section 635.3. The financial or... be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635, section 635.4. ... payment. (b) If a participant has been found in violation of a provision of the AMA contract or...

  9. Aspirator increases relief valve poppet stroke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Addition of an aspirator to a relief valve increases the valve poppet stroke under dynamic flow conditions. The aspirator allows poppet inlet dynamic forces to overcome relief valve spring force. It reduces the fluid pressure in the skirt cavity by providing a low pressure sense probe.

  10. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankewich, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  11. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device must be plainly and permanently marked with...

  12. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device for an MPT must be— (a) From...

  13. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve must— (a) Be set at a...

  14. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve must— (a) Be set at a...

  15. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve must— (a) Be set at a...

  16. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve must— (a) Be set at a...

  17. Relief device for a vacuum vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fast, Ronald W.

    1987-04-28

    A pressure relief device 5 for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities. An annular plate 12 overlies a surface 11 which has an aperature to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface 11 and annular plate 12. A solid plate 13 overlies the annular plate 12. A seal is formed between the solid plate 13 and annular plate 12. The relief device 5 will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate 13. In the event the seal between solid plate 13 and annular plate 12 should stick the relief device 5 will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate 12 and solid plate 13 together. Hinging means 6 are provided to reclose the pressure relief device 5 when conditions return to normal.

  18. RTLS entry load relief parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of a candidate load relief control law for use during the pullup phase of Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort entries. The control law parameters and cycle time which optimized performance of the normal load factor limiting phase (load relief phase) of an RTLS entry are examined. A set of control law gains, a smoothing parameter, and a normal force coefficient curve fit are established which resulted in good load relief performance considering the possible aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties defined. Also, the examination of various guidance cycle times revealed improved load relief performance with decreasing cycle time. A .5 second cycle provided smooth and adequate load relief in the presence of all the aerodynamic uncertainties examined.

  19. Relief device for a vacuum vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fast, R.W.

    1987-04-28

    A pressure relief device for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities is disclosed. An annular plate overlies a surface which has an aperture to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface and annular plate. A solid plate overlies the annular plate. A seal is formed between the solid plate and annular plate. The relief device will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate. In the event the seal between solid plate and annular plate should stick the relief device will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate and solid plate together. Hinging means are provided to reclose the pressure relief device when conditions return to normal. 2 figs.

  20. Low temperature uses of helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1970-01-01

    Helium is used for purging and pressurizing cryogenic rocket propellants, welding, atmosphere control, leak detection, and refrigeration. It provides the lowest possible liquid-bath temperature and produces superconductivity in certain materials. Its superfluid effects are used in superconducting magnets.

  1. Radiation source for helium magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

  2. Glacially driven formation of high-elevation, low-relief landscapes in eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskin, M. E.; Zhang, H.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, P.; Reiners, P. W.; Xiao, P.

    2014-12-01

    Low-relief landscapes in central and eastern Tibet have been interpreted as relicts formed by lowland fluvial erosion before being uplifted to elevations exceeding 4 km a.s.l. The timing and amount of surface uplift indicated by these surfaces in Tibet and other orogens provide important constraints on geodynamic processes of crustal thickening and plateau formation. Low-temperature thermochronology and catchment-average 10Be concentrations indicate limited and low rates of long- and short-term erosion of these landscapes. But it is their morphology, dominated by gentle stream gradients, that drives the interpretation that these landscapes formed at much lower elevations than at present. Here we show for the plateau landscape of eastern Tibet that glacial erosion is ubiquitous along drainage divides that separate low-relief areas from deeply incised river gorges. The extent of late Pleistocene glaciation increases along a gradient of late Cenozoic exhumation from ~1 to >4 km indicated by apatite- and zircon-helium cooling ages. We interpret that glacial erosion effectively limits ridgeline elevations and promotes formation of low-relief landscapes in arid plateau interiors undergoing modest (<50 m Myr-1) exhumation rates. More intensive glacial erosion, associated with higher (>200 m Myr-1) exhumation rates nearer to plateau margins, produces bimodal topography, with low-relief cirques at high elevation and gentle, U-shape valleys below the equilibrium line altitudes (ELA). This yields similar mean elevations as nearby plateau surfaces, but with more rugged local relief. As rock uplift rate declines, these nascent plateau surfaces inherit low-gradient glaciated valley networks pinned by glacial erosion at their headwaters and smoothed by periglacial hillslope processes and transport-limited streams. Glacially driven formation of low-relief plateau landscapes within high-elevation eastern Tibet occurs in tandem with external drainage, and does not require uplift of

  3. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  4. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  5. Mapping Of Textile Surface Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. P. C. M.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a system which is capable of mapping the relief of textile surfaces, by non contact optical means, designed to be used in textile engineering laboratories to study the alterations produced in fabrics by the action of dyes, shock, stress, and so on. The specific nature of these materials precludes the use of conventional profiling systems, which led us to develop a new method with the necessary versatility but reasonably immune to dispersion, diffraction and speckle, phenomena which usually make very difficult the application of optical methods to this situation. The method is based on the horizontal shift of the bright spot on an horizontal surface when this is illuminated with an oblique beam and moved vertically. In order to make the profilometry the sample is swept by an oblique laser beam and the bright spot position is compared with a reference position. The system is thus formed by an HeNe laser focused onto a reference surface (sample support) endowed of bidirectional motion obtained by two stepping motors which are controlled by a 8051 microcomputer that will also control the data acquisition and processing system, and it's forwarding to the working microcomputer. The laser beam incidence angle, the focusing system and the reception objective can be changed to increase the system fickleness.

  6. OPEC reorganization could spell relief

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    Last year proved to be one of carnage in the oil industry, with only the large, vertically integrated, international oil companies showing strength during the oil price collapse. Independent producers and the manufacturing/service sector watched 50% or greater reductions in income. And this year holds little prospect for significant relief during its first half, although the last half could be better if and when Opec decides to once again test its strength. An Iranian victory in the Iran/Iraq war could also cause an upward movement in price. However, price instability should be less than in 1986, as the business heads toward a consensus price via political factors. The U.S. economy again showed improvement through 1986, with moderate growth of 2.6% in Gross National Product (GNP). The ongoing expansion has lasted four years and is already 17 months longer than the average peacetime expansion. However, important energy components did not show strength, and industrial production continued at level rates for the past two years.

  7. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  8. Stability measurements on cored cables in normal and superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.; Kim, S.W.; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.R.; Wilson, M.N.

    1998-07-01

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents.

  9. STABILITY MEASUREMENTS ON CORED CABLES IN NORMAL AND SUPERFLUID HELIUM

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.K.; SAMPSON,W.B.; KIM,S.W.; LEROY,D.; OBERLI,L.R.; WILSON,M.N.

    1998-05-10

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents.

  10. Helium superfluidity. Shapes and vorticities of superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Luis F; Ferguson, Ken R; Cryan, James P; Bacellar, Camila; Tanyag, Rico Mayro P; Jones, Curtis; Schorb, Sebastian; Anielski, Denis; Belkacem, Ali; Bernando, Charles; Boll, Rebecca; Bozek, John; Carron, Sebastian; Chen, Gang; Delmas, Tjark; Englert, Lars; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Hexemer, Alexander; Huth, Martin; Kwok, Justin; Leone, Stephen R; Ma, Jonathan H S; Maia, Filipe R N C; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Neumark, Daniel M; Poon, Billy; Prell, James; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Seifrid, Martin; Siefermann, Katrin R; Sturm, Felix P; Swiggers, Michele; Ullrich, Joachim; Weise, Fabian; Zwart, Petrus; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver; Vilesov, Andrey F

    2014-08-22

    Helium nanodroplets are considered ideal model systems to explore quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, exploring the dynamic properties of individual droplets is experimentally challenging. In this work, we used single-shot femtosecond x-ray coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the rotation of single, isolated superfluid helium-4 droplets containing ~10(8) to 10(11) atoms. The formation of quantum vortex lattices inside the droplets is confirmed by observing characteristic Bragg patterns from xenon clusters trapped in the vortex cores. The vortex densities are up to five orders of magnitude larger than those observed in bulk liquid helium. The droplets exhibit large centrifugal deformations but retain axially symmetric shapes at angular velocities well beyond the stability range of viscous classical droplets. PMID:25146284

  11. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  12. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L?énergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?années, notre compréhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  13. COSMIC-RAY HELIUM HARDENING

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-03-01

    Recent observations by the CREAM and ATIC-2 experiments suggest that (1) the spectrum of cosmic-ray (CR) helium is harder than that of CR protons below the knee energy, 10{sup 15}eV, and (2) all CR spectra become hard at {approx}>10{sup 11}eV nucleon{sup -1}. We propose a new idea, that higher energy CRs are generated in a more helium-rich region, to explain the hardening without introducing different sources for CR helium. The helium-to-proton ratio at {approx}100 TeV exceeds the Big Bang abundance Y = 0.25 by several times, and the different spectrum is not reproduced within the diffusive shock acceleration theory. We argue that CRs are produced in a chemically enriched region, such as a superbubble, and the outward-decreasing abundance naturally leads to the hard spectrum of CR helium if CRs escape from the supernova remnant shock in an energy-dependent way. We provide a simple analytical spectrum that also fits well the hardening due to the decreasing Mach number in the hot superbubble with {approx}10{sup 6} K. Our model predicts hard and concave spectra for heavier CR elements.

  14. LHC: The Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-04

    The Large Hadron Collider (or LHC) is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. In 2012, scientists used data taken by it to discover the Higgs boson, before pausing operations for upgrades and improvements. In the spring of 2015, the LHC will return to operations with 163% the energy it had before and with three times as many collisions per second. It’s essentially a new and improved version of itself. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains both some of the absolutely amazing scientific and engineering properties of this modern scientific wonder.

  15. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkovszky, László; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-04-01

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  16. LHC Symposium 2003: Summary Talk

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-08-12

    This summary talk reviews the LHC 2003 Symposium, focusing on expectations as we prepare to leap over the current energy frontier into new territory. We may learn from what happened in the two most recent examples of leaping into new energy territory. Quite different scenarios appeared in those two cases. In addition, they review the status of the machine and experiments as reported at the Symposium. Finally, I suggest an attitude which may be most appropriate as they look forward to the opportunities anticipated for the first data from the LHC.

  17. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Cette présentation s?adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l?engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  18. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-04-15

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  19. B Physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Gersabeck, Marco

    2010-02-10

    The LHC is scheduled to start its first physics data taking period later in 2009. Primarily LHCb but also ATLAS and CMS will start a rich B physics programme with the potential of revealing New Physics in the heavy flavour sector. This contribution will cover the prospects for B physics at the LHC with particular emphasis to early measurements. This includes CP violation measurements in B{sub d}{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} decays, searches for rare decays such as B{sub s}{sup 0}->{mu}{mu}, as well as semileptonic and radiative channels.

  20. Experimental Methods at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korytov, Andrey

    The lectures presented below cover the basics of proton-proton collisions at the LHC, the principles of particle detection, the methodologies employed for reconstruction of individual collision events, general strategies for signal event selection, data-driven techniques for evaluating signal efficiencies and background rates, as well as the main statistical concepts used for physics inference from selected data. The described principles and concepts are then illustrated on an example of a search for a Higgs boson and measurement of its properties in the H → ZZ → 4ℓ decay mode. The discussion is largely based on CMS, taken as a representative LHC experiment.

  1. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  2. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    PubMed

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  3. Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158888.html Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief Experimental light therapy finds ... headache pain, a narrow spectrum of low-intensity green light significantly reduced light sensitivity. In some cases, ...

  4. Part and Whole in Pictorial Relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    What are “natural parts” of pictorial reliefs? Intuitively, and suggested by common lore from the visual arts, they are the bulges that stick out toward the observer. Each such bulge contains a (locally) nearest point and is bounded by one or (usually) more curvilinear ruts. The latter meet in “passes” or saddle points. This divides the relief into “natural districts”. From a formal analysis one knows that reliefs can be divided into “hill districts” or “dale districts”, these two “natural” parcellations being fully distinct. We report empirical results that strongly suggest that visual awareness is based on a partition in bulges, which are mutually only weakly connected. Such a notion immediately explains why inverted reliefs or surfaces illuminated from below appear so different as to be mutually not recognizable. PMID:27551359

  5. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  6. The negative relief of large river floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, John; Ashworth, Philip J.

    2014-02-01

    Large floodplains have multiple and complex negative relief assemblages in which depressions fall below local or general floodplain surfaces at a variety of scales. The generation and dynamics of negative relief along major alluvial corridors are described and compared. Such depressions are significant for the storage and passage of surface waters, the creation of a range of riparian, wetland, lacustrine and flowing-water habitats, and the long-term accumulation of organic materials.

  7. Damage-Free Relief-Valve Disassembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haselmaier, H.

    1986-01-01

    Tool safely disassembles relief valves without damage to sensitive parts. Relief-valve disassembly tool used to extract valve nozzle from its housing. Holding device on tool grops nozzle. When user strikes hammer against impact disk, holding device pulls nozzle from press fit. Previously, nozzle dislodged by striking spindle above it, but practice often damaged retaining screw. New tool removes nozzle directly. With minor modifications, tool adapted to valves from different manufacturers.

  8. Current Lead Design for the Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Jeffrey S.; Cheban, Sergey; Feher, Sandor; Kaducak, Marc; Nobrega, Fred; Peterson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Accelerator Project for Upgrade of LHC (APUL) is a U.S. project participating in and contributing to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade program. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermilab is developing sub-systems for an upgrade of the LHC final focus magnet systems. A concept of main and auxiliary helium flow was developed that allows the superconductor to remain cold while the lead body warms up to prevent upper section frosting. The auxiliary flow will subsequently cool the thermal shields of the feed box and the transmission line cryostats. A thermal analysis of the current lead central heat exchange section was performed using analytic and FEA techniques. A method of remote soldering was developed that allows the current leads to be field replaceable. The remote solder joint was designed to be made without flux or additional solder, and able to be remade up to ten full cycles. A method of upper section attachment was developed that allows high pressure sealing of the helium volume. Test fixtures for both remote soldering and upper section attachment for the 13 kA lead were produced. The cooling concept, thermal analyses, and test results from both remote soldering and upper section attachment fixtures are presented.

  9. Quench propagation and heating in the superconducting 600 A auxiliary busbars of the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, R.; Calvi, M.; Sonnemann, F.

    2002-05-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN 22 km of flexible superconducting cable, the auxiliary busbar cable, will conduct currents of up to 600 A to a large number of corrector magnets distributed throughout the accelerator. A prototype cable with 42 active conductors underwent several experiments to measure the hot spot temperature and the quench propagation velocity as a function of the current. The former was evaluated for various energy extraction scenarios as they are foreseen for the LHC corrector circuits. The experimental results and the heat flow simulations show that the quench behavior in this busbar prototype is strongly influenced by the heat flow through the insulation material (polyimide) into the helium bath, leading to stable configurations above the critical temperature Tc for currents between 250 A and 500 A. Special attention was paid to the study of discontinuities in the wires, like feed-throughs, where the wire is not immersed in liquid helium, and joints, where the wire cross-section is increased. The experiments and simulations led to a thorough understanding of the quench process in the wires of the prototype cable, which resulted in guidelines for the design, the use and the installation of the cable in the LHC.

  10. Pressure relief valve types and selection

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, G.B.

    1988-05-01

    Pressure relief valves are one of the few types of equipment purchased and installed with the hope that they'll never be used. From the production viewpoint, a pressure relief valve produces nothing, yet it is very capable of disrupting a production operation or process. From a safety standpoint, a pressure relief valve must open in certain emergency conditions and also close when the emergency condition has been alleviated. Much depends upon proper selection of the type of pressure relief valve best suited for the intended service. The six figures in this article provide a summary of basic pressure relief valve types - weight loaded, direct spring operated, and pilot operated - outlining the operation and some pros and cons of each type. It is intended to be relative and not absolute. The specific application, prior experience, available commercial or special valve configurations, coupled with various accessories (such as a pilot filter for pilot operated valves in dirty service or a rupture disc upstream of a pressure relief valve), and the location of the valve in the system may allow the use of an otherwise unacceptable valve type.

  11. Rogue mantle helium and neon.

    PubMed

    Albarède, Francis

    2008-02-15

    The canonical model of helium isotope geochemistry describes the lower mantle as undegassed, but this view conflicts with evidence of recycled material in the source of ocean island basalts. Because mantle helium is efficiently extracted by magmatic activity, it cannot remain in fertile mantle rocks for long periods of time. Here, I suggest that helium with high 3He/4He ratios, as well as neon rich in the solar component, diffused early in Earth's history from low-melting-point primordial material into residual refractory "reservoir" rocks, such as dunites. The difference in 3He/4He ratios of ocean-island and mid-ocean ridge basalts and the preservation of solar neon are ascribed to the reservoir rocks being stretched and tapped to different extents during melting. PMID:18202257

  12. Verification testing of the superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, S.; Conaty, C.; Weintz, K.

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a secondary shuttle crossbay payload which flew on the STS-57/Endeavour mission. It was designed to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to resupply liquid helium containers in space, and to develop new technologies that may be used in other future space cryogenic systems. The SHOOT payload consists of two superfluid helium Dewars with helium management cryostats connected by a transfer line, and six avionics boxes for valve and heater control, temperature, pressure and fluid position monitoring and data processing and telemetry. The cryostats contain numerous specialized helium management components; including high and low flow phase separators, liquid/vapour discriminators, flowmeters, liquid level detectors, cryogenic mechanical valves and cryogenic relief valves and burst discs, and two varieties of fluid acquisition systems. To prepare the SHOOT payload for launch a series of functional, structural, thermal and reliability tests were conducted at every level of hardware assembly, from materials tests to system level thermal, structural and functional performance tests. We present here the verification tests and analyses developed and completed at each level of assembly. We discuss the trade-offs considered for, and the success (or failure) of, models and analyses to predict performance results. Finally, we present some lessons learned of potential interest to future cryogenic missions, whether on the Space Shuttle or on expendable launch vehicles.

  13. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  14. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  15. String Physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2008-11-23

    The LHC program will include the identification of events with single high-k{sub T} photons as probes of new physics. We show that this channel is uniquely suited to search for experimental evidence of TeV-scale open string theory.

  16. Event generator for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleisberg, T.; Höche, S.; Krauss, F.; Schälicke, A.; Schumann, S.; Winter, J.

    2006-04-01

    In this contribution the new event generation framework S HERPA will be presented. It aims at the full simulation of events at current and future high-energy experiments, in particular the LHC. Some results related to the production of jets at the Tevatron will be discussed.

  17. The history of the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  18. PHOBOS in the LHC era

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Peter

    2015-01-15

    The PHOBOS experiment ran at the RHIC collider from 2000 to 2005, under the leadership of Wit Busza. These proceedings summarize selected PHOBOS results, highlighting their continuing relevance amidst the wealth of new results from the lead–lead program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

  19. Post-LHC accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Gourlay, Stephen A.

    2001-06-10

    The design and practicality of future accelerators, such as hadron colliders and neutrino factories being considered to supercede the LHC, will depend greatly on the choice of superconducting magnets. Various possibilities will be reviewed and discussed, taking into account recent progress and projected improvements in magnet design and conductor development along with the recommendations from the 2001 Snowmass workshop.

  20. The history of the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  1. Design approach for the development of a cryomodule for compact crab cavities for Hi-Lumi LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Pattalwar, Shrikant; Goudket, Philippe; McIntosh, Peter; Wheelhouse, Alan; Jones, Thomas; Templeton, Niklas; Burt, Graeme; Hall, Ben; Wright, Loren; Peterson, Tom

    2014-01-29

    A prototype Superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule, comprising multiple compact crab cavities is foreseen to realise a local crab crossing scheme for the “Hi-Lumi LHC”, a project launched by CERN to increase the luminosity performance of LHC. A cryomodule with two cavities will be initially installed and tested on the SPS drive accelerator at CERN to evaluate performance with high-intensity proton beams. A series of boundary conditions influence the design of the cryomodule prototype, arising from; the complexity of the cavity design, the requirement for multiple RF couplers, the close proximity to the second LHC beam pipe and the tight space constraints in the SPS and LHC tunnels. As a result, the design of the helium vessel and the cryomodule has become extremely challenging. This paper assesses some of the critical cryogenic and engineering design requirements and describes an optimised cryomodule solution for the evaluation tests on SPS.

  2. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  3. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  4. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  5. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  6. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  7. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179...-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the... safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All main pressure...

  8. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179...-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the... safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All main pressure...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.400-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief... structure, trucks and safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited....

  10. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179...-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the... safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All main pressure...

  11. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section... Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual who adjusts. Safety relief valves shall be set and adjusted by a competent person who is...

  12. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves shall... glass. (d) Labeling of lowest set pressure. The set pressure of the lowest safety relief valve shall be... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49...

  13. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section... Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual who adjusts. Safety relief valves shall be set and adjusted by a competent person who is...

  14. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo... cargo that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A relief valve on a cargo pump...

  15. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo... cargo that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A relief valve on a cargo pump...

  16. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo... cargo that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A relief valve on a cargo pump...

  17. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section... Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual who adjusts. Safety relief valves shall be set and adjusted by a competent person who is...

  18. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  19. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  20. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  1. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  2. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  3. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Solenoid Insulatiing Vacuum Vessels; Relief Path Capacity Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; Bell, D.; /Fermilab

    1993-05-26

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the relief capacity of the solenoid vacuum pumping line. The calculations were done by David Bell, a co-op student from the University of Wisconsin. The calculations are attached. The conclusion is that the vacuum pumping line has a venting capacity of 129 g/s warm helium or 298 g/s warm nitrogen. Both of these capacities are much larger than the expected operating mass flow rates of the liquid helium (5 to 15 g/s) or liquid nitrogen (2 or 3 g/s) circuits. The calculations assume the solenoid vacuum vessel is at 3 psig and the relief plate is set at 1.5 psig. Additional calculations were done to prove that the venting capacity of the vacuum pumping line exceeded flowrates due to a failure mode. These calculations are attached. Since the system is not finalized, (pipe sizes not determined, components sized...) the calculations were done by first picking reasonable line sizes based on known allowed pressure drops in the system and then doing a maximum delivery rate calculation if a line was completely severed in the vacuum space of the solenoid/control dewar. The numbers from these calculations say that failure mode flow rates are 80 g/s liquid helium or 80 g/s liquid nitrogen. Both these values are less than the capacity of the relief line. In the five months since the (12/92 Dave Bell) calculations were done, some changes occured to the relief path. The most notable is that the radiation shield is now considered to be 6.625-inch O.D. instead of 6.00-inch used in the venting calculation. This change would tend to lower the capacity numbers. Another change was that for about half the venting path the chimney vacuum shell size was increased to 10-inch pipe. This change tends to increase the capacity numbers which were done assuming 8-inch pipe. These changes taken together probably offset each other or make the capacity numbers better. In either case, since the margin of safety is large, the

  4. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased...

  5. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased...

  6. 30 CFR 256.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Helium. 256.11 Section 256.11 Mineral Resources... Sulphur Management, General § 256.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations... of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  10. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased...

  11. 30 CFR 556.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Helium. 556.11 Section 556.11 Mineral Resources... § 556.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a... helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the United States elects to take...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  13. 30 CFR 556.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Helium. 556.11 Section 556.11 Mineral Resources... § 556.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a... helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the United States elects to take...

  14. 30 CFR 556.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Helium. 556.11 Section 556.11 Mineral Resources... § 556.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a... helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the United States elects to take...

  15. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is a colorless,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  2. Multipurpose top for liquid helium Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. S.; Anderholm, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multipurpose top was fabricated for liquid helium Dewar flask which guards against flash vaporization of liquid helium and allows boiling temperature of liquid helium to be lowered by reduction of ambient pressure in Dewar flask. Device is rugged and simple, and does not require frequent calibrations or adjustments.

  3. Applying the helium ionization detector in chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Andrawes, F. F.; Brazell, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    High noise levels and oversensitivity of helium detector make flame-ionization and thermal-conductivity detectors more suitable for chromotography. Deficiencies are eliminated by modifying helium device to operate in saturation rather than multiplication mode. Result is low background current, low noise, high stability, and high sensitivity. Detector analyzes halocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and inorganics without requiring expensive research-grade helium.

  4. Why Helium Ends in "-Ium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.; Holme, Thomas; Cooper, Melanie; White, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Edward Frankland and Norman Lockyer researched upon a gaseous spectra in relation to the physical constitution of the sun and named it as "helium" (from Greek "helios" meaning "sun"). Since Lockyer apparently never formally proposed the name in print, it is not known why he chose to use a metallic end "ium".

  5. Helium diffusion in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Pinsonneault, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    We calculate improved standard solar models using the new Livermore (OPAL) opacity tables, an accurate (exportable) nuclear energy generation routine which takes account of recent measurements and analyses, and the recent Anders-Grevesse determination of heavy element abundances. We also evaluate directly the effect of the diffusion of helium with respect to hydrogen on the calculated neutrino fluxes, on the primordial solar helium abundance, and on the depth of the convective zone. Helium diffusion increases the predicted event rates by about 0.8 SNU, or 11 percent of the total rate, in the chlorine solar neutrino experiment, by about 3.5 SNU, or 3 percent, in the gallium solar neutrino experiments, and by about 12 percent in the Kamiokande and SNO solar neutrino experiments. The best standard solar model including helium diffusion and the most accurate nuclear parameters, element abundances, and radiative opacity predicts a value of 8.0 SNU +/- 3.0 SNU for the C1-37 experiment and 132 +21/-17 SNU for the Ga - 71 experiment, where the uncertainties include 3 sigma errors for all measured input parameters.

  6. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  7. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  8. Approximating the Helium Wavefunction in Positronium-Helium Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    In the Kohn variational treatment of the positronium- hydrogen scattering problem the scattering wave function is approximated by an expansion in some appropriate basis set, but the target and projectile wave functions are known exactly. In the positronium-helium case, however, a difficulty immediately arises in that the wave function of the helium target atom is not known exactly, and there are several ways to deal with the associated eigenvalue in formulating the variational scattering equations to be solved. In this work we will use the Kohn variational principle in the static exchange approximation to d e t e e the zero-energy scattering length for the Ps-He system, using a suite of approximate target functions. The results we obtain will be compared with each other and with corresponding values found by other approximation techniques.

  9. Simplified SIMPs and the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Lowette, S.; Tytgat, M. H. G.; Zaldivar, B.

    2015-11-01

    The existence of Dark Matter (DM) in the form of Strongly Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) may be motivated by astrophysical observations that challenge the classical Cold DM scenario. Other observations greatly constrain, but do not completely exclude, the SIMP alternative. The signature of SIMPs at the LHC may consist of neutral, hadron-like, trackless jets produced in pairs. We show that the absence of charged content can provide a very efficient tool to suppress dijet backgrounds at the LHC, thus enhancing the sensitivity to a potential SIMP signal. We illustrate this using a simplified SIMP model and present a detailed feasibility study based on simulations, including a dedicated detector response parametrization. We evaluate the expected sensitivity to various signal scenarios and tentatively consider the exclusion limits on the SIMP elastic cross section with nucleons.

  10. Relief Valve Opens And Closes Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svejkovsky, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Relief valve opens quickly to relieve excess pressure and closes quickly when pressure drops slightly below relief pressure. O-ring exposes one or more ports under high pressure, releasing excess pressurized fluid. Adjusting screw used to change compression on Belleville-spring washers and to set pressure at which valve opens. Designed for use aboard Space Shuttle to vent pressurized hydrazine to vacuum, valve concept useful in industrial applications where rapid opening, rapid closing, or low susceptibility to blockage by vented fluid required.

  11. Catching Collisions in the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Fruguiele, Claudia; Hirschauer, Jim

    2015-06-16

    Now that the Large Hadron Collider has officially turned back on for its second run, within every proton collision could emerge the next new discovery in particle physics. Learn how the detectors on the Compact Muon Solenoid, or CMS, experiment capture and track particles as they are expelled from a collision. Talking us through these collisions are Claudia Fruguiele and Jim Hirschauer of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the largest U.S. institution collaborating on the LHC.

  12. LHC magnet quench protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1994-07-01

    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called 'cold diode' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements - so called 'cold diodes'. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a 'natural' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

  13. hhjj production at the LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Englert, Christoph; Greiner, Nicolas; Nordstrom, Karl; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-08-25

    The search for di-Higgs production at the LHC in order to set limits on the Higgs trilinear coupling and constraints on new physics is one of the main motivations for the LHC high-luminosity phase. Recent experimental analyses suggest that such analyses will only be successful if information from a range of channels is included. We therefore investigate di-Higgs production in association with two hadronic jets and give a detailed discussion of both the gluon- and the weak boson-fusion (WBF) contributions, with a particular emphasis on the phenomenology with modified Higgs trilinear and quartic gauge couplings. We perform a detailed investigationmore » of the full hadronic final state and find that hhjj production should add sensitivity to a di-Higgs search combination at the HL-LHC with 3 ab-1. Since the WBF and GF contributions are sensitive to different sources of physics beyond the Standard Model, we devise search strategies to disentangle and isolate these production modes. In addition, while gluon fusion remains non-negligible in WBF-type selections, sizeable new physics contributions to the latter can still be constrained. As an example of the latter point we investigate the sensitivity that can be obtained for a measurement of the quartic Higgs–gauge boson couplings.« less

  14. Cryogenics for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavian, L.; Brodzinski, K.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Wagner, U.; van Weelderen, R.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at CERN in 2012 is the start of a major program of work to measure this particle's properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. The LHC is in a unique position to pursue this program. Europe's top priority is the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with an objective to collect ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030. To reach this objective, the LHC cryogenic system must be upgraded to withstand higher beam current and higher luminosity at top energy while keeping the same operation availability by improving the collimation system and the protection of electronics sensitive to radiation. This chapter will present the conceptual design of the cryogenic system upgrade with recent updates in performance requirements, the corresponding layout and architecture of the system as well as the main technical challenges which have to be met in the coming years.

  15. Superfluid helium leak sealant study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-one leak specimens were fabricated in the ends of stainless steel and aluminum tubes. Eighteen of these tubes were coated with a copolymer material to seal the leak. The other three specimens were left uncoated and served as control specimens. All 21 tubes were cold shocked in liquid helium 50 times and then the leak rate was measured while the tubes were submerged in superfluid helium at 1.7 K. During the cold shocks two of the coated specimens were mechanically damaged and eliminated from the test program. Of the remaining 16 coated specimens one suffered a total coating failure and resulting high leak rate. Another three of the coated specimens suffered partial coating failures. The leak rates of the uncoated specimens were also measured and reported. The significance of various leak rates is discussed in view of the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Dewar performance.

  16. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Dohet-Eraly, J

    2015-12-21

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than 10(-10). For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to 10(-3), still improving the best literature results. PMID:25732054

  17. QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As an introduction to QCD at the LHC the author gives an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q{sup 2} frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors the author discusses high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. The author introduces the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420m downstream of ATLAS and CMS.

  18. Laser Cooling of Metastable Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ti.

    An experiment on the laser cooling of a metastable helium beam has been carried out. This experiment is appropriate to be described theoretically under a semiclassical framework. The experiment is the first phase of a large experimental project, whose ultimate goal is to investigate the behavior of laser -cooled metastable helium atoms in the quantum mechanical domain. This first phase is to provide the foundation for the second phase, which will be described in a full quantum mechanical framework. To reach this goal, an atomic beam source and a detection and data acquisition system were designed and constructed to be used in both phases. A laser system that is necessary for the first phase was also designed and constructed. This experiment was designed so that the studies of the atomic behavior, both in the semiclassical and quantum mechanical regions, can be investigated almost simultaneously. This experiment mainly consists of a one-dimensional transverse Doppler cooling of a metastable helium beam. The theory of Doppler cooling, based upon previous work of others, is discussed in this thesis as well. A final velocity width (HWHM) of ~0.62 m/s has been achieved, which is about 2.5 times larger than the Doppler velocity predicted by the theory. The two most likely reasons for not obtaining the Doppler velocity have been carefully examined. Sub-Doppler cooling of the helium beam was also tried, but was unsuccessful. It is our belief that the very same reasons prevent us from achieving sub -Doppler cooling as well.

  19. Helium in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Helium and neon were extracted from fragments of individual stratosphere-collected interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) by subjecting them to increasing temperature by applying short-duration pulses of power in increasing amounts to the ovens containing the fragments. The experiment was designed to see whether differences in release temperatures could be observed which might provide clues as to the asteroidal or cometary origin of the particles. Variations were observed which show promise for elucidating the problem.

  20. Detecting scintillations in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, P. R.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2013-09-01

    We review our work in developing a tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB)-based detection system for a measurement of the neutron lifetime using magnetically confined ultracold neutrons (UCN). As part of the development of the detection system for this experiment, we studied the scintillation properties of liquid helium itself, characterized the fluorescent efficiencies of different fluors, and built and tested three detector geometries. We provide an overview of the results from these studies as well as references for additional information.

  1. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.; Anderson, John E.; Gille, John P.; Martin, Tim A.; Marino, John S.; Paynter, Howard L.; Traill, R. Eric; Herzl, Alfred; Gotlib, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Replenishment of superfluid helium (SFHe) offers the potential of extending the on-orbit life of observatories, satellite instruments, sensors and laboratories which operate in the 2 K temperature regime. A reference set of resupply customers was identified as representing realistic helium servicing requirements and interfaces for the first 10 years of superfluid helium tanker (SFHT) operations. These included the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (Astromag), and the Microgravity and Materials Processing Sciences Facility (MMPS)/Critical Point Phenomena Facility (CPPF). A mixed-fleet approach to SFHT utilization was considered. The tanker permits servicing from the Shuttle cargo bay, in situ when attached to the OMV and carried to the user spacecraft, and as a depot at the Space Station. A SFHT Dewar ground servicing concept was developed which uses a dedicated ground cooling heat exchanger to convert all the liquid, after initial fill as normal fluid, to superfluid for launch. This concept permits the tanker to be filled to a near full condition, and then cooled without any loss of fluid. The final load condition can be saturated superfluid with any desired ullage volume, or the tank can be totally filed and pressurized. The SFHT Dewar and helium plumbing system design has sufficient component redundancy to meet fail-operational, fail-safe requirements, and is designed structurally to meet a 50 mission life usage requirement. Technology development recommendations were made for the selected SFHT concept, and a Program Plan and cost estimate prepared for a phase C/D program spanning 72 months from initiation through first launch in 1997.

  2. Vorticity matching in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, David C.

    1991-12-01

    Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'

  3. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2005-01-01

    As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

  5. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim relief. 268.505 Section 268.505 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES..., eligibility for a within-grade increase, or the completion of the service requirement for career tenure,...

  6. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the agency appeals and the case... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it...

  7. 78 FR 19136 - Emergency Relief Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents and comments received... the 21st Century Act (MAP-21, Pub. L. 112-141) authorized the Public Transportation Emergency Relief... first $2 billion (78 FR 8691). In accordance with the statute, the remainder of the appropriated...

  8. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  9. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  10. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  11. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  12. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  15. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS §...

  16. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS §...

  17. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS §...

  18. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS §...

  19. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS §...

  20. Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158888.html Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief Experimental light therapy finds it can ease sensitivity, pain for ... 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study sheds light -- literally -- on a potential means of easing migraine ...

  1. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN... disabilities; (2) May award other relief as the court considers to be appropriate, including monetary damages to persons aggrieved when requested by the Attorney General; and (3) May, to vindicate the...

  2. 75 FR 10707 - MORTGAGE ASSISTANCE RELIEF SERVICES

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... are needed to prevent harm to consumers.\\15\\ \\13\\ Mortgage Assistance Relief Services, 74 FR 26130... mortgage loans. Mortgage Acts and Practices, 74 FR 26118 (June 1, 2009). The Commission anticipates that it will publish an NPRM relating to other mortgage practices in the near future. \\15\\ MARS ANPR, 74 FR...

  3. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to...

  4. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to...

  5. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to...

  6. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of paragraph (a)(1..., eligibility for a within-grade increase, or the completion of the service requirement for career tenure,...

  7. 75 FR 75091 - Mortgage Assistance Relief Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... the Treasury, Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection; Designated Transfer Date, 75 FR 57252, 57253... rule included provisions that would: \\16\\ See Mortgage Assistance Relief Services, 74 FR 26130 (June 1... Services, 75 FR 10707 (Mar. 9, 2010) (MARS NPRM). Prohibit MARS providers from making false or...

  8. 7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... erodible land and wetland conservation provisions of 7 CFR part 12, (5) Producers who are ineligible under any provisions of law, including regulations, relating to controlled substances (see for example 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760.106...

  9. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  10. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  11. Variation in Atmospheric Helium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabry, J. C.; Marty, B.; Burnard, P.; Blard, P.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic activity such as oil and gas exploitation releases crustal helium, which has excess 4He compared to atmospheric helium. This may give rise to both spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric 3He/4He. Helium is present in trace quantities in the air (5 ppm) and has a very low ratio (3He/4Heair = 1.38 x 10-6), consequently high precision measurements of atmospheric He presents a significant analytical challenge. Recent work by Sano et al. [1] has endeavored to experimentally quantify these potential variations in the atmospheric 3He/4He by measuring the helium isotopes from air samples collected around the globe and from samples of ancient trapped atmosphere. Their results indicate an increase in the atmospheric 3He/4He from northern to southern latitudes of the order 2 - 4 ‰, which they attribute to greater use of fossil fuels in the northern hemisphere. However, since most of their data points overlap at the 2-3 ‰ (2σ) level, additional measurements (with increased precision if possible) are needed. We have constructed an automated extraction line dedicated to measuring He in samples of air which can rapidly switch between measuring aliquots of sample with standards. It additionally features an adjustable bellows on the sample aliquot volume that enables us to adjust the size of a sample aliquot to precisely match the standard, eliminating biases arising from nonlinear pressure effects in the mass spectrometer. The measurements are made using a Helix SFT multi-collector mass spectrometer. At present, repeat measurements of 3He/4He from our standard (purified air) have a reproducibility of 2‰ (2σ), while measurements of local (Nancy, France) air samples have a reproducibility of 3He/4He of 3‰ (2σ), which are at a similar level to the uncertainties reported by Sano. Modifications are underway to improve 3He measurements which are the principal source of error. We have collected atmospheric samples from around the globe over a wide

  12. On charged impurity structures in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The thermoluminescence spectra of impurity-helium condensates (IHC) submerged in superfluid helium have been observed for the first time. Thermoluminescence of impurity-helium condensates submerged in superfluid helium is explained by neutralization reactions occurring in impurity nanoclusters. Optical spectra of excited products of neutralization reactions between nitrogen cations and thermoactivated electrons were rather different from the spectra observed at higher temperatures, when the luminescence due to nitrogen atom recombination dominates. New results on current detection during the IHC destruction are presented. Two different mechanisms of nanocluster charging are proposed to describe the phenomena observed during preparation and warm-up of IHC samples in bulk superfluid helium, and destruction of IHC samples out of liquid helium.

  13. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds. (LCL)

  14. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, J. W.; Miller, J. R.; Walstrom, P. L.; Herz, W.

    1981-02-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through internally cooled superconductor magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma for postulated conditions present in a stagnation shock layer of a spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Jupiter. These properties can be used to evaluate transport properties, to calculate convective heating, and to investigate nonequilibrium behavior. The calculations have been made for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K, densities of 10 to the minus 7th and .00001 g cu cm, and three plasma compositions: pure hydrogen, 50% hydrogen/50% helium, and pure helium. The shock layer plasma consists of electrons, protons, atomic hydrogen, atomic helium, singly ionized helium, and doubly atomized helium. The thermodynamic properties which have been investigated are: pressure, average molecular weight, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, and isentropic speed of sound. A consistent model was used for the reduction of the ionization potential in the calculation of the partition functions.

  16. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained,...

  17. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained,...

  18. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained,...

  19. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained,...

  20. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained,...

  1. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  2. Energy, helium, and the future: II

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Hammel, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of helium as a critical resource material has been recognized specifically by the scientific community and more generally by the 1960 Congressional mandate to institute a long-range conservation program. A major study mandated by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 resulted in the publication in 1975 of the document, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, ERDA-13. This document contained a comprehensive review and analysis relating to helium resources and present and future supply/demand relationships with particular emphasis upon those helium-dependent energy-related technologies projected to be implemented in the post-2000 year time period, e.g., fusion. An updated overview of the helium situation as it exists today is presented. Since publication of ERDA-13, important changes in the data base underlying that document have occurred. The data have since been reexamined, revised, and new information included. Potential supplies of helium from both conventional and unconventional natural gas resources, projected supply/demand relationships to the year 2030 based upon a given power-generation scenario, projected helium demand for specific energy-related technologies, and the supply options (national and international) available to meet that demand are discussed. An updated review will be given of the energy requirements for the extraction of helium from natural gas as they relate to the concentration of helium. A discussion is given concerning the technical and economic feasibility of several methods available both now and conceptually possible, to extract helium from helium-lean natural gas, the atmosphere, and outer space. Finally, a brief review is given of the 1980 Congressional activities with respect to the introduction and possible passage of new helium conservation legislation.

  3. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  4. Helium in the topside Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The quantity of helium in the Venus atmosphere is estimated from an examination of the measured ionization profiles. The amount of helium necessary to give agreement between the computed and experimental results is approximately 4 x 10 to the 8th power/cucm at 140 km. When an eddy diffusion coefficient of 1,000,000 sq cm/see is used, the atmospheric helium mixing ratio is found to be 0.0006; a value nearly ten times that for earth.

  5. Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160603.html Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men Study ... a time when more people are turning to medical marijuana for pain relief. "This study underscores the importance ...

  6. Enforcing Compliance with IDEA: Dispute Resolution and Appropriate Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley, David

    1995-01-01

    This discussion of dispute resolution and remedies under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act focuses on the due process hearing as well as alternative dispute resolution, appropriate relief, reimbursements, compensatory relief, punitive damages, and attorneys' fees. (DB)

  7. Z' Phenomenology and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-10-17

    A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

  8. Probing Metastability at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Clavelli, L.

    2010-02-10

    Current attempts to understand supersymmetry (susy) breaking are focused on the idea that we are not in the ground state of the universe but, instead, in a metastable state that will ultimately decay to an exactly susy ground state. It is interesting to ask how experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will shed light on the properties of this future supersymmetric universe. In particular we ask how we can determine whether this final state has the possibility of supporting atoms and molecules in a susy background.

  9. Radioactive transitions in the helium isoelectronic sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1971-01-01

    The principles of the atomic spectrum theory are used to quantitatively analyze radiation transitions in two-electron helium-like atomic systems. Quantum theoretical methods, describing absorption and emission of a single photon in a radiative transition between two stationary states of an atomic system, reproduced the energy level diagram for the low lying states of helium. Reliable values are obtained from accurate variationally determined two-electron nonrelativistic wave functions for radiative transition probabilities of 2 3p states in the helium isoelectric sequence, and for the 2 1s and 2 3s1 states of the helium sequence.

  10. Helium-3 emission related to volcanic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Wakita, H.; Urabe, A.; Tominaga, T.

    1984-04-13

    The helium-3/helium-4 ratio in bubbling gases from ten hot springs located around Mount Ontake, an active volcano in central Japan, ranges from 1.71 R/sub atm/ (1.71 times the atmospheric ratio of 1.40 x 10/sup -6/) to 6.15 R/sub atm/. The value of the ratio decreases with distance from the central cone of the volcano. Such a tendency may be a characteristic of helium-3 emission in volcanic areas and suggests more primitive helium-3 is carried with fluid flowing through a conduit during volcanic activity. 6 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  11. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major...

  12. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major...

  13. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major...

  14. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major...

  15. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a...

  16. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a...

  17. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a...

  18. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a...

  19. (SUSY) Higgs Search at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlleitner, M. Margarete

    2008-11-23

    The discovery of the Standard Model (SM) or supersymmetric (SUSY) Higgs bosons belongs to the main endeavors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this article the status of the signal and background calculations for Higgs boson production at the LHC is reviewed.

  20. First data from TOTEM experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, F.

    2011-07-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC is mainly dedicated to the measurement of the total proton-proton cross section, elastic scattering and to the study of the diffractive processes. This contribution reviews the physics goals of the experiment, the status of the experimental apparatus and of the analysis of the first data from the LHC.

  1. 7 CFR 718.305 - Forms of relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forms of relief. 718.305 Section 718.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.305 Forms of relief. (a) The Administrator of FSA, Executive...

  2. 7 CFR 718.305 - Forms of relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forms of relief. 718.305 Section 718.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.305 Forms of relief. (a) The Administrator of FSA, Executive...

  3. 7 CFR 718.305 - Forms of relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of relief. 718.305 Section 718.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.305 Forms of relief. (a) The Administrator of FSA, Executive...

  4. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  5. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.347-4 Section 178.347-4... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and...

  6. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.347-4 Section 178.347-4... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  7. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.347-4 Section 178.347-4... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  9. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  10. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  11. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  12. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  13. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  14. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  15. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  16. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  17. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  18. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section....

  19. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  20. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.347-4 Section 178.347-4... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  2. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.347-4 Section 178.347-4... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the...

  4. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... presentations seeking relief. (a) For violation of section 592 or section 593A. If the penalty incurred is for a... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 2902.59 Section 2902.59... Items § 2902.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  9. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment. 631.86 Section 631.86 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief...

  10. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...This document contains proposed regulations relating to relief from joint and several tax liability under section 6015 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and relief from the Federal income tax liability resulting from the operation of state community property laws under section 66. The proposed regulations provide guidance to taxpayers on when and how to request relief under sections 66 and......

  11. 5 CFR 2422.33 - Relief obtainable under part 2423.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relief obtainable under part 2423. 2422... obtainable under part 2423. Remedial relief that was or could have been obtained as a result of a motion, objection, or challenge filed or raised under this subpart, may not be the basis for similar relief if...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) At each relief valve. ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure...

  13. 46 CFR 64.47 - Type of relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rupture disc or a spring loaded relief valve. ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type of relief devices. 64.47 Section 64.47 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.47 Type of relief devices. (a) An MPT with an...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  16. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  17. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  18. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  19. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  20. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  1. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  2. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  3. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  4. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  5. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  6. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  7. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....53 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant? (a) If we approve your... production or prices (see § 203.54), royalty payments due under end-of-life relief will not exceed...

  8. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the timber... be determined by the authorized officer as follows: (1) For sales of less than 1 million board...

  9. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the timber... be determined by the authorized officer as follows: (1) For sales of less than 1 million board...

  10. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the timber... be determined by the authorized officer as follows: (1) For sales of less than 1 million board...

  11. 46 CFR 64.55 - Relief device location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief device location. 64.55 Section 64.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.55 Relief device location. A pressure relief...

  12. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relief will MMS grant? 203.53 Section 203.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for...

  13. 46 CFR 64.47 - Type of relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rupture disc or a spring loaded relief valve. ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type of relief devices. 64.47 Section 64.47 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.47 Type of relief devices. (a) An MPT with an...

  14. The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, C.; Allen, W.; Munday, A.; Wiggins, P.

    2006-04-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, flexible hoses were used instead of bellows to allow for thermal compensation of the process pipes. If necessary, compensation units were integrated in the vacuum jacket. The thermal design was performed to fulfil the specified heat-load budget. This paper presents the main technical design choices for the lines together with their expected performance.

  15. Remote Operations for LHC and CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, E.E.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    Commissioning the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments will be a vital part of the worldwide high energy physics program beginning in 2007. A remote operations center has been built at Fermilab to contribute to commissioning and operations of the LHC and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, and to develop new capabilities for real-time data analysis and monitoring for LHC, CMS, and grid computing. Remote operations will also be essential to a future International Linear Collider with its multiple, internationally distributed control rooms. In this paper we present an overview of Fermilab's LHC@FNAL remote operations center for LHC and CMS, describe what led up to the development of the center, and describe noteworthy features of the center.

  16. New program sizes pressure-relief drums

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, A.A.; Osorio, R.A.; Suarez, R.H.

    1996-05-06

    In accordance with API Recommended Practice 521, a new procedure has been developed for the design of relief drums. The calculation method determines by convergence the most economical length-to-diameter ratio for gas-liquid separation vessels. Drum sizing is based on the separation of a two-phase stream, taking into account the special condition of intermittent flow. Design parameters such as settling velocity and residence time also must be calculated to determine an optimum design. A new program based on a programmable algorithm can be converted from basic language to any other computer language to facilitate vessel-design computations. The program quickly and efficiently computes design values for relief systems used in refineries and petrochemical plants.

  17. Improve safety with pilot operated relief valves

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, G.

    1996-10-01

    A weakness inherent in balanced bellows pressure relief valves (PRVs) that can cause premature failure can be avoided by using pilot operated PRVs as an alternative. Now better able to handle adverse service conditions, pilot operated PRVs are suitable for a wide range of gas, liquid and mixed-phase services. Traditionally, however, balanced bellows PRVs have been applied as overpressure protection for three notable reasons: a constant PRV set pressure with the presence of variable, superimposed back pressure (at the PRV outlet prior to its opening); valve stability and adequate capacity when built-up back pressure (at the PRV outlet during its relief cycle) exceeds 10%; and spring and guided parts barriered from the process fluid. With these benefits in mind, balanced bellows PRVs have been generally adapted by many hydrocarbon processing companies that have experienced costly, and often dangerous, premature bellows failures. Corrosion, valve instability and/or bellows flutter are causes of these failures.

  18. Evolutionary driver scheduling with relief chains.

    PubMed

    Kwan, R S; Kwan, A S; Wren, A

    2001-01-01

    Public transport driver scheduling problems are well known to be NP-hard. Although some mathematically based methods are being used in the transport industry, there is room for improvement. A hybrid approach incorporating a genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The role of the GA is to derive a small selection of good shifts to seed a greedy schedule construction heuristic. A group of shifts called a relief chain is identified and recorded. The relief chain is then inherited by the offspring and used by the GA for schedule construction. The new approach has been tested using real-life data sets, some of which represent very large problem instances. The results are generally better than those compiled by experienced schedulers and are comparable to solutions found by integer linear programming (ILP). In some cases, solutions were obtained when the ILP failed within practical computational limits. PMID:11709104

  19. High-Performance Valve Promises Safe Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using an improved valve design developed under an SBIR contract with Stennis Space Center, Marotta Scientific's PRV95 provides stability over the entire operational range, from fully closed to fully open. The valve employs a concept known as upstream control for valve positioning, making it more dependable with excellent repeatability and minimal lag time. The PRV95 design is unique in its ability to maintain a seal near the set point of the relief limit. Typically, relief valves seal tightly up to 90 percent set point and then reseat when pressure is reduced to 85 percent of set point. This new technology maintains seal integrity until 98 percent of set point and will reseat at 95 to 97 percent of set point. This allows the operator to protect a system without exceeding its limits.

  20. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-12-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz.

  1. Helium in Earth's Early Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jephcoat, A. P.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Heber, V.; Kelley, S. P.

    2006-12-01

    The high 3He/4He ratios for some ocean-island basalts, and more recent observations for solar components of the other rare gases (Ne, Ar and possibly Xe), continue to raise questions on primordial source reservoirs as well as on accretionary and incorporation processes of rare gases. A number of geochemical mantle models have been made to explain the observed 3He/4He ratios, the most popular of which has been an undegassed primordial reservoir. Isotope systematics of other radiogenic elements do not support such an isolated source and changes in the accepted models of mantle convection style have made it harder to rely on the deep mantle as a reservoir. The core has remained a particularly unfavourable location either because of difficulty in constructing a retention mechanism during planetary accretion or simply because of a lack of data: Partitioning studies at pressure are rare and complicated by the difficulty in reproducing not only absolute concentrations, but confinement of gas in high-pressure apparatus and post-run analysis. We present experiments on helium solubility and partitioning between molten silicates and Fe-rich metal liquids up to 16 GPa and 3000 K, with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, and the quenched run products analysed by ultra-violet laser ablation mass spectrometry (UVLAMP). Our results indicate a significantly higher partition coefficient for He between molten silicates and Fe-rich alloy liquids of about 10-2 at 16 GPa and 3000~K -- two orders of magnitude more helium is measured in the metal phase compared to the only previous data of Matsuda et al., (1993). The solubility mechanism is varied and involves a distinguishable bulk component and an apparent surface signature (that may be the result of the quench process). Whether surface effects are included or not, the early Earth's core would have incorporated non-negligible amounts of primordial helium if its segregation took place under mid-depth, magma-ocean conditions. The process

  2. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The accomplishments and recommendations of the two-phase Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study are presented. During the first phase of the study, the emphasis was on defining a comprehensive set of user requirements, establishing SFHT interface parameters and design requirements, and selecting a fluid subsystem design concept. During the second phase, an overall system design concept was constructed based on appropriate analyses and more detailed definition of requirements. Modifications needed to extend the baseline for use with cryogens other than SFHT have been determined, and technology development needs related to the recommended design have been assessed.

  3. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  4. String photini at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Craig, Nathaniel; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dubovsky, Sergei; March-Russell, John

    2010-04-01

    String theories with topologically complex compactification manifolds suggest the simultaneous presence of many unbroken U(1)'s without any light matter charged under them. The gauge bosons associated with these U(1)'s do not have direct observational consequences. However, in the presence of low energy supersymmetry the gauge fermions associated with these U(1)'s, the ''photini,'' mix with the bino and extend the minimal supersymmetric standard model neutralino sector. This leads to novel signatures at the LHC. The lightest ordinary supersymmetric particle (LOSP) can decay to any one of these photini. In turn, photini may transition into each other, leading to high lepton and jet multiplicities. Both the LOSP decays and interphotini transitions can lead to displaced vertices. When the interphotini decays happen outside the detector, the cascades can result in different photini escaping the detector, leading to multiple reconstructed masses for the invisible particle. If the LOSP is charged, it stops in the detector and decays out of time to photini, with the possibility that the produced final photini vary from event to event. Observation of a plenitude of photini at the LHC would be evidence that we live in a string vacuum with a topologically rich compactification manifold.

  5. Series-Produced Helium II Cryostats for the Lhc Magnets: Technical Choices, Industrialisation, Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.; Parma, V.

    2008-03-01

    Assembled in 8 continuous segments of approximately 2.7 km length each, the He II cryostats for the 1232 cryodipoles and 474 Short Straight Sections (SSS housing the quadrupoles) must fulfill tight technical requirements. They have been produced by industry in large series according to cost-effective industrial production methods to keep expenditure within the financial constraints of the project and assembled under contract at CERN. The specific technical requirements of the generic systems of the cryostat (vacuum, cryogenic, electrical distribution, magnet alignment) are briefly recalled, as well as the basic design choices leading to the definition of their components (vacuum vessels, thermal shielding, supporting systems). Early in the design process emphasis was placed on the feasibility of manufacturing techniques adequate for large series production of components, optimal tooling for time-effective assembly methods, and reliable quality assurance systems. An analytical review of the costs of the cryostats from component procurement to final assembly, tests and interconnection in the machine is presented and compared with initial estimates, together with an appraisal of the results and lessons learned.

  6. Pain relief is a human right.

    PubMed

    Daher, Michel

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, medical and surgical treatment has emphasized saving the life of the patient rather than ameliorating the patient's pain, particularly when there were few options for the latter. Today at the dawn of the 21st century, the best available evidence indicates a major gap between an increasingly understanding of the pathophysiology of pain and widespread inadequacy of its treatment. Epidemiologic evidence has proven that chronic pain is a widespread public health issue. Studies of cancer patients' pain control consistently reveal that up to half of patients receive inadequate analgesia and 30% do not receive appropriate drugs for their pain. Equally, for patients suffering HIV/AIDS, 60%-100% will experience pain at some stage in their illness. In the developed world, this gap has prompted a series of declarations and actions by national and international bodies advocating better pain control. One response to the worldwide undertreatment of pain has been to promote the concept that pain relief is a public health issue of such critical importance as to constitute an international imperative and fundamental human right. The importance of pain relief as the core of the medical ethic is clear. Pain clinicians promote the status of pain management beyond that of appropriate clinical practice or even an ethic of good medicine. They advocate a paradigm shift in the medical professions' perspective on pain management, from simply good practice to an imperative founded on patient rights. There is a need to promote policies which create conditions where human beings can bear even incurable illnesses and death in a dignified manner. This must help health professionals or lay groups to initiate a powerful agenda to reform local statutes. The essential components of such legislation are: 1. Reasonable pain management is a right. 2. Doctors have a duty to listen to and reasonably respond to a patient's report of pain. 3. Provision of necessary pain relief is immune from

  7. Relief of some small landforms on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of radar images have been acquired under different viewing conditions by the Magellan synthetic aperture radar: (1) left-looking with varied incidence angles (cycle 1); (2) right-looking with nearly constant incidence angles (cycle 2); and (3) left-looking with varied incidence angles, most of which were smaller than those in (1) except for those acquired on passes across Maxwell Montes with incidence angles larger than those in (1) (cycle 3). Image displacements in the radar images that are caused by the relief of landforms provide several methods of estimating this relief: (1) monoscopic measurements of foreshortening of landforms that are symmetrical in the plane of the look-direction of the radar (includes radial symmetry); (2) stereoscopic measurements of parallax in same-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and 3); and (3) measurements of parallax in opposite-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and/or 2-3). Success in methods 2 and 3 (especially 3) depends on identifying conjugate image points in the two images. Here, we report our preliminary results for five impact craters, seven small volcanic edifices, and two lava flows. The three methods mentioned above lead to the interesting result that Venusian impact craters have depth-diameter ratios like those on Mars rather than those on Earth, but some appear partly filled. Our results for de Lalande and Melba also suggest filling, but there may be other causes for their relatively small depth-diameter ratios. A host of small volcanic edifices have relief that can be crudely estimated using the above methods. Relief/diameter ratios for our cratered cones are about the same as those of Icelandic lava shields; some Venusian cones resemble the Martian shields of Mareotis-Tempe and Ceraunius Fossae, but the Venusian relief diameter ratios are larger. The smallest cratered dome is similar in size and profile to a Martian dome north of Uranius Patera; the smallest cratered cone resembles one in Chryse Planitia. Lava flows

  8. Paramagnetic Attraction of Impurity-Helium Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, E. P.; Boltnev, R. E.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Impurity-helium solids are formed when a mixture of impurity and helium gases enters a volume of superfluid helium. Typical choices of impurity gas are hydrogen deuteride, deuterium, nitrogen, neon and argon, or a mixture of these. These solids consist of individual impurity atoms and molecules as well as clusters of impurity atoms and molecules covered with layers of solidified helium. The clusters have an imperfect crystalline structure and diameters ranging up to 90 angstroms, depending somewhat on the choice of impurity. Immediately following formation the clusters aggregate into loosely connected porous solids that are submerged in and completely permeated by the liquid helium. Im-He solids are extremely effective at stabilizing high concentrations of free radicals, which can be introduced by applying a high power RF dis- charge to the impurity gas mixture just before it strikes the super fluid helium. Average concentrations of 10(exp 19) nitrogen atoms/cc and 5 x 10(exp 18) deuterium atoms/cc can be achieved this way. It shows a typical sample formed from a mixture of atomic and molecular hydrogen and deuterium. It shows typical sample formed from atomic and molecular nitrogen. Much of the stability of Im-He solids is attributed to their very large surface area to volume ratio and their permeation by super fluid helium. Heat resulting from a chance meeting and recombination of free radicals is quickly dissipated by the super fluid helium instead of thermally promoting the diffusion of other nearby free radicals.

  9. LOX Tank Helium Removal for Propellant Scavenging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2009-01-01

    System studies have shown a significant advantage to reusing the hydrogen and oxygen left in these tanks after landing on the Moon in fuel cells to generate power and water for surface systems. However in the current lander concepts, the helium used to pressurize the oxygen tank can substantially degrade fuel cell power and water output by covering the reacting surface with inert gas. This presentation documents an experimental investigation of methods to remove the helium pressurant while minimizing the amount of the oxygen lost. This investigation demonstrated that significant quantities of Helium (greater than 90% mole fraction) remain in the tank after draining. Although a single vent cycle reduced the helium quantity, large amounts of helium remained. Cyclic venting appeared to be more effective. Three vent cycles were sufficient to reduce the helium to small (less than 0.2%) quantities. Two vent cycles may be sufficient since once the tank has been brought up to pressure after the second vent cycle the helium concentration has been reduced to the less than 0.2% level. The re-pressurization process seemed to contribute to diluting helium. This is as expected since in order to raise the pressure liquid oxygen must be evaporated. Estimated liquid oxygen loss is on the order of 82 pounds (assuming the third vent cycle is not required).

  10. Helium in the larderello geothermal fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Amore, F.; Truesdell, A.

    1984-01-01

    A recent survey of helium concentrations in Larderello steam showed that there has been a strong decrease since earlier surveys and that the helium is concentrated in central zones of steam up-flow. The He decline and present distribution are interpreted as being due to the release of stored He produced by production-induced microfracturing. ?? 1984.

  11. Helium solubility and behaviour in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maugeri, E.; Wiss, T.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Desai, K.; Thiriet, C.; Rondinella, V. V.; Colle, J.-Y.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2009-03-01

    A set of devices was developed in order to infuse UO2 disks with helium, at high temperature and pressure, to measure the helium infused quantity and from these data to calculate the helium solubility in the UO2 matrix. Samples of UO2 single crystal and UO2 polycrystal were infused at a temperature of 1473 and 1743 K in a helium atmosphere ranging between 50 and 100 MPa. These samples were then annealed and the helium released was measured with a mass spectrometer. From the obtained spectra it was possible to give an interpretation of the helium release mechanism and to calculate its solubility in the UO2 lattice in these specific thermodynamic conditions. Additionally to the helium solubility measurement from infused samples, a 37 years old sample of 238PuO2, retrieved from an old 242Cm radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), containing radiogenic helium, was also measured to widen perspectives of this kind of measurements to damaged sample more representative of spent fuel.

  12. Helium retention properties of plasma facing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, H.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamashina, T.

    1997-02-01

    In a fusion reactor, the continuous removal of helium from the core plasma is needed in order to sustain the ignition condition. For this purpose, it has been proposed to place helium selective pumping metals, which can trap more helium than hydrogen, in the vicinity of the divertor. In this study, the helium and hydrogen trapping properties of nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, SS 304 and Inconel 625 were examined. Namely, the dependencies of irradiation temperature on the amount of trapped helium and hydrogen were obtained by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), after helium or hydrogen plasma irradiation. In those metals, nickel showed the most suitable selective pumping capability. Nickel had the helium selective pumping property above 100°C. The maximum amount of trapped helium was (2-3) × 10 16He/ cm2 at an irradiation temperature of 200°C and 600°C. The optimum temperature becomes about 600°C when nickel is used for a selective pumping material.

  13. Stability of Helium Clusters during Displacement Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Xiao, H. Y.; Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguo; Liu, K. Z.

    2007-02-01

    The interaction of displacement cascades with helium-vacancy clusters is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The He-vacancy clusters initially consist of 20 vacancies with a Helium-to-vacancy ratio ranging from 0.2 to 3. The primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy, Ep, varies from 2 keV to 10 keV, and the PKA direction is chosen such that a displacement cascade is able to directly interact with a helium-vacancy cluster. The simulation results show that the effect of displacement cascades on a helium-vacancy cluster strongly depends on both the helium-to-vacancy ratio and the PKA energy. For the same PKA energy, the size of helium-vacancy clusters increases with the He/V ratio, but for the same ratio, the cluster size changes more significantly with increasing PKA energy. It has been observed that the He-vacancy clusters can be dissolved when the He/V ratio less than 1, but they are able to re-nucleate during the thermal spike phase, forming small He-V nuclei. When the He/V ratio is larger than 1, the He-V clusters can absorb a number of vacancies produced by displacement cascades, forming larger He-V clusters. These results are discussed in terms of PKA energy, helium-to-vacancy ratio, number of vacancies produced by cascades, and mobility of helium atoms.

  14. Helium Speech: An Application of Standing Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a breath of helium gas and then speaking or singing to the class is a favorite demonstration for an introductory physics course, as it usually elicits appreciative laughter, which serves to energize the class session. Students will usually report that the helium speech "raises the frequency" of the voice. A more accurate description of the…

  15. Helium-cooled high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Experience with several helium cooled reactors has been favorable, and two commercial plants are now operating. Both of these units are of the High Temperature Graphite Gas Cooled concept, one in the United States and the other in the Federal Republic of Germany. The initial helium charge for a reactor of the 1000 MW(e) size is modest, approx.15,000 kg.

  16. Helium-flow measurement using ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondericker, J. H.

    1983-08-01

    The ideal cryogenic instrumentation for the colliding beam accelerator helium distribution system does not add pressure drop to the system, functions over the entire temperature range, has high resolution, and delivers accurate mass flow measurement data. The design and testing of an ultrasonic flowmeter which measures helium flow under different temperatures are described.

  17. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  18. Helium Migration Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Guillaume; Desgardin, Pierre; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France; Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaelle

    2007-07-01

    This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO{sub 2} sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with {sup 3}He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H reaction. {sup 3}He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900 deg. C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects. (authors)

  19. Gemini helium closed cycle cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, Manuel; Galvez, Ramon; Rogers, Rolando; Solis, Hernan; Tapia, Eduardo; Maltes, Diego; Collins, Paul; White, John; Cavedoni, Chas; Yamasaki, Chris; Sheehan, Michael P.; Walls, Brian

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Observatory presents the Helium Closed Cycle Cooling System that provides cooling capacity at cryogenic temperatures for instruments and detectors. It is implemented by running three independent helium closed cycle cooling circuits with several banks of compressors in parallel to continuously supply high purity helium gas to cryocoolers located about 100-120 meters apart. This poster describes how the system has been implemented, the required helium pressures and gas flow to reach cryogenic temperature, the performance it has achieved, the helium compressors and cryocoolers in use and the level of vibration the cryocoolers produce in the telescope environment. The poster also describes the new technology for cryocoolers that Gemini is considering in the development of new instruments.

  20. Permeability of Hollow Microspherical Membranes to Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, V. N.; Kazanin, I. V.; Pak, A. Yu.; Vereshchagin, A. S.; Lebiga, V. A.; Fomin, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the sorption characteristics of various hollow microspherical membranes to reveal particles most suitable for application in the membrane-sorption technologies of helium extraction from a natural gas. The permeability of the investigated sorbents to helium and their impermeability to air and methane are shown experimentally. The sorption-desorption dependences of the studied sorbents have been obtained, from which the parameters of their specific permeability to helium are calculated. It has been established that the physicochemical modification of the original particles exerts a great influence on the coefficient of the permeability of a sorbent to helium. Specially treated cenospheres have displayed high efficiency as membranes for selective extraction of helium.

  1. Superfluid helium cryogenics for the large hadron collider project at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, Philippe

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be the next research instrument of high-energy physics. Colliding protons at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy and high luminosity, it will probe the structure of matter down to an unprecedentedly fine scale, thus allowing to reproduce in the laboratory phenomena which occurred in the very early universe. On the technological side, the LHC makes use of high-field superconducting magnets for guidance and focusing of the particle beams around the 26.7 km circumference of the machine, to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel. The nominal bending field of 8.65 T is produced in some 1300 twin-aperture dipoles, wound with small-filament Nb sbnd Ti conductor, and operated below 1.9 K in static baths of pressurized helium II, thus taking advantage of its specific properties as cooling fluid. We present the main technical challenges of the LHC cryogenic system, and review the actions of development and the preparatory work in progress.

  2. Effect of spray cooling on heat transfer in a two-phase helium flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, S.; Puech, L.; Thibault, P.; Rousset, B.; Wolf, P. E.

    2013-10-01

    We describe an experimental study of the phenomenon of spray cooling in the case of liquid helium, either normal or superfluid, and its relationship to the heat transfer between an atomized two-phase flow contained in a long pipe, and the pipe walls. This situation is discussed in the context of the cooling of the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Experiments were conducted in a test loop reproducing the LHC cooling system, in which the vapor velocity and temperature could be varied in a large range. Shear induced atomization results in the generation of a droplet mist which was characterized by optical means. The thickness of the thin liquid film deposited on the walls by the mist was measured using interdigitated capacitors. The cooling power of the mist was measured using thermal probes, and correlated to the local mist density. Analysis of the results shows that superfluidity has only a limited influence on both the film thickness and the mist cooling power. Using a simple model, we show that the phenomenon of spray cooling accounts for the measured non-linearity of the global heat transfer. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for cooling the final focus magnets in an upgraded version of the LHC.

  3. Overview of LHC physics results at ICHEP

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

     This month LHC physics day will review the physics results presented by the LHC experiments at the 2010 ICHEP in Paris. The experimental presentations will be preceeded by the bi-weekly LHC accelerator status report.The meeting will be broadcast via EVO (detailed info will appear at the time of the meeting in the "Video Services" item on the left menu bar)For those attending, information on accommodation, access to CERN and laptop registration is available from http://cern.ch/lpcc/visits

  4. Overview of LHC physics results at ICHEP

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-25

     This month LHC physics day will review the physics results presented by the LHC experiments at the 2010 ICHEP in Paris. The experimental presentations will be preceeded by the bi-weekly LHC accelerator status report.The meeting will be broadcast via EVO (detailed info will appear at the time of the meeting in the "Video Services" item on the left menu bar)For those attending, information on accommodation, access to CERN and laptop registration is available from http://cern.ch/lpcc/visits

  5. Optical Forces on Metastable Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, Christopher Scott

    Optical forces using lasers allow precise control over the motion of atoms. The bichromatic optical force (BF) is unique in its large magnitude and velocity range, arising from the absorption and stimulated emission processes. These properties were used to transversely collimate a beam of metastable helium (He*) using the 23S - 23P transition. The collimation created a very bright beam of He*, allowing experiments of neutral atom lithography. The He* beam was used to pattern material surfaces using a resist-based lithography technique, where the pattern was determined by either mechanical or optical masks. The optical masks produced features with a separation of half the wavelength of the light used. Patterning was successfully demonstrated with both IR and UV optical masks. The etched pattern resolution was ˜ 100 nm and limited by the material surface. Further experiments were performed studying the ability of the bichromatic force to cool. The finite velocity range of the BF allows estimation of a characteristic cooling time which is independent of the excited state lifetime, only depending on the atomic mass and optical transition energy. Past experiments, including the helium collimation used for neutral atom lithography, have demonstrated that the BF can collimate and longitudinally slow atomic beams, but required long interaction times that included many spontaneous emission (SE) events. The effect of SE can be mitigated, and is predicted to not be necessary for BF cooling. Since the BF cooling time is not related to the excited state lifetime, a transition can be chosen such that the cooling time is shorter than the SE cycle time, allowing direct laser cooling on atoms and molecules that do not have cycling transitions. Experiments using the helium 2 3S-3P transition were chosen because the BF cooling time (285 ns) is on the order of the average SE cycle time (260 ns). Numerical simulations of the experimental system were run predicting compression of the

  6. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  7. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  8. Atom lithography with metastable helium

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, Claire S.; Reeves, Jason; Corder, Christopher; Metcalf, Harold

    2010-02-15

    A bright metastable helium (He*) beam is collimated sequentially with the bichromatic force and three optical molasses velocity compression stages. Each He* atom in the beam has 20 eV of internal energy that can destroy a molecular resist assembled on a gold coated silicon wafer. Patterns in the resist are imprinted onto the gold layer with a standard selective etch. Patterning of the wafer with the He{sup *} was demonstrated with two methods. First, a mesh was used to protect parts of the wafer making an array of grid lines. Second, a standing wave of {lambda}=1083 nm light was used to channel and focus the He* atoms into lines separated by {lambda}/2. The patterns were measured with an atomic force microscope establishing an edge resolution of 80 nm. Our results are reliable and repeatable.

  9. Transient boiling in two-phase helium natural circulation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furci, H.; Baudouy, B.; Four, A.; Meuris, C.

    2014-01-01

    Two-phase helium natural circulation loops are used for cooling large superconducting magnets, as CMS for LHC. During normal operation or in the case of incidents, transients are exerted on the cooling system. Here a cooling system of this type is studied experimentally. Sudden power changes are operated on a vertical-heated-section natural convection loop, simulating a fast increase of heat deposition on magnet cooling pipes. Mass flow rate, heated section wall temperature and pressure drop variations are measured as a function of time, to assess the time behavior concerning the boiling regime according to the values of power injected on the heated section. The boiling curves and critical heat flux (CHF) values have been obtained in steady state. Temperature evolution has been observed in order to explore the operating ranges where heat transfer is deteriorated. Premature film boiling has been observed during transients on the heated section in some power ranges, even at appreciably lower values than the CHF. A way of attenuating these undesired temperature excursions has been identified through the application of high enough initial heating power.

  10. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  11. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. PMID:26792192

  12. 5-year operation experience with the 1.8 K refrigeration units of the LHC cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlin, G.; Tavian, L.; Claudet, S.; Pezzetti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is in operation at CERN. The LHC superconducting magnets distributed over eight sectors of 3.3-km long are cooled at 1.9 K in pressurized superfluid helium. The nominal operating temperature of 1.9 K is produced by eight 1.8-K refrigeration units based on centrifugal cold compressors (3 or 4 stages depending to the vendor) combined with warm volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction. After about 5 years of continuous operation, we will present the results concerning the availability for the final user of these refrigeration units and the impact of the design choice on the recovery time after a system trip. We will also present the individual results for each rotating machinery in terms of failure origin and of Mean Time between Failure (MTBF), as well as the consolidations and upgrades applied to these refrigeration units.

  13. The LHC Confronts the pMSSM

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cahill-Rowley, Matthew

    2016-05-31

    Here we explore the impact of current (7+8 TeV) and future (14 TeV) LHC searches on the range of viable sparticle spectra within the 19/20 – dimensional phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM). Considering both neutralino and gravitino LSPs, we compare our results with simplified model exclusion limits and describe important cases where the pMSSM results differ significantly from the simplified model descriptions. We also consider models that are poorly constrained by LHC data because of unusual decay topologies and/or displaced decays, and discuss ways to improve the LHC sensitivity in these scenarios. Finally, motivated by naturalness, we examine the sensitivity of currentmore » searches to models with light stops and to a specialized set of models with fine-tuning better than 1%. We show that the 14 TeV LHC will be a very powerful probe of natural pMSSM models.« less

  14. Double Pomeron physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    The author discusses central exclusive production, also known as Double Pomeron Exchange DIPE, from the ISR through the Tevatron to the LHC. There the author emphasizes the interest of exclusive Higgs and W{sup +}W{sup -}/ZZ production.

  15. Physics motivations for SSC/LHC detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1993-06-01

    In this talk, I review the some of the physics goals and simulation work done in the SSC and LHC experimental proposal. I select the processes that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses the proposed detectors.

  16. Tension in the LHC diffractive data?

    SciTech Connect

    Gotsman, Errol

    2015-04-10

    I discuss the LHC diffractive data, and compare it to predicted energy behaviour of various models. I suggest that the so called 'tension' between the experimental results, maybe due to the different Monte Carlo programs used.

  17. Diffraction at the Tevatron and the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royon, C.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss the most recent results on inclusive diffraction at the Tevatron collider and give the prospects at the LHC. We also describe the search for exclusive events at the Tevatron. Of special interest is the exclusive production of Higgs boson and heavy objects (W, top, stop pairs) at the LHC which will require precise measurements and analyses of inclusive and exclusive diffraction to constrain further the gluon density in the pomeron. At the end of the paper, we describe the projects to install forward detectors at the LHC to fulfil these measurements. We also describe the diffractive experiments accepted or in project at the LHC: TOTEM, ALFA in ATLAS, and the AFP/FP420 projects.

  18. The TOTEM Experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avati, V.; Totem Collaboration

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC will measure the total pp cross-section, elastic scattering and diffraction. This contribution summarises the physics goals, the status of the experimental apparatus and the first results from the 2010 data taking.

  19. Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, David

    2015-04-14

    Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.

  20. Unravelling strings at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Shao Jing

    2008-06-01

    We construct LHC signature footprints for four semirealistic string/M theory vacua with a minimal supersymmetric standard model visible sector. We find that they all give rise to limited regions in LHC signature space and are qualitatively different from each other for understandable reasons. We also propose a technique in which correlations of LHC signatures can be effectively used to distinguish among these string theory vacua. We expect the technique to be useful for more general string vacua. We argue that further systematic analysis with this approach will allow LHC data to disfavor or exclude major 'corners' of string/M theory and favor others. The technique can be used with limited integrated luminosity and improved.

  1. Review of the safety of LHC collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Giudice, Gian; Mangano, Michelangelo; Tkachev, Igor; Wiedemann, Urs; LHC Safety Assessment Group

    2008-11-01

    The safety of collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was studied in 2003 by the LHC Safety Study Group, who concluded that they presented no danger. Here we review their 2003 analysis in light of additional experimental results and theoretical understanding, which enable us to confirm, update and extend the conclusions of the LHC Safety Study Group. The LHC reproduces in the laboratory, under controlled conditions, collisions at centre-of-mass energies, less than those reached in the atmosphere by some of the cosmic rays that have been bombarding the Earth for billions of years. We recall the rates for the collisions of cosmic rays with the Earth, Sun, neutron stars, white dwarfs and other astronomical bodies at energies higher than the LHC. The stability of astronomical bodies indicates that such collisions cannot be dangerous. Specifically, we study the possible production at the LHC of hypothetical objects such as vacuum bubbles, magnetic monopoles, microscopic black holes and strangelets, and find no associated risks. Any microscopic black holes produced at the LHC are expected to decay by Hawking radiation before they reach the detector walls. If some microscopic black holes were stable, those produced by cosmic rays would be stopped inside the Earth or other astronomical bodies. The stability of astronomical bodies strongly constrains the possible rate of accretion by any such microscopic black holes, so that they present no conceivable danger. In the case of strangelets, the good agreement of measurements of particle production at RHIC with simple thermodynamic models severely constrains the production of strangelets in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, which also present no danger.

  2. Physics at the LHC: a short overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Enterria, David

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started operation a few months ago. The machine will deliver proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies as high as = 14 TeV and luminosities up to ~ 1034 cm-2s-1 never reached before. The main open scientific questions that the seven LHC experiments - ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb, TOTEM, LHCf and MOEDAL - aim to solve in the coming years are succinctly reviewed.

  3. What a Relief: Using Paper Relief Sculpture to Teach Topographic Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    While the struggle persists in science classes to help students visualize in three dimensions, art classes are creating unique sculptures out of paper that produce three-dimensional displays from two-dimensional resources. The translation of paper relief sculpting from the art classroom to the science classroom adds dimension to the teaching of…

  4. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-01-29

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  5. From the LHC to Future Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J.; Grojean, C.; Heinemeyer, S.; Jakobs, K.; Weiglein, G.; Azuelos, G.; Dawson, S.; Gripaios, B.; Han, T.; Hewett, J.; Lancaster, M.; Mariotti, C.; Moortgat, F.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Polesello, G.; Riemann, S.; Assamagan, K.; Bechtle, P.; Carena, M.; Chachamis, G.; /more authors..

    2010-06-11

    Discoveries at the LHC will soon set the physics agenda for future colliders. This report of a CERN Theory Institute includes the summaries of Working Groups that reviewed the physics goals and prospects of LHC running with 10 to 300 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, of the proposed sLHC luminosity upgrade, of the ILC, of CLIC, of the LHeC and of a muon collider. The four Working Groups considered possible scenarios for the first 10 fb{sup -1} of data at the LHC in which (i) a state with properties that are compatible with a Higgs boson is discovered, (ii) no such state is discovered either because the Higgs properties are such that it is difficult to detect or because no Higgs boson exists, (iii) a missing-energy signal beyond the Standard Model is discovered as in some supersymmetric models, and (iv) some other exotic signature of new physics is discovered. In the contexts of these scenarios, theWorking Groups reviewed the capabilities of the future colliders to study in more detail whatever new physics may be discovered by the LHC. Their reports provide the particle physics community with some tools for reviewing the scientific priorities for future colliders after the LHC produces its first harvest of new physics from multi-TeV collisions.

  6. Introduction to the HL-LHC Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, L.; Brüning, O.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of largest scientific instruments ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2010, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond its design value and the integrated luminosity by a factor of ten. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about ten years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology for beam collimation and 300-meter-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. HL-LHC federates efforts and R&D of a large community in Europe, in the US and in Japan, which will facilitate the implementation of the construction phase as a global project.

  7. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a...

  12. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  13. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  14. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  15. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  16. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  17. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  18. Charged condensate and helium dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A E-mail: rar339@nyu.edu

    2008-10-15

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen and heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat-the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  19. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  20. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder.

  1. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO , presents a plaque to Center Director Roy Bridges. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  2. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen welcomes the audience to the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. Jorgensen, with Space Gateway Support (SGS), is the pipeline project manager. To the right is Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges; Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  3. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges addresses the audience at the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center that will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile- long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS.

  4. Helium and Enhanced Image of the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video blinks between an image in Helium and an enhanced image. The original image is from AIA on SDO and the enhanced image was created at the LM Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL) by D...

  5. Helium abundance enhancements in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrini, G.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence for a link between helium enhancements at 1 AU and transient coronal mass ejections is provided by the statistical analysis of 73 large helium abundance enhancement observations made by IMPs 6, 7 and 8 over 1972-1978. These events, in which helium abundance enhancement is greater than about 10%, are sporadic, sometimes clustered in time, occur approximately in phase with the solar cycle, and nearly 50% of them are associated with interplanetary shocks and/or geomagnetic activity sudden commencements. The plasma pattern associated with them is nevertheless independent of shock occurrence, and features high magnetic field strength, low alpha-proton velocity difference, and low proton temperature, suggesting that the enhancement is embedded in a closed, magnetically dominated structure that expands adiabatically. Evidence of an association between helium enhancement at 1 AU and type II and IV radio bursts in the corona is presented.

  6. Antiprotonic helium and CPT invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hori, Masaki; Horváth, Dezso; Widmann, Eberhard

    2007-12-01

    We review recent progress in the laser and microwave spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms (\\barpHe^+ \\equiv \\rme^\\--\\barp - He^{++}) carried out at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility (AD). Laser transitions were here induced between Rydberg states (n, ell) and (n ± 1, ell - 1) of \\barpHe^+ (n ~ 40 and ell ≲ n - 1 being the principal and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers of the antiproton orbit). Successive refinements in the experimental techniques improved the fractional precision on the \\barpHe^+ frequencies from 3 parts in 106 to ~1 part in 108. These included a radiofrequency quadrupole decelerator, which reduced the energy of the antiprotons from 5.3 MeV (the energy of the beam emerging from AD) to ~100 keV. This enabled the production of \\barpHe^+ in ultra-low density targets, where collisional effects with other helium atoms are negligible. A continuous wave pulse-amplified dye laser, stabilized against a femtosecond optical frequency comb, was then used to measure the \\barpHe^+ frequencies with ppb-scale precision. This progress in the experimental field was matched by similar advances in computing methods for evaluating the expected transition frequencies in three-body QED calculations. The comparison of experimental (νexp) and theoretical (νth) frequencies for seven transitions in \\barp^4He^+ and five in \\barp^3 He^+ yielded an antiproton-to-electron mass ratio of m_\\bar p/m_{\\rme} = 1836.152\\,674(5) . This agrees with the known proton-to-electron mass ratio at the level of ~2 × 10-9. The experiment also set a limit on any CPT-violating difference between the antiproton and proton charges and masses, (Q_p - |Q_{\\barp}|)/Q_p \\sim (m_p - m_{\\barp})/m_p < 2 \\times 10^{-9} to a 90% confidence level. If on the other hand we assume the validity of the CPT invariance, the m_{\\barp}/m_{\\rme} result can be taken to be equal to mp/me. This can be used as an input to future adjustments of fundamental constants. The hyperfine

  7. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  8. Hadron colliders (SSC/LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.; Palmer, R.B.; Evans, L.; Gareyte, J.; Siemann, R.H.

    1992-12-31

    The nominal SSC and LHC designs should operate conservatively at luminosities up to 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. This luminosity is dictated by the event rates that can be handled by the detectors. However, this limit is event dependent (e.g. it does not take much of a detector to detect the event pp {yields} elephant; all one needs is extremely high luminosity). As such, it is useful to explore the possibility of going beyond the 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} level. Such exploration will also improve the accelerator physics understanding of pp collider designs. If the detector limitations are removed, the first accelerator limits occur when the luminosity is at the level of 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. These accelerator limits will first be reviewed. The authors will then continue on to explore even higher luminosity as the ultimate limit of pp colliders. Accelerator technologies needed to achieve this ultimate luminosity as well as the R and D needed to reach it are discussed.

  9. Vacuum-ultraviolet laser uses superfluid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Vacuum ultra violet laser in wavelength around 0.800 microns is produced by using optical pumping to increase lifetimes of excited metastable molecules in super fluid helium. In method, super fluid helium is pumped electronically to produce excited HE2, and then pumped by circularly polarized 0.9096 - micron radiation to aline excited HE2 molecular spins. High power ultraviolet radiation has potential applications in molecular reaction studies, power transmission in space, and biomedical research.

  10. Cosmogenic helium in a terrestrial igneous rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    New helium isotopic measurements on samples from the Kula formation of Haleakala volcano of Hawaii are presented that are best explained by an in situ cosmogenic origin for a significant fraction of the He-3. Results from crushing and stepwise heating experiments, and consideration of the exposure age of the sample at the surface and the cosmic ray fluxes strongly support this hypothesis. Although crustal cosmogenic helium has been proposed previously, this represents its first unambiguous identification in a terrestrial sample.

  11. Trace organic impurities in gaseous helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schehl, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A program to determine trace organic impurities present in helium has been initiated. The impurities were concentrated in a cryogenic trap to permit detection and identification by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique. Gaseous helium (GHe) exhibited 63 GC flame ionization response peaks. Relative GC peak heights and identifications of 25 major impurities by their mass spectra are given. As an aid to further investigation, identities are proposed for 16 other components, and their mass spectra are given.

  12. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doped Helium Nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, Evgeniy; Rossi, Dominic; Drabbels, Marcel

    2005-10-14

    The photoionization dynamics of aniline doped helium droplets has been investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoelectron spectra resemble closely that of gas phase aniline, except for a droplet-size-dependent shift. This shift is caused by lowering of the ionization threshold upon solvation and can be readily estimated. The individual peaks in the photoelectron spectrum are broadened towards lower kinetic energy which is attributed to the relaxation of the photoelectrons as they pass through the helium droplet.

  13. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  14. Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas with sinkholes (lower center), arcuate ridges of windblown beach sands downwind from a salty desert lake (upper center), young volcanic cones(right), and at least one case of what geologists call 'inverted relief'. This happens when lava flows down a valley in soft material and then the soft material is eroded away leaving the former valley as a ridge of lava. These ridges can be seen on the slopes of the volcano in the upper right. Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters(3600 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added

  15. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  16. Equation of state of metallic helium

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, V. T.

    2013-01-15

    The effective ion-ion interaction, free energy, pressure, and electric resistance of metallic liquid helium have been calculated in wide density and temperature ranges using perturbation theory in the electron-ion interaction potential. In the case of conduction electrons, the exchange interaction has been taken into account in the random-phase approximation and correlations have been taken into account in the local-field approximation. The solid-sphere model has been used for the nuclear subsystem. The diameter of these spheres is the only parameter of this theory. The diameter and density of the system at which the transition of helium from the singly ionized to doubly ionized state occurs have been estimated by analyzing the pair effective interaction between helium atoms. The case of doubly ionized helium atoms has been considered. Terms up to the third order of perturbation theory have been taken into account in the numerical calculations. The contribution of the third-order term is significant in all cases. The electric resistance and its temperature dependence for metallic helium are characteristic of simple divalent metals in the liquid state. The thermodynamic parameters-temperature and pressure densities-are within the ranges characteristic of the central regions of giant planets. This makes it possible to assume the existence of helium in the metallic state within the solar system.

  17. High efficiency pump for space helium transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael G.; Swift, Walter L.; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A centrifugal pump was developed for the efficient and reliable transfer of liquid helium in space. The pump can be used to refill cryostats on orbiting satellites which use liquid helium for refrigeration at extremely low temperatures. The pump meets the head and flow requirements of on-orbit helium transfer: a flow rate of 800 L/hr at a head of 128 J/kg. The overall pump efficiency at the design point is 0.45. The design head and flow requirements are met with zero net positive suction head, which is the condition in an orbiting helium supply Dewar. The mass transfer efficiency calculated for a space transfer operation is 0.99. Steel ball bearings are used with gas fiber-reinforced teflon retainers to provide solid lubrication. These bearings have demonstrated the longest life in liquid helium endurance tests under simulated pumping conditions. Technology developed in the project also has application for liquid helium circulation in terrestrial facilities and for transfer of cryogenic rocket propellants in space.

  18. Superfluid helium on orbit transfer (SHOOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of space flight experiments and entire facilities require superfluid helium as a coolant. Among these are the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (PAMF or Astromag), and perhaps even a future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instrument. Because these systems are required to have long operational lifetimes, a means to replenish the liquid helium, which is exhausted in the cooling process, is required. The most efficient method of replenishment is to refill the helium dewars on orbit with superfluid helium (liquid helium below 2.17 Kelvin). To develop and prove the technology required for this liquid helium refill, a program of ground and flight testing was begun. The flight demonstration is baselined as a two flight program. The first, described in this paper, will prove the concepts involved at both the component and system level. The second flight will demonstrate active astronaut involvement and semi-automated operation. The current target date for the first launch is early 1991.

  19. Advanced helium magnetometer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this effort was demonstration of the concepts for an advanced helium magnetometer which meets the demands of future NASA earth orbiting, interplanetary, solar, and interstellar missions. The technical effort focused on optical pumping of helium with tunable solid state lasers. We were able to demonstrate the concept of a laser pumped helium magnetometer with improved accuracy, low power, and sensitivity of the order of 1 pT. A number of technical approaches were investigated for building a solid state laser tunable to the helium absorption line at 1083 nm. The laser selected was an Nd-doped LNA crystal pumped by a diode laser. Two laboratory versions of the lanthanum neodymium hexa-aluminate (LNA) laser were fabricated and used to conduct optical pumping experiments in helium and demonstrate laser pumped magnetometer concepts for both the low field vector mode and the scalar mode of operation. A digital resonance spectrometer was designed and built in order to evaluate the helium resonance signals and observe scalar magnetometer operation. The results indicate that the laser pumped sensor in the VHM mode is 45 times more sensitive than a lamp pumped sensor for identical system noise levels. A study was made of typical laser pumped resonance signals in the conventional magnetic resonance mode. The laser pumped sensor was operated as a scalar magnetometer, and it is concluded that magnetometers with 1 pT sensitivity can be achieved with the use of laser pumping and stable laser pump sources.

  20. The role of helium gas in medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The noble gas helium has many applications owing to its distinct physical and chemical characteristics, namely: its low density, low solubility, and high thermal conductivity. Chiefly, the abundance of studies in medicine relating to helium are concentrated in its possibility of being used as an adjunct therapy in a number of respiratory ailments such as asthma exacerbation, COPD, ARDS, croup, and bronchiolitis. Helium gas, once believed to be biologically inert, has been recently shown to be beneficial in protecting the myocardium from ischemia by various mechanisms. Though neuroprotection of brain tissue has been documented, the mechanism by which it does so has yet to be made clear. Surgeons are exploring using helium instead of carbon dioxide to insufflate the abdomen of patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal procedures due to its superiority in preventing respiratory acidosis in patients with comorbid conditions that cause carbon dioxide retention. Newly discovered applications in Pulmonary MRI radiology and imaging of organs in very fine detail using Helium Ion Microscopy has opened exciting new possibilities for the use of helium gas in technologically advanced fields of medicine. PMID:23916029

  1. Pulsating Helium Atmosphere White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, Judith; Montgomery, Michael H.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Shipman, Harry; Nitta, Atsuko; Whole Earth Telescope Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars currently on the main sequence as well as those from earlier generations will or have ended their stellar lives as white dwarf stars. White dwarfs are rich forensic laboratories linking the history and future evolution of our Galaxy. Their structure and atmospheric composition provide evidence of how the progenitors lived, how they evolved, and how they died. This information reveals details of processes governing the behavior of contemporary main sequence stars. Combined with their distribution in luminosity/temperature, white dwarfs strongly constrain models of galactic and cosmological evolution.GD358 is among the brightest (mv =13.7) and best studied of the pulsating white dwarfs. This helium atmoshere pulsator (DBV) has an extensive photometric database spanning 30 years, including nine multisite Whole Earth Telescope campaigns. GD358 exhibits a range of behaviors, from drastic changes in excited pulsation modes to variable multiplet splittings. We use GD358 as a template for an examination of the DBV class, combining photometric results with recent COS spectroscopy. The results present new questions concerning DB formation and evolution.

  2. Helium and Neon in Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    1996-01-01

    Two comets were observed with EUVE in late 1994. Both comet Mueller and comet Borrelly are short-period comets having well established orbital elements and accurate ephemerides. Spectra of 40 ksec were taken of each. No evidence for emission lines from either Helium or Neon was detected. We calculated limits on the production rates of these atoms (relative to solar) assuming a standard isotropic outflow model, with a gas streaming speed of 1 km/s. The 3-sigma (99.7% confidence) limits (1/100,000 for He, 0.8 for Ne) are based on a conservative estimate of the noise in the EUVE spectra. They are also weakly dependent on the precise pointing and tracking of the EUVE field of view relative to the comet during the integrations. These limits are consistent with ice formation temperatures T greater than or equal to 30 K, as judged from the gas trapping experiments of Bar-Nun. For comparison, the solar abundances of these elements are He/O = 110, Ne/O = 1/16. Neither limit was as constraining as we had initially hoped, mainly because comets Mueller and Borrelly were intrinsically less active than anticipated.

  3. Argon Dewar Relief Set Pressure Modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-19

    This engineering note documents the calculations of Kelly Dixon, used to determine the maximum allowable set pressure for the argon dewar low relief valve, tag number PSV620A, Anderson Greenwood Type 526J. The original setting was 16 psig. This value was chosen in order to protect against cryostat overpressurization by the source dewar (see D0 Engineering Note 115), however, the following calculations will show that the set pressure can be raised to approximately 18.5 psig, which would result in a faster filling of the cryostat, along with a higher level of liquid argon. Three other engineering notes were revised to reflect the change in set pressure according to this note. They are notes 115, 219, and 263.

  4. Satellite communications for disaster relief operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    The use of existing and planned communication satellite systems to provide assistance in the implementation of disaster relief operations on a global basis was discussed along with satellite communications system implications and their potential impact on field operations in disaster situations. Consideration are given to the utilization of both INTELSAT and MARISAT systems operating at frequencies ranging from 1.5 to 4 GHz and to the size and type of ground terminals necessary for satellite access. Estimates of communication requirements for a global system are given. Some discussion of cost estimates for satellite services to support operations are included. Studies of communication satellites for both pre and post disaster applications conducted for NOAA are included as well as recent experiments conducted in conjunction with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the Agency for International Development.

  5. Measurement of Helium-3/Helium-4 Ratios in Soil Gas at the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C.

    2001-10-31

    Seventy soil gas-sampling points were installed around the perimeter of the 618-11 Burial Ground, approximately 400 feet downgradient of well 699-13-3A, and in four transects downgradient of the burial ground to a maximum distance of 3,100 feet. Soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for helium-3/helium-4 ratios from these 70 points. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios determined from the soil gas sampling points showed significant enrichments, relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations. The highest concentrations were located along the northern perimeter of the burial ground. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) ranged from 1.0 to 62 around the burial ground. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from the 4 transect downgradient of the burial ground ranged from 0.988 to 1.68. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from around the burial ground suggest there is a vadose zone source of tritium along the north side of the burial ground. This vadose zone source is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios also suggest the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and the highest groundwater tritium value may be to the north of well 699-13-3A. Finally, there appears to be no immediately upgradient sources of tritium impacting the burial ground since all the upgradient helium-3/helium-4 ratios are approximately 1.0.

  6. Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief . 4. Potential alternates for cough relief.

    PubMed

    Eddy, N B; Friebel, H; Hahn, K J; Halbach, H

    1969-01-01

    In this report-the fourth of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief-an attempt is made to evaluate, on the basis of experimental and clinical data, and wherever possible in comparison with codeine, the effectiveness of a number of antitussive substances currently in clinical use. In the discussion of the undesired side-effects particular attention is paid to the risk of dependence and abuse. PMID:4390406

  7. $A^t_{FB}$ Meets LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, JoAnne L.; Shelton, Jessie; Spannowsky, Michael; Tait, Tim M.P.; Takeuchi, Michihisa; /Heidelberg U.

    2012-02-14

    The recent Tevatron measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of the top quark shows an intriguing discrepancy with Standard Model expectations, particularly at large t{bar t} invariant masses. Measurements of this quantity are subtle at the LHC, due to its pp initial state, however, one can define a forward-central-charge asymmetry which captures the physics. We study the capability of the LHC to measure this asymmetry and find that within the SM a measurement at the 5{sigma} level is possible with roughly 60 fb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 14 TeV. If nature realizes a model which enhances the asymmetry (as is necessary to explain the Tevatron measurements), a significant difference from zero can be observed much earlier, perhaps even during early LHC running at {radical}s = 7 TeV. We further explore the capabilities of the 7 TeV LHC to discover resonances or contact interactions which modify the t{bar t} invariant mass distribution using recent boosted top tagging techniques. We find that TeV-scale color octet resonances can be discovered, even with small coupling strengths and that contact interactions can be probed at scales exceeding 6 TeV. Overall, the LHC has good potential to clarify the situation with regards to the Tevatron forward-backward measurement.

  8. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure..., with tank filled with air at pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank,...

  9. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  10. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  11. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  15. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  16. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  17. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  18. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  20. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  1. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  2. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  3. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  4. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and...

  5. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  6. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  8. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Pressure relief devices. (a) Unless prohibited in part 173 of this subchapter, tanks shall be equipped with... total discharge capacity shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of...

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where...

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief....

  11. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief....

  12. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where...

  13. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief....

  14. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief....

  15. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively...

  16. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... months for work related to recovery from a single natural disaster (described in § 631.3(f) of this part). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance §...

  17. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  18. 12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex Relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RegFlex Relief. 742.4 Section 742.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY PROGRAM § 742.4 RegFlex Relief. (a) Exemptions. RegFlex credit unions are exempt from the following regulatory restrictions: (1)...

  19. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310 Section 358.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products §...

  20. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge... remove liquid cargo....

  1. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge... remove liquid cargo....

  2. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge... remove liquid cargo....

  3. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge... remove liquid cargo....

  4. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge... remove liquid cargo....

  5. 46 CFR 560.3 - Petitions for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petitions for relief. 560.3 Section 560.3 Shipping... PORTS § 560.3 Petitions for relief. (a) Filing. (1) Any owner or operator of a liner, bulk, tramp or... or instrumentality thereof; (3) A concise description and citation of the foreign law, rule...

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively...

  7. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively tight compartments such...

  8. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  9. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  10. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  11. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities § 306.111 Procedure for applying for relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or... some other person, the capacity in which he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security...

  12. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities § 306.111 Procedure for applying for relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of a... person, the capacity in which he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security by title of...

  13. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities § 306.111 Procedure for applying for relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of a... person, the capacity in which he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security by title of...

  14. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities § 306.111 Procedure for applying for relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or... some other person, the capacity in which he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security...

  15. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities § 306.111 Procedure for applying for relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of a... person, the capacity in which he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security by title of...

  16. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to:...

  17. Integral valve provides automatic relief and remote venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, R. F.

    1969-01-01

    In-line, pilot-operated, differential area, poppet type valve provides both automatic relief of a tank at a precise over-pressure and remote control of tank venting. Relief and vent operations are separate functions incorporated in an integral valve package.

  18. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  19. Peculiarities of helium bubble formation and helium behavior in vanadium alloys of different chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staltsov, М. S.; Chernov, I. I.; Kalin, B. A.; Oo, Kyi Zin; Polyansky, A. A.; Staltsova, O. S.; Aung, Kyaw Zaw; Chernov, V. M.; Potapenko, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of alloying of vanadium by Ti and Fe on helium bubble formation, gaseous swelling and helium release peculiarities is investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and helium thermal desorption spectrometry (HTDS). The samples were irradiated by 40 keV He+ ions up to a fluence of 5 ṡ 1020 m-2 at 293 and 923 K. It is found that large faceted pores/bubbles are formed in pure vanadium and it has the highest gaseous swelling. Alloying by any used quantity of Ti (from 0.1 up to 10 wt.%) or Fe (from 1 up to 10 wt.%) essentially decreases the helium swelling. The effect of alloying of vanadium by Ti on the bubble sizes and the helium swelling is nonmonotonic. The density of bubbles increases significantly and their sizes and swelling grow monotonically with increasing the Fe content in vanadium. With low-temperature helium implantation, alloying of V by Ti shifts the HTDS peaks to higher temperatures and the temperatures of peaks are decreased with increasing the Fe concentration. A significant portion of the helium releases in a high-temperature area beyond the main peak temperatures in the HTDS spectra. It is assumed that this is caused by formation of helium bubbles on the surfaces of incoherent particles of secondary phases (oxides, nitrides), having high binding energies with these particles.

  20. Limits on relief through constrained exchange on random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaViolette, Randall A.; Ellebracht, Lory A.; Gieseler, Charles J.

    2007-09-01

    Agents are represented by nodes on a random graph (e.g., “small world”). Each agent is endowed with a zero-mean random value that may be either positive or negative. All agents attempt to find relief, i.e., to reduce the magnitude of that initial value, to zero if possible, through exchanges. The exchange occurs only between the agents that are linked, a constraint that turns out to dominate the results. The exchange process continues until Pareto equilibrium is achieved. Only 40-90% of the agents achieved relief on small-world graphs with mean degree between 2 and 40. Even fewer agents achieved relief on scale-free-like graphs with a truncated power-law degree distribution. The rate at which relief grew with increasing degree was slow, only at most logarithmic for all of the graphs considered; viewed in reverse, the fraction of nodes that achieve relief is resilient to the removal of links.

  1. A parametric relief signal in human ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Juri; Tobler, Philippe N; Taira, Masato; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2009-02-01

    People experience relief whenever outcomes are better than they would have been, had an alternative course of action been chosen. Here we investigated the neuronal basis of relief with functional resonance imaging in a choice task in which the outcome of the chosen option and that of the unchosen option were revealed sequentially. We found parametric activation increases in anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex with increasing relief (chosen outcomes better than unchosen outcomes). Conversely, anterior ventrolateral prefrontal activation was unrelated to the opposite of relief, increasing regret (chosen outcomes worse than unchosen outcomes). Furthermore, the anterior ventrolateral prefrontal activation was unrelated to primary gains and increased with relief irrespective of whether the chosen outcome was a loss or a gain. These results suggest that the anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex encodes a higher-order reward signal that lies at the core of current theories of emotion. PMID:18992349

  2. Threat sensitivity, incentive sensitivity, and the experience of relief.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S

    2009-02-01

    Relief is a positively valenced affect that occurs when a threat is removed or avoided. Among dimensional theories, this experience is accounted for by appealing to one of two different self-regulatory systems. Some hold that an approach system is responsible for all types of positively valenced affect, including this one. Others hold that an avoidance system is responsible for this particular positive affect. Two studies are reported (total N=422) that examined this issue, using a method in which individual differences in overall threat sensitivity and incentive sensitivity were assessed and related to responses to relief-related hypothetical scenarios. Threat sensitivity was the strongest positive correlate of relief in both studies. Reward responsiveness also related positively (independently) to relief. Fun seeking related inversely to relief. Discussion centers on theoretical implications of the findings for viewing effects of threat sensitivity, and on relations between dimensional and appraisal-based views of affective experience. PMID:19076994

  3. Heavy ion physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2004-08-15

    The ion-ion center of mass energies at the LHC will exceed that at RHIC by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. Some highlights of this new physics domain are presented here. We briefly describe how these collisions will provide new insights into the high density, low momentum gluon content of the nucleus expected to dominate the dynamics of the early state of the system. We then discuss how the dense initial state of the nucleus affects the lifetime and temperature of the produced system. Finally, we explain how the high energy domain of the LHC allows abundant production of ''rare'' processes, hard probes calculable in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, QCD. At the LHC, high momentum jets and b{bar b} bound states, the {Upsilon} family, will be produced with high statistics for the first time in heavy ion collisions.

  4. Critical services in the LHC computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciabà, A.

    2010-04-01

    The LHC experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) rely for the data acquisition, processing, distribution, analysis and simulation on complex computing systems, running using a variety of services, provided by the experiments, the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the different computing centres. These services range from the most basic (network, batch systems, file systems) to the mass storage services or the Grid information system, up to the different workload management systems, data catalogues and data transfer tools, often internally developed in the collaborations. In this contribution we review the status of the services most critical to the experiments by quantitatively measuring their readiness with respect to the start of the LHC operations. Shortcomings are identified and common recommendations are offered.

  5. Machine optics studies for the LHC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzebiński, Maciej

    2014-11-01

    In this work the properties of scattered protons in the vicinity of the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP1) for various LHC optics settings are discussed. Firstly, the beam elements installed around IP1 are presented. Then the ATLAS forward detector systems: Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) and ATLAS Forward Protons (AFP) are described and their similarities and differences are discussed. Next, the various optics used at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described and the beam divergence and width at the Interaction Point as well as at the ATLAS forward detectors locations are calculated. Finally, the geometric acceptance of the ATLAS forward detectors is shown and the impact of the LHC collimators on it is discussed.

  6. Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; Kogler, Roman; Schulz, Holger; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Due to the absence of tantalising hints for new physics during the LHC's Run 1, the extension of the Higgs sector by dimension-six operators will provide the new phenomenological standard for searches of non-resonant extensions of the Standard Model. Using all dominant and subdominant Higgs production mechanisms at the LHC, we compute the constraints on Higgs physics-relevant dimension-six operators in a global and correlated fit. We show in how far these constraints can be improved by new Higgs channels becoming accessible at higher energy and luminosity, both through inclusive cross sections as well as through highly sensitive differential distributions. This allows us to discuss the sensitivity to new effects in the Higgs sector that can be reached at the LHC if direct hints for physics beyond the SM remain elusive. We discuss the impact of these constraints on well-motivated BSM scenarios.

  7. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  8. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to

  9. New Physics Undercover at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Hou Keong

    With the completion of 7 TeV and 8 TeV data taking at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the physics community witnessed one of the great triumphs of modern physics: the completion of the Standard Model (SM) as an effective theory. The final missing particle, the Higgs boson, was observed and its mass was measured. However, many theoretical questions remain unanswered. What is the source of electroweak symmetry breaking? What is the nature of dark matter? How does gravity fit into the picture? With no definitive hints of new physics at the LHC, we must consider the possibility that our search strategies need to be expanded. Conventional LHC searches focus on theoretically motivated scenarios, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Models and Little Higgs Theories. However, it is possible that new physics may be entirely different from what we might expect. In this thesis, we examine a variety of scenarios that lead to new physics undercover at the LHC. First we look at potential new physics hiding in Quantum Chromo-Dynamics backgrounds, which may be uncovered using jet substructure techniques in a data-driven way. Then we turn to new long-lived particles hiding in Higgs decay, which may lead to displaced vertices. Such a signal can be unearthed through a data-driven analysis. Then we turn to new physics with ``semi-visible jets'', which lead to missing momentum aligned with jet momentum. These events are vetoed in traditional searches and we demonstrate ways to uncover these signals. Lastly, we explore performance of future colliders in two case studies: Stops and Higgs Portal searches. We show that a 100 TeV collider will lead to significant improvements over 14 TeV LHC runs. Indeed, new physics may lie undercover at the LHC and future colliders, waiting to be discovered.

  10. Detection of Charged Particles in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, Simon Richard

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the measurement of the flux of neutrinos from the sun remains a challenging experimental problem. The ideal detector would be able to detect neutrinos at high rate, in real time, with good energy resolution and would have a threshold which is low enough for investigation of the entire solar neutrino spectrum. A new detection scheme using superfluid helium as a target has been proposed which has the potential to meet most of the criteria of the ideal detector. In this scheme a neutrino would be detected when it elastically scatters off an atomic electron in superfluid helium. The electron loses energy via a number of processes eventually leading to the generation of phonons and rotons in the liquid. At low temperatures these excitations propagate ballistically through the superfluid helium. When the excitations reach the free surface some of them are able to evaporate helium atoms. These atoms can be detected by an array of calorimeters suspended above the liquid surface. In this thesis, results are presented for a small -scale prototype of this type of detector. Experiments have been performed using various radioactive sources to generate energy depositions in the liquid. The results reveal details about the processes of generation of rotons and phonons, the propagation of these excitations through the superfluid, the evaporation of helium atoms and the adsorption of helium atoms onto the wafer. Results are also presented on the detection of fluorescent photons generated in the liquid. One source of energy depositions was 241{rm Am} which produces monoenergetic 5.5 MeV alpha particles. It was found that the ratio of the energy deposited in a calorimeter to the energy deposited in liquid helium was 0.084 when alpha's are emitted parallel to the liquid surface, and 0.020 for alpha's emitted perpendicular. The difference is due to the anisotropic distribution of helium excitations generated. A 113{rm Sn} source of 360 keV electrons stopped in

  11. Interaction of infrared light with impurity gels in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, A. N.; Efimov, V. B.

    2011-05-01

    Rapid cooling of an impurity-helium mixture into superfluid helium produces a distinctive soft matter—impurity-helium gel, clusters of which coagulate into nanoparticles. The sizes of the particles and their mutual interaction depend on the nature of the impurity atoms and the impurity-helium coupling. Here we describe the setup of and preliminary results from an experiment to study infrared absorption by a water-helium gel. Comparisons of the infrared absorption spectra of the gel and of water and ice suggests a peculiar interaction among water molecules in a water-helium gel.

  12. Using tevatron magnets for HE-LHC or new ring in LHC tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Two injector accelerator options for HE-LHC of p{sup +} - p{sup +} collisions at 33 TeV cms energy are briefly outlined. One option is based on the Super-SPS (S-SPS) accelerator in the SPS tunnel, and the other one is based on the LER (Low-Energy-Ring) accelerator in the LHC tunnel. Expectations of performance of the main arc accelerator magnets considered for the construction of the S-SPS and of the LER accelerators are used to tentatively devise some selected properties of these accelerators as potential injectors to HE-LHC.

  13. Bowenwork for Migraine Relief: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Migraine is a complex neurological disorder characterized by episodic, neurogenic, cerebrovascular inflammation and hypersensitization of brain tissues and the central nervous system, causing severe pain and debility. Research literature points mostly to pharmaceutical prophylactic and symptomatic treatments, nonpharmaceutical, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, acupuncture, massage and bodywork studies, and none has been published on Bowenwork for migraine intervention. This prospective case report describes one migraineur’s response to Bowenwork (a soft-tissue bodywork technique) with cessation of migraine, neck pain, and analgesic consumption, and improved well-being and activity function. Methods The client received 14 Bowenwork sessions over a four-month period using the self-reporting Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile version 2 (MYMOP2) to evaluate clinically meaningful changes. Baseline MYMOP2 data were recorded prior to the first and subsequent Bowenwork sessions to track changes in migraine and neck pain occurrences, other symptoms, medication use, functional ability and sense of well-being. Specific Bowenwork procedures were applied in each session to address various symptoms. The client did not receive other migraine treatment during this study. Participant A 66-year-old Caucasian female with a history of debilitating migraine since childhood, and severe neck pain and jaw injuries resulting from two motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) sustained as an adult. She had previously sought medical, pharmaceutical and CAM treatments for migraine, neck pain, and right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) symptoms, with no satisfactory relief. Results The client progressively reported decreased migraine and neck pain until acquiring a respiratory infection with prolonged coughing spells causing symptoms to recur (session 11). Prior to session 12, she experienced an allergic reaction to ingesting an unknown food allergen

  14. Synergistic effects in hydrogen-helium bubbles.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Erin; Deo, Chaitanya

    2012-07-01

    The detrimental effects of hydrogen and helium on structural materials undergoing irradiation are well documented, if not well understood. There is experimental evidence to suggest that a synergistic effect between the two elements exists, which results in increased damage when both are present. This situation is expected in the next generation of fusion and fission reactors, so a fundamental understanding of these synergistic interactions is needed to predict materials performance. We perform atomistic simulations of hydrogen and helium bubbles in body-centered cubic iron to determine the mechanism behind this effect. We first develop an interatomic potential suitable for describing the interactions between hydrogen and helium. Through analysis of the energetics and structure of these bubbles, we explain the observed synergy as a consequence of bubble growth through helium induced loop punching, aided by the presence of hydrogen, instead of as a direct interaction between hydrogen and helium. The hydrogen benefits from an increased area of free surface on which to bind. PMID:22691382

  15. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  16. Torsional Oscillator Studies on Solid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Chan, Moses H. W.

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the series of torsional oscillator (TO) experiments by Kim and Chan initiated considerable research activities on the supersolidity of helium. However, recent experiments in rigid torsional oscillators which reduce the effect of stiffening of bulk solid helium at low temepratures showed very small or negligible changes in the resonant period. A new TO experiment of solid helium confined in porous Vycor glass with no bulk solid helium in the sample cell show no evidence of supersolidity. Moreover, we have repeated an earlier experiment on hcp 3He solid, which shows similar low temperature stiffening like hcp 4He. We found that the small drop of the resonant period measured in the hcp 3He samples is comparable to that measured in the hcp 4He samples. These results confirm that the resonant period drops in torsional oscillators are consequence of the shear modulus stiffening effect in solid helium. Remaining issues and open questions on the supersolidity will be discussed. Support for this experiment was provided by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  17. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants cut the lines to helium-filled balloons. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  18. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants watch as helium-filled balloons take to the sky after their lines were cut. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  19. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  20. Dynamic Simulation of a Helium Liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, R.; Ooba, K.; Mito, T.; Nobutoki, M.

    2004-06-23

    Dynamic behavior of a helium liquefier has been studied in detail with a Cryogenic Process REal-time SimulaTor (C-PREST) at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). The C-PREST is being developed to integrate large-scale helium cryogenic plant design, operation and maintenance for optimum process establishment. As a first step of simulations of cooldown to 4.5 K with the helium liquefier model is conducted, which provides a plant-process validation platform. The helium liquefier consists of seven heat exchangers, a liquid-nitrogen (LN2) precooler, two expansion turbines and a liquid-helium (LHe) reservoir. Process simulations are fulfilled with sequence programs, which were implemented with C-PREST based on an existing liquefier operation. The interactions of a JT valve, a JT-bypass valve and a reservoir-return valve have been dynamically simulated. The paper discusses various aspects of refrigeration process simulation, including its difficulties such as a balance between complexity of the adopted models and CPU time.