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Sample records for lhcb straw tube

  1. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-03-11

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs.

  2. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  3. Development and performance of resistive seamless straw-tube gas chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takubo, Y.; Aoki, M.; Ishihara, A.; Ishii, J.; Kuno, Y.; Maeda, F.; Nakahara, K.; Nosaka, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Terai, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Yokoi, T.

    2005-10-01

    A new straw-tube gas chamber which is made of seamless straw-tubes, instead of ordinary wound-type straw-tubes is developed. Seamless straw-tubes have various advantages over ordinary wound-type ones, in particular, in terms of mechanical strength and lesser wall thickness. Our seamless straw-tubes are fabricated to be resistive so that the hit positions along the straw axis can be read by cathode planes placed outside the straw-tube chambers, where the cathode strips run transverse to the straw axis. A beam test was carried out at KEK to study their performance. As a result of the beam test, the position resolution of the cathode strips of 220 μm is achieved, and an anode position resolution of 112 μm is also obtained.

  4. A Large Tracking Detector In Vacuum Consisting Of Self-Supporting Straw Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintz, P.

    2004-02-01

    A novel technique to stretch the anode wire simply by the gas over-pressure inside straw drift tubes reduces the necessary straw weight to an absolute minimum. Our detector will consist of more than 3000 straws filling up a cylindrical tracking volume of 1m diameter and 30cm length. The projected spatial resolution is 200μm. The detector with a total mass of less than 15kg will be operated in vacuum, but will have an added wall thickness of 3mm mylar, only. The detector design, production experience and first results will be discussed.

  5. Modeling small diameter straw tubes in terms of their high frequency electrical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ekenberg, T.; Newcomer, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a part of the effort to design a prototype of a low mass tracking detector, the authors have developed an empirical model of the high frequency behavior of small diameter proportional straw tubes. The equivalent circuit is a distributed network of RLC-clusters, where the value of the discrete components is directly related to measurable characteristics of the em straws. The model is an approximation of the straw as a low loss transmission line, and yields very good agreement with measurements of transmission and reflection coefficients. Measurements and simulations of input impedance in frequency domain also agree well at frequencies below 120 MHz, when termination is close to Z{sub o}, the characteristic impedance.

  6. Development of a dedicated front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the bar PANDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przyborowski, D.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, G.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Swientek, K.; Terlecki, P.; Tokarz, J.

    2016-08-01

    The design and tests of front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the bar PANDA experiment at FAIR are presented. The challenges for the front-end electronics, comprising operation at high counting rate up to 1 MHz per straw tube, are discussed and the proposed architecture comprising a switched gain charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP), a pole-zero cancellation circuit (PZC), a second order variable peaking time shaper, a trimming ion tail cancellation circuit, and a baseline holder (BLH), is described. The front-end provides an analogue output and a discriminator with LVDS differential driver for the Time-of-Arrival (ToA) and Time-over-Threshold (ToT) measurements. A prototype readout ASIC featuring four channels was fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology consuming 15.5 mW (analog part) and 12 mW (LVDS) per channel. The results of measurements of peaking time (25–67 ns), gain, noise (ENC 800–2500 el. for various gains), time walk and jitter are presented as well as the first results obtained with prototype straw tubes connected.

  7. Distributed analysis at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mike; Egede, Ulrik; Paterson, Stuart; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The distributed analysis experience to date at LHCb has been positive: job success rates are high and wait times for high-priority jobs are low. LHCb users access the grid using the GANGA job-management package, while the LHCb virtual organization manages its resources using the DIRAC package. This clear division of labor has benefitted LHCb and its users greatly; it is a major reason why distributed analysis at LHCb has been so successful. The newly formed LHCb distributed analysis support team has also proved to be a success.

  8. LHCbDirac: distributed computing in LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Closier, J.; Mathe, Z.; Ubeda, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Lanciotti, E.; Romanovskiy, V.; Ciba, K. D.; Casajus, A.; Roiser, S.; Sapunov, M.; Remenska, D.; Bernardoff, V.; Santana, R.; Nandakumar, R.

    2012-12-01

    We present LHCbDirac, an extension of the DIRAC community Grid solution that handles LHCb specificities. The DIRAC software has been developed for many years within LHCb only. Nowadays it is a generic software, used by many scientific communities worldwide. Each community wanting to take advantage of DIRAC has to develop an extension, containing all the necessary code for handling their specific cases. LHCbDirac is an actively developed extension, implementing the LHCb computing model and workflows handling all the distributed computing activities of LHCb. Such activities include real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. Other activities are groups and user analysis, data management, resources management and monitoring, data provenance, accounting for user and production jobs. LHCbDirac also provides extensions of the DIRAC interfaces, including a secure web client, python APIs and CLIs. Before putting in production a new release, a number of certification tests are run in a dedicated setup. This contribution highlights the versatility of the system, also presenting the experience with real data processing, data and resources management, monitoring for activities and resources.

  9. Performance of the LHCb tracking system in Run I of the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Adam C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb tracking system consists of a Vertex Locator around the interaction point, a tracking station with four layers of silicon strip detectors in front of the magnet, and three straw-tube and silicon strip tracking stations behind the magnet. This system allows reconstruction of charged particles with a high efficiency (> 95 % for particles with momentum p > 5 GeV) and excellent momentum resolution (0.5% for particles with p < 20 GeV). The high momentum resolution results in narrow mass peaks, leading to a high signal-to-background ratio in such key channels as Bs0 → μμ. The excellent performance of the tracking system yields a decay time resolution of ~50 fs, allowing to resolve the fast B0s oscillation with a mixing frequency of 17.7 ps-1. Such a decay time resolution is an essential element in studies of time dependent CP violation. I present an overview of the track reconstruction in LHCb and its performance in Run I of the LHC. I highlight the challenges and improvements of the track reconstruction from Run II onward, including efforts to improve the timing of the online reconstruction and approaches to unify the online and offline reconstruction.

  10. LHCb GPU acceleration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalov, A.; Cámpora, D.; Neufeld, N.; Vilasís-Cardona, X.

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is due to be upgraded for processing high-luminosity collisions, which will increase data bandwidth to the event filter farm from 100 GB/s to 4 TB/s, encouraging us to look for new ways of accelerating Online reconstruction. The Coprocessor Manager is a new framework for integrating LHCb's existing computation pipelines with massively parallel algorithms running on GPUs and other accelerators. This paper describes the system and analyzes its performance.

  11. LHCb calorimeters high voltage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilitsky, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Perret, P.; Schopper, A.; Soldatov, M.; Yakimchuk, V.

    2007-02-01

    The calorimeter system in LHCb aims to identify electrons, photons and hadrons. All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600-00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. The calorimeter high voltage (HV) system is based on a Cockroft Walton (CW) voltage converter and a control board connected to the Experiment Control System (ECS) by serial bus. The base of each photomultiplier tube (PMT) is built with a high voltage converter and constructed on an individual printed circuit board, using compact surface mount components. The base is attached directly to the PMT. There are no HV cables in the system. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used on the control board as an interface between the ECS and the 200 control channels. The FPGA includes also additional functionalities allowing automated monitoring and ramp up of the high voltage values. This paper describes the HV system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation and summarizes the system performance. This safe and low power consumption HV electronic system for the photomultiplier tubes can be used for various biomedical apparatus too.

  12. The LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2013-11-01

    With the demonstration that LHCb can successfully perform forward precision measurements with event pileup, the operation and trigger strategy evolved significantly during the LHC Run 1 allowing LHCb to collect over 3fb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8TeV. Increased bandwidth opened the door for LHCb to extend the physics program. The additional statistics and well managed systematic effects together with the stable trigger and data taking conditions have led to a very large number of world-class measurements and dominance in heavy flavour physics [1], in addition to a reputation of an excellent forward general purpose detector at the LHC. Long Shutdown (LS) 1 (2013-2014) will allow LHCb to fully explore the large statistics collected and prepare LHCb for Run 2 (2015 - 2017). However, even after an additional expected integrated luminosity of 5-6 fb-1 in Run 2, many of the LHCb precision measurements will remain limited by statistics, and some exploratory physics modes will not even be accessible yet. With the need for reconstructing the event topology in order to efficiently trigger on the beauty and the charm hadrons decays, the current 1 MHz readout limit is the main bottle neck to run at higher luminosity and with higher trigger efficiencies. LHCb will therefore undergo a major upgrade in LS 2 ( 2018 - 2019) aimed at collecting an order of magnitude more data by 2028. The upgrade consists of a full readout at the LHC bunch crossing rate ( 40 MHz) with the ultimate flexibility of only a software trigger. In order to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 2x1033cm-2s-1, several sub-detector upgrades are also underway to cope with the higher occupancies and radiation dose.

  13. The LHCb Muon System

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, W.

    2005-10-12

    In this paper is described the design, the construction and the performances of several Multi Wire Proportional Chamber prototypes built for the LHCb Muon system. In particular we report results for detection efficiency, time resolution, high rate performances and ageing effect measured at the CERN T11 test beam area and at the high irradiation ENEA Casaccia Calliope Facility.

  14. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for new physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charm hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb detector is a single-arm spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The Silicon Tracker is part of the tracking system and measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. The LHCb Silicon Tracker covers a total sensitive area of about 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip detectors with long readout strips. It consists of one four-layer tracking station before the LHCb dipole magnet and three stations after. The detector has performed extremely well since the start of the LHC operation despite the fact that the experiment is collecting data at instantaneous luminosities well above the design value. This paper reports on the operation and performance of the Silicon Tracker during the Physics data taking at the LHC during the last two years.

  15. The LHCb Turbo stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, A.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015-2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  16. The LHCb Turbo Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Sean; Gligorov, Vladimir; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Williams, John Michael

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process these datasets, which will limit the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction and discarding the raw event. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015-2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  17. The LHCb silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeva, B.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Bay, A.; Bernhard, R. P.; Bernet, R.; Blouw, J.; Carron, B.; Ermoline, Y.; Esperante, D.; Frei, R.; Gassner, J.; Hofmann, W.; Jimenez-Otero, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Köstner, S.; Lehner, F.; Löchner, S.; Lois, C.; Needham, M.; Pugatch, V.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Tran, M. T.; Vazquez, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voss, H.

    2005-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics and CP-violation experiment for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Efficient track reconstruction and excellent trigger performances are essential in order to exploit fully its physics potential. Silicon strip detectors providing fast signal generation, high resolution and fine granularity are used for this purpose in the large area Trigger Tracker station in front of the spectrometer magnet and the LHCb Inner Tracker covering the area close to the beam pipe behind the magnet. Long read-out strips of up to 38 cm are used together with fast signal shaping adapted to the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing. The design of these tracking stations, the silicon sensor strip geometries and the latest test results are presented here.

  18. LHCb distributed conditions database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.

    2008-07-01

    The LHCb Conditions Database project provides the necessary tools to handle non-event time-varying data. The main users of conditions are reconstruction and analysis processes, which are running on the Grid. To allow efficient access to the data, we need to use a synchronized replica of the content of the database located at the same site as the event data file, i.e. the LHCb Tier1. The replica to be accessed is selected from information stored on LFC (LCG File Catalog) and managed with the interface provided by the LCG developed library CORAL. The plan to limit the submission of jobs to those sites where the required conditions are available will also be presented. LHCb applications are using the Conditions Database framework on a production basis since March 2007. We have been able to collect statistics on the performance and effectiveness of both the LCG library COOL (the library providing conditions handling functionalities) and the distribution framework itself. Stress tests on the CNAF hosted replica of the Conditions Database have been performed and the results will be summarized here.

  19. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    LHCb is a forward spectrometer experiment dedicated to the study of new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons produced in proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is the microstrip silicon detector surrounding the interaction point, providing tracking and vertexing measurements. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will increase the luminosity up to 2×1033 cm-2 s-1 and will perform the readout as a trigger-less system with an event rate of 40 MHz. Extremely non-uniform radiation doses will reach up to 5×1015 1 MeV neq/cm2 in the innermost regions of the VELO sensors, and the output data bandwidth will be increased by a factor of 40. An upgraded detector is under development based in a pixel sensor of the Timepix/Medipix family, with 55 × 55 μm2 pixels. In addition a microstrip solution with finer pitch, higher granularity and thinner than the current detector is being developed in parallel. The current status of the VELO upgrade program will be described together with recent testbeam results.

  20. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  1. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  2. Dataflow Monitoring in LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svantesson, D.; Schwemmer, R.; Liu, G.; Neufeld, N.

    2011-12-01

    The LHCb data-flow starts from the collection of event-fragments from more than 300 read-out boards at a rate of 1 MHz. These data are moved through a large switching network consisting of more than 50 routers to an event-filter farm of up to 1500 servers. Accepted events are sent through a dedicated network to storage collection nodes which concatenate accepted events in to files and transfer them to mass-storage. At nominal conditions more than 30 million packets enter and leave the network every second. Precise monitoring of this data-flow down to the single packet counter is essential to trace rare but systematic sources of data-loss. We have developed a comprehensive monitoring framework allowing to verify the data-flow at every level using a variety of standard tools and protocols such as sFlow, SNMP and custom software based on the LHCb Experiment Control System frame-work. This paper starts from an analysis of the data-flow and the involved hardware and software layers. From this analysis it derives the architecture and finally presents the implementation of this monitoring system.

  3. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosil Suárez, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2019, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm. The upgraded detector will run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm-2 s-1 and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy flavour sector with unprecedented precision. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The detector comprises silicon pixel sensors with 55×55 μm2 pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC, based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The detector halves are retracted when the beams are injected and closed at stable beams, positioning the first sensitive pixel at 5.1 mm from the beams. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates.

  4. Triggering with the LHCb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Regis; LHCb Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC has been conceived to pursue high precision studies of CP violation and rare phenomena in b hadron decays. The online selection is crucial in LHCb and relies on the calorimeters to trigger on high transverse energy electrons, photons, π0 and hadrons. In this purpose a dedicated electronic has been realized. The calorimeter trigger system has been commissioned and is used to trigger on cosmic muons before beams start circulating in the LHC. When the LHC will start, it will also provide a very useful interaction trigger.

  5. Vacuum straw tracker test beam run

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau; /Chicago U.

    2005-08-01

    This memorandum of understanding requests beam time at Fermilab during the 2005 Meson Test Beam run to measure the detection inefficiency of vacuum straw tubes. One of the future kaon experiments at J-PARC has the goal to measure the branching ratio of the neutral kaon ''Golden Mode'' K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} with a few hundred event sensitivity. This future J-PARC experiment is a follow up of a current KEK experiment, E391a which has been taking data since February 2004. E391a is a collaboration of five countries (Japan, United States, Russia, Korea, and Taiwan) with ten institutions (KEK, Saga U, Yamagata U, Osaka U, U of Chicago, Pusan U, JINR, NDA, Kyoto U, National Taiwan U, and RCNP). The branching ratio of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} is small, about 3 x 10{sup -11}. To first order, all kaon decays with final states with charged particles need to be vetoed, and those include K{sub e3}, K{sub {mu}3}, and K{sub {+-}0} (about 80% of all neutral kaon decay). The standard and typical veto power comes from sheet scintillator and may not be adequate. Vacuum straw tubes provides additional, independent and orthogonal veto power, but the detection inefficiency has not been known or measured in a detail way. The inefficiency of the straw has three sources, the electronics, the straw wall/wire, and the gas. We like to perform beam test to measure all three sources. There is much experience in straw detector technology, and some in vacuum straw technology (CKM R&D effort). The possible use of straws in the future K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {nu} {nu} experiment will allow absolute photon/electron energy calibration (via K{sub {+-}0} decays), possible measurement of photon inefficiencies (via K{sub 000} with {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz), and as mentioned, charged particle veto. The results of this proposed beam test will provide new knowledge on the absorption cross section and will direct us on design issues for future neutral kaon decay experiments. Regarding

  6. Behavior of multi-anode photomultipliers in magnetic fields for the LHCb RICH upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambetta, S.

    2016-07-01

    A key feature of the LHCb upgrade, scheduled for 2019, is to remove the first level trigger and its data reduction from 40 MHz to 1 MHz, which is implemented in the on-detector readout electronics. The consequence for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors is that the Hybrid Photon Detectors need to be replaced as the readout chip is inside the detector vacuum. The baseline for replacement are Multi-anode Photomultiplier tubes (MaPMT) and new readout electronics. The MaPMTs will be located in the fringe field of the LHCb dipole magnet with residual fields up to 25 G. Therefore, their behavior in magnetic fields is critical. Here we report about studies of the Hamamatsu model R11265 in a magnetic field in an effort to qualify it for use in the LHCb RICH upgrade. Comparisons to the known model R7600 are also made. Measurements of the collection efficiency and gain were performed for all three space directions as a function of the magnetic field strength. In addition to measurements with bare tubes, measurements with different mu-metal shielding configurations were performed to optimize the configuration. This is important input for the layout of the upgraded LHCb RICH detector.

  7. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  8. Dark photons from charm mesons at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilten, Philip; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike; Xue, Wei

    2015-12-01

    We propose a search for dark photons A' at the LHCb experiment using the charm meson decay D*(2007 )0→D0A'. At nominal luminosity, D*0→D0γ decays will be produced at about 700 kHz within the LHCb acceptance, yielding over 5 trillion such decays during Run 3 of the LHC. Replacing the photon with a kinetically mixed dark photon, LHCb is then sensitive to dark photons that decay as A'→e+e-. We pursue two search strategies in this paper. The displaced strategy takes advantage of the large Lorentz boost of the dark photon and the excellent vertex resolution of LHCb, yielding a nearly background-free search when the A' decay vertex is significantly displaced from the proton-proton primary vertex. The resonant strategy takes advantage of the large event rate for D*0→D0A' and the excellent invariant-mass resolution of LHCb, yielding a background-limited search that nevertheless covers a significant portion of the A' parameter space. Both search strategies rely on the planned upgrade to a triggerless-readout system at LHCb in Run 3, which will permit the identification of low-momentum electron-positron pairs online during data taking. For dark photon masses below about 100 MeV, LHCb can explore nearly all of the dark photon parameter space between existing prompt-A' and beam-dump limits.

  9. Building a Straw Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  10. Rare Decays at the LHCb Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescatore, L.

    2015-06-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons offer a rich playground to make precise tests of the Standard Model and look for New Physics at the level of quantum corrections. A review of recent LHCb results will be presented.

  11. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, C.; Brarda, L.; Frank, M.; Franek, B.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Köstner, S.; Moine, G.; Neufeld, N.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Suman, S.

    2008-07-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed.

  12. The LHCb Silicon Tracker Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Blouw, J.; Hofmann, W.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Löchner, S.; Schmelling, M.; Pugatch, V.; Bay, A.; Carron, B.; Frei, R.; Jiminez-Otero, S.; Tran, M.-T.; Voss, H.; Adeva, B.; Esperante, D.; Lois, C.; Vasquez, P.; Bernhard, R. P.; Bernet, R.; Ermoline, Y.; Gassner, J.; Köstner, S.; Lehner, F.; Needham, M.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.

    2006-01-01

    Two silicon strip detectors, the Trigger Tracker(TT) and the Inner Tracker(IT) will be constructed for the LHCb experiment. Transverse momentum information extracted from the TT will be used in the Level 1 trigger. The IT is part of the main tracking system behind the magnet. Both silicon detectors will be read out using a custom-developed chip by the ASIC lab in Heidelberg. The signal-over-noise behavior and performance of various geometrical designs of the silicon sensors, in conjunction with the Beetle read-out chip, have been extensively studied in test beam experiments. Results from those experiments are presented, and have been used in the final choice of sensor geometry.

  13. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy √s. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for √s = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for √sNN = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at √s = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determines the luminosity with a precision of 1.16%. This represents the most precise luminosity measurement achieved so far at a bunched-beam hadron collider.

  14. NO formation during agricultural straw combustion.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Xiaoping

    2011-07-01

    NO formation during combustion of four typical kinds of straw (wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and corn stalk) which belong to soft straw and hard straw was studied in a tubular quartz fixed bed reactor under conditions relevant to grate boiler combustion. Regarding the real situation in biomass fired power plants in China, NO formation from blended straw combustion was also investigated. Nitrogen transfer during blended straw pyrolysis was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results show that NO conversion for the four straws during combustion is distinctive. Over 70% fuel-N converts into NO for cotton stalk, while only 37% for wheat straw under the same condition. When wheat straw and cotton stalk were mixed, N-NO conversion increases. The limestone addition promotes NO emission during cotton stalk combustion. The presence of SO(2) in atmosphere suppresses NO formation from straw combustion. PMID:21592786

  15. Proposed Inclusive Dark Photon Search at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilten, Philip; Soreq, Yotam; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike; Xue, Wei

    2016-06-01

    We propose an inclusive search for dark photons A' at the LHCb experiment based on both prompt and displaced dimuon resonances. Because the couplings of the dark photon are inherited from the photon via kinetic mixing, the dark photon A'→μ+μ- rate can be directly inferred from the off-shell photon γ*→μ+μ- rate, making this a fully data-driven search. For run 3 of the LHC, we estimate that LHCb will have sensitivity to large regions of the unexplored dark-photon parameter space, especially in the 210-520 MeV and 10-40 GeV mass ranges. This search leverages the excellent invariant-mass and vertex resolution of LHCb, along with its unique particle-identification and real-time data-analysis capabilities.

  16. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharucha, A.; Bigi, I. I.; Bobeth, C.; Bobrowski, M.; Brod, J.; Buras, A. J.; Davies, C. T. H.; Datta, A.; Delaunay, C.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Ellis, J.; Feldmann, T.; Fleischer, R.; Gedalia, O.; Girrbach, J.; Guadagnoli, D.; Hiller, G.; Hochberg, Y.; Hurth, T.; Isidori, G.; Jäger, S.; Jung, M.; Kagan, A.; Kamenik, J. F.; Lenz, A.; Ligeti, Z.; London, D.; Mahmoudi, F.; Matias, J.; Nandi, S.; Nir, Y.; Paradisi, P.; Perez, G.; Petrov, A. A.; Rattazzi, R.; Sharpe, S. R.; Silvestrini, L.; Soni, A.; Straub, D. M.; van Dyk, D.; Virto, J.; Wang, Y.-M.; Weiler, A.; Zupan, J.; Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adametz, A.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Anelli, M.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Band, H.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bates, A.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bediaga, I.; Beigbeder-Beau, C.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernard, F.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; van Beveren, V.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bochin, B.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bogdanova, G.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Brarda, L.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Büchler-Germann, A.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cacérès, T.; Cachemiche, J.-P.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casajus Ramo, A.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Ceelie, L.; Chadaj, B.; Chanal, H.; Charles, M.; Charlet, D.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chebbi, M.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciambrone, P.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Corajod, B.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; D'Antone, I.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Groen, P.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Decreuse, G.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Diniz Batista, P.; Dogaru, M.; Domingo Bonal, F.; Domke, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Drancourt, C.; Duarte, O.; Dumps, R.; Dupertuis, F.; Duval, P.-Y.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Evangelisti, F.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Fave, V.; Felici, G.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Föhr, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Fournier, C.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frei, R.; Frosini, M.; Fuchs, H.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Gets, S.; Ghez, Ph.; Giachero, A.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gong, G.; Gong, H.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Gromov, V.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Guzik, Z.; Gys, T.; Hachon, F.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; van der Heijden, B.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hofmann, W.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Ilten, P.; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jamet, O.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jansen, L.; Jansweijer, P.; Jaton, P.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karavichev, O.; Karbach, T. M.; Kashchuk, A.; Kechadi, T.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kihm, T.; Kluit, R.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, V.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kos, J.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Kristic, R.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudenko, Y.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Landi, L.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Laptev, S.; Latham, T.; Lax, I.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Likhoded, A.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; von Loeben, J.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Mac Raighne, A.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maino, M.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, M.; Maurice, E.; Mauricio, J.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meissner, M.; Mejia, H.; Mendez-Munoz, V.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Mul, F.; Müller, K.; Munneke, B.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Nawrot, A.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nikolaiko, Y.; Nisar, S.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Ostankov, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; van Overbeek, M.; Owen, P.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D. L.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; van Petten, O.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Piedigrossi, D.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pugatch, M.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Rethore, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roeland, E.; Rogers, G. J.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; de Roo, K.; Rouvinet, J.; Roy, L.; Rudloff, K.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Saornil Gamarra, S.; Sapunov, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savidge, T.; Savrie, M.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schimmel, A.; Schindler, H.; Schleich, S.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schneider, T.; Schopper, A.; Schuijlenburg, H.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shao, B.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Sigurdsson, S.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Slater, M. W.; Sluijk, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, M.; Sobczak, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Squerzanti, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Swientek, S.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; Tikhonov, A.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tocut, V.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ullaland, O.; Urner, D.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vink, W.; Volkov, S.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Vouters, G.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Warda, K.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Wenerke, P.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Witzeling, W.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xue, T.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zappon, F.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zeng, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zverev, E.; Zvyagin, A.; Zwart, A.

    2013-04-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb-1 of √{s} = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  17. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  18. LHCb Physics and 2010-11 prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perazzini, Stefano

    2011-10-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider, and is specifically dedicated to the measurement of CP-violation and rare decays in the beauty and charm quark sectors. By employing data from early LHC runs it is possible to assess the performance of the detector and to better understand the potential of the LHCb flavour programme. After a brief introduction of the motivations and of the relevant physics goals, the prospects about key CP-violation and rare decay measurements will be presented. Emphasis will be given to those topics where results with particular sensitivity to New Physics are expected during the 2010-11 run.

  19. A New Nightly Build System for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2014-06-01

    The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

  20. LHCb Physics and 2010-11 prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Perazzini, Stefano

    2011-10-24

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider, and is specifically dedicated to the measurement of CP-violation and rare decays in the beauty and charm quark sectors. By employing data from early LHC runs it is possible to assess the performance of the detector and to better understand the potential of the LHCb flavour programme. After a brief introduction of the motivations and of the relevant physics goals, the prospects about key CP-violation and rare decay measurements will be presented. Emphasis will be given to those topics where results with particular sensitivity to New Physics are expected during the 2010-11 run.

  1. The LHCb Detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCb Collaboration; Alves, A. Augusto, Jr.; Filho, L. M. Andrade; Barbosa, A. F.; Bediaga, I.; Cernicchiaro, G.; Guerrer, G.; Lima, H. P., Jr.; Machado, A. A.; Magnin, J.; Marujo, F.; de Miranda, J. M.; Reis, A.; Santos, A.; Toledo, A.; Akiba, K.; Amato, S.; de Paula, B.; de Paula, L.; da Silva, T.; Gandelman, M.; Lopes, J. H.; Maréchal, B.; Moraes, D.; Polycarpo, E.; Rodrigues, F.; Ballansat, J.; Bastian, Y.; Boget, D.; DeBonis, I.; Coco, V.; David, P. Y.; Decamp, D.; Delebecque, P.; Drancourt, C.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; Girard, C.; Lieunard, B.; Minard, M. N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Rambure, T.; Rospabe, G.; T'Jampens, S.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bohner, G.; Bonnefoy, R.; Borras, D.; Carloganu, C.; Chanal, H.; Conte, E.; Cornat, R.; Crouau, M.; Delage, E.; Deschamps, O.; Henrard, P.; Jacquet, P.; Lacan, C.; Laubser, J.; Lecoq, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Magne, M.; Martemiyanov, M.; Mercier, M.-L.; Monteil, S.; Niess, V.; Perret, P.; Reinmuth, G.; Robert, A.; Suchorski, S.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Babel, J.; Benchouk, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P.; Cogan, J.; Derue, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Duval, P.-Y.; Garonne, V.; Favard, S.; LeGac, R.; Leon, F.; Leroy, O.; Liotard, P.-L.; Marin, F.; Menouni, M.; Ollive, P.; Poss, S.; Roche, A.; Sapunov, M.; Tocco, L.; Viaud, B.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Amhis, Y.; Barrand, G.; Barsuk, S.; Beigbeder, C.; Beneyton, R.; Breton, D.; Callot, O.; Charlet, D.; D'Almagne, B.; Duarte, O.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lefrancois, J.; Machefert, F.; Robbe, P.; Schune, M.-H.; Tocut, V.; Videau, I.; Benayoun, M.; David, P.; DelBuono, L.; Gilles, G.; Domke, M.; Futterschneider, H.; Ilgner, Ch; Kapusta, P.; Kolander, M.; Krause, R.; Lieng, M.; Nedos, M.; Rudloff, K.; Schleich, S.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Warda, K.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Bulian, N.; Fuchs, H. P.; Fallot-Burghardt, W.; Glebe, T.; Hofmann, W.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Löchner, S.; Ludwig, A.; Maciuc, F.; Sanchez Nieto, F.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sexauer, E.; Smale, N. J.; Trunk, U.; Voss, H.; Albrecht, J.; Bachmann, S.; Blouw, J.; Deissenroth, M.; Deppe, H.; Dreis, H. B.; Eisele, F.; Haas, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Hennenberger, S.; Knopf, J.; Moch, M.; Perieanu, A.; Rabenecker, S.; Rausch, A.; Rummel, C.; Rusnyak, R.; Schiller, M.; Stange, U.; Uwer, U.; Walter, M.; Ziegler, R.; Avoni, G.; Balbi, G.; Bonifazi, F.; Bortolotti, D.; Carbone, A.; D'Antone, I.; Galli, D.; Gregori, D.; Lax, I.; Marconi, U.; Peco, G.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vecchi, S.; Bonivento, W.; Cardini, A.; Cadeddu, S.; DeLeo, V.; Deplano, C.; Furcas, S.; Lai, A.; Oldeman, R.; Raspino, D.; Saitta, B.; Serra, N.; Baldini, W.; Brusa, S.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Franconieri, A.; Germani, S.; Gianoli, A.; Guoming, L.; Landi, L.; Malaguti, R.; Padoan, C.; Pennini, C.; Savriè, M.; Squerzanti, S.; Zhao, T.; Zhu, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Graziani, G.; Lenti, M.; Lenzi, M.; Maletta, F.; Pennazzi, S.; Passaleva, G.; Veltri, M.; Alfonsi, M.; Anelli, M.; Balla, A.; Battisti, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Campana, P.; Carletti, M.; Ciambrone, P.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Di Virgilio, A.; DeSimone, P.; Felici, G.; Forti, C.; Gatta, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Pistilli, M.; Poli Lener, M.; Rosellini, R.; Santoni, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Zossi, A.; Ameri, M.; Cuneo, S.; Fontanelli, F.; Gracco, V.; Miní, G.; Parodi, M.; Petrolini, A.; Sannino, M.; Vinci, A.; Alemi, M.; Arnaboldi, C.; Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Chignoli, F.; DeLucia, A.; Galotta, G.; Mazza, R.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Negri, P.; Perego, D.; Pessina, G.; Auriemma, G.; Bocci, V.; Buccheri, A.; Chiodi, G.; Di Marco, S.; Iacoangeli, F.; Martellotti, G.; Nobrega, R.; Pelosi, A.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Rinaldi, W.; Rossi, A.; Santacesaria, R.; Satriano, C.; Carboni, G.; Iannilli, M.; Massafferri Rodrigues, A.; Messi, R.; Paoluzzi, G.; Sabatino, G.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Amoraal, J.; van Apeldoorn, G.; Arink, R.; van Bakel, N.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th; Berkien, A.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bos, E.; Bron, Ch; Ceelie, L.; Doets, M.; van der Eijk, R.; Fransen, J.-P.; de Groen, P.; Gromov, V.; Hierck, R.; Homma, J.; Hommels, B.; Hoogland, W.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jansen, L.; Jaspers, M.; Kaan, B.; Koene, B.; Koopstra, J.; Kroes, F.; Kraan, M.; Langedijk, J.; Merk, M.; Mos, S.; Munneke, B.; Palacios, J.; Papadelis, A.; Pellegrino, A.; van Petten, O.; du Pree, T.; Roeland, E.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Schimmel, A.; Schuijlenburg, H.; Sluijk, T.; Spelt, J.; Stolte, J.; Terrier, H.; Tuning, N.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Vankov, P.; Verkooijen, J.; Verlaat, B.; Vink, W.; de Vries, H.; Wiggers, L.; Ybeles Smit, G.; Zaitsev, N.; Zupan, M.; Zwart, A.; van den Brand, J.; Bulten, H. J.; de Jong, M.; Ketel, T.; Klous, S.; Kos, J.; M'charek, B.; Mul, F.; Raven, G.; Simioni, E.; Cheng, J.; Dai, G.; Deng, Z.; Gao, Y.; Gong, G.; Gong, H.; He, J.; Hou, L.; Li, J.; Qian, W.; Shao, B.; Xue, T.; Yang, Z.; Zeng, M.; Muryn, B.; Ciba, K.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Blocki, J.; Galuszka, K.; Hajduk, L.; Michalowski, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Polok, G.; Stodulski, M.; Witek, M.; Brzozowski, K.; Chlopik, A.; Gawor, P.; Guzik, Z.; Nawrot, A.; Srednicki, A.; Syryczynski, K.; Szczekowski, M.; Anghel, D. V.; Cimpean, A.; Coca, C.; Constantin, F.; Cristian, P.; Dumitru, D. D.; Dumitru, D. T.; Giolu, G.; Kusko, C.; Magureanu, C.; Mihon, Gh; Orlandea, M.; Pavel, C.; Petrescu, R.; Popescu, S.; Preda, T.; Rosca, A.; Rusu, V. L.; Stoica, R.; Stoica, S.; Tarta, P. D.; Filippov, S.; Gavrilov, Yu; Golyshkin, L.; Gushchin, E.; Karavichev, O.; Klubakov, V.; Kravchuk, L.; Kutuzov, V.; Laptev, S.; Popov, S.; Aref'ev, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Dolgoshein, V.; Egorychev, V.; Golutvin, A.; Gushchin, O.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Korolko, I.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Machikhiliyan, I.; Malyshev, S.; Mayatskaya, E.; Prokudin, M.; Rusinov, D.; Rusinov, V.; Shatalov, P.; Shchutska, L.; Tarkovskiy, E.; Tayduganov, A.; Voronchev, K.; Zhiryakova, O.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Eidelman, S.; Kozlinsky, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Beloous, K. S.; Dzhelyadin, R. I.; Gelitsky, Yu V.; Gouz, Yu P.; Kachnov, K. G.; Kobelev, A. S.; Matveev, V. D.; Novikov, V. P.; Obraztsov, V. F.; Ostankov, A. P.; Romanovsky, V. I.; Rykalin, V. I.; Soldatov, A. P.; Soldatov, M. M.; Tchernov, E. N.; Yushchenko, O. P.; Bochin, B.; Bondar, N.; Fedorov, O.; Golovtsov, V.; Guets, S.; Kashchuk, A.; Lazarev, V.; Maev, O.; Neustroev, P.; Sagidova, N.; Spiridenkov, E.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, An; Vorobyov, A.; Aguilo, E.; Bota, S.; Calvo, M.; Comerma, A.; Cano, X.; Dieguez, A.; Herms, A.; Lopez, E.; Luengo, S.; Garra, J.; Garrido, Ll; Gascon, D.; Gaspar de Valenzuela, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Graciani, R.; Grauges, E.; Perez Calero, A.; Picatoste, E.; Riera, J.; Rosello, M.; Ruiz, H.; Vilasis, X.; Xirgu, X.; Adeva, B.; Cid Vidal, X.; MartÉnez Santos, D.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Fungueiriño Pazos, J. L.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gómez, C. Lois; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Pló Casasús, M.; Rodriguez Cobo, C.; Rodríguez Pérez, P.; Saborido, J. J.; Seco, M.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; Blanc, F.; Borel, J.; Carron, B.; Currat, C.; Conti, G.; Dormond, O.; Ermoline, Y.; Fauland, P.; Fernandez, L.; Frei, R.; Gagliardi, G.; Gueissaz, N.; Haefeli, G.; Hicheur, A.; Jacoby, C.; Jalocha, P.; Jimenez-Otero, S.; Hertig, J.-P.; Knecht, M.; Legger, F.; Locatelli, L.; Moser, J.-R.; Needham, M.; Nicolas, L.; Perrin-Giacomin, A.; Perroud, J.-P.; Potterat, C.; Ronga, F.; Schneider, O.; Schietinger, T.; Steele, D.; Studer, L.; Tareb, M.; Tran, M. T.; van Hunen, J.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Zwahlen, N.; Bernet, R.; Büchler, A.; Gassner, J.; Lehner, F.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Salzmann, C.; Sievers, P.; Steiner, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; van Tilburg, J.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Ziegler, M.; Dovbnya, A.; Ranyuk, Yu; Shapoval, I.; Borisova, M.; Iakovenko, V.; Kyva, V.; Kovalchuk, O.; Okhrimenko, O.; Pugatch, V.; Pylypchenko, Yu; Adinolfi, M.; Brook, N. H.; Head, R. D.; Imong, J. P.; Lessnoff, K. A.; Metlica, F. C. D.; Muir, A. J.; Rademacker, J. H.; Solomin, A.; Szczypka, P. M.; Barham, C.; Buszello, C.; Dickens, J.; Gibson, V.; Haines, S.; Harrison, K.; Jones, C. R.; Katvars, S.; Kerzel, U.; Lazzeroni, C.; Li, Y. Y.; Rogers, G.; Storey, J.; Skottowe, H.; Wotton, S. A.; Adye, T. J.; Densham, C. J.; Easo, S.; Franek, B.; Loveridge, P.; Morrow, D.; Morris, J. V.; Nandakumar, R.; Nardulli, J.; Papanestis, A.; Patrick, G. N.; Ricciardi, S.; Woodward, M. L.; Zhang, Z.; Chamonal, R. J. U.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, P.; Eisenhardt, S.; Gilardi, N.; Khan, A.; Kim, Y. M.; Lambert, R.; Lawrence, J.; Main, A.; McCarron, J.; Mclean, C.; Muheim, F.; Osorio-Oliveros, A. F.; Playfer, S.; Styles, N.; Xie, Y.; Bates, A.; Carson, L.; da Cunha Marinho, F.; Doherty, F.; Eklund, L.; Gersabeck, M.; Haddad, L.; Macgregor, A. A.; Melone, J.; McEwan, F.; Petrie, D. M.; Paterson, S. K.; Parkes, C.; Pickford, A.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rodrigues, E.; Saavedra, A. F.; Soler, F. J. P.; Szumlak, T.; Viret, S.; Allebone, L.; Awunor, O.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barnes, C.; Cameron, B.; Clark, D.; Clark, I.; Dornan, P.; Duane, A.; Eames, C.; Egede, U.; Girone, M.; Greenwood, S.; Hallam, R.; Hare, R.; Howard, A.; Jolly, S.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Koppenburg, P.; Miller, D.; Plackett, R.; Price, D.; Reece, W.; Savage, P.; Savidge, T.; Simmons, B.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Websdale, D.; Affolder, A.; Anderson, J. S.; Biagi, S. F.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Carroll, J. L.; Casse, G.; Cooke, P.; Donleavy, S.; Dwyer, L.; Hennessy, K.; Huse, T.; Hutchcroft, D.; Jones, D.; Lockwood, M.; McCubbin, M.; McNulty, R.; Muskett, D.; Noor, A.; Patel, G. D.; Rinnert, K.; Shears, T.; Smith, N. A.; Southern, G.; Stavitski, I.; Sutcliffe, P.; Tobin, M.; Traynor, S. M.; Turner, P.; Whitley, M.; Wormald, M.; Wright, V.; Bibby, J. H.; Brisbane, S.; Brock, M.; Charles, M.; Cioffi, C.; Gligorov, V. V.; Handford, T.; Harnew, N.; Harris, F.; John, M. J. J.; Jones, M.; Libby, J.; Martin, L.; McArthur, I. A.; Muresan, R.; Newby, C.; Ottewell, B.; Powell, A.; Rotolo, N.; Senanayake, R. S.; Somerville, L.; Soroko, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sullivan, P.; Stokes-Rees, I.; Topp-Jorgensen, S.; Xing, F.; Wilkinson, G.; Artuso, M.; Belyaev, I.; Blusk, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Menaa, N.; Menaa-Sia, R.; Mountain, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Abadie, L.; Aglieri-Rinella, G.; Albrecht, E.; André, J.; Anelli, G.; Arnaud, N.; Augustinus, A.; Bal, F.; Barandela Pazos, M. C.; Barczyk, A.; Bargiotti, M.; Batista Lopes, J.; Behrendt, O.; Berni, S.; Binko, P.; Bobillier, V.; Braem, A.; Brarda, L.; Buytaert, J.; Camilleri, L.; Cambpell, M.; Castellani, G.; Cataneo, F.; Cattaneo, M.; Chadaj, B.; Charpentier, P.; Cherukuwada, S.; Chesi, E.; Christiansen, J.; Chytracek, R.; Clemencic, M.; Closier, J.; Collins, P.; Colrain, P.; Cooke, O.; Corajod, B.; Corti, G.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Damodaran, B.; David, C.; de Capua, S.; Decreuse, G.; Degaudenzi, H.; Dijkstra, H.; Droulez, J.-P.; Duarte Ramos, D.; Dufey, J. P.; Dumps, R.; Eckstein, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Flegel, W.; Forty, R.; Fournier, C.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Gaidioz, B.; Gaspar, C.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gavillet, P.; Go, A.; Gracia Abril, G.; Graulich, J.-S.; Giudici, P.-A.; Guirao Elias, A.; Guglielmini, P.; Gys, T.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Harvey, J.; Hay, B.; Hernando Morata, J.-A.; Herranz Alvarez, J.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hilke, H. J.; von Holtey, G.; Hulsbergen, W.; Jacobsson, R.; Jamet, O.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kanaya, N.; Knaster Refolio, J.; Koestner, S.; Koratzinos, M.; Kristic, R.; Lacarrère, D.; Lasseur, C.; Lastovicka, T.; Laub, M.; Liko, D.; Lippmann, C.; Lindner, R.; Losasso, M.; Maier, A.; Mair, K.; Maley, P.; Mato Vila, P.; Moine, G.; Morant, J.; Moritz, M.; Moscicki, J.; Muecke, M.; Mueller, H.; Nakada, T.; Neufeld, N.; Ocariz, J.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Parzefall, U.; Patel, M.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Piedigrossi, D.; Pivk, M.; Pokorski, W.; Ponce, S.; Ranjard, F.; Riegler, W.; Renaud, J.; Roiser, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, L.; Ruf, T.; Ruffinoni, D.; Saladino, S.; Sambade Varela, A.; Santinelli, R.; Schmelling, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, T.; Schöning, A.; Schopper, A.; Seguinot, J.; Snoeys, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, A. C.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; Toledo Alarcon, J.; Ullaland, O.; Valassi, A.; Vannerem, P.; Veness, R.; Wicht, P.; Wiedner, D.; Witzeling, W.; Wright, A.; Wyllie, K.; Ypsilantis, T.

    2008-08-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The initial configuration and expected performance of the detector and associated systems, as established by test beam measurements and simulation studies, is described.

  2. LHCb Conditions database operation assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Shapoval, I.; Cattaneo, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Santinelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Conditions Database (CondDB) of the LHCb experiment provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger (HLT), reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues. The first system is a CondDB state tracking extension to the Oracle 3D Streams replication technology, to trap cases when the CondDB replication was corrupted. Second, an automated distribution system for the SQLite-based CondDB, providing also smart backup and checkout mechanisms for the CondDB managers and LHCb users respectively. And, finally, a system to verify and monitor the internal (CondDB self-consistency) and external (LHCb physics software vs. CondDB) compatibility. The former two systems are used in production in the LHCb experiment and have achieved the desired goal of higher flexibility and robustness for the management and operation of the CondDB. The latter one has been fully designed and is passing currently to the implementation stage.

  3. The LHCb silicon tracker: running experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saornil Gamarra, S.

    2013-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. It covers the full acceptance angle in front of the dipole magnet in the Tracker Turicensis station and the innermost part around the beam axis in the three Inner Tracker stations downstream of the magnet. The Silicon Tracker covers a sensitive area of 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip sensors with very long readout strips. We report on running experience for the experiment. Focussing on electronic and hardware issues we describe some of the lessons learned and pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  4. Performance of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leflat, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The VELO is the silicon detector surrounding the LHCb interaction point, and is located only 7 mm from the LHC beam during normal operation. The VELD is moved into position for each fill of the LHC, once stable beams are obtained. The VELO consists of two retractable detector halves with 21 silicon micro-strip tracking modules each. A module is composed of two n+-on-n 300 micron thick half disc sensors with R-measuring and Phi-measuring micro-strip geometry, mounted on a carbon fiber support. The VELO has been successfully operated for the first LHC physics run. Operational results show a signal to noise ratio of around 20:1 and a cluster finding efficiency relative to the design of 99.5%.

  5. The LHCb DAQ interface board TELL1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeli, G.; Bay, A.; Gong, A.; Gong, H.; Muecke, M.; Neufeld, N.; Schneider, O.

    2006-05-01

    We have developed an electronic board (TELL1) to interface the DAQ system of the LHCb experiment at CERN. 289 TELL1 boards are needed to read out the different subdetectors. Each board can handle either 64 analog or 24 digital optical links. The TELL1 mother board provides common mode correction, zero suppression, data formatting, and a large network interface buffer. To satisfy the different requirements we have adopted a flexible FPGA design and made use of mezzanine cards. Mezzanines are used for data input from digital optical and analog copper links as well as for the Gigabit Ethernet interface to DAQ. The LHCb timing and trigger control signals are transported by a dedicated optical link, while the board slow-control is provided by an embedded PC running a Linux kernel.

  6. Upgrade of the Upstream Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jason; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to allow it operate at higher collider luminosity without the need for a hardware trigger stage. Flavor enriched events will be selected in a software based, high level trigger, using fully reconstructed events. This presentation will describe the design, optimization and the expected performance of the Upstream Tracker (UT), which has a critical role in high level trigger scheme.

  7. LHCb results from proton ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacrier, Laure

    2016-07-01

    Proton-lead and lead-proton data taking during 2013 has allowed LHCb to expand its physics program to heavy ion physics. Results include the first forward measurement of Z production in proton-lead collisions as well as a measurement of the nuclear modification factor and forward-backward production of prompt and displaced J/ψ, ψ(2S) and ϒ. Angular particle correlations have also been measured for events of varying charged particle activity.

  8. CKM angle γ measurements at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallier, Alexis

    2014-11-01

    The CKM angle γ remains the least known parameter of the CKM mixing matrix. The precise measurement of this angle, as a Standard Model benchmark, is a key goal of the LHCb experiment. We present four recent CP violation studies related to the measurement of γ, including amplitude analysis of B± → DK± decays, the ADS/GLW analysis of B± → DK*0 decays and the time-dependent analysis of B± → DK±sK± decays.

  9. Optimization of the LHCb track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storaci, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb track reconstruction uses sophisticated pattern recognition algorithms to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles. Their main feature is the use of a Hough- transform like approach to connect track segments from different sub-detectors, allowing for having no tracking stations in the magnet of LHCb. While yielding a high efficiency, the track reconstruction is a major contributor to the overall timing budget of the software trigger of LHCb, and will continue to be so in the light of the higher track multiplicity expected from Run II of the LHC. In view of this fact, key parts of the pattern recognition have been revised and redesigned. In this document the main features which were studied are presented. A staged approach strategy for the track reconstruction in the software trigger was investigated: it allows unifying complementary sets of tracks coming from the different stages of the high level trigger, resulting in a more flexible trigger strategy and a better overlap between online and offline reconstructed tracks. Furthermore the use of parallelism was investigated, using SIMD instructions for time-critical parts of the software.

  10. DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoming; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of LHCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of ~ 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and relative cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ system.

  11. Performance of the LHCb silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, G. A.; the LHCb Silicon Tracker Group

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector has been optimised for the search for New Physics in CP violating observables and rare heavy-quark decays at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The detector is a single arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The LHCb silicon tracker is constructed from silicon micro-strip detectors with long readout strips. It consists of one four-layer tracking station upstream of the LHCb spectrometer magnet and three stations downstream of the magnet. The detectors have performed extremely well right from the start of LHC operation, permitting the experiment to collect data at instantaneous luminosities well exceeding the design value. In this presentation, an overview of the operational experience from the first two years of data taking at the LHC will be given, with special emphasis on problems encountered. Calibration procedures will be discussed as well as studies of the intrinsic detector efficiency and resolution. First measurements of the observed radiation damage will also be shown.

  12. Job prioritization and fair share in the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, G.; Santinelli, R.

    2008-07-01

    The high demanding computing needs of the LHCb experiment are fulfilled by an extensive use of the Grid resources. Although these are wide and growing, they still remain finite. This paper addresses how all LHCb users can fairly access these resources and execute their tasks in an order determined by identity, group, job type and accounting information.

  13. ARIADNE: a Tracking System for Relationships in LHCb Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, I.; Clemencic, M.; Cattaneo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The data processing model of the LHCb experiment implies handling of an evolving set of heterogeneous metadata entities and relationships between them. The entities range from software and databases states to architecture specificators and software/data deployment locations. For instance, there is an important relationship between the LHCb Conditions Database (CondDB), which provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data, and the LHCb software, which is the data processing applications (used for simulation, high level triggering, reconstruction and analysis of physics data). The evolution of CondDB and of the LHCb applications is a weakly-homomorphic process. It means that relationships between a CondDB state and LHCb application state may not be preserved across different database and application generations. These issues may lead to various kinds of problems in the LHCb production, varying from unexpected application crashes to incorrect data processing results. In this paper we present Ariadne - a generic metadata relationships tracking system based on the novel NoSQL Neo4j graph database. Its aim is to track and analyze many thousands of evolving relationships for cases such as the one described above, and several others, which would otherwise remain unmanaged and potentially harmful. The highlights of the paper include the system's implementation and management details, infrastructure needed for running it, security issues, first experience of usage in the LHCb production and potential of the system to be applied to a wider set of LHCb tasks.

  14. A GPU offloading mechanism for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalov, Alexey; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Zvyagin, Alexander; Neufeld, Niko; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The current computational infrastructure at LHCb is designed for sequential execution. It is possible to make use of modern multi-core machines by using multi-threaded algorithms and running multiple instances in parallel, but there is no way to make efficient use of specialized massively parallel hardware, such as graphical processing units and Intel Xeon/Phi. We extend the current infrastructure with an out-of-process computational server able to gather data from multiple instances and process them in large batches.

  15. SIMD studies in the LHCb reconstruction software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámpora Pérez, Daniel Hugo; Couturier, Ben

    2015-12-01

    During the data taking process in the LHC at CERN, millions of collisions are recorded every second by the LHCb Detector. The LHCb Online computing farm, counting around 15000 cores, is dedicated to the reconstruction of the events in real-time, in order to filter those with interesting Physics. The ones kept are later analysed Offline in a more precise fashion on the Grid. This imposes very stringent requirements on the reconstruction software, which has to be as efficient as possible. Modern CPUs support so-called vector-extensions, which extend their Instruction Sets, allowing for concurrent execution across functional units. Several libraries expose the Single Instruction Multiple Data programming paradigm to issue these instructions. The use of vectorisation in our codebase can provide performance boosts, leading ultimately to Physics reconstruction enhancements. In this paper, we present vectorisation studies of significant reconstruction algorithms. A variety of vectorisation libraries are analysed and compared in terms of design, maintainability and performance. We also present the steps taken to systematically measure the performance of the released software, to ensure the consistency of the run-time of the vectorised software.

  16. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  17. Upgrade of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leflat, A.

    2014-08-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the entire readout to a trigger-less system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm, with access to all event information. This will enable the detector to run at luminosities of 1-2 × 1033/cm2/s and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy sector with unprecedented precision. The upgraded VELO must be low mass, radiation hard and vacuum compatible. It must be capable of fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction and will be required to drive data to the outside world at speeds of up to 2.5 Tbit/s. This challenge is being met with a new Vertex Locator (VELO) design based on hybrid pixel detectors positioned to within 5 mm of the LHC colliding beams. The sensors have 55 × 55 μm square pixels and the VELOPix ASIC which is being developed for the readout is based on the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The hottest ASIC will have to cope with pixel hit rates of up to 900 MHz. The material budget will be optimised with the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within a thin silicon substrate. Microchannel cooling brings many advantages: very efficient heat transfer with almost no temperature gradients across the module, no CTE mismatch with silicon components, and low material contribution. This is a breakthrough technology being developed for LHCb. LHCb is also focussing effort on the construction of a lightweight foil to separate the primary and secondary LHC vacua, the development of high speed cables and radiation qualification of the module. The 40 MHz readout will also bring significant conceptual changes to the way in which the upgrade trigger is operated. Work is in progress to incorporate momentum and impact parameter information into the trigger at the earliest possible stage, using the fast pattern recognition capabilities of the upgraded detector. The current status of the VELO upgrade will

  18. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  19. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    PubMed

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1). PMID:24159309

  20. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Elsayed B.

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L−1. PMID:24159309

  1. Ensuring GRID resource availability with the SAM framework in LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closier, J.; Paterson, S.; Santinelli, R.

    2008-07-01

    The LHCb experiment has chosen to use the SAM framework (Service Availability Monitoring Environment from EGEE-II) [1] make extensive tests of the LHCb environment at all the accessible grid resources. The availability and the proper definition of the local Computing and Storage Elements, user interfaces as well as the WLCG software environment are checked. The SAM framework is also used to pre-install the LHCb applications in the shared software area provided by each site. The deployment of the LHCb applications is based on a python tool developed inside the experiment. It is used for software management including incremental installation of interdependent packages and clean package removal. After the application software is installed a validation test of the whole MC chain is run. According to the results of the experiment specific SAM tests, the sites are (re)integrated into the LHCb production system managed by DIRAC [2]. The possibility of automated dynamic site certification using the SAM test suite is explored. This paper will describe the various ways of the LHCb use of the SAM framework. Practical experience in the recent production runs, current limitations and future developments will be presented.

  2. A Universal Logging System for LHCb Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidis, Fotis; Brarda, Loic; Garnier, Jean-Christophe; Neufeld, Niko

    2011-12-01

    A log is recording of system's activity, aimed to help system administrator to traceback an attack, find the causes of a malfunction and generally with troubleshooting. The fact that logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, makes logging system a crucial part of an IT infrastructure. In large scale infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, where quite a few GB of logs are produced daily, it is impossible for a human to review all of these logs. Moreover, a great percentage of them as just "noise". That makes clear that a more automated and sophisticated approach is needed. In this paper, we present a low-cost centralized logging system which allow us to do in-depth analysis of every log.

  3. Tracking system of the upgraded LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obłąkowska-Mucha, A.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-07-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment will run at an instantaneous luminosity up to 2 ×1033cm-2s-1 with a fully software based trigger, allowing us to read out the detector at a rate of 40 MHz. For this purpose, the full tracking system will be newly developed: the vertex locator (VELO) will be replaced by a pixel-based detector providing an excellent track reconstruction with an efficiency of above 99%. Upstream of the magnet, a silicon micro-strip detector with a high granularity and an improved acceptance, called the Upstream Tracker (UT) will be placed. The tracking system downstream of the magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre tracker (SciFi), which will consist of 12 layers using 2.5 m long scintillating fibres read out by silicon photo-multipliers.

  4. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  5. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  6. Production of fuel ethanol from wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw contains about 70% carbohydrates that can serve as a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. The pretreatment of wheat straw is essential prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Research needs to be carried out to develop an efficient pretreatment method which can greatly help enzyme...

  7. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  8. Moisture in a straw bale wall

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.; Wang, Z.; Weiser, R.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this project was to see if there was sufficient moisture to promote fungus growth within a straw bale wall. To determine the level of moisture, the walls in a straw bale building were instrumented to monitor relative humidity. The year-long monitoring began in August, 1997. During the monitoring period the building's interior relative humidity ranged from 22 to 71% and the exterior relative humidity ranged from 10 to 94%. The maximum straw bale relative humidity recorded was 85%, which occurred on February 21 on the south side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side. The minimum straw bale relative humidity occurred on August 13 on the east side of the building in a lower bale on the exterior side and was 27%. In the 23 studies of mold growth in straw bales the authors reviewed, mold growth occurred between 70 and 91% relative humidity.

  9. The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 play complementary roles during state transitions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowska, Malgorzata; Suorsa, Marjaana; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Tikkanen, Mikko; Boekema, Egbert J; Aro, Eva-Mari; Jansson, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by phosphorylation-driven state transitions: functional redistributions of the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to balance the relative excitation of photosystem I and photosystem II. State transitions are driven by reversible LHCII phosphorylation by the STN7 kinase and PPH1/TAP38 phosphatase. LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. Here, we show that despite their nearly identical amino acid composition, the functional roles of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are different but complementary. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. However, these do not perform state transitions, so phosphorylation of Lhcb2 seems to be a critical step. In contrast, plants lacking Lhcb1 had a more profound antenna remodeling due to a decrease in the amount of LHCII trimers influencing thylakoid membrane structure and, more indirectly, state transitions. Although state transitions are also found in green algae, the detailed architecture of the extant seed plant light-harvesting antenna can now be dated back to a time after the divergence of the bryophyte and spermatophyte lineages, but before the split of the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages more than 300 million years ago. PMID:25194026

  10. Assessment of Straw Biomass Feedstock Resources in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw is produced as a coproduct of cereal grain and grass seed production on 6.2 million acres in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Some of this straw residue is returned to the soil for conservation purposes, but markets for excess straw are limited. As a consequence, much of this straw was burne...

  11. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    PubMed

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw). PMID:23749039

  12. B-physics prospects with the LHCb experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harnew, N.

    2008-04-15

    This paper summarizes the B-physics prospects of the LHCb experiment. Firstly, a brief introduction to the CKM matrix and the mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model is given. The advantages of the LHCb experiment for B-physics exploitation will then be described, together with a short description of the detector components. Finally, the LHCb physics aims and prospects will be summarized, focusing on the measurements of sin(2{beta}) in tree and gluonic penguin diagrams, sin(2{alpha}) in B{sub d}{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, neutral B-meson oscillations and the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing phase, and the measurement of {gamma} using a variety of complementary methods.

  13. Performance and upgrade plans of the LHCb trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorov, V. V.; LHCb Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The trigger of the LHCb experiment consists of two stages: an initial hardware trigger, and a high-level trigger implemented in a farm of parallel-processing CPUs. It reduces the event rate from an input of 15 MHz to an output rate of around 4 kHz. In order to maximize efficiencies and minimize biases, the trigger is designed around inclusive selection algorithms, culminating in a novel boosted decision tree which enables the efficient selection of beauty hadron decays based on a robust partial reconstruction of their decay products. In order to improve performance, the LHCb upgrade aims to significantly increase the rate at which the detector will be read out, and hence shift more of the workload onto the high-level trigger. It is demonstrated that the current high-level trigger architecture will be able to meet this challenge, and the expected efficiencies in several key channels are discussed in context of the LHCb upgrade.

  14. LHCb Build and Deployment Infrastructure for run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2015-12-01

    After the successful run 1 of the LHC, the LHCb Core software team has taken advantage of the long shutdown to consolidate and improve its build and deployment infrastructure. Several of the related projects have already been presented like the build system using Jenkins, as well as the LHCb Performance and Regression testing infrastructure. Some components are completely new, like the Software Configuration Database (using the Graph DB Neo4j), or the new packaging installation using RPM packages. Furthermore all those parts are integrated to allow easier and quicker releases of the LHCb Software stack, therefore reducing the risk of operational errors. Integration and Regression tests are also now easier to implement, allowing to improve further the software checks.

  15. Searching supersymmetry at the LHCb with displaced vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, F. de; Eboli, O. J. P.; Magro, M. B.; Restrepo, D.

    2009-03-01

    Supersymmetric theories with bilinear R-parity violation can give rise to the observed neutrino masses and mixings. One important feature of such models is that the lightest supersymmetric particle might have a sufficiently large lifetime to produce detached vertices. Working in the framework of supergravity models, we analyze the potential of the LHCb experiment to search for supersymmetric models exhibiting bilinear R-parity violation. We show that the LHCb experiment can probe a large fraction of the m{sub 0} x m{sub 1/2}, being able to explore gluino masses up to 1.3 TeV. The LHCb discover potential for these kinds of models is similar to the ATLAS and CMS ones in the low luminosity phase of operation of the LHC.

  16. TUBE TESTER

    DOEpatents

    Gittings, H.T. Jr.; Kalbach, J.F.

    1958-01-14

    This patent relates to tube testing, and in particular describes a tube tester for automatic testing of a number of vacuum tubes while in service and as frequently as may be desired. In it broadest aspects the tube tester compares a particular tube with a standard tube tarough a difference amplifier. An unbalanced condition in the circuit of the latter produced by excessive deviation of the tube in its characteristics from standard actuates a switch mechanism stopping the testing cycle and indicating the defective tube.

  17. Tested R-value for straw bale walls and performance modeling for straw bale homes

    SciTech Connect

    Commins, T.R.; Stone, N.I.

    1998-07-01

    Since the late 1800's, houses have been built of straw. Contrary to nursery rhymes, these houses have proved sturdy and comfortable and not at all easy to blow down. In the last several years, as people have experimented with new and old building materials and looked for ways to halt rice field stubble burning, there has been a resurgence of homes built with straw. Unfortunately, there has been very little testing to determine the thermal performance of straw bale walls or to discover how these walls affect a home's heating and cooling energy consumption. Reported R-values for straw bale walls range from R-17 to R-54, depending on the test procedure, the type of straw used and the type of straw bale wall system. This paper reports on a test set-up by the California Energy Commission (Commission) and conducted in a nationally accredited lab, Architectural Testing Inc. (ATI) in Fresno, California. The paper describes the tested straw bale wall assemblies, the testing process, and problems encountered in the construction and testing of the walls. The paper also gives a reasonable R-value to use in calculating thermal performance of straw bale houses and presents findings that show that straw bale construction can decrease the heating and cooling energy usage of a typical house by up to a third over conventional practice.

  18. Preliminary investigation of fungal bioprocessing of wheat straw for production of straw-thermoplastic composites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David N; Houghton, Tracy P; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Shaw, Peter G; Hess, J Richard

    2003-01-01

    Straw utilization for composites is limited by poor resin and polymer penetration, and excessive resin consumption owing to the straw cuticle, fines, and lignin-hemicellulose matrix. White-rot fungi degrade these components of straw and could, therefore, potentially be used to improve resin penetration and resin binding without the use of physical or chemical pretreatments. Although long treatment times and large footprints the limit use of fungal treatments on a large scale, distributed fungal pretreatments could alleviate land requirements. In this article, we present progress toward the development of a passive fungal straw upgrading system utilizing whiterot fungi. PMID:12721465

  19. The upgraded LHCb RICH detector: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, R.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb upgrade will take place during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). The upgrade will enable the experiment to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 ×1033cm-2s-1 and will read out data at a rate of 40 MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors (RICH), installed in the LHCb experiment, will be re-designed to comply with these new operating conditions. The status and perspective of the RICH upgrade project will be presented.

  20. First LHC beam induced tracks reconstructed in the LHCb VELO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, C.; Borghi, S.; Bates, A.; Eklund, L.; Gersabeck, M.; Marinho, F.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rodrigues, E.; Szumlak, T.; Affolder, A.; Bowcock, T.; Casse, G.; Donleavy, S.; Hennessy, K.; Huse, T.; Hutchcroft, D.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Noor, A.; Patel, G.; Rinnert, K.; Smith, N. A.; Shears, T.; Tobin, M.; John, M.; Bay, A.; Frei, R.; Haefeli, G.; Keune, A.; Anderson, J.; McNulty, R.; Traynor, S.; Basiladze, S.; Leflat, A.; Artuso, M.; Borgia, A.; Lefeuvre, G.; Mountain, R.; Wang, J.; Akiba, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Jans, E.; Ketel, T.; Mous, I.; Papadelis, A.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Verlaat, B.; de Vries, H.; Behrendt, O.; Buytaert, J.; de Capua, S.; Collins, P.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment has been used to fully reconstruct beam induced tracks at the LHC. A beam of protons was collided with a beam absorber during the LHC synchronisation test of the anti-clockwise beam on the weekend 22nd-24th August 2008. The resulting particles have been observed by the Vertex Locator. The LHCb Vertex Locator is a silicon micro-strip detector containing 21 planes of modules. Tracks were observed passing through up to 19 modules (38 silicon sensors). A total of over 700 tracks were reconstructed, and are being used to study the calibration and alignment of the detector.

  1. Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160112.html Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C Study highlights more fallout from opioid epidemic ... to snort opioids is a major cause of hepatitis C infection, a new study finds. The sharing ...

  2. Performance of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Affolder, A.; Akiba, K.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Artuso, M.; Bates, A.; Bay, A.; Behrendt, O.; Benton, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Bogdanova, G.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; van den Brand, J.; Brown, H.; Buytaert, J.; Callot, O.; Carroll, J.; Casse, G.; Collins, P.; De Capua, S.; Doets, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dossett, D.; Dumps, R.; Eckstein, D.; Eklund, L.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Frei, R.; Garofoli, J.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Gong, A.; Gong, H.; Gordon, H.; Haefeli, G.; Harrison, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huse, T.; Hutchcroft, D.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, P.; Jans, E.; John, M.; Keaveney, J.; Ketel, T.; Korolev, M.; Kraan, M.; Laštovička, T.; Lafferty, G.; Latham, T.; Lefeuvre, G.; Leflat, A.; Liles, M.; van Lysebetten, A.; MacGregor, G.; Marinho, F.; McNulty, R.; Merkin, M.; Moran, D.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Needham, M.; Nikitin, N.; Noor, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Papadelis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Patel, G. D.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Redford, S.; Reid, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rodrigues, E.; Saavedra, A. F.; Schiller, M.; Schneider, O.; Shears, T.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Smith, N. A.; Szumlak, T.; Thomas, C.; van Tilburg, J.; Tobin, M.; Velthuis, J.; Verlaat, B.; Viret, S.; Volkov, V.; Wallace, C.; Wang, J.; Webber, A.; Whitehead, M.; Zverev, E.

    2014-09-01

    The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a silicon microstrip detector that surrounds the proton-proton interaction region in the LHCb experiment. The performance of the detector during the first years of its physics operation is reviewed. The system is operated in vacuum, uses a bi-phase CO2 cooling system, and the sensors are moved to 7 mm from the LHC beam for physics data taking. The performance and stability of these characteristic features of the detector are described, and details of the material budget are given. The calibration of the timing and the data processing algorithms that are implemented in FPGAs are described. The system performance is fully characterised. The sensors have a signal to noise ratio of approximately 20 and a best hit resolution of 4 μm is achieved at the optimal track angle. The typical detector occupancy for minimum bias events in standard operating conditions in 2011 is around 0.5%, and the detector has less than 1% of faulty strips. The proximity of the detector to the beam means that the inner regions of the n+-on-n sensors have undergone space-charge sign inversion due to radiation damage. The VELO performance parameters that drive the experiment's physics sensitivity are also given. The track finding efficiency of the VELO is typically above 98% and the modules have been aligned to a precision of 1 μm for translations in the plane transverse to the beam. A primary vertex resolution of 13 μm in the transverse plane and 71 μm along the beam axis is achieved for vertices with 25 tracks. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 μm is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c.

  3. Virtualization for the LHCb Online system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Enrico; Brarda, Loic; Moine, Gary; Neufeld, Niko

    2011-12-01

    Virtualization has long been advertised by the IT-industry as a way to cut down cost, optimise resource usage and manage the complexity in large data-centers. The great number and the huge heterogeneity of hardware, both industrial and custom-made, has up to now led to reluctance in the adoption of virtualization in the IT infrastructure of large experiment installations. Our experience in the LHCb experiment has shown that virtualization improves the availability and the manageability of the whole system. We have done an evaluation of available hypervisors / virtualization solutions and find that the Microsoft HV technology provides a high level of maturity and flexibility for our purpose. We present the results of these comparison tests, describing in detail, the architecture of our virtualization infrastructure with a special emphasis on the security for services visible to the outside world. Security is achieved by a sophisticated combination of VLANs, firewalls and virtual routing - the cost and benefits of this solution are analysed. We have adapted our cluster management tools, notably Quattor, for the needs of virtual machines and this allows us to migrate smoothly services on physical machines to the virtualized infrastructure. The procedures for migration will also be described. In the final part of the document we describe our recent R&D activities aiming to replacing the SAN-backend for the virtualization by a cheaper iSCSI solution - this will allow to move all servers and related services to the virtualized infrastructure, excepting the ones doing hardware control via non-commodity PCI plugin cards.

  4. Determination of the anode wire position by visible light in a new type straw for NA62 experiment tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glonti, L.; Misheva, M.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Samsonov, V.; Movchan, S.; Enik, T.; Kolesnikov, A.

    2016-07-01

    Microscope investigations of new-type thin-wall tubes (straws) produced for NA62 drift chambers revealed that they are semitransparent and allow anode wires to be observed under illumination by visible light. In this work it is shown that positions of wires in straws and thus the anode spacing in the drift chambers can be directly determined with a high accuracy (~5-10 μm) using a microscope mounted on a high-precision optical bench. These data are important for decreasing errors during reconstruction of charged particle track coordinates in the drift chambers. The proposed technique is much simpler than the X-ray or radioactive source methods.

  5. On the anomalies in the latest LHCb data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurth, T.; Mahmoudi, F.; Neshatpour, S.

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the assumptions on the power corrections to the exclusive b → sℓ+ℓ- decays, the latest data of the LHCb Collaboration - based on the 3 fb-1 data set and on two different experimental analysis methods - still shows some tensions with the Standard Model predictions. We present a detailed analysis of the theoretical inputs and various global fits to all the available b → sℓ+ℓ- data. This constitutes the first global analysis of the new data of the LHCb Collaboration based on the hypothesis that these tensions can be at least partially explained by new physics contributions. In our model-independent analysis we present one-, two-, four-, and also five-dimensional global fits in the space of Wilson coefficients to all available b → sℓ+ℓ- data. We also compare the two different experimental LHCb analyses of the angular observables in B →K*μ+μ-. We explicitly analyse the dependence of our results on the assumptions about power corrections, but also on the errors present in the form factor calculations. Moreover, based on our new global fits we present predictions for ratios of observables which may show a sign of lepton non-universality. Their measurements would crosscheck the LHCb result on the ratio RK = BR (B+ →K+μ+μ-) / BR (B+ →K+e+e-) in the low-q2 region which deviates from the SM prediction by 2.6σ.

  6. Recent and planned changes to the LHCb computing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, M.; Charpentier, P.; Clarke, P.; Roiser, S.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment [1] has taken data between December 2009 and February 2013. The data taking conditions and trigger rate were adjusted several times during this period to make optimal use of the luminosity delivered by the LHC and to extend the physics potential of the experiment. By 2012, LHCb was taking data at twice the instantaneous luminosity and 2.5 times the high level trigger rate than originally foreseen. This represents a considerable increase in the amount of data which had to be handled compared to the original Computing Model from 2005, both in terms of compute power and in terms of storage. In this paper we describe the changes that have taken place in the LHCb computing model during the last 2 years of data taking to process and analyse the increased data rates within limited computing resources. In particular a quite original change was introduced at the end of 2011 when LHCb started to use for reprocessing compute power that was not co-located with the RAW data, namely using Tier2 sites and private resources. The flexibility of the LHCbDirac Grid interware allowed easy inclusion of these additional resources that in 2012 provided 45% of the compute power for the end-of-year reprocessing. Several changes were also implemented in the Data Management model in order to limit the need for accessing data from tape, as well as in the data placement policy in order to cope with a large imbalance in storage resources at Tier1 sites. We also discuss changes that are being implemented during the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) to prepare for a further doubling of the data rate when the LHC restarts at a higher energy in 2015.

  7. Evolutionary loss of light-harvesting proteins Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 in major land plant groups - break-up of current dogma.

    PubMed

    Kouřil, Roman; Nosek, Lukáš; Bartoš, Jan; Boekema, Egbert J; Ilík, Petr

    2016-05-01

    Photosynthesis in plants and algae relies on the coordinated function of photosystems (PS) I and II. Their efficiency is augmented by finely-tuned light-harvesting proteins (Lhcs) connected to them. The most recent Lhcs (in evolutionary terms), Lhcb6 and Lhcb3, evolved during the transition of plants from water to land and have so far been considered to be an essential characteristic of land plants. We used single particle electron microscopy and sequence analysis to study architecture and composition of PSII supercomplex from Norway spruce and related species. We have found that there are major land plant families that lack functional lhcb6 and lhcb3 genes, which notably changes the organization of PSII supercomplexes. The Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins have been lost in the gymnosperm genera Picea and Pinus (family Pinaceae) and Gnetum (Gnetales). We also revealed that the absence of these proteins in Norway spruce modifies the PSII supercomplex in such a way that it resembles its counterpart in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an evolutionarily older organism. Our results break a deep-rooted concept of Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins being the essential characteristic of land plants, and beg the question of what the evolutionary benefit of their loss could be. PMID:27001142

  8. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-04-01

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

  9. Image tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Csorba, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    This text provides a wealth of valuable, hard-to-find data on electron optics, imaging, and image intensification systems. The author explains details of image tube theory, design, construction, and components. He includes material on the design and operation of camera tubes, power components, and secondary electron emitters, as well as data on photomultiplier tubes and electron guns.

  10. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  11. A PCIe Gen3 based readout for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellato, M.; Collazuol, G.; D'Antone, I.; Durante, P.; Galli, D.; Jost, B.; Lax, I.; Liu, G.; Marconi, U.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Vagnoni, V.

    2014-06-01

    The architecture of the data acquisition system foreseen for the LHCb upgrade, to be installed by 2018, is devised to readout events trigger-less, synchronously with the LHC bunch crossing rate at 40 MHz. Within this approach the readout boards act as a bridge between the front-end electronics and the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. The baseline design for the LHCb readout is an ATCA board requiring dedicated crates. A local area standard network protocol is implemented in the on-board FPGAs to read out the data. The alternative solution proposed here consists in building the readout boards as PCIe peripherals of the event-builder servers. The main architectural advantage is that protocol and link-technology of the event-builder can be left open until very late, to profit from the most cost-effective industry technology available at the time of the LHC LS2.

  12. Z' models for the LHCb and g -2 muon anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, Ben; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Strumia, Alessandro; Sun, Sichun

    2016-03-01

    We revisit a class of Z' explanations of the anomalies found by the LHCb collaboration in B decays, and show that the scenario is tightly constrained by a combination of constraints: (i) LHC searches for dimuon resonances, (ii) perturbativity of the Z' couplings; (iii) the Bs mass difference, and (iv) electroweak precision data. Solutions are found by suppressing the Z' coupling to electrons and to light quarks and/or by allowing for a Z' decay width into dark matter. We also present a simplified framework where a TeV-scale Z' gauge boson that couples to standard leptons as well as to new heavy vectorlike leptons, can simultaneously accommodate the LHCb anomalies and the muon g -2 anomaly.

  13. Tracking with the LHCb spectrometer: Detector performance and track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuning, N.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The LHCb experiment aims to measure CP violation and rare B-decays. For this, a tracking system is constructed consisting of a silicon micro-strip vertex locator close to the interaction point, and tracking detectors around a dipole magnet. The resulting tracking performance is estimated from simulation to yield 95% efficiency. The momentum and impact parameter resolutions vary between 0.35% and 0.5%, and 20 and 160 μm, respectively.

  14. Event Index — an LHCb Event Search System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustyuzhanin, A.; Artemov, A.; Kazeev, N.; Redkin, A.

    2015-12-01

    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index — an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  15. Status and upgrade of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersabeck, M.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) is the detector responsible for the detection of heavy hadrons through their flight distance. The performance of the VELO during its three years of operation during the LHC physics runs is presented, focussing on the latest studies. The primary results presented are the first observation of type-inversion at the LHC; a comparison of n-type and p-type silicon in operation; and the observation of a radiation-induced charge loss effect due to the presence of a second metal layer. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the entire readout to a trigger-less system operating at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO must be light weight, radiation hard, and compatible with LHC vacuum requirements. The material budget will be optimised with the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in micro-channels within a thin silicon substrate. The current status of the VELO upgrade will be described together with a presentation of recent test results, and a discussion of the R&D on alternative solutions which has been carried out within the LHCb VELO upgrade programme.

  16. The LHCb VERTEX LOCATOR performance and VERTEX LOCATOR upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, P.

    2012-12-01

    LHCb is an experiment dedicated to the study of new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon detector surrounding the LHCb interaction point. The detector operates in a severe and highly non-uniform radiation environment. The small pitch and analogue readout result in a best single hit precision of 4 μm. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the entire readout to a trigger-less system operating at 40 MHz event rate. The vertex detector will have to cope with radiation levels up to 1016 1 MeVneq/cm2, more than an order of magnitude higher than those expected at the current experiment. A solution is under development with a pixel detector, based on the Timepix/Medipix family of chips with 55 x 55 μm pixels. In addition a micro-strip solution is also under development, with finer pitch, higher granularity and lower mass than the current detector. The current status of the VELO will be described together with recent testbeam results.

  17. Comparative Investigation of Shared Filesystems for the LHCb Online Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay Kartik, S.; Neufeld, Niko

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the investigative study undertaken to evaluate shared filesystem performance and suitability in the LHCb Online environment. Particular focus is given to the measurements and field tests designed and performed on an in-house OpenAFS setup; related comparisons with NFSv4 and GPFS (a clustered filesystem from IBM) are presented. The motivation for the investigation and the test setup arises from the need to serve common user-space like home directories, experiment software and control areas, and clustered log areas. Since the operational requirements on such user-space are stringent in terms of read-write operations (in frequency and access speed) and unobtrusive data relocation, test results are presented with emphasis on file-level performance, stability and “high-availability” of the shared filesystems. Use cases specific to the experiment operation in LHCb, including the specific handling of shared filesystems served to a cluster of 1500 diskless nodes, are described. Issues of prematurely expiring authenticated sessions are explicitly addressed, keeping in mind long-running analysis jobs on the Online cluster. In addition, quantitative test results are also presented with alternatives including NFSv4. Comparative measurements of filesystem performance benchmarks are presented, which are seen to be used as reference for decisions on potential migration of the current storage solution deployed in the LHCb online cluster.

  18. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  19. STRAW UTILIZATION IN REGION 10 STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While agricultural burning has been going on for many years in Oregon, Idaho and Washington among grass seed and wheat growers as a means for reducing or eliminating straw wastes, over these years it has become more apparent that ag burning has adverse environmental and human hea...

  20. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, Ph

    2015-12-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs’ execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) simulation jobs. With our approach, independently of the time available, LHCbDIRAC will always have the possibility to execute a MC job, whose length will be adapted to the available amount of time: therefore the same job, running on different computing resources with different time limits, will produce different amounts of events. The decision on the number of events to be produced is made just in time at the start of the job, when the capabilities of the resource are known. In order to know how many events a MC job will be instructed to produce, LHCbDIRAC simply requires three values: the CPU-work per event for that type of job, the power of the machine it is running on, and the time left for the job before being killed. Knowing these values, we can estimate the number of events the job will be able to simulate with the available CPU time. This paper will demonstrate that, using this simple but effective solution, LHCb manages to make a more efficient use of

  1. A drift chamber with a new type of straws for operation in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorskiy, N.; Glonti, L.; Gusakov, Yu.; Elsha, V.; Enik, T.; Kakurin, S.; Kekelidze, V.; Kislov, E.; Kolesnikov, A.; Madigozhin, D.; Movchan, S.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Samsonov, V.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Danielsson, H.; Bendotti, J.; Degrange, J.; Dixon, N.; Lichard, P.; Morant, J.; Palladino, V.; Gomez, F. Perez; Ruggiero, G.; Vergain, M.

    2016-07-01

    A 2150×2150 mm2 registration area drift chamber capable of working in vacuum is presented. Thin-wall tubes (straws) of a new type are used in the chamber. A large share of these 9.80 mm diameter drift tubes are made in Dubna from metalized 36 μm Mylar film welded along the generatrix using an ultrasonic welding machine created at JINR. The main features of the chamber and some characteristics of the drift tubes are described. Four such chambers with the X, Y, U, V coordinates each, containing 7168 straws in total, are designed and produced at JINR and CERN. They are installed in the vacuum volume of the NA62 setup in order to study the ultra-rare decay K+ →π+ vv bar and to search for and study rare meson decays. In autumn 2014 the chambers were used for the first time for the data taking in the experimental run of the NA62 at CERN's SPS.

  2. LHCb RICH Upgrade: an overview of the photon detector and electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassina, L.

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four large detectors operating at the LHC at CERN and it is mainly devoted to CP violation measurements and to the search for new physics in rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The data from the two Ring Image Cherenkov (RICH-1 and RICH-2) detectors are essential to identify particles in a wide momentum range. From 2019 onwards 14 TeV collisions with luminosities reaching up to 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1 with 25 ns bunch spacing are planned, with the goal of collecting 5 fb-1 of data per year. In order to avoid degradation of the PID performance at such high rate (40 MHz), the RICH detector has to be upgraded. New photodetectors (Multi-anode photomultiplier tubes, MaPMTs) have been chosen and will be read out using an 8-channel chip, named CLARO, designed to sustain a photon counting rate up to 40 MHz, while minimizing the power consumption and the cross-talk. A 128-bit digital register allows selection of thresholds and attenuation values and provides features useful for testing and debugging. Photosensors and electronics are arranged in basic units, the first prototypes of which have been tested in charged particle beams in autumn 2014. An overview of the CLARO features and of the readout electronics is presented.

  3. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  4. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  5. Phosphorylation of the Light-Harvesting Complex II Isoform Lhcb2 Is Central to State Transitions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cariti, Federica; Fucile, Geoffrey; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) is a crucial component of the photosynthetic machinery, with central roles in light capture and acclimation to changing light. The association of an LHCII trimer with PSI in the PSI-LHCII supercomplex is strictly dependent on LHCII phosphorylation mediated by the kinase STATE TRANSITION7, and is directly related to the light acclimation process called state transitions. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the LHCII trimers contain isoforms that belong to three classes: Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3. Only Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 can be phosphorylated in the N-terminal region. Here, we present an improved Phos-tag-based method to determine the absolute extent of phosphorylation of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2. Both classes show very similar phosphorylation kinetics during state transition. Nevertheless, only Lhcb2 is extensively phosphorylated (>98%) in PSI-LHCII, whereas phosphorylated Lhcb1 is largely excluded from this supercomplex. Both isoforms are phosphorylated to different extents in other photosystem supercomplexes and in different domains of the thylakoid membranes. The data imply that, despite their high sequence similarity, differential phosphorylation of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 plays contrasting roles in light acclimation of photosynthesis. PMID:26438789

  6. VeloPix: the pixel ASIC for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; De Gaspari, M.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Wyllie, K.; Gromov, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full readout at 40 MHz, with the data fed directly to the software triggering algorithms. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight hybrid pixel detector operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front-end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb readout requirements and the 55 × 55 μm VELO pixel dimensions. The chip is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s, resulting in a required output bandwidth of more than 16 Gbit/s. The occupancy across the chip is also very non-uniform, and the radiation levels reach an integrated 400 Mrad over the lifetime of the detector.VeloPix is a binary pixel readout chip with a data driven readout, designed in 130 nm CMOS technology. The pixels are combined into groups of 2 × 4 super pixels, enabling a shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combined address and time stamp information. The pixel hits are combined with other simultaneous hits in the same super pixel, time stamped, and immediately driven off-chip. The analog front-end must be sufficiently fast to accurately time stamp the data, with a small enough dead time to minimize data loss in the most occupied regions of the chip. The data is driven off chip with a custom designed high speed serialiser. The current status of the ASIC design, the chip architecture and the simulations will be described.

  7. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board.

  8. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  9. Measurements of the LHCb software stack on the ARM architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay Kartik, S.; Couturier, Ben; Clemencic, Marco; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    The ARM architecture is a power-efficient design that is used in most processors in mobile devices all around the world today since they provide reasonable compute performance per watt. The current LHCb software stack is designed (and thus expected) to build and run on machines with the x86/x86_64 architecture. This paper outlines the process of measuring the performance of the LHCb software stack on the ARM architecture - specifically, the ARMv7 architecture on Cortex-A9 processors from NVIDIA and on full-fledged ARM servers with chipsets from Calxeda - and makes comparisons with the performance on x86_64 architectures on the Intel Xeon L5520/X5650 and AMD Opteron 6272. The paper emphasises the aspects of performance per core with respect to the power drawn by the compute nodes for the given performance - this ensures a fair real-world comparison with much more 'powerful' Intel/AMD processors. The comparisons of these real workloads in the context of LHCb are also complemented with the standard synthetic benchmarks HEPSPEC and Coremark. The pitfalls and solutions for the non-trivial task of porting the source code to build for the ARMv7 instruction set are presented. The specific changes in the build process needed for ARM-specific portions of the software stack are described, to serve as pointers for further attempts taken up by other groups in this direction. Cases where architecture-specific tweaks at the assembler lever (both in ROOT and the LHCb software stack) were needed for a successful compile are detailed - these cases are good indicators of where/how the software stack as well as the build system can be made more portable and multi-arch friendly. The experience gained from the tasks described in this paper are intended to i) assist in making an informed choice about ARM-based server solutions as a feasible low-power alternative to the current compute nodes, and ii) revisit the software design and build system for portability and generic improvements.

  10. Measurement of the CP-violating phase γ at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, R. F.; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CKM phase γ is the angle of the unitarity triangle which is least well known. To reach the highest sensitivity to its value, all currently available measurements using hadronic tree decays by LHCb are combined, resulting in γ=(73 ^{+9}_{-10})°. The combination includes results from measurements of time-integrated CP violation in B^{±}→ Dh^{±} and B0→ DK^{*0} decays, with h a pion or kaon, and from a time-dependent measurement of CP violation using Bs0→ Ds^{±}K^{∓} decays.

  11. An environmental and economical solution to sound absorption using straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnes, Courtney; Kleiner, Mendel; Xiang, Ning

    2005-09-01

    The growing attentiveness to using environmentally friendly materials in the building construction industry as a whole has led many architects to research the use of natural materials. Natural fibers, such as straw, are advantageous due to their accessibility, ease of processing, and their ability to be discarded with a lesser environmental impact through biodegradability. While the material focus may have shifted, the need for quality acoustic environments has remained the same. In a set of preliminary studies, the absorption coefficients of sound absorbers using natural fibers have been proven to have comparable values relative to other highly absorptive, nonenvironmentally friendly materials such as mineral wool and fiberglass. The absorption coefficients were evaluated for octave and third-octave frequencies (125 to 4000 Hz) using the impedance tube method with one microphone. While these absorbers may be acoustically effective as well as environmentally friendly, there may be potential concerns in using natural fibers such as their life span, fire rating, and potential health risks, i.e., disposal techniques, allergenic reactions, and insect and fungus infestation.

  12. Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

  13. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  14. LHCb experience with running jobs in virtual machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Luzzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment has been running production jobs in virtual machines since 2013 as part of its DIRAC-based infrastructure. We describe the architecture of these virtual machines and the steps taken to replicate the WLCG worker node environment expected by user and production jobs. This relies on the uCernVM system for providing root images for virtual machines. We use the CernVM-FS distributed filesystem to supply the root partition files, the LHCb software stack, and the bootstrapping scripts necessary to configure the virtual machines for us. Using this approach, we have been able to minimise the amount of contextualisation which must be provided by the virtual machine managers. We explain the process by which the virtual machine is able to receive payload jobs submitted to DIRAC by users and production managers, and how this differs from payloads executed within conventional DIRAC pilot jobs on batch queue based sites. We describe our operational experiences in running production on VM based sites managed using Vcycle/OpenStack, Vac, and HTCondor Vacuum. Finally we show how our use of these resources is monitored using Ganglia and DIRAC.

  15. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beuzekom, M.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Collins, P.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Wyllie, K.; Zivkovic, V.

    2013-12-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and flexibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identification of flavour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require significant modification to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm2 chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-threshold measurements, time-stamping and sparse readout. It must in addition be low power, radiation hard, and immune to single event upsets. In order to cope with the datarates and use the pixel area most effectively, an on-chip data compression scheme will integrated. This paper will describe the requirements of the LHCb VELO upgrade, and give an overview of the digital architecture being developed specifically for the readout chip.

  16. More lepton flavor violating observables for LHCb's run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Melikhov, Dmitri; Reboud, Méril

    2016-09-01

    The RK measurement by LHCb suggests non-standard lepton non-universality (LNU) to occur in b → sℓ+ℓ- transitions, with effects in muons rather than electrons. A number of other measurements of b → sℓ+ℓ- transitions by LHCb and B-factories display disagreement with the SM predictions and, remarkably, these discrepancies are consistent in magnitude and sign with the RK effect. Non-standard LNU suggests non-standard lepton flavor violation (LFV) as well, for example in B → Kℓℓ‧ and Bs → ℓℓ‧. There are good reasons to expect that the new effects may be larger for generations closer to the third one. In this case, the Bs → μe decay may be the most difficult to reach experimentally. We propose and study in detail the radiative counterpart of this decay, namely Bs → μeγ, whereby the chiral-suppression factor is replaced by a factor of order α / π. A measurement of this mode would be sensitive to the same physics as the purely leptonic LFV decay and, depending on experimental efficiencies, it may be more accessible. A realistic expectation is a factor of two improvement in statistics for either of the Bd,s modes.

  17. Time Structure Analysis of the LHCb DAQ Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antichi, G.; Bruyere, M.; Cámpora Pérez, D. H.; Liu, G.; Neufeld, N.; Giordano, S.; Owezarski, P.; Moore, A. W.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb DAQ Network is a real time high performance network, in which 350 data sources send data over a Gigabit Ethernet LAN to more than 1500 receiving nodes. The aggregated throughput of the application, called Event Building, is more than 60 Gbps. The protocol employed by LHCb makes the sending nodes transmit simultaneously portions of events to one receiving node at a time, which is selected using a credit-token scheme. The resulting traffic is very bursty and sensitive to irregularities in the temporal distribution of packet-bursts to the same destination or region of the network. In order to study the relevant properties of such a dataflow, a non-disruptive monitoring setup based on a networking capable FPGA (Netfpga) has been deployed. The Netfpga allows order of hundred nano-second precise time-stamping of packets. We study in detail the timing structure of the Event Building communication, and we identify potential effects of micro-bursts like buffer packet drops or jitter.

  18. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCb Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overal precision of 3.5% in the absolute luminosity determination is reached. The techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity calibration to the full 2010 data-taking period are presented.

  19. Disk storage management for LHCb based on Data Popularity estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hushchyn, Mikhail; Charpentier, Philippe; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an algorithm providing recommendations for optimizing the LHCb data storage. The LHCb data storage system is a hybrid system. All datasets are kept as archives on magnetic tapes. The most popular datasets are kept on disks. The algorithm takes the dataset usage history and metadata (size, type, configuration etc.) to generate a recommendation report. This article presents how we use machine learning algorithms to predict future data popularity. Using these predictions it is possible to estimate which datasets should be removed from disk. We use regression algorithms and time series analysis to find the optimal number of replicas for datasets that are kept on disk. Based on the data popularity and the number of replicas optimization, the algorithm minimizes a loss function to find the optimal data distribution. The loss function represents all requirements for data distribution in the data storage system. We demonstrate how our algorithm helps to save disk space and to reduce waiting times for jobs using this data.

  20. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  1. New mechanisms for double charmed meson production at the LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciuła, Rafał; Saleev, Vladimir A.; Shipilova, Alexandra V.; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    We discuss production of D0D0 (and Dbar0Dbar0) pairs related to the LHCb Collaboration results for √{ s} = 7 TeV in proton-proton scattering. We consider double-parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms of double c c bar production and subsequent cc →D0D0 hadronization as well as double g and mixed gc c bar production with gg →D0D0 and gc →D0D0 hadronization calculated with the help of the scale-dependent hadronization functions of Kniehl et al. Single-parton scattering (SPS) mechanism of digluon production is also taken into account. We compare our results with several correlation observables in azimuthal angle φD0D0 between D0 mesons or in dimeson invariant mass MD0D0. The inclusion of new mechanisms with g →D0 fragmentation leads to larger cross sections, than when including only DPS mechanism cc →D0D0 with standard scale-independent fragmentation functions. Some consequences of the presence of the new mechanisms are discussed. In particular a larger σeff is needed to describe the LHCb data. There is a signature that σeff may depend on transverse momentum of c quarks and/or c bar antiquarks.

  2. Boron-coated straws as a replacement for 3He-based neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Athanasiades, Athanasios; Sun, Liang; Martin, Christopher S.; Lyons, Tom D.; Foss, Michael A.; Haygood, Hal B.

    2011-10-01

    US and international government efforts to equip major seaports with large area neutron detectors, aimed to intercept the smuggling of nuclear materials, have precipitated a critical shortage of 3He gas. It is estimated that the annual demand of 3He for US security applications alone is more than the worldwide supply. This is strongly limiting the prospects of neutron science, safeguards, and other applications that rely heavily on 3He-based detectors. Clearly, alternate neutron detection technologies that can support large sensitive areas, and have low gamma sensitivity and low cost must be developed. We propose a low-cost technology based on long copper tubes (straws), coated on the inside with a thin layer of 10B-enriched boron carbide ( 10B 4C). In addition to the high abundance of boron on Earth and low cost of 10B enrichment, the boron-coated straw (BCS) detector offers distinct advantages over conventional 3He-based detectors, and alternate technologies such as 10BF 3 tubes and 10B-coated rigid tubes. These include better distribution inside moderator assemblies, many-times faster electronic signals, no pressurization, improved gamma-ray rejection, no toxic or flammable gases, and ease of serviceability. We present the performance of BCS detectors dispersed in a solid plastic moderator to address the need for portal monitoring. The design adopts the outer dimensions of currently deployed 3He-based monitors, but takes advantage of the small BCS diameter to achieve a more uniform distribution of neutron converter throughout the moderating material. We show that approximately 63 BCS detectors, each 205 cm long, distributed inside the moderator, can match or exceed the detection efficiency of typical monitors fitted with a 5 cm diameter 3He tube, 187 cm long, pressurized to 3 atm.

  3. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well. PMID:24043125

  4. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  5. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  6. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  7. Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Fungal Flora Decomposing Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The fungal flora decomposing rice straw were investigated all over the soil of Sharkia Province, east of Nile Delta, Egypt, using the nylon net bag technique. Sixty-four straw-decomposing species belonging to 30 genera were isolated by the dilution plate method in ground rice straw-Czapek's agar medium at pH 6. The plates were incubated separately at 5℃, 25℃ and 45℃, respectively. Twenty nine species belonging to 14 genera were isolated at 5℃. The most frequent genus was Penicillium (seven species), and the next frequent genera were Acremonium (three species), Fusarium (three species), Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Mucor, Stachybotrys (two species) and Rhizopus stolonifer. At 25℃, 47 species belonging to 24 genera were isolated. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus (nine species), and the next frequent genera were ranked by Penicillium (five species), Chaetomium (three species), Fusarium (three species). Each of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Myrothecium and Trichoderma was represented by two species. At 45℃, 15 species belonging to seven genera were isolated. These were seven species of Aspergillus, two species of Chaetomium and two species of Emericella, while Humicola, Malbranchea, Rhizomucor and Talaromyces were represented by one species respectively. The total counts of fungi the genera, and species per gram of dry straw were significantly affected by incubation temperature and soil analysis (P < 0.05). PMID:24049492

  8. Bioethanol production from rice straw by popping pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice straw has considerable potential as a raw material for bioethanol production. Popping pretreatment of rice straw prior to downstream enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was found to increase cellulose to glucose conversion efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of popping pretreatment and determine the optimal enzyme loading using a surface response design. Results The optimal doses of cellulase and xylanase enzymes were 23 FPU and 62 IU/g biomass, respectively. Using the optimized enzyme condition and popping pretreatment of rice straw (15% substrate loading, w/v), a sugar recovery of 0.567 g/g biomass (glucose; 0.394 g/g) was obtained in 48 h, which was significantly higher than that from untreated rice straw (total sugar recovery; 0.270 g/g biomass). Fermentation of the hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in 0.172 g ethanol/g biomass after 24 h, equivalent to 80.9% of the maximum theoretical yield (based on the amount of glucose in raw material). Changes in the chemical composition and surface area of rice straw were also investigated before and after popping pretreatment. The results showed little or no difference in chemical composition between the pretreated rice straw and the control. However, the surface area of pretreated rice straw increased twofold compared to the control. Conclusion Popping pretreatment of rice straw can effectively improve downstream saccharification and fermentation, important for bioethanol production. PMID:24286244

  9. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  10. Temporal Changes in Tall Fescue Straw Residue Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In grass seed agriculture, straw residue is a byproduct. Traditionally it has been thought of as a “waste” product yielding little additional net income to the grower. Straw residue can be baled and sold to Asian or local markets, open field burned, or flailed and left on the soil surface or incorpo...

  11. Coproduction of xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengdong; Huang, Wangxiang; Huang, Wenjing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Qiming; Wu, Yuanxin

    2015-06-01

    A novel integrated process to coproduce xylose, lignosulfonate and ethanol from wheat straw was investigated. Firstly, wheat straw was treated by dilute sulfuric acid and xylose was recovered from its hydrolyzate. Its optimal conditions were 1.0wt% sulfuric acid, 10% (w/v) wheat straw loading, 100°C, and 2h. Then the acid treated wheat straw was treated by sulfomethylation reagent and its hydrolyzate containing lignosulfonate was directly recovered. Its optimal conditions were 150°C, 15% (w/v) acid treated wheat straw loading, and 5h. Finally, the two-step treated wheat straw was converted to ethanol through enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Under optimal conditions, 1kg wheat straw could produce 0.225kg xylose with 95% purity, 4.16kg hydrolyzate of sulfomethylation treatment containing 5.5% lignosulfonate, 0.183kg ethanol and 0.05kg lignin residue. Compared to present technology, this process is a potential economically profitable wheat straw biorefinery. PMID:25770471

  12. The Flow and Pressure Relationships in Different Tubes Commonly Used for Semi-occluded Vocal Tract Exercises.

    PubMed

    Amarante Andrade, Pedro; Wistbacka, Greta; Larsson, Hans; Södersten, Maria; Hammarberg, Britta; Simberg, Susanna; Švec, Jan G; Granqvist, Svante

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the back pressure (P(back)) versus flow (U) relationship for 10 different tubes commonly used for semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, that is, eight straws of different lengths and diameters, a resonance tube, and a silicone tube similar to a Lax Vox tube. All tubes were assessed with the free end in air. The resonance tube and silicone tube were further assessed with the free end under water at the depths from 1 to 7 cm in steps of 1 cm. The results showed that relative changes in the diameter of straws affect P(back) considerably more compared with the same amount of relative change in length. Additionally, once tubes are submerged into water, P(back) needs to overcome the pressure generated by the water depth before flow can start. Under this condition, only a small increase in P(back) was observed as the flow was increased. Therefore, the wider tubes submerged into water produced an almost constant P(back) determined by the water depth, whereas the thinner straws in air produced relatively large changes to P(back) as flow was changed. These differences may be taken advantage of when customizing exercises for different users and diagnoses and optimizing the therapy outcome. PMID:25873546

  13. First results with charmless two-body B-decays at LHCb, and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-22

    LHCb is an experiment which is designed to perform flavour physics measurements at the LHC. Charged two-body charmless B decays (e.g. B^0 -> Kpi, pipi, B_s->KK, etc) receive significant contributions from loop diagrams and are thus sensitive probes of New Physics. Study of these modes is therefore an important physics goal of LHCb. First results will be presented, using around 37 pb^{-1} of data collected at \\sqrt{s}=7 TeV in 2010. These results illustrate the power of the LHCb trigger system and particle identification capabilities of the RICH detectors in isolating clean samples of each final state, and include preliminary measurements of direct CP-violation in certain key modes. The prospects for these measurements in the coming run will be presented. A brief survey will also be given of results and prospect in other areas of the LHCb physics programme.

  14. First results with charmless two-body B-decays at LHCb, and future prospects

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    LHCb is an experiment which is designed to perform flavour physics measurements at the LHC. Charged two-body charmless B decays (e.g. B^0 -> Kpi, pipi, B_s->KK, etc) receive significant contributions from loop diagrams and are thus sensitive probes of New Physics. Study of these modes is therefore an important physics goal of LHCb. First results will be presented, using around 37 pb^{-1} of data collected at \\sqrt{s}=7 TeV in 2010. These results illustrate the power of the LHCb trigger system and particle identification capabilities of the RICH detectors in isolating clean samples of each final state, and include preliminary measurements of direct CP-violation in certain key modes. The prospects for these measurements in the coming run will be presented. A brief survey will also be given of results and prospect in other areas of the LHCb physics programme.

  15. Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

  16. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw. PMID:26980627

  17. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  18. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and

  19. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  20. The LHCb DIRAC-based production and data management operations systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, P.; LHCb Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    The LHCb computing model was designed in order to support the LHCb physics program, taking into account LHCb specificities (event sizes, processing times etc...). Within this model several key activities are defined, the most important of which are real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming, group and user analysis), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. In this contribution we detail how these activities are managed by the LHCbDIRAC Data Transformation System. The LHCbDIRAC Data Transformation System leverages the workload and data management capabilities provided by DIRAC, a generic community grid solution, to support data-driven workflows (or DAGs). The ability to combine workload and data tasks within a single DAG allows to create highly sophisticated workflows with the individual steps linked by the availability of data. This approach also provides the advantage of a single point at which all activities can be monitored and controlled. While several interfaces are currently supported (including python API and CLI), we will present the ability to create LHCb workflows through a secure web interface, control their state in addition to creating and submitting jobs. To highlight the versatility of the system we present in more detail experience with real data of the 2010 and 2011 LHC run.

  1. Polarization effects in double open-charm production at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Double open-charm production is one of the most promising channels to disentangle single from double parton scattering (DPS) and study different properties of DPS. Several studies of the DPS contributions have been made. A missing ingredient so far has been the study of polarization effects, arising from spin correlations between the two partons inside an unpolarized proton. We investigate the impact polarization has on the double open-charm cross section. We show that the longitudinally polarized gluons can give significant contributions to the cross section, but for most of the considered kinematic region only have a moderate effect on the shape. We compare our findings to the LHCb data in the D 0 D 0 final state, identify observables where polarization does have an impact on the distribution of the final state particles, and suggest measurements which could lead to first experimental indications of, or limits on, polarization in DPS.

  2. Identification of beauty and charm quark jets at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Identification of jets originating from beauty and charm quarks is important for measuring Standard Model processes and for searching for new physics. The performance of algorithms developed to select b- and c-quark jets is measured using data recorded by LHCb from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV in 2011 and at √s = 8 TeV in 2012. The efficiency for identifying a b(c) jet is about 65%(25%) with a probability for misidentifying a light-parton jet of 0.3% for jets with transverse momentum pT > 20GeV and pseudorapidity 2.2 < η < 4.2. The dependence of the performance on the pT and η of the jet is also measured.

  3. Central Exclusive Production in pp collisions at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-03-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators, and several measurements at the LHC are directly comparable with past and future electron-ion colliders. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, J/ψ,ψ (2S),ϒ(1S), ϒ(2S) and ϒ(3S), which are photo-produced. In the double Pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of χc0, χc1, χc2 meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, J/ψJ/ψ and J/ψψ (2S), have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  4. A History-based Estimation for LHCb job requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschmayr, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of a Workload Management System (WMS) is to find and allocate resources for the given tasks. The more and better job information the WMS receives, the easier will be to accomplish its task, which directly translates into higher utilization of resources. Traditionally, the information associated with each job, like expected runtime, is defined beforehand by the Production Manager in best case and fixed arbitrary values by default. In the case of LHCb's Workload Management System no mechanisms are provided which automate the estimation of job requirements. As a result, much more CPU time is normally requested than actually needed. Particularly, in the context of multicore jobs this presents a major problem, since single- and multicore jobs shall share the same resources. Consequently, grid sites need to rely on estimations given by the VOs in order to not decrease the utilization of their worker nodes when making multicore job slots available. The main reason for going to multicore jobs is the reduction of the overall memory footprint. Therefore, it also needs to be studied how memory consumption of jobs can be estimated. A detailed workload analysis of past LHCb jobs is presented. It includes a study of job features and their correlation with runtime and memory consumption. Following the features, a supervised learning algorithm is developed based on a history based prediction. The aim is to learn over time how jobs’ runtime and memory evolve influenced due to changes in experiment conditions and software versions. It will be shown that estimation can be notably improved if experiment conditions are taken into account.

  5. Arabidopsis Mutants Deleted in the Light-Harvesting Protein Lhcb4 Have a Disrupted Photosystem II Macrostructure and Are Defective in Photoprotection[C][W

    PubMed Central

    de Bianchi, Silvia; Betterle, Nico; Kouril, Roman; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Boekema, Egbert; Bassi, Roberto; Dall’Osto, Luca

    2011-01-01

    The role of the light-harvesting complex Lhcb4 (CP29) in photosynthesis was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana by characterizing knockout lines for each of the three Lhcb4 isoforms (Lhcb4.1/4.2/4.3). Plants lacking all isoforms (koLhcb4) showed a compensatory increase of Lhcb1 and a slightly reduced photosystem II/I ratio with respect to the wild type. The absence of Lhcb4 did not result in alteration in electron transport rates. However, the kinetic of state transition was faster in the mutant, and nonphotochemical quenching activity was lower in koLhcb4 plants with respect to either wild type or mutants retaining a single Lhcb4 isoform. KoLhcb4 plants were more sensitive to photoinhibition, while this effect was not observed in knockout lines for any other photosystem II antenna subunit. Ultrastructural analysis of thylakoid grana membranes showed a lower density of photosystem II complexes in koLhcb4. Moreover, analysis of isolated supercomplexes showed a different overall shape of the C2S2 particles due to a different binding mode of the S-trimer to the core complex. An empty space was observed within the photosystem II supercomplex at the Lhcb4 position, implying that the missing Lhcb4 was not replaced by other Lhc subunits. This suggests that Lhcb4 is unique among photosystem II antenna proteins and determinant for photosystem II macro-organization and photoprotection. PMID:21803939

  6. Arabidopsis mutants deleted in the light-harvesting protein Lhcb4 have a disrupted photosystem II macrostructure and are defective in photoprotection.

    PubMed

    de Bianchi, Silvia; Betterle, Nico; Kouril, Roman; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Boekema, Egbert; Bassi, Roberto; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2011-07-01

    The role of the light-harvesting complex Lhcb4 (CP29) in photosynthesis was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana by characterizing knockout lines for each of the three Lhcb4 isoforms (Lhcb4.1/4.2/4.3). Plants lacking all isoforms (koLhcb4) showed a compensatory increase of Lhcb1 and a slightly reduced photosystem II/I ratio with respect to the wild type. The absence of Lhcb4 did not result in alteration in electron transport rates. However, the kinetic of state transition was faster in the mutant, and nonphotochemical quenching activity was lower in koLhcb4 plants with respect to either wild type or mutants retaining a single Lhcb4 isoform. KoLhcb4 plants were more sensitive to photoinhibition, while this effect was not observed in knockout lines for any other photosystem II antenna subunit. Ultrastructural analysis of thylakoid grana membranes showed a lower density of photosystem II complexes in koLhcb4. Moreover, analysis of isolated supercomplexes showed a different overall shape of the C₂S₂ particles due to a different binding mode of the S-trimer to the core complex. An empty space was observed within the photosystem II supercomplex at the Lhcb4 position, implying that the missing Lhcb4 was not replaced by other Lhc subunits. This suggests that Lhcb4 is unique among photosystem II antenna proteins and determinant for photosystem II macro-organization and photoprotection. PMID:21803939

  7. Angular glass tubing drawn from round tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Round glass tubing softened in a furnace is drawn over a shaped plug or mandel to form shapes with other than a circular cross section. Irregularly shaped tubing is formed without limitations on tube length or wall thickness.

  8. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  9. Electron tube

    DOEpatents

    Suyama, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Atsuhito; Arisaka, Katsushi; Wang, Hanguo

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  10. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  11. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  12. Analysis of five simulated straw harvest scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stephen, Jamie; Stumborg, Mark; Fenton, James; Mani, Sudhagar

    2008-01-01

    Almost 36 million tonnes (t) of cereal grains are harvested annually on more than 16 million hectares (ha) in Canada. The net straw production varies year by year depending upon weather patterns, crop fertility, soil conservation measures, harvest method, and plant variety. The net yield of straw, after discounting for soil conservation, averages approximately 2.5 dry (d)t ha-1. Efficient equipment is needed to collect and package the material as a feedstock for industrial applications. This paper investigates the costs, energy input, and emissions from power equipment used for harvesting straw. Five scenarios were investigated: (1) large square bales, (2) round bales, (3) large compacted stacks (loafs), (4) dried chops, and (5) wet chops. The baled or loafed biomass is stacked next to the farm. Dry chop is collected in a large pile and wet chop is ensiled. The baling and stacking cost was $21.47 dt-1 (dry tonne), with little difference between round and large square baling. Loafing was the cheapest option at $17.08 dt-1. Dry chop and piling was $23.90 dt-1 and wet chop followed by ensiling was $59.75 dt-1. A significant portion of the wet chop cost was in ensiling. Energy input and emissions were proportional to the costs for each system, except for loafing, which required more energy input than the baling systems. As a fraction of the energy content of biomass (roughly 16 GJ dt-1), the energy input ranged from 1.2% for baling to 3.2% for ensiling. Emissions from the power equipment ranged from 20.3 kg CO2e dt-1 to more than 40 kg CO2e dt-1. A sensitivity analysis on the effect of yield on collection costs showed that a 33% increase in yield reduced the cost by 20%. Similarly a sensitivity analysis on weather conditions showed that a 10oC cooler climate extended the harvest period by 5-10 days whereas a 10oC warmer climate shortened the harvest period by 2-3 days.

  13. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your ...

  14. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  15. Effects of changes in straw chemical properties and alkaline soils on bacterial communities engaged in straw decomposition at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhang, Congzhi; Feng, Youzhi; Chen, Lin; Yu, Zhenghong; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the composition of a bacterial community engaged in decomposing wheat straw in a fluvo-aquic soil at 15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C were identified using barcode pyrosequencing. Functional carbon groups in the decomposing wheat straw were evaluated by 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were more abundant, whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were less abundant, at higher temperatures during the later stages of decomposition. Differences in the chemical properties of straw accounted for 19.3% of the variation in the community composition, whereas soil properties accounted for more (24.0%) and temperature, for less (7.4%). Carbon content of the soil microbial biomass and nitrogen content of straw were significantly correlated with the abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The chemical properties of straw, especially the NCH/OCH3, alkyl O-C-O, and O-alkyl functional groups, exercised a significant effect on the composition of the bacterial community at different temperatures during decomposition—results that extend our understanding of bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of straw in agro-ecosystems and of the effects of temperature and chemical properties of the decomposing straw and soil on such communities. PMID:26916902

  16. Microwave torrefaction of rice straw and Pennisetum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y F; Chen, W R; Chiueh, P T; Kuan, W H; Lo, S L

    2012-11-01

    Microwave torrefaction of rice straw and pennisetum was researched in this article. Higher microwave power levels contributed to higher heating rate and reaction temperature, and thus produced the torrefied biomass with higher heating value and lower H/C and O/C ratios. Kinetic parameters were determined with good coefficients of determination, so the microwave torrefaction of biomass might be very close to first-order reaction. Only 150W microwave power levels and 10min processing time were needed to meet about 70% mass yield and 80% energy yield for torrefied biomass. The energy density of torrefied biomass was about 14% higher than that of raw biomass. The byproducts (liquid and gas) possessed about 30% mass and 20% energy of raw biomass, and they can be seen as energy sources for heat or electricity. Microwave torrefaction of biomass could be a competitive technology to employ the least energy and to retain the most bioenergy. PMID:22929739

  17. STRAW: Species TRee Analysis Web server

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Timothy I.; Ruan, Zheng; Glenn, Travis C.; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The coalescent methods for species tree reconstruction are increasingly popular because they can accommodate coalescence and multilocus data sets. Herein, we present STRAW, a web server that offers workflows for reconstruction of phylogenies of species using three species tree methods—MP-EST, STAR and NJst. The input data are a collection of rooted gene trees (for STAR and MP-EST methods) or unrooted gene trees (for NJst). The output includes the estimated species tree, modified Robinson-Foulds distances between gene trees and the estimated species tree and visualization of trees to compare gene trees with the estimated species tree. The web sever is available at http://bioinformatics.publichealth.uga.edu/SpeciesTreeAnalysis/. PMID:23661681

  18. An LHCb general-purpose acquisition board for beam and background monitoring at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Guzik, Z.; Jacobsson, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will present an LHCb custom-made acquisition board which was developed for a continuous beam and background monitoring during LHC operations at CERN. The paper describes both the conceptual design and its performance, and concludes with results from the first period of beam operations at the LHC. The main purpose of the acquisition board is to process signals from a pair of beam pickups to continuously monitor the intensity of each bunch, and to monitor the phase of the arrival time of each proton bunch with respect to the LHC bunch clock. The extreme versatility of the board also allowed the LHCb experiment to build a high-speed and high-sensitivity readout system for a fast background monitor based on a pair of plastic scintillators. The board has demonstrated very good performance and proved to be conceptually valid during the first months of operations at the LHC. Connected to the beam pickups, it provides the LHCb experiment with a real-time measurement of the total intensity of each beam and of the arrival time of each beam at the LHCb Interaction Point. It also monitors the LHC filling scheme and the beam current per bunch at a continuous rate of 40 MHz, and assures a proper global timing of LHCb. The continuous readout of the scintillators at bunch clock speed provides the LHCb experiment with high-resolution information about the beam halo and fast losses during both injection and circulating beam. It has also provided valuable information to the LHC during machine commissioning with beam. Recent results also shows that it could contribute as a luminosity monitor independent from the LHCb experiment readout system. Beam, background and luminosity measurements are continuously fed back to the LHC in the data exchange framework between the experiments and the LHC machine aimed at improving efficiently the experimental conditions real-time.

  19. A multiplex readout method for position sensitive boron coated straw neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Gong, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing; Kang, Kejun

    2015-10-01

    A 1 m×1 m boron coated straw neutron detector is expected to be used to build the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument of the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) in Tsinghua University. A multiplex readout method based on summing circuits in columns and rows is studied for this large area position sensitive detector. In this method, the outputs of charge sensitive preamplifiers are combined by columns and rows at two ends of the detector, and then the shaped signals are sampled by flash ADCs. With the position reconstructed algorithm implemented in FPGA which analyzes the charge division and column and row number of signals, the 3-D position information of neutron events can be obtained. The position resolution and counting rate performance of this method are analyzed, and the comparison to the delay-line readout method is also given. With the multiplex readout method, the scale of readout electronics can be greatly reduced and a good position resolution can be reached. A readout electronics system for a detector module which consists 4 × 10 straw tubes is designed based on this method, and the test with neutron beam shows an average 3-D spatial resolution of 4 × 4 × 6.8mm3.

  20. 5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  1. Detection of endophyte toxins in the imported perennial ryegrass straw.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, S; Fukumura, M; Yoshioka, M; Yamanaka, N

    2001-09-01

    From 1997 to 1999, 29 cases of disorders were detected in cattle and horses that had been fed ryegrass straw imported from the U.S.A. These animals showed symptoms resembling ryegrass staggers and the clinical signs disappeared after removal of the straw. Endophytic hyphae were detected in the seeds of all straw samples that were responsible for the clinical cases. Lolitrem B concentrations in the straw ranged between 972 and 3740 ppb. Ergovaline concentrations were between 355 and 1300 ppb. Even though the concentrations of lolitrem B were lower than the toxic threshold proposed by Oregon State University in better part of the cases, our observations suggest the possibility that lolitrem B lower than the proposed threshold can bring disorders to sensitive individuals. PMID:11642270

  2. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  3. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  4. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  5. A new readout control system for the LHCb upgrade at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.

    2012-11-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and a first hardware implementation of a new fast Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade, which will be entirely based on FPGAs and bi-directional links. We also outline the real-time implementations of the new Readout Control system, together with solutions on how to handle the synchronous distribution of timing and synchronous information to the complex upgraded LHCb readout architecture. One section will also be dedicated to the control and usage of the newly developed CERN GBT chipset to transmit fast and slow control commands to the upgraded LHCb Front-End electronics. At the end, we outline the plans for the deployment of the system in the global LHCb upgrade readout architecture.

  6. Collapse Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02154 Collapse Tubes

    The discontinuous channels in this image are collapsed lava tubes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -19.7N, Longitude 317.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  8. Optimization of Large Scale HEP Data Analysis in LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remenska, Daniela; Aaij, Roel; Raven, Gerhard; Merk, Marcel; Templon, Jeff; Bril, Reinder J.; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Observation has lead to a conclusion that the physics analysis jobs run by LHCb physicists on a local computing farm (i.e. non-grid) require more efficient access to the data which resides on the Grid. Our experiments have shown that the I/O bound nature of the analysis jobs in combination with the latency due to the remote access protocols (e.g. rfio, dcap) cause a low CPU efficiency of these jobs. In addition to causing a low CPU efficiency, the remote access protocols give rise to high overhead (in terms of amount of data transferred). This paper gives an overview of the concept of pre-fetching and caching of input files in the proximity of the processing resources, which is exploited to cope with the I/O bound analysis jobs. The files are copied from Grid storage elements (using GridFTP), while concurrently performing computations, inspired from a similar idea used in the ATLAS experiment. The results illustrate that this file staging approach is relatively insensitive to the original location of the data, and a significant improvement can be achieved in terms of the CPU efficiency of an analysis job. Dealing with scalability of such a solution on the Grid environment is discussed briefly.

  9. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  10. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  11. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  12. Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus and Erwinia carotovora on wheat straw digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, C.L.; Conway, K.E.; Horn, G.W.

    1981-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether growing Pleurotus ostreatus and Erwinia carotovora on wheat straw would synergistically improve the digestibility of straw and whether there was a necessity of sterilizing the straw by autoclaving prior to inoculation. Dry matter decomposition of autoclaved and non-autoclaved straw was similar when both organisms were used in the system after 28 days incubation. However, in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility of straw was significantly improved (P less than 10) only when the straw was autoclaved prior to inoculation with both organisms. (Refs. 21).

  13. Novel real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector in Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Tobin, , M.

    2016-07-01

    An automatic real-time alignment and calibration strategy of the LHCb detector was developed for the Run II. Thanks to the online calibration, tighter event selection criteria can be used in the trigger. Furthermore, the online calibration facilitates the use of hadronic particle identification using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors at the trigger level. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configuration are discussed, as well as the working procedures of the framework and its performance.

  14. Preparation and commissioning of LHCb for the Run II of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, A.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment has performed very well during the Run I of the LHC, producing a large number of relevant physics results on a wide range of topics. The preparation and commissioning of the LHCb experiment for Run II is discussed here, with special emphasis on the changes in the trigger strategy and the addition of a new sub-detector to improve the physics reach of the experiment. An overview of the commissioning with the first collisions delivered by the LHC is also included.

  15. TORCH - Cherenkov and Time-of-Flight PID Detector for the LHCb Upgrade at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Conneely, T.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Milnes, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcì a, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2016-05-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector, based on Cherenkov light production and propagation in a quartz radiator plate, which is read out at its edges. TORCH is proposed for the LHCb experiment at CERN to provide positive particle identification for kaons, and is currently in the Research-and-Development phase. A brief overview of the micro-channel plate photon sensor development, the custom-made electronics, and an introduction to the current test beam activities is given. Optical readout solutions are presented for the potential use of BaBar DIRC bar boxes as part of the TORCH configuration in LHCb.

  16. Implementing a Domain Specific Language to configure and run LHCb Continuous Integration builds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2015-12-01

    The new LHCb nightly build system described at CHEP 2013 was limited by the use of JSON files for its configuration. JSON had been chosen as a temporary solution to maintain backward compatibility towards the old XML format by means of a translation function. Modern languages like Python leverage on meta-programming techniques to enable the development of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs). In this contribution we will present the advantages of such techniques and how they have been used to implement a DSL that can be used to both describe the configuration of the LHCb Nightly Builds and actually operate them.

  17. An Information System to Access Status Information of the LHCb Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb collaboration consists of roughly 700 physicists from 52 institutes and universities. Most of the collaborating physicists - including subdetector experts - are not permanently based at CERN. This paper describes the architecture used to publish data internal to the LHCb experiment control- and data acquisition system to the World Wide Web. Collaborators can access the online (sub-) system status and the system performance directly from the institute abroad, from home or from a smart phone without the need of direct access to the online computing infrastructure.

  18. [Effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on soil labile organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Guang; Li, Hui Xin; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Feng

    2007-04-01

    A six-year field plot experiment of rice-wheat rotation was conducted to study the effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on cropland soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon. Five treatments were installed, i.e., CK, straw mulch (M), straw mulch plus earthworm inoculation (ME), incorporated straw with soil (I), and incorporated straw with soil plus earthworm inoculation (IE). The results showed that soil organic carbon content increased significantly after six years straw application, and treatment I was more efficient than treatment M. Earthworm inoculation under straw application had no significant effects on soil organic carbon content. Straw application, whether straw mulch or incorporated straw with soil, increased the content of soil labile organic carbon, and incorporated straw with soil was more beneficial to the increase of the contents of hot water-extractable carbon, potentially mineralizable carbon, acid-extractable carbon, readily oxidizable carbon, particulate organic carbon, and light fraction organic carbon. There was a little relationship between the quantitative variations of soil dissoluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon and the patterns of straw application. Among the treatments, the activity of soil organic carbon was decreased in the order of IF > I > M > ME > CK. Straw application pattern was the main factor affecting soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon, while earthworm inoculation was not universally significanfly effective to all kinds of soil labile organic carbon. PMID:17615878

  19. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...

  20. The PCIe-based readout system for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachemiche, J. P.; Duval, P. Y.; Hachon, F.; Le Gac, R.; Réthoré, F.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study differences between particles and anti-particles as well as very rare decays in the beauty and charm sector at the LHC. The detector will be upgraded in 2019 in order to significantly increase its efficiency, by removing the first-level hardware trigger. The upgrade experiment will implement a trigger-less readout system in which all the data from every LHC bunch-crossing are transported to the computing farm over 12000 optical links without hardware filtering. The event building and event selection are carried out entirely in the farm. Another original feature of the system is that data transmitted through these fibres arrive directly to computers through a specially designed PCIe card called PCIe40. The same board handles the data acquisition flow and the distribution of fast and slow controls to the detector front-end electronics. It embeds one of the most powerful FPGAs currently available on the market with 1.2 million logic cells. The board has a bandwidth of 480 Gbits/s in both input and output over optical links and 100 Gbits/s over the PCI Express bus to the CPU. We will present how data circulate through the board and in the PC server for achieving the event building. We will focus on specific issues regarding the design of such a board with a very large FPGA, in particular in terms of power supply dimensioning and thermal simulations. The features of the board will be detailed and we will finally present the first performance measurements.

  1. Adhesion of Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacteria to Barley Straw

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Siva; Wallace, R. J.; Ørskov, E. R.

    1990-01-01

    Adhesion of the cellulolytic ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes to barley straw was measured by incubating bacterial suspensions with hammer-milled straw for 30 min, filtering the mixtures through sintered glass filters, and measuring the optical densities of the filtrates. Maximum adhesion of both species occurred at pH 6.0 and during mid- to late-exponential phase. Adhesion was saturable at 33 and 23 mg (dry weight) g of straw−1 for R. flavefaciens and F. succinogenes, respectively. Methyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose inhibited adhesion by 24 to 33%. Competition between species was determined by measuring characteristic cell-associated enzyme activities in filtrates of mixtures incubated with straw; p-nitrophenyl-β-d-lactopyranoside hydrolysis was used as a marker for F. succinogenes, while either β-xylosidase or carboxymethyl cellulase was used for R. flavefaciens, depending on the other species present. R. flavefaciens had no influence on F. succinogenes adhesion, and F. succinogenes had only a minor (<20%) effect on R. flavefaciens adhesion. The noncellulolytic ruminal bacteria Bacteroides ruminicola and Selenomonas ruminantium had no influence on adhesion of either cellulolytic species, although these organisms also adhered to the straw. We concluded that R. flavefaciens and F. succinogenes have separate, specific adhesion sites on barley straw that are not obscured by competition with non-cellulolytic species. PMID:16348278

  2. Bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chengying; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    To increase the closure of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by mushrooms and worms has been studied. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation and succeeding growth of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus. In this process the total content of lignocellulose in the straw was removed by 37.74%. Furthermore, 46.68 g (fresh weight) of mushrooms could be produced from 100.0 g (dry weight) of rice straw. During the conversion of rice straw into a starting SLS by mushrooms and worms, the matter loss was 77.31%. The lettuce has been planted in the SLS and the yield when lettuce was cultivated on the SLS (8.77gm-2day-1) was comparable to the yield obtained on the nutrient solution. In addition, the silicon in the SLS ash can reach upto 32% and the circulation of it is expected during the growth of rice.

  3. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. PMID:27518034

  4. Tube-shape verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. N.; Christ, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive apparatus checks accuracy of bent tubes. Assortment of slotted angles and clamps is bolted down to flat aluminum plate outlining shape of standard tube bent to desired configuration. Newly bent tubes are then checked against this outline. Because parts are bolted down, tubes can be checked very rapidly without disturbing outline. One verifier per tube-bending machine can really speed up production in tube-bending shop.

  5. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  6. A Myb-related transcription factor is involved in the phytochrome regulation of an Arabidopsis Lhcb gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z Y; Kenigsbuch, D; Sun, L; Harel, E; Ong, M S; Tobin, E M

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated the gene for a protein designated CCA1. This protein can bind to a region of the promoter of an Arabidopsis light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein gene, Lhcb1*3, which is necessary for its regulation by phytochrome. The CCA1 protein interacted with two imperfect repeats in the Lhcb1*3 promoter, AAA/cAATCT, a sequence that is conserved in Lhcb genes. A region near the N terminus of CCA1, which has some homology to the repeated sequence found in the DNA binding domain of Myb proteins, is required for binding to the Lhcb1*3 promoter. Lines of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing antisense RNA for CCA1 showed reduced phytochrome induction of the endogenous Lhcb1*3 gene, whereas expression of another phytochrome-regulated gene, rbcS-1A, which encodes the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, was not affected. Thus, the CCA1 protein acts as a specific activator of Lhcb1*3 transcription in response to brief red illumination. The expression of CCA1 RNA was itself transiently increased when etiolated seedlings were transferred to light. We conclude that the CCA1 protein is a key element in the functioning of the phytochrome signal transduction pathway leading to increased transcription of this Lhcb gene in Arabidopsis. PMID:9144958

  7. XPS and IGC characterization of steam treated triticale straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyan; Boluk, Yaman

    2010-10-01

    The surface chemical composition and surface energy of native and steam treated triticale straws have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to reveal the effect of steam treatment temperature and time. The XPS results show that the contents of C elements and C-C group on the exterior surface of native triticale straw are much higher than those on the interior surface, indicating that there was a high quantity of wax on the exterior surface of the native triticale straw. Upon steam treatment, both carbon levels and C-C groups reduce with increasing steam temperature and treatment time of the exterior surfaces. However, the effect of steam treatment on the interior surface is very limited. In terms of the surface acid and base properties, the steam treated samples exhibited higher acid and base properties than the native sample, indicating a more polar surface of the steam treated sample.

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán-de-Ferrer, Betzabé; Aristiguieta, Marielena; Dale, Bruce E; Ferrer, Alexis; Ojeda-de-Rodriguez, Graciela

    2003-01-01

    Rice straw pretreated with liquid anhydrous ammonia was hydrolyzed with cellulase, cellobiase, and hemicellulase. Ammonia-processing conditions were 1.5 g of NH3/g of dry matter, 85 degrees C, and several sample moisture contents. There were four ammonia addition time (min)-processing time (min) combinations. Sugars produced were analyzed as reducing sugars (dinitrosalicylic acid method) and by high-performance liquid chromatography. Monomeric sugars increased from 11% in the nontreated rice straw to 61% of theoretical in treated rice straw (79.2% conversion as reducing sugars). Production of monosaccharides was greater at higher moisture content and was processing time dependent. Glucose was the monosaccharide produced in greater amounts, 56.0%, followed by xylose, arabinose, and fructose, with 35.8, 6.6, and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:12721482

  9. Soil microbial activity as influenced by compaction and straw mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siczek, A.; Frąc, M.

    2012-02-01

    Field study was performed on Haplic Luvisol soil to determine the effects of soil compaction and straw mulching on microbial parameters of soil under soybean. Treatments with different compaction were established on unmulched and mulched with straw soil. The effect of soil compaction and straw mulching on the total bacteria number and activities of dehydrogenases, protease, alkaline and acid phosphatases was studied. The results of study indicated the decrease of enzymes activities in strongly compacted soil and their increase in medium compacted soil as compared to no-compacted treatment. Mulch application caused stimulation of the bacteria total number and enzymatic activity in the soil under all compaction levels. Compaction and mulch effects were significant for all analyzed microbial parameters (P<0.001).

  10. Kinetic Study of Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Nibedita; Aikat, Kaustav

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw is a renewable, cheap, and abundant waste in tropical countries. The pentose content of rice straw can be used as a substrate for many types of value-added products such as xylitol and biofuel. Dilute acid hydrolysis mainly releases pentose from rice straw. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of H2SO4 concentration and reaction time on the xylose production. The variation of the main product xylose with the reaction time was described by a kinetic model and kinetic parameters were calculated to describe the variation of the xylose production with time. The optimum yield (19.35 g/L) was obtained at 0.24 mol/L H2SO4 and 30 minutes. PMID:25969789

  11. Dustiness of chopped straw as affected by lignosulfonate as a dust suppressant.

    PubMed

    Breum, N O; Nielsen, B H; Lyngbye, M; Midtgård, U

    1999-01-01

    Many sources add to the concentration of bioaerosols in livestock buildings, and source control is the number one priority for keeping a low concentration. Straw is a common but dusty bedding material in livestock buildings and the present study is focused on the dustiness of chopped straw (barley) as affected by lignosulfonate (LS) as a dust suppressant. A LS-solution was aerosolized in a spray chamber fitted to an existing bedding chopper to allow the chopped straw to adsorb the LS-solution. The dustiness of straw treated with LS was compared to non-treated straw. As storage conditions may affect dustiness, the study included treated straw kept for 4 weeks in sealed plastic bags. Dustiness of the chopped straw was measured in terms of the potential of the straw to emit bioaerosols in a rotating drum. The LS-treated straw proved low in dustiness compared to the non-treated straw. The dustiness with respect to the mass of dust was reduced by at least a factor of 6, and for fungi and endotoxin the factors of reduction were 4 and 3, respectively. Dustiness of LS-treated straw kept in plastic bags was reduced by a factor of 2 for mass of dust and by a factor of 4 for endotoxin, but dustiness for fungi was increased by a factor of 3. It is concluded that lignosulfonate has potential as a dust suppressant for chopped straw. PMID:10607994

  12. Environmentally friendly education: A passive solar, straw-bale school

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.; Dickinson, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Waldorf students in the Roaring Fork Valley of western Colorado are learning their reading, writing and arithmetic in the cozy confines of a solar heated, naturally lit, straw-bale school. The Waldorf education system, founded in 1919 by Austrian Rudolph Steiner, stresses what's appropriate for the kids, not what's easiest to teach. In constructing a new school, the Waldorf community wanted a building that would reflect their philosophy. There was a long list of requirements: natural, energy efficient, light, warm, alive, and earthy. Passive solar straw-bale construction brought together all those qualities.

  13. Drinking-Straw Microbalance and Seesaw: Stability and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Peter; Glasser, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The mechanics of a beam balance are little appreciated and seldom understood. We here consider the conditions that result in a stable balance, with center of gravity below the fulcrum (pivot point), while an unstable balance results when the center of gravity is above the fulcrum. The highly sensitive drinking-straw microbalance, which uses a plastic drinking straw as a rigid beam, is briefly described with some slight convenient modifications. Different placements of the center of gravity are considered analytically to explain the equilibrium neutrality, stability, and instability of such beam balances as the microbalance, the playground "seesaw" or "teeter-totter," the "dipping bird," and other toys and magic tricks.

  14. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldikova, Eva; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Rye straw, a very low-cost material, was employed as a biosorbent for two organic water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes, namely acridine orange (acridine group) and methyl green (triarylmethane group). The adsorption properties were tested for native and citric acid-NaOH modified rye straw, both in nonmagnetic and magnetic versions. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 2 h and the adsorption isotherms data were analyzed using the Langmuir model. The highest values of maximum adsorption capacities were 208.3 mg/g for acridine orange and 384.6 mg/g for methyl green.

  15. Butterfly proboscis: natural combination of a drinking straw with a nanosponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, Kostya; Monaenkova, Daria; Adler, Peter; Lee, Wah-Keat; Lehnert, Matthew; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles; Rubin, Binyamin; Tokarev, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    The ability of Lepidoptera, or butterflies and moths, to drink liquids from rotting fruit and wet soil, as well as nectar from floral tubes, raises the question of whether the conventional view of the proboscis as a drinking straw can account for the withdrawal of fluids from porous substrates or of films and droplets from floral tubes. We discovered that the proboscis promotes capillary pull of liquids from diverse sources due to a hierarchical pore structure spanning nano- and microscales. X-ray phase-contrast imaging reveals that Plateau instability causes liquid bridges to form in the food canal, which are transported to the gut by the muscular sucking pump in the head. The dual functionality of the proboscis represents a key innovation for exploiting a vast range of nutritional sources. A transformative two-step model of capillary intake and suctioning can be applied not only to butterflies and moths but also potentially to vast numbers of other insects such as bees and flies. NSF EFRI - 0937985.

  16. EC Tube Fits

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-03

    In the design of the EC, the beam tube, through which the beam line travels, can be found in the IH tube which is centrally located in the IH module. However, also between the beam tube and the IH tube lie both the vacuum and inner tubes of the vacuum and inner vessels. It is the vacuum between these vessels which provides insulation between the ambient beam tube and liquid argon in the cryostat. while the vacuum tube is supported along its length with the inner tube as best as possible, the inner tube will only be supported at the ends. The beam tube will also be end-supported, but it will be allowed to rest directly on the inner surface of the vacuum tube. It is required that the beam tube be able to slide in and out of the vacuum tube with relative ease in order that the EC's can be moved away from the CC when necessary (repair work, etc.). Although the frequency of such a move is not known, it is hoped to be low, and it would therefore be desirable, for cost reasons, to be able to use stock tubing for the vacuum and beam tubes instead of using specially machined tubing.

  17. Effects of incorporating differently-treated rice straw on phytoavailability of methylmercury in soil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Rui; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-02-01

    Differently-treated crops straw is being widely used to fertilize soil, while the potential impacts of straw amendment on the biogeochemistry and phytoavailability of mercury in contaminated soils are largely unknown. In the present study, differently-treated rice straw (dry straw, composted straw, straw biochar, and straw ash) was incorporated into mercury-contaminated soil at an environment relevant level (1/100, w/w), and mercury speciation, methylmercury (MeHg) phytoavailability (using ammonium thiosulfate extraction method, validated elsewhere) and bioaccumulation (in Indian mustard Brassica junceas) were quantified. Our results indicated that incorporating straw biochar or composted straw into soil would decrease phytoavailable MeHg levels, possibly due to the strong binding of MeHg with particulate organic matter in amended straw ('MeHg immobilization effect'). Consequently, MeHg accumulation in aboveground tissue of Indian mustard harvested from straw biochar-amended soil decreased by 20% compared to the control. Differently, incorporation of dry straw resulted in elevated MeHg levels in soil ('Mercury methylation effect'). Decomposition of amended dry straw in soil would evidently increase DOC levels (averagely 40%-195% higher than the control), which may subsequently mobilize MeHg in the soil ('MeHg mobilization effect'). Accordingly, incorporation of dry straw led to increased phytoavailable MeHg levels in the soil and doubled MeHg accumulation in Indian mustard. Our results provided the first evidence that incorporating differently-treated rice straw into soil could have diverse effects on mercury biogeochemistry and phytoavailability, which should be taken into account in risk assessment or soil remediation. PMID:26694796

  18. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  19. The specific localizations of phosphorylated Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 isoforms reveal the role of Lhcb2 in the formation of the PSI-LHCII supercomplex in Arabidopsis during state transitions.

    PubMed

    Crepin, Aurelie; Caffarri, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    State transitions are an important photosynthetic short-term response that maintains the excitation balance between photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII). In plants, when PSII is preferentially excited, LHCII, the main heterotrimeric light harvesting complex of PSII, is phosphorylated by the STN7 kinase, detaches from PSII and moves to PSI to equilibrate the relative absorption of the two photosystems (State II). When PSI is preferentially excited LHCII is dephosphorylated by the PPH1 (TAP38) phosphatase, and returns to PSII (State I). Phosphorylation of LHCII that remain bound to PSII has also been observed. Although the kinetics of LHCII phosphorylation are well known from a qualitative standpoint, the absolute phosphorylation levels of LHCII (and its isoforms) bound to PSI and PSII have been little studied. In this work we thoroughly investigated the phosphorylation level of the Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 isoforms that compose LHCII in PSI-LHCII and PSII-LHCII supercomplexes purified from WT and state transition mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that, at most, 40% of the monomers that make up PSI-bound LHCII trimers are phosphorylated. Phosphorylation was much lower in PSII-bound LHCII trimers reaching only 15-20%. Dephosphorylation assays using a recombinant PPH1 phosphatase allowed us to investigate the role of the two isoforms during state transitions. Our results strongly suggest that a single phosphorylated Lhcb2 is sufficient for the formation of the PSI-LHCII supercomplex. These results are a step towards a refined model of the state transition phenomenon and a better understanding of the short-term response to changes in light conditions in plants. PMID:26392145

  20. Optimizing dilute-acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for extraction of hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Su; Um, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Kyeong-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Biological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars prior to fermentation. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically or with mineral acids. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the pretreatment of rapeseed straw. The purpose of this study is to optimize the pretreatment process in a 15-mL bomb tube reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time. These parameters influence hemicellulose removal and production of sugars (xylose, glucose, and arabinose) in the hydrolyzate as well as the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid). Statistical analysis was based on a model composition corresponding to a 3(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology to optimize the pretreatment conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylan, mannan, and galactan (XMG) extraction from hemicellulose of rapeseed straw. The obtained optimum conditions were: H2SO4 concentration of 1.76% and temperature of 152.6 degrees C with a reaction time of 21 min. Under these optimal conditions, 85.5% of the total sugar was recovered after acid hydrolysis (78.9% XMG and 6.6% glucan). The hydrolyzate contained 1.60 g/L glucose, 0.61 g/L arabinose, 10.49 g/L xylose, mannose, and galactose, 0.39 g/L cellobiose, 0.94 g/L fructose, 0.02 g/L 1,6-anhydro-glucose, 1.17 g/L formic acid, 2.94 g/L acetic acid, 0.04 g/L levulinic acid, 0.04 g/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 0.98 g/L furfural. PMID:20087686

  1. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  2. The Truck Driver's Straw Problem and Cantor Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iga, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A colleague was moving, and someone on the professional moving crew, upon hearing she was a mathematician, asked what happens when you repeatedly transfer water back and forth between two classes using a straw. The question is simple to solve if you alternate which glass you transfer from and to, but if more general patters are allowed, some…

  3. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    PubMed

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries. PMID:22410399

  4. Elemental concentrations in Triticale straw, a potential bioenergy feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is produced on more than three million ha world wide including 344,000 ha in the USA. Straw resulting from triticale production could provide feedstock for bioenergy production in many regions of the world, but high concentrations of certain elements, including s...

  5. Fuel ethanol production from microwave pretreated wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars were evaluated. The yield of monomeric sugars from microwave (200 deg C, 10 min) pretreated w...

  6. Cryoprotectant redistribution along the frozen straw probed by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karpegina, Yu A; Okotrub, K A; Brusentsev, E Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya; Surovtsev, N V

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) and ice along the frozen plastic straw (the most useful container for freezing mammalian semen, oocytes and embryos) was studied by Raman scattering technique. Raman spectroscopy being a contactless, non-invasive tool was applied for the straws filled with the cryoprotectant solution and frozen by controlled rate programs commonly used for mammalian embryos freezing. Analysis of Raman spectra measured at different points along the straw reveals a non-uniform distribution of the cryoprotectant. The ratio between non-crystalline solution and ice was found to be increased by several times at the bottom side of the solution column frozen by the standard freezing program. The increase of the cryoprotectant fraction occurs in the area where embryos or oocytes are normally placed during their freezing. Possible effects of the cooling rate and the ice nucleation temperature on the cryoprotectant fraction at the bottom side of the solution column were considered. Our findings highlight that the ice fraction around cryopreserved embryos or oocytes can differ significantly from the averaged one in the frozen plastic straws. PMID:26794460

  7. Folk Arts in the Home: New Mexican Straw Applique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia; Sullivan, Laura Temple

    In the 16th century the Spanish introduced marquetry techniques to the New World. The term "marquetry" applies to two different types of surface decoration: inlay and veneer; straw applique as it is practiced in New Mexico combines both techniques.) The introduction of marquetry dovetailed with the pre-Hispanic Aztec tradition of decorating…

  8. Continuous Production of Ethanol from Wheat Straw Hydrolyzate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The average ethanol yield from the availabl...

  9. Thermal degradation of cereal straws in air and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ergundenler, A.

    1991-12-31

    The termogravimetric behavior of four cereal straws (wheat, barley, oats, and rye) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50{degrees}C/min) in air and nitrogen atmospheres. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were determined for these straws in both atmospheres. Increasing the heating rate increased the thermal degradation rate, and decreased both the initial degradation temperature and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The higher the cellulosic content of the straw, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the straw resulted in higher residual weight at 600{degrees}C. The thermal degradation rate in active pyrolysis zone was lower in air atmosphere than in nitrogen atmosphere, whereas the thermal degradation rate in passive pyrolysis zone and the residual weight at 600{degrees}C were higher in nitrogen atmosphere than in air atmosphere.

  10. Managing pine straw harvests to minimize soil and water losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine straw is a valuable landscape mulch because it conserves soil moisture, moderates soil temperature, inhibits weed growth, and protects the soil surface against erosion, while retaining a loose structure that allows water, air, and fertilizer to easily reach the soil surface. As a result, marke...

  11. Drinking-Straw Microbalance and Seesaw: Stability and Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Peter; Glasser, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of a beam balance are little appreciated and seldom understood. We here consider the conditions that result in a stable balance, with center of gravity below the fulcrum (pivot point), while an unstable balance results when the center of gravity is above the fulcrum. The highly sensitive drinking-straw microbalance, which uses a…

  12. Truck Drivers, a Straw, and Two Glasses of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iga, Kevin; Killpatrick, Kendra

    2006-01-01

    While waiting for his meal to arrive, a truck driver was using his straw to move water from one glass to another when he was struck by this question: If I keep doing this, will the two glasses ever have exactly the same amount of water? This article looks at various problems related to that question.

  13. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  14. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW HYDROLYSATE USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 48.9 gL**-1 glucose was used to produce 20.1 gL**-1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 gL**-1h**-1 and 0....

  15. [Response of Soil Respiration and Organic Carbon to Returning of Different Agricultural Straws and Its Mechanism].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhan-bo; Wang, Lei; Li, Fan; Fu, Xiao-hua; Le, Yi-quan; Wu, Ji-hua; Lu, Bing; Xu, Dian-sheng

    2016-05-15

    Soybean, maize and rice straws were selected as raw materials to study the response of the soil respiration (SR) and soil organic carbon (SOC) to returning of different straws in the Chongming Dongtan area. The results showed that all of SR, SOC and the plant biomass of the lands with returning of different straws were higher than those of the controls. The soil with soybean straw returning possessed the lowest SR and highest SOC among the three kinds of straws, meaning its higher soil organic carbon sequestration capability than corn and maize straws returning. Straw returning significantly enhanced soil dehydrogenase, β-glycosidase activities and microbial biomass, and soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly correlated with soil respiration. The dehydrogenase activity of the soil with soybean straw returning was the lowest, thus, the lowest SR and highest SOC. Soybean straw had the highest cellulose and lignin contents and the lowest N content among the three kinds of straws, resulting in its lowest biodegradability. Therefore, when soybean straw was returned to soil, it was difficult to degrade completely by soil microorganisms, thus the lowest soil microbial activity, eventually leading to the lowest SR and highest SOC. PMID:27506047

  16. Wheat straw biomass: a resource for high-value chemicals.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Morris; Monreal, Carlos M; Powell, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    Two methods are proposed for increasing the commercial value of wheat straw based on its chemical constituents. The first method involves the determination and extraction of the major organic components of wheat straw, and the second involves those found and extracted in the aqueous and viscous biooils derived from the straw by fast pyrolysis. We used pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry to identify the fine chemicals, which have high commercial values. The most abundant organic compounds in the wheat straw and biooil used as precursors for green chemicals are N-heterocycles (16 to 29% of the Total Ion Intensities, TII) and fatty acids (19 to 26% of TIIs), followed by phenols and lignins (12 to 23% of TIIs). Other important precursors were carbohydrates and amino acids (1 to 8% TIIs), n-alkyl benzenes (3 to 5% of TIIs), and diols (4 to 9% TIIs). Steroids and flavonoids represented 1 to 5% of TIIs in the three materials. Examples of valuable chemical compounds that can be extracted from the wheat straw and biooils are m/z 256, 270, 278, 280, 282 and 284, which are the n-C16 and n-C17 fatty acids respectively, and the C18:3, C18:2 and C18:1 unsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the C18:2 (linoleic acid) is present at a concentration of 1.7% of TIIs. Pyrazole, pyrazine, pyridine, indoles, quinolines, carbazoles, and their identified derivatives are found in relatively high concentrations (1 to 8% of TIIs). Other useful compounds are sterols such as m/z 412 (stigmasterol), m/z 414 (β-sitosterol), and steroids such m/z 394 (stigmastatriene), m/z 398 (stigmastene) and m/z 410 (stigmastadienone). Relative to the wheat straw, the relative concentration of all flavonoids such as m/z 222 (flavone) and m/z 224 (flavonone) doubled in the biooils. The conversion of wheat straw by fast pyrolysis, followed by chemical characterization with mass spectrometry, and extraction of fine chemicals, opens up new possibilities for increasing the monetary value of crop residues

  17. Development of low-cost wheat-straw insulation board

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.K.; Glicksman, L.R.; Harvey, H.S. Jr.; Charlson, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    Insulation boards suitable for buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation have been fabricated and tested for use in developing countries. The boards were made at low density, 80 to 160 kg/m{sup 3}, and have suitable thermal properties for an air-based insulation, with a thermal resistivity of 21 to 28 m{center_dot}K/W [R3 to R4 per inch (h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu{center_dot}in)]. The initial effort focused on straw insulation boards suitable for use in buildings with solid masonry walls that lack cavities necessary for loose-fill insulation. The possible methods of fabrication initially evaluated were (1) containing the straw in panels with wire and battens, (2) pulping the straw, and (3) binding with adhesive. Starch, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and sodium silicate were evaluated as adhesives for both uncut and shredded straw. Methods of application included spraying, foaming, and dipping, at various adhesive-loading rates. Small samples were formed at a range of densities and tested for structural and thermal properties. All three approaches can succeed structurally and thermally, but are unable to compete economically with existing insulation board. A final batch of boards was made by spraying methane di-isocyanate (MDI), a synthetic resin, into a rotating tumbler that contained shredded straw. The boards, made over a range of densities and resin contents, and using straw with and without the fine particles, were tested thermally and structurally. Good mechanical properties were obtained at resin contents as low as 2% by mass. At densities of 128 and 160 kg/m{sup 3}, the boards had thermal resistivities of 24 to 26 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W. The pressure required to compress the 160 kg/m{sup 3} boards to 10% of their original thickness was approximately 100 kPa, and the modulus of rupture in bending was about 340 kPa. Removing the fine particles from the straw improved board strength markedly. The

  18. A comparative LCA of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2013-12-01

    Life cycle assessment of four rice straw utilization systems including; (1) direct combustion for electricity, (2) biochemical conversion to bio-ethanol and biogas, (3) thermo-chemical conversion to bio-DME, and (4) incorporation into the soil as fertilizer have been conducted to compare their environmental performances. The results showed that per ton of dry rice straw, the bio-ethanol pathway resulted in the highest environmental sustainability with regards to reductions in global warming and resource depletion potentials. Rice straw bio-DME was preferable vis-à-vis reduction in acidification potential. Rice straw electricity and fertilizer also brought about several environmental benefits. The key environmental benefit of rice straw utilization came from avoiding the deleterious effects from burning straw in situ in the field. Recommendations for enhancing environmental sustainability of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer are provided. PMID:24076147

  19. Processes of heat and mass transfer in straw bales using flue gasses as a drying medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Wojciech; Szubel, Mateusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Moisture content is a main problem of using straw in form of bales for energy production. The paper presents possibility of straw drying in dedicated, innovative and patented in Poland straw dryers which using flue gasses as a drying medium. Paper presents an improved way of drying which proved to be very sufficient. Temperature and humidity of straw during the process of drying were measured. The measurements helped understand and perform numerical model of heat and mass transfer inside the straw bale. By using CFD codes it was possible to perform analysis of phenomenon occurring inside the dried straw bale. Based on the CFD model, proposals of the optimization and improvement process of drying have been discussed. Experimental and computational data have been compared in terms of convergence. A satisfying degree of agreement has been achieved. Applying improved drying method, homogenous field of moisture content and temperature in the straw bale is achieved in a very cost effective way.

  20. Torsion Tests of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.

  1. 1999 tubing guide

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Petroleum Engineer International`s 1999 Tubing Guide contains performance and metallurgical data, as well as connection dimensions, on tubing from several companies. Parameters listed in each section were selected with the input of buyers and manufacturers of connections and tubing. Connections listings include: nominal tube OD, weight, tensile efficiency, sealing system, standard connection OD, special clearance OD, minimum ID and make-up loss. The grades section lists the tubing OD range, yield strength, tensile strength, hardness and whether the tubing is seamless or welded. An applications index specifies the downhole environments each grade can survive.

  2. Improvements to the User Interface for LHCb's Software continuous integration system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.; Kyriazi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a set of steps leading to an improved interface for LHCb's Nightly Builds Dashboard. The goal is to have an efficient application that meets the needs of both the project developers, by providing them with a user friendly interface, as well as those of the computing team supporting the system, by providing them with a dashboard allowing for better monitoring of the build job themselves. In line with what is already used by LHCb, the web interface has been implemented with the Flask Python framework for future maintainability and code clarity. The Database chosen to host the data is the schema-less CouchDB[7], serving the purpose of flexibility in document form changes. To improve the user experience, we use JavaScript libraries such as JQuery[11].

  3. Using DD4hep through Gaudi for new experiments and LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Karachaliou, A.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb Software Framework Gaudi is a C++ software framework for HEP applications used by several experiments. Although Gaudi is extremely flexible and extensible, its adoption is limited by the lack of certain components that are fundamental for the software framework of an experiment, in particular a detector description framework, whose implementation is delegated to the adopters. To enable future experiments to quickly adopt Gaudi, we integrated the DD4hep toolkit in the existing software framework, and, as a proof of concept, we used it with the LHCb software applications, from simulation to reconstruction and analysis. We will describe how the DD4hep toolkit can be used by a new experiment, as well as how we can migrate an existing detector description framework to the new toolkit.

  4. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-12-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8 < η < 4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 { GeV/c^2}.

  5. Beauty-quark and charm-quark pair production asymmetries at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Haisch, Ulrich; Pecjak, Ben D.; Re, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The LHCb Collaboration has recently performed a first measurement of the angular production asymmetry in the distribution of beauty quarks and antiquarks at a hadron collider. We calculate the corresponding standard model prediction for this asymmetry at fixed order in perturbation theory. Our results show good agreement with the data, which are provided differentially for three bins in the invariant mass of the b b ¯ system. We also present similar predictions for both beauty-quark and charm-quark final states within the LHCb acceptance for a collision energy of √{s }=13 TeV . We finally point out that a measurement of the ratio of the b b ¯ and c c ¯ cross sections may be useful for experimentally validating charm-tagging efficiencies.

  6. Real-time alignment and cali bration of the LHCb Detector in Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujany, Giulio; Storaci, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Stable, precise spatial alignment and PID calibration are necessary to achieve optimal detector performance. During Run2, LHCb will have a new real-time detector alignment and calibration to allow equivalent performance in the online and offline reconstruction to be reached. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection by applying stronger constraints, and to use hadronic particle identification at the trigger level. The computing time constraints are met through the use of a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from the operative and physics performance point of view. Specific challenges of this configuration are discussed, as well as the designed framework and its performance.

  7. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, ...

  8. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  9. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... key part of communicating with people. Having a tracheostomy tube can change your ability to talk and ... you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There are even ...

  10. Study of chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for producing fermentable sugars from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765

  11. Fallow season straw and water management effects on methane emissions in California rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, G. J.; Scow, K. M.; Hill, J. E.

    2000-09-01

    In response to legislative mandate to reduce postharvest straw burning and environmental concerns to restore wetland habitat for Pacific flyway waterfowl, California rice growers are incorporating straw into soil and flooding rice fields in winter. These changes were hypothesized to alter soil carbon cycling pathways across the region. The principal objective of this study was to determine how various winter fallowed straw and water management changes would affect year-round methane emissions. Main plots were winter flood and nonflood, and subplots had straw treatments: burned, soil incorporated, or rolled (partially soil incorporated). Results showed the principal factor controlling methane emissions was the interaction of flooding and straw amendments. The presence of either water or straw alone led to low emissions. Winter emissions accounted for 50% of annual totals in straw-amended treatments despite lower temperatures and the presence of plants in summer. Summer emissions were significantly influenced by winter straw amendments but not by winter flood. Postdrain peaks after winter drain accounted for 10-13% of annual emissions in treatments with amended straw. Although rolled and incorporated treatments had similar straw inputs, methane fluxes from rolled treatments were higher than from incorporated treatments. Measurements of methane should be conducted year-round to capture fallow and postdrain fluxes and improve global emission estimates. Regional emission estimates showed that 2.6 times more methane was emitted after flooding plus incorporation was implemented than before the legislative mandate was enacted.

  12. Solid-state anaerobic digestion of spent wheat straw from horse stall.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhifang; Shi, Jian; Li, Yebo

    2011-10-01

    The spent wheat straw from horse stall bedding has lower cellulose and hemicellulose contents, but higher volatile fatty acid content than raw wheat straw. Biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of spent wheat straw and raw wheat straw was compared in this study. The SS-AD tests were conducted at 22% total solids (TS) content using inoculum from a liquid AD system at three feedstock-to-inoculum (F/I) ratios of 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0. Daily methane yields of spent wheat straw peaked 8 and 3 days earlier than those of raw wheat straw at F/I ratios of 2.0 and 4.0, respectively. The highest methane yield of 150.0 L/kg volatile solids (VS) was obtained from spent wheat straw at an F/I ratio of 4.0, which was 56.2% higher than that of raw wheat straw. The corresponding cellulose and hemicellulose degradation of spent wheat straw was 24.1% and 49.4% higher than those of raw wheat straw, respectively. PMID:21852125

  13. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of

  14. Calibration of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter via reconstructing the neutral-pion invariant mass

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, I. M. Golubkov, D. Yu. Egorychev, V. Yu. Polikarpov, S. M. Savrina, D. V.

    2015-12-15

    The calibration of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter is a multistep procedure aimed at reconstructing photon and electron energies to a precision not poorer than 2%. A method based on measuring the neutral-pion invariantmass is applied at the last step of this procedure. A regular application of this method makes it possible to improve substantially the resolution for particles that decay through channels featuring electrons and photons in the final state.

  15. The LHCb Online Framework for Experiment Protection, and Global Operational Control and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.; Schleich, S.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity and extreme parameters of the LHC, such as the stored energy, the collision frequency, the high risk of adverse background conditions and potentially damaging beam losses have demanded an unprecedented connectivity between the operation of the accelerator and the experiments at both hardware and software level. LHCb has been at the forefront of developing a software framework and hardware which connects to all of the LHC communication interfaces for timing, control and monitoring of the machine and beam parameters, in addition to its own local systems for beam and background monitoring. The framework also includes failsafe connectivity with the beam interlock system. The framework drives the global operation of the detector and is integrated into the readout control. It provides the shifters with the tools needed to take fast and well-guided decisions to run the LHCb experiment safely and efficiently. In particular, it has allowed the detector to be operated with only two shifters already at the LHC pilot run. The requirements include reliability and clarity for the shifters, and the possibility to retrieve the past conditions for offline analysis. All essential parameters are archived and an interactive analysis tool has been developed which provides overviews of the experimental performance and which allows post-analysis of any anomaly in the operation. This paper describes the architecture and the many functions, including the basis of the automation of the LHCb operational procedure and detector controls, and the information exchange between LHCb and the LHC, and finally the shifter and expert tools for monitoring the experimental conditions.

  16. Mixing and CP violation in the beauty and charm sectors at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López March, Neus

    2014-04-01

    The LHCb detector is a dedicated heavy flavour experiment operating at the Large Hadron Collider designed to pursue an extensive study of CP violation in the beauty and charm sectors. In the first part of this contribution, important milestones towards the measurement of CP violation in the beauty sector using B± and Bs0 decays are presented. In the second part, highlights of the searches of CP violation in the charm sector are reported.

  17. Studies of charmed hadronic B decays with the early LHCb data and prospects for {gamma} measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nardulli, J.

    2010-12-22

    We present the first studies of decays of the type B{yields}DX, where D represents a charmed meson (D{sup 0}, D{sup (*)+}, or D{sub s}) from the LHCb experiment at CERN. Our studies use data accumulated during the 2010 run of the LHC. This work represents the first steps on a programme towards a precision measurement of the angle {gamma} of the CKM Unitarity Triangle. The prospects for this {gamma} measurement will be reviewed.

  18. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Legger, Federica; Sciabà, Andrea; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Úbeda García, Mario; van der Ster, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  19. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  20. Evaporative CO2 microchannel cooling for the LHCb VELO pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Aguiar Francisco, O. A.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; John, M.; Mapelli, A.; Romagnoli, G.

    2015-05-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 to a lightweight pixel detector capable of 40 MHz readout and operation in very close proximity to the LHC beams. The thermal management of the system will be provided by evaporative CO2 circulating in microchannels embedded within thin silicon plates. This solution has been selected due to the excellent thermal efficiency, the absence of thermal expansion mismatch with silicon ASICs and sensors, the radiation hardness of CO2, and very low contribution to the material budget. Although microchannel cooling is gaining considerable attention for applications related to microelectronics, it is still a novel technology for particle physics experiments, in particular when combined with evaporative CO2 cooling. The R&D effort for LHCb is focused on the design and layout of the channels together with a fluidic connector and its attachment which must withstand pressures up to 170 bar. Even distribution of the coolant is ensured by means of the use of restrictions implemented before the entrance to a race track like layout of the main cooling channels. The coolant flow and pressure drop have been simulated as well as the thermal performance of the device. This proceeding describes the design and optimization of the cooling system for LHCb and the latest prototyping results.

  1. [Isotope compositions of elemental carbon in the smoke and ash from crop straw combustion].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Li, Jiu-Hai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Six genotypes of straws for rice, maize and wheat, respectively, were combusted under flaming and smoldering conditions, and the isotope compositions for elemental carbon ( EC) in the straw smoke and ash were investigated with an isotopic mass spectrometer. The results showed that the mean delta 13C values for EC in the flaming and smoldering smoke of rice straw were - 28. 3 per thousand and - 28.7 per thousand, with depletions of 2.7 per thousand and 3. 0 per thousand relative to that of total carbon (TC) in the straw, respectively. The mean delta 13C values for EC in the flaming and smoldering smoke of wheat straw were -28.5 per thousand and - 28. 0 per thousand, with a depletion of 0. 1 per thousand and enrichment of 0. 4 per thousand comparing to TC in the straw, respectively. The average values in two types of maize straw smoke were -17.2 per thousand and - 13. 6 per thousand,with a depletion of 3.4 per thousand and an enrichment of 0. 2 per thousand relative to TC in the straw, respectively. The mean delta 13C ratios for EC in the flaming and smoldering ash of rice straw were -27. 5 per thousand and -27. 3 per thousand, with depletions of 1.8 per thousand and 1. 6 per thousand comparing with TC in the straw, respectively. In the flaming and smoldering ash of wheat straw, the mean ratios were -27.4 per thousand and -26.0 per thousand, with enrichments of 0. 9 per thousand and 2. 4 per thousand relative to TC in the straw, respectively. In the two types of ash for maize straw, the average delta13 C values for EC were - 15. 0 per thousand and - 14. 8 per thousand,which were 1. 2 per thousand and 1.0 per thousand lighter than those of the straw TC. In general, evident isotope fractionations occur between EC in both smoke and ash and TC in the corresponding straws, especially for rice and maize straws. The isotopic ratios may be useful in identifying and estimating the contribution of EC from straw combustion to ambient aerosol. PMID:25055653

  2. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  3. Study of pozzolanic properties of wheat straw ash

    SciTech Connect

    Biricik, H.; Akoez, F.; Berktay, I.; Tulgar, A.N.

    1999-05-01

    As an agricultural product, wheat straw contains considerable amounts of SiO{sub 2}. When burned it leaves an ash very rich in SiO{sub 2} that has a pozzolanic character. Wheat is an important agricultural product in Turkey. In this study, wheat straws are ground to 1--5-mm size and subjected to preburning treatment. The preburned material is later burned in controller conditions for 5 hours at 570 and 670 C. The ash is cooled suddenly and ground to 90--200 {micro} size. The standard test specimens are produced from ash and mechanically, chemically, and physically tested for determination of its pozzolanic properties. It is obtained that the ash has pozzolanic activity.

  4. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    PubMed Central

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  5. Alternative uses of rice-straw in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bainbridge, D.A.

    1997-03-01

    Interconnectedness and complexity are the hallmarks of almost every environmental problem and opportunity including the challenge of rice straw management in California. Although attempts are often made to solve environmental problems by working on single aspects, this rarely works, just as treating symptoms may do little to resolve diseases. The rice straw problem includes the physical system of the atmosphere, air basins, soils, and local and regional watersheds, and reaches the global scale with concern over atmospheric contribution of methane and implications for global warming. It includes the biological system of the rice crop, soil organisms, crop pests, and wildlife (both beneficial and harmful). And finally, it includes the economic and social systems of the rice grower, farm families, farm service industries, rural communities, the regional population, rice consumers around the world, fishermen and women, hunters, manufacturers of harvesting equipment, medical services, and potentially, builders and home buyers in the region.

  6. Potential of rice straw for bio-refining: An overview.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Amith; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Sindhu, Raveendran; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2016-09-01

    The biorefinery approach for the production of fuels and chemicals is gaining more and more attraction in recent years. The major advantages of biorefineries are the generation of multiple products with complete utilization of biomass with zero waste generation. Moreover the process will be economically viable when it targets low volume high value products in addition to high volume low value products like bioethanol. The present review discuss about the potential of rice straw based biorefinery. Since rice is a major staple food for many Asian countries, the utilization of the rice straw residue for fuel and chemicals would be very economical. The review focuses the availability and the potential of this residue for the production of fuel and other high value chemicals. PMID:27067674

  7. Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw: product distribution and generation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiqiang; Wang, Wenlong; Liu, Hongzhen; Ma, Chunyuan; Song, Zhanlong

    2014-04-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of wheat straw is studied, combined with analysis of products, the distribution and generation pathway of products are investigated. Only a small amount of volatiles released when microwave pyrolysis of pure straw. Mixtures of adding CuO and Fe3O4 can pyrolyze, and the majority in pyrolysis products is in liquid-phase. Severe pyrolysis occur after adding carbon residue, the CO content in pyrolysis gas products is high, and the maximum volume content of H2 can exceed 35 vol.%. The high-temperature is helpful for increasing the yield of combustible gas in gaseous products, in particular the H2 production, but also helpful for improving the conversion of sample. Pyrolysis is carried out layer by layer from the inside to outside. As the internal material firstly pyrolyze and pyrolysis products released pass through the low temperature zone, the chance of occurrence of secondary reactions is reduced. PMID:24607465

  8. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    PubMed

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  9. Telescoping tube assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Albert J. (Inventor); Marrinan, Thomas E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An extensible and retractable telescoping tube positions test devices that inspect large stationary objects. The tube has three dimensional adjustment capabilities and is vertically suspended from a frame. The tube sections are independently supported with each section comprising U-shaped housing secured to a thicker support plate. Guide mechanisms preferably mounted only to the thicker plates guide each tube section parallel to a reference axis with improved accuracy so that the position of the remote end of the telescoping tube is precisely known.

  10. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  11. Corrosion guard tubing nipple

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, W.E.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes the process of placing a string of tubing in an oil field well; a. the string of tubing when placed extending from the surface of the earth to an oil bearing formation far below the surface, b. the string made from i. a plurality of tubing sections, ii. each section having external threads on each end, and iii. cuffs with internal threads coupling the tubing sections together, c. each of the tubing sections having i. an axis, ii. a wall thickness, and iii. a corrosion resistant coating on its inside bore; wherein the improved method comprises: d. placing a section of tubing into the well with a cuff attached to the upper end at the surface of the earth, e. dropping a corrosion resistant nipple into the cuff, f. the nipple being loose in the cuff, g. attaching an additional section of tubing onto the cuff, and h. screwing the additional section tightly to the cuff.

  12. Heat tube device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

  13. The thermal behaviour of the co-combustion between paper sludge and rice straw.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zeqiong; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2013-10-01

    The thermal characteristics and kinetics of paper sludge, rice straw and their blends were evaluated under combustion condition. The paper sludge was blended with rice straw in the range of 10-95 wt.% to investigate their co-combustion behaviour. There was significant interaction between rice straw and paper sludge in high temperature. The combustion of paper sludge and rice straw could be divided into two stages. The value of the activation energy obtained by the Friedman and the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) first decreased and then increased with the conversion degree rising. The average activation energy did not monotonically decrease with increasing the percentage of rice straw in the blends. When the percentage of rice straw in the blends was 80%, the value of the average activation energy was the smallest, which was 139 kJ/mol obtained by OFW and 132 kJ/mol obtained by Friedman, respectively. PMID:23973983

  14. Removal of Cu(II) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuejiao; Xu, Renkou

    2013-04-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(II)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola, rice, soybean and peanut straws was investigated. The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(II) from the effluent, mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation, and neutralized its acidity. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) by the biochars followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char > a commercial activated carbonaceous material, which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars. The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by biochars. Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(II) from it. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400 degrees C for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr. PMID:23923773

  15. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

  16. Induction of wheat straw delignification by Trametes species

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Stajić, Mirjana; Jovanović, Vladimir M.; Kovačević, Višnja; Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Milovanović, Ivan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains. PMID:27216645

  17. Selective liquefaction of wheat straw in phenol and its fractionation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xie, Shuangping

    2012-05-01

    For the first time, a method of phenol-selective liquefaction is proposed for the fractionation and multilevel conversion of lignocellulose. Through phenol-selective liquefaction, lignin and hemicellulose are liquefied, with large amounts of cellulose retained in the unliquefied residues. Using a phenol/straw ratio of 3 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 3%, large amounts of hemicellulose (≥85%) and lignin (≥70%) can be liquefied at 100 °C in 30 min, with a high quantity of cellulose (≥80%) retained. Unliquefied residues from selective liquefaction have higher susceptibility for enzymatic attack. Enzymatic hydrolyzation of residues can be as high as 65% in 48 h with 40.7 FPU/g of dry materials, which can then be used to prepare sugar platform intermediates. The liquefied products of wheat straw are then resinified with formaldehyde in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst and synthesized into phenol formaldehyde-type resins reaching up to GB/T 14732-2006 standards. Phenol selective liquefaction, a new technology for the fractionation of lignocellulose, achieves effective fractionation and multilevel conversion of straw components. Hence, it is an important tool to achieve full utilization of biomass and high value-added conversion of lignocellulose. PMID:22544687

  18. Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native β-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

  19. Induction of wheat straw delignification by Trametes species.

    PubMed

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Stajić, Mirjana; Jovanović, Vladimir M; Kovačević, Višnja; Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Milovanović, Ivan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains. PMID:27216645

  20. Spontaneous use of tools as straws in great apes.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Héctor Marín; Call, Josep

    2011-03-01

    Great apes can use multiple tools to extract food embedded in substrates and can invent new ways to exploit those resources. We tested five bonobos, five chimpanzees, and six orangutans in a task in which they had to use (and modify) a tool as a straw to drink the juice located inside a container. Experiment 1 showed that four orangutans and one chimpanzee invented the use of a piece of electric cable to get the juice. Experiment 2 investigated whether subjects could transform a non-functional hose into a functional one by removing blockages that impeded the free flow of juice. Orangutans outperformed chimpanzees and bonobos by differentially removing those blockages that prevented the flow of juice, often doing so before attempting to extract the juice. In Experiment 3, we presented chimpanzees and orangutans with four 3-tool sets (each tool set contained a single straw-like tool) and allowed them to select one tool. Unlike chimpanzees, orangutans succeeded in selecting the straw-like tool above chance levels without having to physically manipulate it. We suggest that orangutans' superior performance is related to their greater reliance on mouth actions during foraging. Experiment 4 investigated whether orangutans were also capable of selecting the suitable tool not by its appearance, but by the effects that it produced. After witnessing the experimenter blow bubbles or absorb liquid with a functional tool but fail to accomplish the same thing with the non-functional tool, orangutans failed to select the functional tool above chance levels. PMID:21132450

  1. Erythritol production on wheat straw using Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Birgit; Mach, Robert L; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R

    2014-01-01

    We overexpressed the err1 gene in the Trichoderma reesei wild-type and in the cellulase hyperproducing, carbon catabolite derepressed strain Rut-C30 in order to investigate the possibility of producing erythritol with T. reesei. Two different promoters were used for err1 overexpression in both strains, a constitutive (the native pyruvat kinase (pki) promoter) and an inducible one (the native β-xylosidase (bxl1) promoter). The derived recombinant strains were precharacterized by analysis of err1 transcript formation on D-xylose and xylan. Based on this, one strain of each type was chosen for further investigation for erythritol production in shake flasks and in bioreactor experiments. For the latter, we used wheat straw pretreated by an alkaline organosolve process as lignocellulosic substrate. Shake flask experiments on D-xylose showed increased erythritol formation for both, the wild-type and the Rut-C30 overexpression strain compared to their respective parental strain. Bioreactor cultivations on wheat straw did not increase erythritol formation in the wild-type overexpression strain. However, err1 overexpression in Rut-C30 led to a clearly higher erythritol formation on wheat straw. PMID:24949268

  2. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, N.; Kamath, S. Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure. PMID:27397467

  3. Neutron Multiplicity Measurements With 3He Alternative: Straw Neutron Detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Meade, John A.; Detweiler, Ryan; Maurer, Richard J.; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Guss, Paul P.; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Sun, Liang; Athanasiades, Athanasios

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as “ship effect”) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. In this study, a prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called “straws” that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions ofmore » neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system to collect

  4. Neutron multiplicity ,easurements With 3He alternative: Straw neutron detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Meade, John A.; Detweiler, Ryan; Maurer, Richard J.; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Guss, Paul P.; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Sun, Liang; Athanasiades, Athanasios

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as “ship effect”) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. In this study, a prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called “straws” that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions ofmore » neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system to collect

  5. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective.

    PubMed

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2013-08-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t(-1) the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. PMID:24926116

  6. Role of phenolic compounds in the antialgal activity of barley straw.

    PubMed

    Pillinger, J M; Cooper, J A; Ridge, I

    1994-07-01

    Barley straw decomposing in well-aerated water releases a substance(s) that inhibits algal growth. Phenolic compounds are toxic to algae but are unlikely to be present in sufficient quantities to account for the extended antialgal action of straw. However, straw is antialgal under conditions that may promote oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl groups to quinones; tannins are antialgal under similar conditions. The toxicity of authentic quinones towardsMicrocystis is confirmed; the quinones are some 10(3) times more antialgal than phenolic acids. The possibility that oxidized lignin derivatives may be involved in straw toxicity towards algae is discussed. PMID:24242651

  7. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  8. Autohydrolysis pretreatment of waste wheat straw for cellulosic ethanol production in a co-located straw pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiang; Jin, Yanbin; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Waste wheat straw (WWS) is the waste product from feedstock preparation process in a straw pulp mill. It has a significant annual production rate and no commercial value has been explored on this material. In this study, waste wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process followed by mechanical refining, and the pretreated materials were further enzymatically hydrolyzed to evaluate the total sugar recovery for bioethanol production. Results show that autohydrolysis at 170 °C for 40 min followed by 6000 revolution PFI refining provided the best result in this study, where a total sugar recovery (total sugars in autohydrolysis filtrate and enzymatic hydrolyzate over total carbohydrates on raw WWS) of 70 % at 4 filter paper unit per oven dry gram (FPU/OD g) substrate enzyme charge could be obtained. The economic evaluation of this biorefinery process indicates that cellulosic ethanol production from autohydrolysis of WWS is a very profitable business, with 28.4 % of internal rate of return can be achieved based on current ethanol wholesale price in China. PMID:25374142

  9. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  10. Collapse of flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilets, L.; Puff, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of an idealized, infinite, MIT-type flux tube is followed in time as the interior evolves from a pure gluon field to a q¯q plasma. We work in color U(1). q¯q pair formation is evaluated according to the Schwinger mechanism using the results of Brink and Pavel. The motion of the quarks toward the tube end caps is calculated by a Boltzmann equation including collisions. The tube undergoes damped radial oscillations until the electric field settles down to zero. The electric field stabilizes the tube against pinch instabilities; when the field vanishes, the tube disintegrates into mesons. There is only one free parameter in the problem, namely the initial flux tube radius, to which the results are very sensitive. Among various quantities calculated is the mean energy of the emitted pions.

  11. Ruggedized electronographic tube development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their glass components and lack of far ultraviolet sensitivity, currently available Spectracons are not suited for rocket launch. Technology developed for second generation image tubes and for magnetically focused image tubes can be applied to improve the optical and mechanical properties of these magnetically focused electronographic tubes whose 40 kilovolt signal electrons exit a 4-micrometer thick mica window and penetrate a photographic recording emulsion.

  12. Tube-welder aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tools assist in setting up and welding tubes. Welder aids can be easily made to fit given tube diameter. Finished set can be used repeatedly to fix electrode-to-weld gap and mark sleeve and joint positions. Tools are readily made in tube-manufacturing plants and pay for themselves in short time in reduced labor costs and quality control: Conventional measurements are too slow for mass production and are prone to errors.

  13. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  14. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  15. Measurement of φs in CP and Non-CP Eigenstates - Results from D0, CDF and LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparkes, Ailsa

    2013-10-01

    D0, CDF and LHCb have all performed measurements of the CP-violating parameters φs with the decay Bs0= J/Ψφ. These measurements are now consistent with each other and also with the prediction of the Standard Model. LHCb has performed the first non-zero measurement of the lifetime difference between the Bs0 and Bs-0 decays. The ambiguity in the sign of this difference has been resolved using a simultaneous fit in bins of K+K- invariant mass. The value of φs has also been measured with the decay Bs0→J/Ψππ at LHCb, and has been combined with the result from Bs0→J/Ψφ. Prospects for further measurements are discussed.

  16. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Outwater, J.O.

    2000-05-23

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  17. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  18. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  19. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  20. Composite Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.; Cloyd, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time, it is desirable to maximize radial thermal conductance at the cold end of the pulse tube to ensure adequate thermal contact between (1) a heat exchanger in the form of a stack of copper screens inside the pulse tube at the cold end and (2) the remainder of the cold tip, which is the object to which the heat load is applied and from which heat must be removed. The modified design yields a low-heat-leak pulse tube that can be easily integrated with a cold tip. A typical pulse tube of prior design is either a thin-walled metal tube or a metal tube with a nonmetallic lining. It is desirable that the outer surface of a pulse tube be cylindrical (in contradistinction to tapered) to simplify the design of a regenerator that is also part of the cryocooler. Under some conditions, it is desirable to taper the inner surface of the pulse tube to reduce acoustic streaming. The combination of a cylindrical outer surface and a tapered inner surface can lead to unacceptably large axial conduction if the pulse tube is made entirely of metal. Making the pulse-tube wall of a nonmetallic, lowthermal- conductivity material would not solve the problem because the wall would not afford the needed thermal contact for the stack of screens in the cold end. The modified design calls for fabricating the pulse tube in two parts: a longer, nonmetallic part that is tapered on the inside and cylindrical on the outside and a shorter, metallic part that is cylindrical on both the inside and the outside. The nonmetallic part can be made from G-10 fiberglass-reinforced epoxy or other low-thermal-conductivity, cryogenically compatible material. The metallic part must have high

  1. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  2. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  3. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  4. ECFS: A decentralized, distributed and fault-tolerant FUSE filesystem for the LHCb online farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybczynski, Tomasz; Bonaccorsi, Enrico; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment records millions of proton collisions every second, but only a fraction of them are useful for LHCb physics. In order to filter out the "bad events" a large farm of x86-servers (~2000 nodes) has been put in place. These servers boot from and run from NFS, however they use their local disk to temporarily store data, which cannot be processed in real-time ("data-deferring"). These events are subsequently processed, when there are no live-data coming in. The effective CPU power is thus greatly increased. This gain in CPU power depends critically on the availability of the local disks. For cost and power-reasons, mirroring (RAID-1) is not used, leading to a lot of operational headache with failing disks and disk-errors or server failures induced by faulty disks. To mitigate these problems and increase the reliability of the LHCb farm, while at same time keeping cost and power-consumption low, an extensive research and study of existing highly available and distributed file systems has been done. While many distributed file systems are providing reliability by "file replication", none of the evaluated ones supports erasure algorithms. A decentralised, distributed and fault-tolerant "write once read many" file system has been designed and implemented as a proof of concept providing fault tolerance without using expensive - in terms of disk space - file replication techniques and providing a unique namespace as a main goals. This paper describes the design and the implementation of the Erasure Codes File System (ECFS) and presents the specialised FUSE interface for Linux. Depending on the encoding algorithm ECFS will use a certain number of target directories as a backend to store the segments that compose the encoded data. When target directories are mounted via nfs/autofs - ECFS will act as a file-system over network/block-level raid over multiple servers.

  5. The 40 MHz trigger-less DAQ for the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campora Perez, D. H.; Falabella, A.; Galli, D.; Giacomini, F.; Gligorov, V.; Manzali, M.; Marconi, U.; Neufeld, N.; Otto, A.; Pisani, F.; Vagnoni, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown (2018-2019), aiming to let LHCb collect an order of magnitude more data with respect to Run 1 and Run 2. The maximum readout rate of 1 MHz is the main limitation of the present LHCb trigger. The upgraded detector, apart from major detector upgrades, foresees a full read-out, running at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz, using an entirely software based trigger. A new high-throughput PCIe Generation 3 based read-out board, named PCIe40, has been designed for this purpose. The read-out board will allow an efficient and cost-effective implementation of the DAQ system by means of high-speed PC networks. The network-based DAQ system reads data fragments, performs the event building, and transports events to the High-Level Trigger at an estimated aggregate rate of about 32 Tbit/s. Different architecture for the DAQ can be implemented, such as push, pull and traffic shaping with barrel-shifter. Possible technology candidates for the foreseen event-builder under study are InfiniBand and Gigabit Ethernet. In order to define the best implementation of the event-builder we are performing tests of the event-builder on different platforms with different technologies. For testing we are using an event-builder evaluator, which consists of a flexible software implementation, to be used on small size test beds as well as on HPC scale facilities. The architecture of DAQ system and up to date performance results will be presented.

  6. Flowability parameters for chopped switchgrass, wheat straw and corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, A.R.; Bitra, V.S.P.; Yoder, D.C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-02-01

    A direct shear cell to measure the shear strength and flow properties of chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover was designed, fabricated, and tested. Yield loci (r2=0.99) determined at pre-consolidation pressures of 3.80 kPa and 5.02 kPa indicated that chopped biomass followed Mohr-Coulomb failure. Normal stress significantly affected the displacement required for shear failure, as well as the friction coefficient values for all three chopped biomass types. Displacement at shear failure ranged from 30 to 80 mm, and depended on pre-consolidation pressure, normal stress, and particle size. Friction coefficient was inversely related to normal stress, and was highest for chopped corn stover. Also, chopped corn stover exhibited the highest angle of internal friction, unconfined yield strength, major consolidation strength, and cohesive strength, all of which indicated increased challenges in handling chopped corn stover. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength indicated that chopped biomass cannot be handled by gravity alone. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength were 43 and 0.75 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 44 and 0.49 kPa for chopped wheat straw; and 48 and 0.82 kPa for chopped corn stover. Unconfined yield strength and major consolidation strength used for characterization of bulk flow materials and design of hopper dimensions were 3.4 and 10.4 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 2.3 and 9.6 kPa for chopped wheat straw and 4.2 and 11.8 kPa for chopped corn stover. These results are useful for development of efficient handling, storage, and transportation systems for biomass in biorefineries.

  7. Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

  8. Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from

  9. Evaluation of high solids alkaline pretreatment of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2010-11-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H(2)O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H(2)O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95 degrees C for lime pretreatment and 55 degrees C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p < 0.001) on delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95 degrees C, but there was little effect observed at 55 degrees C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  10. Triple-GEM Detectors for the Innermost Region of the LHCb Muon Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Poli Lener, M

    2005-10-12

    We present in this paper the mechanical construction procedures, the tools and the relative quality check of a triple-GEM detector. This kind of detector is the result of R and D activity performed for the study of detectors for the hard radiation environment of the innermost region, around the beam pipe, of the first muon station of the LHCb experiment. We also present the performances of the chamber final design, operated with Ar/CO2/CF4 (45/15/40) gas mixture, obtained at PS beam facility at CERN.

  11. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF LIME PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW TO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 44.24 +/- 0.28% cellulose and 25.23 +/- 0.11% hemicellulose. Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from ...

  12. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  13. Use of ground wheat straw in container nursery substrates to overwinter daylily divisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) straw is being evaluated as a potential component in soilless container mixes either alone or combined with compost to replace a significant portion of the substrate currently supplied by pine bark and peat moss. The objective of this study was to evaluate wheat straw and horse...

  14. METHANE PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC SOIL AMENDED WITH RICE STRAW AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on the effects of rice straw application and inorganic N fertilization on methane (CH4) production from a flooded Louisiana, USA, rice soil. ignificant increase of CH4 production was observed following rice straw application. ethane productio...

  15. Mapping straw yield using on-combine light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw is not only important for long-term soil productivity, but also as a raw material for biofuel, livestock feed, building, packing, and bedding. Inventory figures in the United States for potential straw availability are largely based on whole states and counties. ...

  16. Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...

  17. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate...

  18. Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

    This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

  19. Scale-up of wheat straw conversion to fuel ethanol at 100 liter scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw can serve as low cost feedstock for conversion to ethanol. Pretreatment is crucial prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. We have used dilute H2SO4 pretreatment at a high temperature for pretreatment of wheat straw. The pretreated hydrolyzate was bioabated using a novel fungal strain able to ...

  20. On-combine Sensing Technique for Mapping Straw Yield within Wheat Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw from production of wheat is available for conversion to bioenergy. However, not all of this straw is available for conversion because a certain amount must be returned to the soil for conservation. County and state-wide inventories do not account for variation within farm fields. In this st...

  1. Welding Tubes In Place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, R.

    1984-01-01

    Special welding equipment joins metal tubes that carry pressurized cyrogenic fluids. Equipment small enough to be used in confined spaces in which such tubes often mounted. Welded joints lighter in weight and more leak-proof than joints made with mechanical fittings.

  2. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  3. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  4. Fallopian Tube Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, Amy Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Fallopian tube catheterization is used for treatment of infertility caused by proximal tubal occlusion, and has replaced surgical treatment for this condition. More recently, fallopian tube catheterization has been used for tubal sterilization. Interventional radiologists tested numerous methods for tubal occlusion using the rabbit as an animal model. As a result, a tubal device has recently been Food and Drug Administration approved for permanent sterilization using hysteroscopic guidance; it can also be placed fluoroscopically by fallopian tube catheterization as an “off-label” procedure. This is a 5-year continuation and update on a procedure that has been done by interventional radiologists for 25 years; history of the development of fallopian tube catheterization in women has been published in detail in this journal. Highlighted in this article will be description of the basic components needed for fallopian tube catheterization. PMID:24436565

  5. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. 72.19 Section 72.19 Animals... and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate...

  6. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. 72.19 Section 72.19 Animals... Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises...

  7. Control of fasciolosis in stall-fed buffaloes by managing the feeding of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Mahato, S N; Harrison, L J S

    2005-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola gigantica, presents major disease and production problems, particularly in the rice producing areas of South and South-East Asia. In Nepal, buffaloes are commonly stall-fed and the most usual fodder is rice straw, which is produced in large quantities in the area. Here we describe a relatively simple way of controlling fasciolosis in these animals. We demonstrate that infectious metacercariae of F. gigantica are concentrated in the bottom part of the rice straw and that infection can be controlled by cutting the rice straw in half, and then feeding the parasite free top half of the straw first. The bottom part of the rice straw should ideally be stored for at least 4 months after harvest to allow the parasites to die before it is used as fodder. PMID:15934636

  8. Combining cottage cheese whey and straw reduces erosion while increasing infiltration in furrow irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Robbins, C.W.; Freeborn, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Loose straw in irrigation furrows can decrease irrigation induced erosion, and acid cottage cheese whey can increase soil aggregate stability and soil infiltration. A field study was conducted at two sites where these materials were compared alone and in combination to determine their effectiveness in increasing infiltration and reducing irrigation induced erosion. Straw was applied by hand and whey was applied by gravity flow down irrigation furrows, 76 cm apart, and the field was planted to sweet corn (Zea Mays L.). Straw + whey was the most effective treatment for controlling erosion and sediment loss. Seasonal infiltration was significantly higher for straw + whey than for other treatments at the first site, and all three treatments increased infiltration over that of the control at the second site. These studies showed that two inexpensive agricultural byproducts, cottage cheese whey and straw, applied to irrigation furrows of different slopes can significantly reduce soil loss and increase infiltration.

  9. The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, M D; Butler, B R; Terlizzi, D E; Lacouture, R V

    2005-11-01

    Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth in the presence of straw liquor. The growth of the remainder, Ulothrix fimbriata, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. showed no significant difference from controls. In a related field study, we treated four of six ponds with barley straw and monitored their chlorophyll a levels for one growing season. While phytoplankton populations in all ponds decreased in midsummer, the phytoplankton biomass in treated ponds did not differ significantly from that of control ponds, suggesting that the application of barley straw had no effect on algal growth in these systems. PMID:16051085

  10. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  11. [Observational study of black carbon aerosol during straw-burning period].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-xia; Wei, Qing-nong; Wei, Jian-li; Liu, Shi-sheng; Feng, Wei-wei

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon aerosol (BC) has been measured at three sites in Hefei City during May and June, 2007. Analyzing these real-time BC data, the concentration characters and the sources of black carbon aerosol can be found. The average concentrations of BC in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.85 microg/m3 and 8.38 microg/m3, respectively. The significant difference shows that the straw-burning is one of the main sources. The correlation coefficients between daily average concentration of BC and PM10 is 0.74, while the values of BC/PM10 in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.7% and 7.9%, respectively. Through comparing to the BC concentration during straw-burning period in 2004, the results indicated that pollution of BC has reduced after straw-burning was forbidden by the government. PMID:19256359

  12. Extraction of hemicellulose from ryegrass straw for the production of glucose isomerase and use of the resulting straw residue for animal feed

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.P.; Anderson, A.W.

    1980-03-01

    The hemicellulose fraction of ryegrass straw was extracted with NaOH and used for the production of glucose isomerase by Streptomyces flavogriseus. The level of hemicellulose extracted increased proportionately with increasing NaOH concentration up to about 4%, then the rate of increase slowed down. Hemicellulose extraction was facilitated by the combined application of heat and NaOH. Approximately 15% hemicellulose (12% as pentosan) could be obtained by treating straw with 4% NaOH for either 3 hours at 90/sup 0/C or 24 hour at room temperature. The highest level (3.04 units/ml culture) of intracellular glucose isomerase was obtained when the organism was grown at 30 degrees Centigrade for two days on 2% straw hemicellulose. The organism also produced a high yield of glucose isomerase on xylose or xylan. The NaOH treated straw residue, after removal of hemicellulose, had approximately 75% higher digestibility and 20% higher feed efficiency for weanling meadow voles than untreated straw, but almost the equivalent to that obtained by NaOH treatment without removal of the hemicellulose. Thus, the residue could be used as animal feed. A process for the production of glucose isomerase and animal feed from ryegrass straw was also proposed.

  13. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  14. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects ...

  15. Holder for Straightening Bent Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, A. R.; Polzien, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    One-piece holder restrains bent metal tube against further bending during straightening operation. Holder consists of handle 16 in. (41 cm) long welded to short, strong tube that fits around tube to be straightened.

  16. Numerical simulation of wind sand movement in straw checkerboard barriers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ning; Xia, Xianpan; Tong, Ding

    2013-09-01

    Straw checkerboard barrier (SCB) is the most representative antidesertification measure and plays a significant role in antidesertification projects. Large-eddy simulation and discrete-particle tracing were used to numerically simulate the wind sand movement inside the straw checkerboard barrier (SCB), study the movement characteristics of sand particles, find the transverse velocities of sand particles and flow field, and obtain the contour of the transverse velocity of coupled wind field within the SCB. The results showed that 1) compared with that at the inlet of the SCB, the sand transport rate inside the SCB greatly decreases and the speed of sand grain movement also evidently drops, indicating that the SCB has very good sand movement preventing and fixing function; 2) within the SCB there exists a series of unevenly distributed eddies of wind sand flow, their strength decreases gradually with increasing the transverse distance; 3) affected by eddies or reflux, sand particles carried by the wind sand flow have to drop forward and backward the two interior walls inside the SCB, respectively, forming a v-shaped sand trough; 4) the sand transport rate gradually decreases with increasing number of SCBs, which reveals that the capacity of the wind field to transport sand particles decreases. This research is of significance in sandstorm and land desertification control. PMID:24026396

  17. Comparison of industrially viable pretreatments to enhance soybean straw biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Emir; Muñoz, María J; Martín, Ricardo; Caro, Ildefonso; Curbelo, Caridad; Díaz, Ana B

    2015-10-01

    This study explores acid and alkaline pretreatments in order to enhance soybean straw biodegradability. The effects of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide for different pretreatment times at 30°C and 121°C on biomass dissolution and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The highest total conversion to reducing sugars of 93.9% was attained when soybean straw was pretreated with acid (4% H2SO4, 121°C, 1 h) and subsequently subjected to the enzymatic process. However, conversion of 86.5%, were reached only with the hydrolysis of the pretreated residue using mild conditions, (0.5% NaOH, 30°C, 48 h), involving the reduction cost of the process. In addition to this, this result was dramatically decreased when pectinase was removed from the enzyme cocktail. It has been also demonstrated that the reduction of the enzyme loading to less than half allowed obtaining about 96% of the reducing sugars attained with the highest enzyme dose. PMID:26164601

  18. Non isothermal model free kinetics for pyrolysis of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Garima; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-10-01

    The kinetics of thermal decomposition of rice straw was studied by thermogravimetry. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data of rice straw decomposition in nitrogen atmosphere at six different heating rates of 5-40 °C/min was used for evaluating kinetics using several model free kinetic methods. The results showed that the decomposition process exhibited two zones of constant apparent activation energies. The values ranged from 142 to 170 kJ/mol (E(avg) = 155.787 kJ/mol), and 170 to 270 kJ/mol (E(avg) = 236.743 kJ/mol) in the conversion range of 5-60% and 61-90% respectively. These values were used to determine the reaction mechanism of process using master plots and compensation parameters. The results show that the reaction mechanism of whole process can be kinetically characterized by two successive reactions, a diffusion reaction followed by a third order rate equation. The kinetic results were validated using isothermal predictions. The results derived are useful for development and optimization of biomass thermochemical conversion systems. PMID:25105267

  19. Electricity generation from rapeseed straw hydrolysates using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Milena A; Rybarczyk, Maria K; Lieder, Marek

    2016-05-01

    Rapeseed straw is an attractive fuel material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to its high content of carbohydrates (more than 60% carbohydrates). This study has demonstrated that reducing sugars can be efficiently extracted from raw rapeseed straw by combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis followed by utilization as a fuel in two-chamber MFCs for electrical power generation. The most efficient method of saccharification of this lignocellulosic biomass (17%) turned out hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Electricity was produced using hydrolysate concentrations up to 150mg/dm(3). The power density reached 54mW/m(2), while CEs ranged from 60% to 10%, corresponding to the initial reducing sugar concentrations of 10-150mg/dm(3). The COD degradation rates based on charge calculation increased from 0.445gCOD/m(2)/d for the hydrolysate obtained with the microwave treatment to 0.602gCOD/m(2)/d for the most efficient combination of hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26930033

  20. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.L.; Tengerdy, R.P.; Murphy, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented. 10 references.

  1. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID:27516319

  2. Migration of the Gaudi and LHCb software repositories from CVS to Subversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    A common code repository is of primary importance in a distributed development environment such as large HEP experiments. CVS (Concurrent Versions System) has been used in the past years at CERN for the hosting of shared software repositories, among which were the repositories for the Gaudi Framework and the LHCb software projects. Many developers around the world produced alternative systems to share code and revisions among several developers, mainly to overcome the limitations in CVS, and CERN has recently started a new service for code hosting based on the version control system Subversion. The differences between CVS and Subversion and the way the code was organized in Gaudi and LHCb CVS repositories required careful study and planning of the migration. Special care was used to define the organization of the new Subversion repository. To avoid as much as possible disruption in the development cycle, the migration has been gradual with the help of tools developed explicitly to hide the differences between the two systems. The principles guiding the migration steps, the organization of the Subversion repository and the tools developed will be presented, as well as the problems encountered both from the librarian and the user points of view.

  3. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  4. PACIFIC: A 64-channel ASIC for scintillating fiber tracking in LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, D.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gomez, S.; Han, X.; Mazorra, J.; Mauricio, J.; Pillet, N.; Yengui, F.; Vandaele, R.

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the next LHC shutdown in 2018/19 [1]. The tracker system will have a major overhaul. Its components will be replaced with new technologies in order to cope with the increased hit occupancy and radiation environment. Here we describe a detector made of scintillating fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), with a view to its application for this upgrade. This technology has been shown to achieve high efficiency and spatial resolution, but its integration within a LHCb experiment presents new challenges. This article gives an overview of the R&D status of the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC) chip implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology. The PACIFIC chip is a 64-channel ASIC which can be connected to a SiPM without the need of any external component. It includes analog signal processing and digitization. The first stage is a current conveyor followed by a tunable fast shaper (≈10 ns) and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a 3 threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. The PACIFIC chip has the ability to cope with different SiPM suppliers with a power consumption below 8 mW per channel and it is radiation-tolerant. Lastly, simulation and test results show the proper read out of the SiPMs with the PACIFIC chip.

  5. A new algorithm for identifying the flavour of B0s mesons at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A new algorithm for the determination of the initial flavour of B0s mesons is presented. The algorithm is based on two neural networks and exploits the b hadron production mechanism at a hadron collider. The first network is trained to select charged kaons produced in association with the B0s meson. The second network combines the kaon charges to assign the B0s flavour and estimates the probability of a wrong assignment. The algorithm is calibrated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb‑1 collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The calibration is performed in two ways: by resolving the B0s–bar B0s flavour oscillations in B0s → D‑sπ+ decays, and by analysing flavour-specific B*s2(5840)0 → B+K‑ decays. The tagging power measured in B0s → D‑sπ+ decays is found to be (1.80 ± 0.19 (stat) ± 0.18 (syst))%, which is an improvement of about 50% compared to a similar algorithm previously used in the LHCb experiment.

  6. Eustachian Tube Function.

    PubMed

    Ars, Bernard; Dirckx, Joris

    2016-10-01

    The fibrocartilaginous eustachian tube is part of a system of contiguous organs including the nose, palate, rhinopharynx, and middle ear cleft. The middle ear cleft consists of the tympanic cavity, which includes the bony eustachian tube (protympanum) and the mastoid gas cells system. The tympanic cavity and mastoid gas cells are interconnected and allow gaseous exchange and pressure regulation. The fibrocartilaginous eustachian tube is a complex organ consisting of a dynamic conduit with its mucosa, cartilage, surrounding soft tissue, peritubal muscles (ie, tensor and levator veli palatine, salpingopharyngeus and tensor tympani), and superior bony support (the sphenoid sulcus). PMID:27468632

  7. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost. PMID:27337959

  8. Building with Tubes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance, Ed.

    Text and illustrations show how to assemble furniture and toys out of cardboard tubes and sheets. Basic directions are provided, and the tools and materials necessary to the assembly of specific items are described. (MLF)

  9. Magnetic flux tube tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlburg, R.B.; Antiochos, S.K.; Norton, D.

    1997-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of {ital orthogonal} magnetic flux tubes. The simulations were carried out using a parallelized spectral algorithm for compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the flux tubes can {open_quotes}tunnel{close_quotes} through each other, a behavior not previously seen in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic flux tube interactions. Two conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch {gt}1, and the Lundquist number must be somewhat large, {ge}2880. An examination of magnetic field lines suggests that tunneling is due to a double-reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections, and {open_quotes}pass{close_quotes} through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  11. PEG tube insertion -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site ... To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) feeding tube insertion is the placement of ...

  12. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaks from inside the lung into the chest ( pneumothorax ) Fluid buildup in the chest (called a pleural ... on the reason a chest tube is inserted. Pneumothorax usually improves, but sometimes needs minimally invasive surgery. ...

  13. Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... flying (because of altitude changes). Riding in elevators, driving through mountains or diving may also make your symptoms worse. Causes & Risk Factors What causes eustachian tube dysfunction? The most common ...

  14. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  15. Snorkeling and Jones tubes

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lewis Y. W.; Weatherhead, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  16. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  17. Magnetic flux tube tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Antiochos, S. K.; Norton, D.

    1997-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of orthogonal magnetic flux tubes. The simulations were carried out using a parallelized spectral algorithm for compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the flux tubes can ``tunnel'' through each other, a behavior not previously seen in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic flux tube interactions. Two conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch >>1, and the Lundquist number must be somewhat large, >=2880. An examination of magnetic field lines suggests that tunneling is due to a double-reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections, and ``pass'' through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed.

  18. Adsorption of Cr(III) from acidic solutions by crop straw derived biochars.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jingjian; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Renkou

    2013-10-01

    Cr(III) adsorption by biochars generated from peanut, soybean, canola and rice straws is investigated with batch methods. Adsorption of Cr(III) increased as pH rose from 2.5 to 5.0. Adsorption of Cr(III) led to peak position shifts in the FTIR-PAS spectra of the biochars and made zeta potential values less negative, suggesting the formation of surface complexes between Cr3+ and functional groups on the biochars. The adsorption capacity of Cr(III) followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char, which was consistent with the content of acidic functional groups on the biochars. The increase in Cr3+ hydrolysis as the pH rose was one of the main reasons for the increased adsorption of Cr(III) by the biochars at higher pH values. Cr(III) can be adsorbed by the biochars through electrostatic attraction between negative surfaces and Cr3+, but the relative contribution of electrostatic adsorption was less than 5%. Therefore, Cr(III) was mainly adsorbed by the biochars through specific adsorption. The Langumir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms well and can therefore be used to describe the adsorption behavior of Cr(III) by the crop straw biochars. The crop straw biochars have great adsorption capacities for Cr(III) under acidic conditions and can be used as adsorbents to remove Cr(III) from acidic wastewaters. PMID:24494481

  19. Effects of Deep Tillage and Straw Returning on Soil Microorganism and Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Baoyi; Hu, Hao; Zhao, Yali; Mu, Xinyuan; Liu, Kui; Li, Chaohai

    2014-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted for two years with the aim of studying the effects of deep tillage and straw returning on soil microorganism and enzyme activity in clay and loam soil. Three treatments, (1) conventional tillage (CT), shallow tillage and straw returning; (2) deep tillage (DT), deep tillage and straw returning; and (3) deep tillage with no straw returning (DNT), were carried out in clay and loam soil. The results showed that deep tillage and straw returning increased the abundance of soil microorganism and most enzyme activities. Deep tillage was more effective for increasing enzyme activities in clay, while straw returning was more effective in loam. Soil microorganism abundance and most enzyme activities decreased with the increase of soil depth. Deep tillage mainly affected soil enzyme activities in loam at the soil depth of 20–30 cm and in clay at the depth of 0–40 cm. Straw returning mainly affected soil microorganism and enzyme activities at the depths of 0–30 cm and 0–40 cm, respectively. PMID:24982955

  20. Direct three-dimensional characterization and multiscale visualization of wheat straw deconstruction by white rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Qian, Chen; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-08-19

    Microbial degradation of lignocellulose for resource and energy recovery has received increasing interest. Despite its obvious importance, the mechanism behind the biodegradation, especially the changes of morphological structure and surface characteristics, has not been fully understood. Here, we used three-dimensional (3D) characterization and multiscale visualization methods, in combination with chemical compositional analyses, to elucidate the degradation process of wheat straw by a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that the fungal attack initiated from stomata. Lignin of the straw decayed in both size and quantity, and heterogeneity in the biodegradation was observed. After treatment with the fungus, the straw surface turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and the adhesion of the straw surface increased in the fungal degradation. The morphology of the straw outer layer became heterogeneous and loose with the formation of many holes with various sizes. The wasp-tunnels-like structure of the collenchyma and parenchyma of the straw as well as the fungal hyphae interspersed inside the straw structure were clearly visualized in the 3D reconstruction structure. This work offers a new insight into the mechanism of lignocellulose biodegradation and demonstrates that multiscale visualization methods could be a useful tool to explore such complex processes. PMID:25072830

  1. Influence of type and amount of straw cover on weed emergence.

    PubMed

    Correia, Núbia Maria; Durigan, Julio Cezar; Klink, Urubatan Palhares

    2005-01-01

    This research was undertaken during 2003-2004 growing season to evaluate the effects of type [forage sorghum "hybrid Cober Exp" (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense), forage millet (Pennisetum americanum "var. BN2"), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha)] and amount of straw cover (5.5 and 3.0 t ha(-1)) upon the emergence of Bidens pilosa, Chamaesyce spp., Amaranthus spp., and Commelina benghalensis, under field conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado, in the region of Uberlândia--MG. The control consisted additional treatment lacking the straw cover. Emergence of weed depended on the type and amount of straw cover, as well as the weed species. The lowest number of B. pilosa seedlings was found in the presence of forage sorghum straw; Chamaesyce spp. in the lack of straw; Amaranthus spp. in the presence of higher amount of forage sorghum and forage millet, and lower amounts of forage millet and Finger Millet. All the types and amounts of straw reduced the emergency of C. benghalensis, except at the lowest level of St Lucia grass and the lack of straw. PMID:15656176

  2. Carbon sequestration in European soils through straw incorporation: limitations and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Powlson, D S; Riche, A B; Coleman, K; Glendining, M J; Whitmore, A P

    2008-01-01

    We compared alternate uses of cereal straw (4.25t dry matter ha(-1) containing 1.7t carbon (C)) for their effectiveness in relation to climate change mitigation. The scenarios were (1) incorporation into soil to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content ("carbon sequestration") and (2) combustion to generate electricity. The Rothamsted Carbon Model was used to estimate SOC accumulation in a silty clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of north-west Europe. Using straw for electricity generation saved seven times more CO2 than from SOC accumulation. This comparison assumed that electricity from straw combustion displaced that generated from coal and used the mean annual accumulation of SOC over 100yr. SOC increased most rapidly in the early years, but then more slowly as a new equilibrium value was approached. We suggest that increased SOC from straw incorporation does not represent genuine climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. In Europe, most straw not already incorporated in the field where it is grown is subsequently returned elsewhere, e.g., after use for animal bedding and production of manure. Only additional retention of C in soil compared to the alternative use represents sequestration. Maintenance of SOC for soil functioning is a more appropriate rationale for returning straw to soil than climate change mitigation. This analysis shows that considerably greater climate change mitigation is achieved through saved CO2 emissions by burning straw for electricity generation, replacing some use of fossil fuel. PMID:18061434

  3. Comparison of Seven Chemical Pretreatments of Corn Straw for Improving Methane Yield by Anaerobic Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zilin; GaiheYang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Liao, Yinzhang

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture straw is considered a renewable resource that has the potential to contribute greatly to bioenergy supplies. Chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion can increase the anaerobic digestibility of agriculture straw. The present study investigated the effects of seven chemical pretreatments on the composition and methane yield of corn straw to assess their effectiveness of digestibility. Four acid reagents (H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, and CH3COOH) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% (w/w) and three alkaline reagents (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and NH3·H2O) at concentrations of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) were used for the pretreatments. All pretreatments were effective in the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic straw structure. The straw, pretreated with 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2, acquired the highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4 g VS −1 in the acid and alkaline pretreatments, which are 115.4% and 105.3% greater than the untreated straw. H2O2 and Ca(OH)2 can be considered as the most favorable pretreatment methods for improving the methane yield of straw because of their effectiveness and low cost. PMID:24695485

  4. A multi-scale biomechanical model based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longjian; Li, Aiwei; He, Xueqin; Han, Lujia

    2015-11-20

    Biomechanical behavior is a fundamental property for the efficient utilization of wheat straw in such applications as fuel and renewable materials. Tensile experiments and lignocellulose analyses were performed on three types of wheat straw. A multi-scale finite element model composed of the microscopic model of the microfibril equivalent volume element and the macroscopic model of straw tissue was proposed based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw. The tensile properties of wheat straw were simulated by ANSYS software. The predicted stress-strain data were compared with the observed data, and good correspondence was achieved for all three types of wheat straw. The validated multi-scale finite-element (FE) model was then used to investigate the effect of the lignocellulose components on the biomechanical properties of wheat straw. More than 80% of stress is carried by the cellulose fiber, whereas the strain is mainly carried by the amorphous cellulose. PMID:26344265

  5. Tubing crimping pliers

    DOEpatents

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section 868.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a surgical opening of the trachea to facilitate ventilation to the lungs. The cuff may be a separate...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a surgical opening of the trachea to facilitate ventilation to the lungs. The cuff may be a separate...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a surgical opening of the trachea to facilitate ventilation to the lungs. The cuff may be a separate...

  10. Biocompatibility of blood tubings.

    PubMed

    Branger, B; Garreau, M; Baudin, G; Gris, J C

    1990-10-01

    We studied hemocompatibility of various blood tubings with C3a anaphylatoxin measurement and comparative electron scanning microscopy. The following tubing materials were tested: polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticised with phthalate (PVC), pvc plasticised with phthalate coextruded with polyurethane (PIV), and two phthalate-free lines: pvc plasticised with trimellitate coextruded with polyurethane (TRI) and pvc plasticised with LT 360 (LTP). Results of C3a generation rate showed a significant activation by all blood tubings, with a reduced rate with PIV when compared to all others. Electron scanning microscopy showed marked alterations of PIV surface on tubings stored for 6 months. Protein deposits on internal surfaces after dialysis were similar whatever tubing material was tested, but adhesive cell number was greater with TRI when compared to PVC and LTP. Hemocompatibility is unchanged with phthalate-free tubings when compared to phthalate plasticised ones. In contrast with phthalate plasticised PVC there is no beneficial effect of polyurethane coextrusion with trimellitate plasticised PVC in regard to C3a generation. PMID:2254048

  11. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  12. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and Fusarium graminearum contamination of cereal straw; field distribution; and sampling of big bales.

    PubMed

    Häggblom, P; Nordkvist, E

    2015-05-01

    Sampling of straw bales from wheat, barley, and oats was carried out after harvest showing large variations in deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) levels. In the wheat field, DON was detected in all straw samples with an average DON concentration of 976 μg/kg and a median of 525 μg/kg, while in four bales, the concentrations were above 3000 μg/kg. For ZEN, the concentrations were more uniform with an average concentration of 11 μg/kg. The barley straw bales were all positive for DON with an average concentration of 449 μg/kg and three bales above 800 μg/kg. In oat straw, the average DON concentration was 6719 μg/kg with the lowest concentration at 2614 μg/kg and eight samples above 8000 μg/kg. ZEN contamination was detected in all bales with an average concentration of 53 μg/kg with the highest concentration at 219 μg/kg. Oat bales from another field showed an average concentration of 16,382 μg/kg. ZEN concentrations in the oat bales were on average 153 μg/kg with a maximum at 284 μg/kg. Levels of Fusarium graminearum DNA were higher in oat straw (max 6444 pg DNA/mg straw) compared to straw from wheat or barley. The significance of mycotoxin exposure from straw should not be neglected particularly in years when high levels of DON and ZEN are also detected in the feed grain. With a limited number of samples preferably using a sampling probe, it is possible to distinguish lots of straw that should not be used as bedding material for pigs. PMID:25665688

  13. Effects of Methylcellulose on Fibrolytic Bacterial Detachment and In vitro Degradation of Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Sung, Ha Guyn; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Ha, Jong K.; Lee, Sung Sill

    2013-01-01

    Two in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose (MC) on i) bacterial detachment from rice straw as well as ii) inhibition of bacterial attachment and fiber digestibility. To evaluate the effect of MC on fibrolytic bacterial detachment (Exp 1), in vitro bacterial cultures with 0.1% (w/v) MC solution were compared with cultures without MC after 8 h incubation. The effect of MC on inhibition of bacterial attachment was determined by comparing with real-time PCR the populations of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus established on rice straw pre-treated with 0.1% MC with those on untreated straw after incubation for 0, 6 and 12 h (Exp 2). The major fibrolytic bacterial attachment on rice straw showed significantly lower populations with either the addition of MC to the culture or pre-treated rice straw compared to controls (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of rice straw with MC was significantly lower compared with control (p<0.05). The F. succinogenes population did not show detachment from rice straw, but showed an inhibition of attachment and proliferation on rice straw in accordance with a decrease of fiber digestion. The detachments of Ruminococcus species co-existed preventing the proliferations with subsequent reduction of fiber degradation by MC during the incubation. Their detachments were induced from stable colonization as well as the initial adhesion on rice straw by MC in in vitro ruminal fermentation. Furthermore, the detachment of R. albus was more sensitive to MC than was R. flavefaciens. These results showed the certain evidence that attachment of major fibrolytic bacteria had an effect on fiber digestion in the rumen, and each of fibrolytic bacteria, F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus had a specific mechanism of attachment and detachment to fiber. PMID:25049729

  14. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Results Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Conclusions Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs. PMID:23945109

  15. Effects of Methylcellulose on Fibrolytic Bacterial Detachment and In vitro Degradation of Rice Straw.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ji; Sung, Ha Guyn; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Ha, Jong K; Lee, Sung Sill

    2013-10-01

    Two in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose (MC) on i) bacterial detachment from rice straw as well as ii) inhibition of bacterial attachment and fiber digestibility. To evaluate the effect of MC on fibrolytic bacterial detachment (Exp 1), in vitro bacterial cultures with 0.1% (w/v) MC solution were compared with cultures without MC after 8 h incubation. The effect of MC on inhibition of bacterial attachment was determined by comparing with real-time PCR the populations of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus established on rice straw pre-treated with 0.1% MC with those on untreated straw after incubation for 0, 6 and 12 h (Exp 2). The major fibrolytic bacterial attachment on rice straw showed significantly lower populations with either the addition of MC to the culture or pre-treated rice straw compared to controls (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of rice straw with MC was significantly lower compared with control (p<0.05). The F. succinogenes population did not show detachment from rice straw, but showed an inhibition of attachment and proliferation on rice straw in accordance with a decrease of fiber digestion. The detachments of Ruminococcus species co-existed preventing the proliferations with subsequent reduction of fiber degradation by MC during the incubation. Their detachments were induced from stable colonization as well as the initial adhesion on rice straw by MC in in vitro ruminal fermentation. Furthermore, the detachment of R. albus was more sensitive to MC than was R. flavefaciens. These results showed the certain evidence that attachment of major fibrolytic bacteria had an effect on fiber digestion in the rumen, and each of fibrolytic bacteria, F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus had a specific mechanism of attachment and detachment to fiber. PMID:25049729

  16. Dynamic tube/support interaction in heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes; other types of supports also have been used. To facilitate manufacture and to allow for thermal expansion of the tubes, small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Understanding tube dynamics and its effects is important for heat exchangers. This paper summarizes the current state of the art on this subject and to identify future research needs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: dynamics of loosely supported tubes, tube/support gap dynamics, tube response in flow, tube damage and wear, design considerations, and future research needs. 55 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Effects of decomposing rice straw on growth of and nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, E.L.; Huang, C.Y.; Lin, C.Y.

    1981-03-01

    Five phenolic compounds produced in decomposing rice straw and sterile extracts of decomposing rice straw in soil were very inhibitory to growth of three strains of Rhizobium. The effects were additive and in several instances synergistic. The phenolic compounds also reduced nodule numbers and hemoglobin content of the nodules in two bean (Phaseohus vulgaris) varieties. Extracts of decomposing rice straw in soil (same concentration as in the soil) significantly reduced N/sub 2/ fixation (acetylene reduction) in Bush Black Seeded beans. This may explain in part the great reduction in soybean yields in Taiwan following rice crops when the rice stubble is left in the field.

  18. Tool Extracts Smooth, Fragile Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G.

    1988-01-01

    When laterally compressible tube too slippery to pull, simple tool does job. Consists of three linked sections of steel tube with sticky rubber on inside and handles on outside. Hinged sections encircle tube to be pulled. User pulls on handles to extract tube.

  19. Biohydrogen and carboxylic acids production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chandolias, Konstantinos; Pardaev, Sindor; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat straw was converted into carboxylic acids and biohydrogen using digesting bacteria. The fermentations were carried out using both free and membrane-encased thermophilic bacteria (55°C) at various OLRs (4.42-17.95g COD/L.d), in semi-continuous conditions using one or two bioreactors in a series. The highest production of biohydrogen and acetic acid was achieved at an OLR of 4.42g COD/L.d, whilst the highest lactic acid production occurred at an OLR of 9.33g COD/L.d. Furthermore, the bioreactor with both free and membrane-encased cells produced 60% more lactic acid compared to the conventional, free-cell bioreactor. In addition, an increase of 121% and 100% in the production of acetic and isobutyric acid, respectively, was achieved in the 2nd-stage bioreactor compared to the 1st-stage bioreactor. PMID:27268482

  20. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. PMID:26231127

  1. Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw and biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, A.; D'Souza, J.

    1986-10-01

    A comparative study on the saccharification of pretreated rice straw was brought about by using cellulase enzyme produced by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 52430 and its mutant strain UNGI-40. The effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the saccharification rate at 24 and 48 were studied. A syrup with 7% sugar concentration was obtained with a 10% substrate concentration for the mutant case, whereas a syrup with 6.8% sugar concentration was obtained with 3.5 times concentrated enzyme from the wild strain. A high saccharification value was obtained with low substrate concentration; the higher the substrate concentration used, the lower the percent saccharification. The glucose content in the hydrolysate comprised 80-82% of total reducing sugars; the remainder was cellobiose and xylose together. The hydrolysate supported the growth of yeasts Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 52431. A biomass with a 48% protein content was obtained. The essential amino acid composition of yeast biomass was determined.

  2. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases), resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties) connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter) hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C. PMID:21269447

  3. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    SciTech Connect

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  4. The lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb

    SciTech Connect

    Keune, A.

    2012-09-15

    The possibility of improving the limit on the branching fraction of the lepton flavor violating decay {tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup {+-}} Micro-Sign {sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign} at LHCb is discussed. It is shown that a simple, cut-based analysis is sufficient to improve the upper limit on this branching fraction within the lifetime of LHCb.

  5. First spatial alignment of the LHCb VELO and analysis of beam absorber collision data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, S.; Gersabeck, M.; Parkes, C.; Szumlak, T.; Affolder, A.; Akiba, K.; Anderson, J.; Artuso, M.; Basiladze, S.; Bates, A.; Bay, A.; Behrendt, O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T.; Buytaert, J.; Casse, G.; Collins, P.; de Capua, S.; de Vries, H.; Donleavy, S.; Eklund, L.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Frei, R.; Hennessy, K.; Huse, T.; Hutchcroft, D.; Jans, E.; John, M.; Ketel, T.; Lefeuvre, G.; Leflat, A.; Marinho, F.; McNulty, R.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Noor, A.; Papadelis, A.; Patel, G.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rinnert, K.; Rodrigues, E.; Shears, T.; Smith, N. A.; Tobin, M.; Traynor, S.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Verlaat, B.; Wang, J.

    2010-06-01

    A first alignment of the LHCb Vertex Locator has been obtained from beam induced tracks at the LHC. A 450 GeV/ c protons were collided on a beam absorber during the LHC synchronisation tests of the anti-clockwise beam in August and September 2008. The resulting particle tracks have been reconstructed by the Vertex Locator. This was the first full reconstruction of tracks induced by the LHC beam. The quality of the data obtained is discussed. A total of 2200 tracks were reconstructed from the full data sample, and a first spatial alignment was obtained. The detector is aligned to an accuracy of 5 μm in the sensor plane. The results confirm that all detector modules have not been displaced from their surveyed positions by more than 10 μm.

  6. Gas gain uniformity tests performed on multiwire proportional chambers for the LHCb muon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A.; de Andrade Filho, L. M.; Barbosa, A. F.; Graulich, J. S.; Guerrer, G.; Lima, H. P.; Mair, K.; Polycarpo, E.; Reis, A.; Rodrigues, F.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, T.; Schoch Vianna, C.

    2008-06-01

    We present the experimental setup and the results of the gas gain uniformity tests performed as part of the quality control of the multiwire proportional chambers produced at CERN for the LHCb muon system. The test provides a relative gas gain measurement over the whole chamber sensitive area. It is based on the analysis of the pulse height spectrum obtained when the chamber is exposed to a 241Am radioactive source. Since the measurement is normalized to the peak of a precise pulse generator, the gain uniformity can also be evaluated among different gas gaps and different chambers. In order to cope with the specific requirements related to the relatively high number of chambers and to their varying geometry, a standalone and compact data acquisition system has been developed which is programmable at the hardware level and may be applied to many other applications requiring precise time-to-digital and analog-to-digital conversion, in correlated or non-correlated mode.

  7. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) 6-bit ADC in each channel. The prototype ASICs of important functional blocks, like analogue front-end, 6-bit SAR ADC, PLL, and DLL, were designed, fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  8. Search for XYZ states in Λb decays at the LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Y. K.; Geng, C. Q.

    2016-06-01

    We consider X (3872) and Y (4140) as the vector tetraquark states of Xc0 ≡ c c bar u u bar (d d bar) and c c bar s s bar , respectively. By connecting Λb →Xc0 Λ to B- → Xc0 K-, we predict that the branching ratios of Λb → Λ (X(3872)0 →) J / ψπ+π- and Λb → Λ (Y (4140) →) J / ψϕ are (5.2 ± 1.8) ×10-6 and (4.7 ± 2.6) ×10-6, which are accessible to the experiments at the LHCb, respectively. The measurements of these Λb modes would be the first experimental evidences for the XYZ states in baryonic decays.

  9. Performance benchmark of LHCb code on state-of-the-art x86 architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campora Perez, D. H.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.

    2015-12-01

    For Run 2 of the LHC, LHCb is replacing a significant part of its event filter farm with new compute nodes. For the evaluation of the best performing solution, we have developed a method to convert our high level trigger application into a stand-alone, bootable benchmark image. With additional instrumentation we turned it into a self-optimising benchmark which explores techniques such as late forking, NUMA balancing and optimal number of threads, i.e. it automatically optimises box-level performance. We have run this procedure on a wide range of Haswell-E CPUs and numerous other architectures from both Intel and AMD, including also the latest Intel micro-blade servers. We present results in terms of performance, power consumption, overheads and relative cost.

  10. FPGA-based signal processing for the LHCb silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeli, G.; Bay, A.; Gong, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an electronic board (TELL1) to interface the DAQ system of the LHCb experiment at CERN. Two hundred and eighty-nine TELL1 boards are needed to read out the different subdetectors including the silicon VEertex LOcator (VELO) (172 k strips), the Trigger Tracker (TT) (147 k strips) and the Inner Tracker (129 k strips). Each board can handle either 64 analog or 24 digital optical links. The TELL1 mother board provides common mode correction, zero suppression, data formatting, and a large network interface buffer. To satisfy the different requirements we have adopted a flexible FPGA design and made use of mezzanine cards. Mezzanines are used for data input from digital optical and analog copper links as well as for the Gigabit Ethernet interface to DAQ.

  11. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. PMID:25244259

  12. Isolation of barley hulls and straw constituents and study of emulsifying properties of their arabinoxylans.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Madhav P; Hicks, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable arabinoxylans and other useful carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components. The functional water soluble non-caloric arabinoxylan (hemicellulose B) fraction was isolated from hot water-extracted and de-starched barley hulls and straws by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Barley hulls contained comparatively more Hemi. B (20.51%) than barley straws (7.41 to 12.94%). The sugar composition of Hemi. B showed that they were typical arabinoxylans containing (in addition to arabinose and xylose) some galactose, glucose and acidic sugars in the side chains. The hemicellulose B fractions from barley straws were superior oil-in-water emulsifiers than those from barley hulls. These Hemi. B fractions contain protein, which contributes to their emulsions stabilizing property. PMID:26256379

  13. The use of steam explosion to increase the nutrition available from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Kunjie; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Chao; Shao, Qianjun; Sun, Qian; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rice straw was pretreated using steam-explosion (ST) technique to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of potential reducing sugars for feed utilization. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the effects of steam pressure, pressure retention time, and straw moisture content on the yield of reducing sugar. All the investigated variables had significant effects (P < 0.001) on the reducing sugar yield. The optimum yield of 30.86% was obtained under the following pretreatment conditions: steam pressure, 1.54 MPa; pressure retention time, 140.5 Sec; and straw moisture content, 41.6%. The yield after thermal treatment under the same conditions was approximately 16%. Infrared (IR) radiation analysis showed a decrease in the cellulose IR crystallization index. ST noticeably increases reducing sugars in rice straw, and this technique may also be applicable to other cellulose/lignin sources of biomass. PMID:25522759

  14. Maximum production of fermentable sugars from barley straw using optimized soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and consequently to increase total fermentable sugar production from barley straw. Various effects of pretreatment process parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solid:liquid ratio, an...

  15. Improvement of Aluminum-Air Battery Performances by the Application of Flax Straw Extract.

    PubMed

    Grishina, Ekaterina; Gelman, Danny; Belopukhov, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Groysman, Alec; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-08-23

    The effect of a flax straw extract on Al corrosion inhibition in a strong alkaline solution was studied by using electrochemical measurements, weight-loss analysis, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Flax straw extract added (3 vol %) to the 5 m KOH solution to act as a mixed-type Al corrosion inhibitor. The electrochemistry of Al in the presence of a flax straw extract in the alkaline solution, the effect of the extract on the Al morphology and surface films formed, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism are discussed. Finally, the Al-air battery discharge capacity recorded from a cell that used the flax straw extract in the alkaline electrolyte is substantially higher than that with only a pure alkaline electrolyte. This improved sustainability of the Al anode is attributed to Al corrosion inhibition and, consequently, to hydrogen evolution suppression. PMID:27464465

  16. LHCb Vertex Locator: Performance and radiation damage in LHC Run 1 and preparation for Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumlak, T.; Obła˛kowska-Mucha, A.

    2016-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Heavy hadrons are identified through their flight distance in the Vertex Locator (VELO). The VELO comprises 42 modules made of two n+-on-n 300 μm thick half-disc silicon sensors with R- and Φ-measuring micro-strips. In order to allow retracting the detector, the VELO is installed as two movable halves containing 21 modules each. The detectors are operated in a secondary vacuum and are cooled by a bi-phase CO2 cooling system. During data taking in LHC Run 1 the LHCb VELO has operated with an extremely high efficiency and excellent performance. The track finding efficiency is typically greater than 98%. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 μm is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c. An overview of all important performance parameters will be given. The VELO sensors have received a large and non-uniform radiation dose of up to 1.2 ×1014 1 MeV neutron equivalent cm-2 during the first LHC run. Silicon type-inversion has been observed in regions close to the interaction point. The preparations for LHC Run 2 are well under way and the VELO has already recorded tracks from injection line tests. The current status and plans for new operational procedures addressing the non-uniform radiation damage are shortly discussed.

  17. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  18. Effects of straw carbon input on carbon dynamics in agricultural soils: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Lu, Meng; Cui, Jun; Li, Bo; Fang, Changming

    2014-05-01

    Straw return has been widely recommended as an environmentally friendly practice to manage carbon (C) sequestration in agricultural ecosystems. However, the overall trend and magnitude of changes in soil C in response to straw return remain uncertain. In this meta-analysis, we calculated the response ratios of soil organic C (SOC) concentrations, greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, nutrient contents and other important soil properties to straw addition in 176 published field studies. Our results indicated that straw return significantly increased SOC concentration by 12.8 ± 0.4% on average, with a 27.4 ± 1.4% to 56.6 ± 1.8% increase in soil active C fraction. CO2 emission increased in both upland (27.8 ± 2.0%) and paddy systems (51.0 ± 2.0%), while CH4 emission increased by 110.7 ± 1.2% only in rice paddies. N2 O emission has declined by 15.2 ± 1.1% in paddy soils but increased by 8.3 ± 2.5% in upland soils. Responses of macro-aggregates and crop yield to straw return showed positively linear with increasing SOC concentration. Straw-C input rate and clay content significantly affected the response of SOC. A significant positive relationship was found between annual SOC sequestered and duration, suggesting that soil C saturation would occur after 12 years under straw return. Overall, straw return was an effective means to improve SOC accumulation, soil quality, and crop yield. Straw return-induced improvement of soil nutrient availability may favor crop growth, which can in turn increase ecosystem C input. Meanwhile, the analysis on net global warming potential (GWP) balance suggested that straw return increased C sink in upland soils but increased C source in paddy soils due to enhanced CH4 emission. Our meta-analysis suggested that future agro-ecosystem models and cropland management should differentiate the effects of straw return on ecosystem C budget in upland and paddy soils. PMID:24395454

  19. Neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechanisms underlying neural tube closure and NTDs may be informed by experimental models, which have revealed numerous genes whose abnormal function causes NTDs and have provided details of critical cellular and morphological events whose regulation is essential for closure. Such models also provide an opportunity to investigate potential risk factors and to develop novel preventive therapies. PMID:25032496

  20. Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Nicholas D.E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechanisms underlying neural tube closure and NTDs may be informed by experimental models, which have revealed numerous genes whose abnormal function causes NTDs and have provided details of critical cellular and morphological events whose regulation is essential for closure. Such models also provide an opportunity to investigate potential risk factors and to develop novel preventive therapies. PMID:25032496

  1. Microwave Pretreatment, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Fermentation of Wheat Straw to Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 38.8±0.5% cellulose and 31.0±0.3% hemicellulose. The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars wer...

  2. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising. PMID:18767742

  3. Contributions of open crop straw burning emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Libo; Liu, Yongqiang; Hao, Lu

    2016-01-01

    PM2.5 inventories have been developed in major Chinese cities to quantify the contributions from various sources based on annual emissions. This approach, however, could substantially underestimate the contribution from open straw burning during the harvest or other active burning periods. This study examines this issue by estimating monthly and annual straw-burning PM2.5 emissions in China and comparing with them with the corresponding emissions from other anthropogenic sources. Annually burned straw PM2.5 emissions during 1997 ∼ 2013 for 31 China provinces were calculated based on crop and related burning information for 12 months based on satellite detection of agricultural burning. Annual emissions from other anthropogenic sources were collected from the literature and allocated to monthly values using air pollution index measurements. The results indicate that the annual PM2.5 emissions from open straw burning in China were 1.036 m tons. The monthly PM2.5 emission ratios of straw burning to other anthropogenic sources during June, the harvest period for many regions, were several times larger than the annual ratios at national, regional, and province levels, suggesting that, in contrast to annual emissions that were used in the PM2.5 inventories in Chinese cities to assess the contributions from other sources, monthly emissions should be used to assess the contributions from straw burning during the harvest or other active burning periods. The larger contributions from straw burning shown in this study also suggest that substantial reduction of open field straw burning would dramatically improve air quality in many Chinese regions during the harvest or other active burning periods.

  4. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (μm/hr) and 3.8 (μm3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important

  5. Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p < 0.05). We also found a high ratio of fungal-to-bacterial PLFAs in black soil and significant variations in the ratio of monounsaturated-to-branched fatty acids with different straw treatments that correlated with SR (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the application of corn straw positively influences soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. PMID:24652702

  6. Effects of straw volume and Equex-STM on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Buranaamnuay, K; Tummaruk, P; Singlor, J; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Techakumphu, M

    2009-02-01

    The present experiments were designed to study the effect of adding the detergent Equex-STM to freezing extender, and of straw volume (0.25 ml vs 0.5 ml), on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation. Three ejaculates from each of four purebred boars (three Landrace and one Yorkshire) were collected and frozen with a lactose-egg yolk extender containing glycerol with or without 1.5% Equex-STM. The extended semen was loaded into either 0.25- or 0.5-ml straws. The straws were placed in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapour approximately 3 cm above the level of LN(2) for 20 min and then were plunged into LN(2). Thawing was achieved in warm water at 50 degrees C for 12 s and then was incubated in a 38 degrees C water-bath for 30 min before evaluating sperm quality. Results showed that the individual motility, viability and acrosomal normal apical ridge (NAR) were improved (p < 0.001) when Equex-STM was added to the freezing extender. There was no difference (p = 0.48) in sperm motility between 0.25- and 0.5-ml straws when Equex-STM was added. The percentages of viable and of NAR sperm in 0.5-ml straws were higher than those in 0.25-ml straws (p = 0.02, p = 0.0003 respectively). The percentages of membrane intact sperm evaluated using the short hypo-osmotic swelling test were not affected by straw volume or the adding of Equex-STM (p > 0.05). The results of these investigations suggested that Equex-STM exerts a beneficial effect on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen and this cryopreservation protocol was favourable for a 0.5-ml straw. PMID:18484955

  7. Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

    2010-07-01

    High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and

  8. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  9. Efficient bioconversion of rice straw to ethanol with TiO2/UV pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Doman

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw is a lignocellulosic biomass that constitutes a renewable organic substance and alternative source of energy; however, its structure confounds the liberation of monosaccharides. Pretreating rice straw using a TiO(2)/UV system facilitated its hydrolysis with Accellerase 1000(™), suggesting that hydroxyl radicals (OH·) from the TiO(2)/UV system could degrade lignin and carbohydrates. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment was an essential step for conversion of hemicellulose to xylose; optimal conditions for this conversion were a TiO(2) concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and an irradiation time of 2 h with a UV-C lamp at 254 nm. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the sugar yields from rice straw pretreated with these parameters were 59.8 ± 0.7% of the theoretical for glucose (339 ± 13 mg/g rice straw) and 50.3 ± 2.8% for xylose (64 ± 3 mg/g rice straw). The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates containing 10.5 g glucose/L and 3.2 g xylose/L with Pichia stipitis produced 3.9 g ethanol/L with a corresponding yield of 0.39 g/g rice straw. The maximum possible ethanol conversion rate is 76.47%. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment can be performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and demonstrates potential in large-scale production of fermentable sugars. PMID:21909680

  10. [Effects of a lactic acid bacteria community SFC-2 treated on rice straw].

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Yang, Hong-Yan; Gao, Xiu-Zhi; Lü, Yu-Cai; Cui, Zong-Jun

    2007-06-01

    Aimed to utilize rice straw and lessen the pressure of environment, the rice straw was used as the fermentation material, and a lactic acid bacteria community SFC-2 from my laboratory was inoculated into the rice straw to investigate the inoculation effects. After 30 days fermentation, the inoculated fermented straw smelt acid-fragrant, and the pH value was 3.8, which was lower than the control of 4.1. Furthermore, lactic acid concentration was more than that in the control. Especially L-lactic acid concentration was two times more than in the control, and the crude protein content was 10.16% higher than that in the control, and the crude fiber content was 3.2% lower than that in the control. From the patterns of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus paracasei rapidly became the advantageous species in the inoculated straws. However, Enterobacter sakazakii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter endosymbiont, Pantoea ananatis, whichwere predominate in the controls, were not detected in the inoculated straws, and the fermented quality was improved significantly. PMID:17674756

  11. Enhanced biological straw saccharification through coculturing of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Al-Hothaly, Khalid; Mouradov, Aidyn; Smith, Andrew T; Ball, Andrew S; Adetutu, Eric M

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic waste (LCW) is an abundant, low-cost, and inedible substrate for the induction of lignocellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic bioethanol production using an efficient, environmentally friendly, and economical biological approach. In this study, 30 different lignocellulose-degrading bacterial and 18 fungal isolates were quantitatively screened individually for the saccharification of four different ball-milled straw substrates: wheat, rice, sugarcane, and pea straw. Rice and sugarcane straws which had similar Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy profiles were more degradable, and resulted in more hydrolytic enzyme production than wheat and pea straws. Crude enzyme produced on native straws performed better than those on artificial substrates (such as cellulose and xylan). Four fungal and five bacterial isolates were selected (based on their high strawase activities) for constructing dual and triple microbial combinations to investigate microbial synergistic effects on saccharification. Combinations such as FUNG16-FUNG17 (Neosartorya fischeri-Myceliophthora thermophila) and RMIT10-RMIT11 (Aeromonas hydrophila-Pseudomonas poae) enhanced saccharification (3- and 6.6-folds, respectively) compared with their monocultures indicating the beneficial effects of synergism between those isolates. Dual isolate combinations were more efficient at straw saccharification than triple combinations in both bacterial and fungal assays. Overall, co-culturing can result in significant increases in saccharification which may offer significant commercial potential for the use of microbial consortia. PMID:25724976

  12. Bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from wheat straw and chaff in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rohweder, Dirk; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Sondermann, Sarah; Schollenberger, Margit; Drochner, Winfried; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium infections do not only affect the grain, but also the rest of the plant, which result in contamination of plants with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The bioavailability of DON may be influenced by the matrix due to the differences in nutrient composition between grain and straw, particularly the high fibre component in straw. The experiment was carried out by exposing 18 male castrated pigs (30-40 kg live weight) with a single dose of DON from wheat grain, straw and chaff in the diet. The courses of DON serum concentrations were evaluated using toxicokinetic methods. The absorption of DON was not influenced by the source of DON. The invasion half-life of DON from grain, straw and chaff amounted to 0.76, 0.77 and 0.48 h, respectively, and were not significantly different. The elimination of DON was also not affected by the DON source. The bioavailability of DON, calculated by the dose corrected area under the curve of the serum-DON-concentrations, amounted to 81.9, 87.3 and 109.8% for straw, grain and chaff, respectively, without significant differences. Thus, the uptake of DON from straw may contribute comparably to the overall exposure of animals. PMID:23336299

  13. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  14. Lhcb2 gene expression analysis in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii subjected to Zn/Cd treatments with functional analysis of SaLhcb2 isolated from a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Senoura, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaoe; Chao, Yueen; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-09-01

    The Lhcb2 gene from hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was up-regulated more than three-fold while the non-hyperaccumulator accumulated one or two-fold higher amount of the mRNA than control plants under different concentrations of Cd(2+) for 24 h. Lhcb2 expression was up-regulated more than five-fold in a non-hyperaccumulator S. alfredii when exposed to 2 μM Cd(2+) or 50 μM Zn(2+) for 8 d and the hyperaccumulator had over two-fold more mRNA abundance than the control plants. Over-expression of SaLhcb2 increased the shoot biomass by 14-41% and the root biomass by 21-57% without Cd(2+) treatment. Four transgenic tobacco lines (L5, L7, L10 and L11) possessed higher shoot biomass than WT plants with Cd(2+). Four transgenic lines (L7, L8, L10 and L11) accumulated 6-35% higher Cd(2+) amounts in shoots than the wild type plants. PMID:21516315

  15. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  16. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; et al

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by othermore » experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.« less

  17. Radiation tolerance tests of SRAM-based FPGAs for the potential usage in the readout electronics for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber, C.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Leverington, B.; Ekelhof, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes radiation studies of a SRAM-based FPGA as a central component for a upgrade of the LHCb Outer Tracker front-end electronics to a readout frequency of 40 MHz. Two Arria GX FPGAs were irradiated with 20 MeV protons to radiation doses of up to 7 Mrad. During and between the irradiation periods the different FPGA currents, the package temperature, the firmware error rate, the PLL stability, and the stability of a 32 channel TDC implemented on the FPGA were monitored. Results on the radiation tolerance of the FPGA and the measured firmware error rates will be presented. The Arria GX FPGA fulfills the radiation tolerance required for the LHCb upgrade (30 krad) and an expected firmware error rate of roughly 10-6 Hz makes the chip a possible component for the upgraded front-end electronics.

  18. Study of response nonuniformity for the LHCb calorimeter module and the prototype of the CBM calorimeter module

    SciTech Connect

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.

    2009-02-15

    A spatial nonuniformity of the response to high-energy muons is studied in the modules of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter and the prototype of the calorimeter module with lead plates and scintillator tiles 0.5 mm thick. The nonuniformity of the response of the inner LHCb modules to 50-GeV electrons is also measured. Software is developed for a thorough simulation of light collection in scintillator plates of a shashlik calorimeter. A model is elaborated to describe light transmission from the initial scintillation to the wavelength-shifting fiber with a subsequent reradiation and propagation of light over the fiber to the photodetector. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with data.

  19. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    SciTech Connect

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Blumlein, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Garzelli, M. -V.; Guzzi, M.; Kuprash, O.; Moch, S. -O.; Nadolsky, P.; Placakyte, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Schienbein, I.; Starovoitov, P.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x~5×10-6. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.

  20. Heat-shrink plastic tubing seals joints in glass tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Duca, B.; Downey, A.

    1968-01-01

    Small units of standard glass apparatus held together by short lengths of transparent heat-shrinkable polyolefin tubing. The tubing is shrunk over glass O-ring type connectors having O-rings but no lubricant.

  1. Orbital tube flaring system produces tubing connectors with zero leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1967-01-01

    An orbital tube flaring system produces tubing connectors with a zero-leak potential needed in high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic systems. The flaring system incorporates a rolling cone and rolling die to closely control flare characteristics.

  2. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, the fetal spinal column doesn't close completely. There is usually nerve damage that causes at least some paralysis of the legs. In anencephaly, ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  3. Investigation of Pitot tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herschel, W H; Buckingham, E

    1917-01-01

    Report describes the principles of operation and characteristics of some of the instruments which have been devised or used to measure both low and high speeds of aeroplanes. Since the pitot tube is the instrument which has been most commonly used in the United States and Great Britain as a speedometer for aeroplanes, it is treated first and somewhat more fully than the others.

  4. PEG tube insertion - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 3 times a day. Use either mild soap and water or sterile saline (ask you provider). You may ... skin and tube. Be gentle. If you used soap, gently clean again with plain water. Dry the skin well with a clean towel ...

  5. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  6. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  7. Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

    2013-06-01

    The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. PMID:23587832

  8. 76 FR 43706 - Final Supplementary Rules To Require the Use of Certified Noxious-Weed-Free Forage and Straw on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Idaho is finalizing a supplementary rule that will require anyone using, feeding, or storing forage or straw on BLM-administered land in Idaho to use certified noxious-weed-free forage and straw. Restoration, rehabilitation, and stabilization projects also will be required to use weed-free straw bales and mulch for project work. This action is a......

  9. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  10. Multiple test tubes stirred mechanically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. J.; Strong, I. J.

    1965-01-01

    Mechanical device simultaneously stirs multiple test tubes under controlled laboratory conditions. The invention provides a variable stirring rate, minimal amount of contamination of tube contents, unattended and simple operation, and easy maintenance and cleaning.

  11. Quarter-wave pulse tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, G. W.; Gardner, D. L.; Backhaus, S. N.

    2011-10-01

    In high-power pulse-tube refrigerators, the pulse tube itself can be very long without too much dissipation of acoustic power on its walls. The pressure amplitude, the volume-flow-rate amplitude, and the time phase between them evolve significantly along a pulse tube that is about a quarter-wavelength long. Proper choice of length and area makes the oscillations at the ambient end of the long pulse tube optimal for driving a second, smaller pulse-tube refrigerator, thereby utilizing the acoustic power that would typically have been dissipated in the first pulse-tube refrigerator's orifice. Experiments show that little heat is carried from the ambient heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger in such a long pulse tube, even though the oscillations are turbulent and even when the tube is compactly coiled.

  12. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Kazuei Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  13. Effects of Mulching Tolerant Plant Straw on Soil Surface on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming’an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:25490210

  14. Application of the denitrification-decomposition model to predict carbon dioxide emissions under alternative straw retention methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Can; Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

    2013-01-01

    Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha(-1) y(-1) and 2.13 t C ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (T mean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

  15. Application of the Denitrification-Decomposition Model to Predict Carbon Dioxide Emissions under Alternative Straw Retention Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

    2013-01-01

    Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha−1 y−1 and 2.13 t C ha−1 y−1, respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (Tmean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

  16. Plastic straw: future of high-speed signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Il; Jin, Huxian; Bae, Hyeon-Min

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for bandwidth triggered by mobile and video Internet traffic requires advanced interconnect solutions satisfying functional and economic constraints. A new interconnect called E-TUBE is proposed as a cost-and-power-effective all-electrical-domain wideband waveguide solution for high-speed high-volume short-reach communication links. The E-TUBE achieves an unprecedented level of performance in terms of bandwidth-per-carrier frequency, power, and density without requiring a precision manufacturing process unlike conventional optical/waveguide solutions. The E-TUBE exhibits a frequency-independent loss-profile of 4 dB/m and has nearly 20-GHz bandwidth over the V band. A single-sideband signal transmission enabled by the inherent frequency response of the E-TUBE renders two-times data throughput without any physical overhead compared to conventional radio frequency communication technologies. This new interconnect scheme would be attractive to parties interested in high throughput links, including but not limited to, 100/400 Gbps chip-to-chip communications. PMID:26525653

  17. Plastic straw: future of high-speed signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ha Il; Jin, Huxian; Bae, Hyeon-Min

    2015-11-01

    The ever-increasing demand for bandwidth triggered by mobile and video Internet traffic requires advanced interconnect solutions satisfying functional and economic constraints. A new interconnect called E-TUBE is proposed as a cost-and-power-effective all-electrical-domain wideband waveguide solution for high-speed high-volume short-reach communication links. The E-TUBE achieves an unprecedented level of performance in terms of bandwidth-per-carrier frequency, power, and density without requiring a precision manufacturing process unlike conventional optical/waveguide solutions. The E-TUBE exhibits a frequency-independent loss-profile of 4 dB/m and has nearly 20-GHz bandwidth over the V band. A single-sideband signal transmission enabled by the inherent frequency response of the E-TUBE renders two-times data throughput without any physical overhead compared to conventional radio frequency communication technologies. This new interconnect scheme would be attractive to parties interested in high throughput links, including but not limited to, 100/400 Gbps chip-to-chip communications.

  18. Plastic straw: future of high-speed signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Il; Jin, Huxian; Bae, Hyeon-Min

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for bandwidth triggered by mobile and video Internet traffic requires advanced interconnect solutions satisfying functional and economic constraints. A new interconnect called E-TUBE is proposed as a cost-and-power-effective all-electrical-domain wideband waveguide solution for high-speed high-volume short-reach communication links. The E-TUBE achieves an unprecedented level of performance in terms of bandwidth-per-carrier frequency, power, and density without requiring a precision manufacturing process unlike conventional optical/waveguide solutions. The E-TUBE exhibits a frequency-independent loss-profile of 4 dB/m and has nearly 20-GHz bandwidth over the V band. A single-sideband signal transmission enabled by the inherent frequency response of the E-TUBE renders two-times data throughput without any physical overhead compared to conventional radio frequency communication technologies. This new interconnect scheme would be attractive to parties interested in high throughput links, including but not limited to, 100/400 Gbps chip-to-chip communications. PMID:26525653

  19. Mycobiota variation in stored rice straw and its cellulolytic profile.

    PubMed

    El-Metwally, Mohammad Magdy; Ghoneem, Khalid Mohammad; Saber, Wesam El-Din Ismail Ali

    2014-09-01

    Rice Straw (RS) one of most important agrowaste worldwide. Variation in mycobiota inhabiting long stored RS and its cellulolytic profile were studied. The highest number of fungi (23 species) was recovered from 1st storage period (1-3 year). Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium incarnatum, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium sp., Stemphylium lycopersici and Ulocladium atrum are the most frequent genera. Among 21 fungal species recovered in the 2nd period (3-5 year), Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium incarnatum, Stemphylium lycopersici and Ulocladium atrum recorded 100% frequency, whereas Ulocladium atrum, Veticillium lecanii, Stemphylium lycopersici and Penicillium sp., were the most frequent species in the 3rd period (> 5 years). Regarding the pathogenic fungal isolates, Nigrospora oryzae was the most frequent with high intensity in all samples of the three storage periods, whereas Alternaria padwikii reached the highest frequency and intensity in the 1st period and absent the 2nd and 3rd ones. The isolated fungal species showed a high production of cellulases comparing to previous studies with positive and significant correlation between FPase from one side and CMCase (r = 0.634, p ≤ 0.05) and β-glucosidase (r = 0.775, p ≤ 0.05) from the other side. PMID:26031023

  20. Purification, structural characterization, and modification of organosolv wheat straw lignin.

    PubMed

    Mbotchak, Laurie; Le Morvan, Clara; Duong, Khanh Linh; Rousseau, Brigitte; Tessier, Martine; Fradet, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Biolignin, a wheat straw lignin produced by acetic acid/formic acid/water hydrolysis, was characterized by (31)P and (13)C-(1)H 2D NMR spectroscopy and by size-exclusion chromatography. Biolignin is a mixture of low molar mass compounds (Mn = 1660 g/mol) made up of S, G, and H units and of coumaric and ferulic acid units. β-5 and β-O-4 interunit linkages are partially acylated in the γ-position by acetate and p-coumarate groups. Deacylated samples with a low content of contaminants were obtained by combining alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction. The high phenolic OH content found by (31)P NMR reflects the presence of condensed aromatic units, such as 5-5 units. Reaction of purified lignin with ethanol and ethane-1,2-diol yielded esterified lignins much more soluble than Biolignin in common organic solvents. During this reaction, the secondary OH of β-O-4 linkages was simultaneously etherified. Phenol hydroxyethylation by 2-chloroethanol yielded samples containing only aliphatic hydroxyl groups. PMID:25961961

  1. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121°C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121°C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50°C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25285562

  2. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates. PMID:21235190

  3. Enhanced saccharification of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    López-Abelairas, M; Lu-Chau, T A; Lema, J M

    2013-02-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi for the production of bioethanol is an alternative to the most used physico-chemical processes. After biological treatment, a solid composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-this latter is with a composition lower than that found in the initial substrate-is obtained. On the contrary, after applying physico-chemical methods, most of the hemicellulose fraction is solubilized, while cellulose and lignin fractions remain in the solid. The optimization of the combination of cellulases and hemicellulases required to saccharify wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was carried out in this work. The application of the optimal dosage made possible the increase of the sugar yield from 33 to 54 %, and at the same time the reduction of the quantity of enzymatic mixture in 40 %, with respect to the initial dosage. The application of a pre-hydrolysis step with xylanases was also studied. PMID:23306886

  4. Multilevel assessment of Cry1Ab Bt-maize straw return affecting the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yanyan; Cheng, Miaomiao; Zeng, Huilan; Wang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Non-target effects of two varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize straw (5422Bt1 [event Bt11] and 5422CBCL [MON810]) return on the Eisenia fetida were investigated by using multilevel assessments, compared to near-isogenic non-Bt-maize (5422). 5422Bt1 straw return had no deleterious effects on adult earthworms and had significantly positive effects on juveniles over three generations. Negative, no, and positive effects on adults treated with 5422CBCL straw were observed in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation, respectively. Negative and positive effects were observed on juveniles produced from the 1st- and 2nd-generation adults treated with 5422CBCL straw, respectively. Glutathione peroxidase activity of earthworms from Bt-maize treatments was significantly higher than that of control on the 90th d. Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes were down-regulated, while annetocin (ANN) expression was up-regulated in 5422Bt1 treatments. TCTP and SOD genes were up-regulated, while ANN and heat shock protein 70 were down-regulated in E. fetida from 5422CBCL treatments. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that Cry1Ab released from 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL straw degraded rapidly on the 15th and 30th d and had a slow decline in the rest testing time. Cry1Ab concentrations in the soil, casts and guts of earthworm significantly decreased over the course of the experiment. This study was the first to evaluate generational effects of Bt-maize straw return on earthworms under laboratory conditions. The responses of enzymes activity and genes expression may contribute to better understand above different effects of Bt-maize straw return on earthworms from the 1st generation. PMID:26011413

  5. Large quantities of straw at farrowing prevents bruising and increases weight gain in piglets.

    PubMed

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Two major welfare issues in current pig production are the lack of nesting material for farrowing sows and poor claw health in suckling piglets. Therefore, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objective of this cohort study was to estimate the effect of a large quantity of straw (15-20 kg) supplied before farrowing compared to limited daily amounts (0.5-1 kg) on bruising and growth performance in pre-weaning piglets. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in south-west Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the second lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to expected farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus 2 kg for nest building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. Piglets were individually weighed within 36 h after birth, at 3-7 days after birth and at weaning. On day 3-7, limbs and feet were clinically examined for the presence and location of lesions. In conclusion, the provision of 15-20 kg of straw 2 days prior to farrowing effectively prevents the piglets from developing skin abrasions (IRR=0.38) and soft heel/sole erosions (IRR=0.08-0.35). We also conclude that the strategic use of large quantities of straw has a positive effect on weight gain, increasing the expected mean body weight at weaning by 0.33 kg. PMID:24834805

  6. Development of oil-spill sorbent from straw biomass waste: Experiments and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Tijani, Mansour M; Aqsha, Aqsha; Mahinpey, Nader

    2016-04-15

    The recovery of oil spilled on land or water has become an important issue due to environmental regulations. Canadian biomasses as fibrous materials are naturally renewable and have the potential to absorb oil-spills at different ranges. In this work, four Canadian biomasses were examined in order to evaluate their oil affinities and study parameters that could affect oil affinity when used as sorbent, such as average particle size, surface coating and reusability. Moreover, one oil sorption model was adopted and coupled with another developed model to approximate and verify the experimental findings of the oil sorbent biomasses. At an average particle size of 150-1000 μm, results showed that barley straw biomass had the highest absorbency value at 6.07 g/g, while flax straw had the lowest value at 3.69 g/g. Wheat and oat straws had oil absorbency values of 5.49 and 5.00 g/g, respectively. An average particle size of 425-600 μm indicated better absorbency values for oat and wheat straws. Furthermore, the thermal stability study revealed major weight recovery for two flame retardant coatings at hemicellulose and lignocellulose degradation temperature ranges. It was also found that oat straw biomass could be regenerated and used for many sorption/desorption cycles, as the reusability experiment showed only a 18.45% reduction in the oil absorbency value after six consecutive cycles. The developed penetration absorbency (PA) model showed oat straw adsorbed oil at the inter-particle level; and, the results of the sorption capacity model coupled with the PA model excellently predicted the oil sorption of raw and coated oat straws. PMID:26895719

  7. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions. PMID:12653275

  8. Calibration of image dissector tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingman, E. E., III

    1976-01-01

    Technique employs computer-controlled light-emitting diode (LED), precision machined mask, and analog-to-digital coverter (ADC). Computer turns on LED which floods masked face of tube. Intensity pattern, generated as tube is electromagnetically swept, is fed to ADC which controls tube calibration.

  9. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  10. Sleeve puller salvages welded tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Tool removes sleeve remnants without distorting or damaging tubes, unlike pliers and other conventional handtools. Tubes can be reused, saving time, labor, and material in many applications. Sleeve-removal fixture consists of pressure screw, swing arm, locking screws, and base. It removes sleeve remnant from tubing after welded joint has been sawed through.

  11. Method for reinforcing tubing joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J.; Lee, W. S.

    1968-01-01

    Joint repair technique uses a longitudinally split aluminum shield over the joint ferrule and immediately adjacent tubing to reseal or reinforce leaking or weak joints in small tubing. Epoxy resin coating on inside surfaces of the two shield halves provides a tightly sealed bond between shield and tubing.

  12. Tubing cutter for tight spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girala, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Cutter requires few short swings of handle to rotate its cutting edge full 360 around tube. It will cut tubing installed in confined space that prevents free movement of conventional cutter. Cutter is snapped onto tube and held in place by spring-loaded clamp. Screw ratchet advances cutting wheel.

  13. Tubing rotator reduces tubing wear in rod pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M. ); Brown, C. )

    1994-04-04

    Tubing failures are both expensive and time-consuming. The most common failure results from rod cutting, or, erosion of the tubing ID because of continuous, reciprocating contact with the rod string. Installation of tubing rotators has decreased tubing failures in West Texas waterflood sucker-rod pumped wells. Pumping unit movement powers the rotator system, turning the tubing string at about 1 revolution/day. The rotator system has both surface and subsurface components. A reduction gear box attached to the walking beam converts the pumping unit's reciprocating strokes into rotary motion. A drive line transfers this rotary motion to a gear-driven suspension mandrel in the rotating tubing hanger. Near the bottom of the tubing string, a rotating tubing anchor/catcher allows the entire tubing string, including the tail pipe, seating nipple, and gas and mud anchor to rotate. The rotator hanger suspends the weight of the tubing string on a bearing system. One model of the hanger has a load capacity of 135,000 lb. A surface swivel allows rotation below the pumping tee so that the flow lines remain stationary. Also included in the string is a safety shear coupling to prevent over torquing the tubing.

  14. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.

    1982-07-02

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  15. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  16. YouTube Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-09-01

    To date, this column has presented videos to show in class, Don Mathieson from Tulsa Community College suggested that YouTube could be used in another fashion. In Don's experience, his students are not always prepared for the mathematic rigor of his course. Even at the high school level, math can be a barrier for physics students. Walid Shihabi, a colleague of Don's, decided to compile a list of YouTube videos that his students could watch to relearn basic mathematics. I thought this sounded like a fantastic idea and a great service to the students. Walid graciously agreed to share his list and I have reproduced a large portion of it below.

  17. Induction plasma tube

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, D.E.

    1984-02-14

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  18. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal... intubation, feeding tube, gastroenterostomy tube, Levine tube, nasogastric tube, single lumen tube...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal... intubation, feeding tube, gastroenterostomy tube, Levine tube, nasogastric tube, single lumen tube...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal... intubation, feeding tube, gastroenterostomy tube, Levine tube, nasogastric tube, single lumen tube...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal... intubation, feeding tube, gastroenterostomy tube, Levine tube, nasogastric tube, single lumen tube...

  2. [Patulous eustachian tube].

    PubMed

    Kovacević, D; Radosavljević, M; Jelesijević, J

    1995-01-01

    Patulous eustachian tube is a pathological condition which exists more often than we make a diagnosis, and a patient is not often aware of his disease. This disease can be manifested with various symptoms: respiratory synchrony noises in the ear, because of the penetration of the air current through the eustachian tube and with the movement of the eardrum outwards and inside, with autophony, reduction of the hearing, the buzzing, dizziness and disturbance of the balance. Two patients are presented. The first one was sick for many years from various chronics exhausted diseases: Jackson's epilepsy, temporary vascular brain disturbances, tuberculosis of lung, stomach ulcer, heart diseases, the patient is from low class, on one side, and also suffers from some local diseases: a paralysis of soft palate and palatal arcs, a chronic catarrhal rhinitis and sinusitis, a deviation of nasal dividing wall and hindered breathing through the nose, on the other side. Many years the patient didn't know for patological condition in the ears and in the eustachian tubes. After improving the hygienic conditions, the physical condition and local therapy, the patient felt much better. The second patient, with considerable shorter evolution of the disease and mild symptomatology, showed the amplified symptoms of the disease of the Eustachian tube in the course of the acute otitis. It is attained a satisfying calming of the manifestative symptoms by remedy therapie. Man must thing about possibility of the appearance of this pathology condition in various disease or conditions, which can take to the fast lost of the weight and physical and moral exhaustion of the patient, i.e. an adult, first as the protection of the appearance of the disease (condition) and afterwards, eventually early and regulary treatment in order to prevent various possible, above mentioned complications. PMID:16296237

  3. Joined concentric tubes

    SciTech Connect

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  4. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  5. TUBE SHEARING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Wilner, L.B.

    1960-05-24

    Explosive operated valves can be used to join two or more containers in fluid flow relationship, one such container being a sealed reservoir. The valve is most simply disposed by mounting it on the reservoir so thst a tube extends from the interior of the reservoir through the valve body, terminating at the bottom of the bore in a closed end; other containers may be similarly connected or may be open connected, as desired. The piston of the valve has a cutting edge at its lower end which shears off the closed tube ends and a recess above the cutting edge to provide a flow channel. Intermixing of the fluid being transferred with the explosion gases is prevented by a copper ring at the top of the piston which is force fitted into the bore at the beginning of the stroke. Although designed to avoid backing up of the piston at pressures up to 10,000 psi in the transferred fluid, proper operation is independent of piston position, once the tube ends were sheared.

  6. Tube bundle system

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, W.; Mohamed, K.; Addis, J.; Karnack, F.

    2015-01-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine PMID:26306052

  7. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  8. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  9. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  10. Spectrometer beam tube dimensional optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, S.

    1993-01-04

    This project examined the optimization of the design of a beam tube. An ANSYS model was used to find the minimum tube thickness and the best camber in a beam tube under vacuum and preloaded by a pair of magnet poles. After the tube was modeled one version of it was built for use in the accelerator. This beam tube was put under a vacuum and the dimensional changes were recorded and compared to the ANSYS predictions. These deflection results were quite close to the predicted numbers and would suggest that the stresses are similar to the predictions as well.

  11. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  12. Decomposition Dynamics and Changes in Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Residue under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Xi; Wei, Junling; Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Ligan; Chang, Jiang; Thompson, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Soil aeration is a crucial factor that regulates crop residue decomposition, and the chemical composition of decomposing crop residues may change the forms and availability of soil nutrients, such as N and P. However, to date, differences in the chemical composition of crop straw residues after incorporation into soil and during its decomposition under anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in the C-containing functional groups of wheat straw residue during its decomposition in anaerobic and aerobic environments. A 12-month incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal variations of mass, carbon, and nitrogen loss, as well as changes in the chemical composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) straw residues under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by measuring C-containing functional groups using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The residual mass, carbon content, and nitrogen content of the straw residue sharply declined during the initial 3 months, and then slowly decreased during the last incubation period from 3 to 12 months. The decomposition rate constant (k) for mass loss under aerobic conditions (0.022 d-1) was higher than that under anaerobic conditions (0.014 d-1). The residual mass percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose in the wheat straw gradually declined, whereas that of lignin gradually increased during the entire 12-month incubation period. The NMR spectra of C-containing functional groups in the decomposing straw under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar at the beginning of the incubation as well as at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. The main alterations in C-containing functional groups during the decomposition of wheat straw were a decrease in the relative abundances of O-alkyl C and an increase in the relative abundances of alkyl C, aromatic C and COO/N-C = O functional groups. The NMR signals of alkyl C

  13. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using (13)C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ((13)C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96mgCkg(-1)soilh(-1)) at 1d and 3d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p<0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and (13)C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p<0.05) higher in (13)C-labeled straw amended soil than the (13)C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the (13)C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of (13)C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p<0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the microbial

  14. Dynamics of zeaxanthin binding to the photosystem II monomeric antenna protein Lhcb6 (CP24) and modulation of its photoprotection properties.

    PubMed

    Betterle, Nico; Ballottari, Matteo; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Lhcb6 (CP24) is a monomeric antenna protein of photosystem II, which has been shown to play special roles in photoprotective mechanisms, such as the Non-Photochemical Quenching and reorganization of grana membranes in excess light conditions. In this work we analyzed Lhcb6 in vivo and in vitro: we show this protein, upon activation of the xanthophyll cycle, accumulates zeaxanthin into inner binding sites faster and to a larger extent than any other pigment-protein complex. By comparative analysis of Lhcb6 complexes violaxanthin or zeaxanthin binding, we demonstrate that zeaxanthin not only down-regulates chlorophyll singlet excited states, but also increases the efficiency of chlorophyll triplet quenching, with consequent reduction of singlet oxygen production and significant enhancement of photo-stability. On these bases we propose that Lhcb6, the most recent addition to the Lhcb protein family which evolved concomitantly to the adaptation of photosynthesis to land environment, has a crucial role in zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. PMID:20494647

  15. Economic value of urea-treated straw fed to lactating buffaloes during the dry season in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chemjong, P B

    1991-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding urea-treated rice straw to lactating buffaloes in the Koshi Hills. Six pairs of similar buffaloes on farms were selected. All were given a conventional diet based on rice straw for four weeks, then one of each pair was given 15 to 20 kg/day of urea-treated rice straw for a period of four weeks while the control group received untreated rice straw. In the final four week period all animals were given the conventional diet. Feeding straw treated with 4% urea increased the voluntary intake of straw by 25% and increased milk yield by 1.6 litres/day compared with buffaloes fed the conventional diet containing untreated straw. Milk production remained elevated after the four-week treatment period had finished. The results show that buffalo cows fed urea-treated straw achieved better weight gain, and milk yield increased significantly (P less than 0.01) compared with the control animals. During the treatment period the net benefit was 4.0 (i.e. US$1.16) Nepalese currency rupees (NCRs) per day and the incremental rate of return was 46 per cent. Moreover, in the four weeks following the treatment period the net benefit was 10.0 NCRs (i.e. US$0.40) per day. Ensiling rice straw with 4% urea can be recommended as a safe, economical and suitable method for improving the nutritional value of rice straw on small farms in Nepal thus increasing milk production and liveweight of lactating buffaloes. The practice of feeding urea-treated straw is economic for farmers during the dry season from January to April.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1763435

  16. Hybrid endotracheal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakezles, Christopher Thomas

    Intubation involves the placement of a tube into the tracheal lumen and is prescribed in any setting in which the airway must be stabilized or the patient anesthetized. The purpose of the endotracheal tube in these procedures is to maintain a viable airway, facilitate mechanical ventilation, allow the administration of anesthetics, and prevent the reflux of vomitus into the lungs. In order to satisfy these requirements a nearly airtight seal must be maintained between the tube and the tracheal lining. Most conventional endotracheal tubes provide this seal by employing a cuff that is inflated once the tube is in place. However, the design of this cuff and properties of the material are a source of irritation and injury to the tracheal tissues. In fact, the complication rate for endotracheal intubation is reported to be between 10 and 60%, with manifestations ranging from severe sore throat to erosion through the tracheal wall. These complications are caused by a combination of the materials employed and the forces exerted by the cuff on the tracheal tissues. In particular, the abrasive action of the cuff shears cells from the lining, epithelium adhering to the cuff is removed during extubation, and normal forces exerted on the basement tissues disrupt the blood supply and cause pressure necrosis. The complications associated with tracheal intubation may be reduced or eliminated by employing airway devices constructed from hydrogel materials. Hydrogels are a class of crosslinked polymers which swell in the presence of moisture, and may contain more than 95% water by weight. For the current study, several prototype airway devices were constructed from hydrogel materials including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The raw hydrogel materials from this group were subjected to tensile, swelling, and biocompatibility testing, while the finished devices were subjected to extensive mechanical simulation and animal trials

  17. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds. PMID:24697626

  18. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  19. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  20. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide from natural algicides: decomposition organic matter from straw.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Liyin; Yang, Jixiang

    2015-08-01

    The ability of decomposition organic matter from three natural algicides (barley, rice, and wheat straw) and natural organic matter (NOM) isolates to generate hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar irradiation was evaluated in order to understand the mechanism of indirect algae inhibition through a photochemical pathway. Specific optical properties (higher phenolic hydroxyl group contents and lower E2/E3) of barley straw organic matter (BSOM) reveal its outstanding ability to produce H2O2 as a photosensitizer. The appearance of a protein-like structure in BSOM indicated that bacteria or fungi probably transformed the structure of BSOM and brought other organic matter, which may account for its distinct optical properties. The ΦH2O2 of BSOM obtained through aerobic decomposition is 14.73 × 10(-5), which is three times the value of SRHA, whereas the ΦH2O2 value of BSOM obtained for non-aerobic decomposition was 5.30 × 10(-5), still higher than that of SRHA. The ΦH2O2 of rice straw organic matter was slightly lower than those of SRHA and SRFA, but much higher than that of wheat straw organic matter. The superior ability of BSOM to generate H2O2 was partly responsible for the outstanding potential and prior choice of barley straw for cyanobacteria or algae inhibition in various plant decomposition products. PMID:26153543

  1. [Effect of adding different amounts of wheat straw and phosphorus on soil microorganism community].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hai; Huang, Jian; Luo, Zheng-Rong; Dong, Shuguang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhang, Long; Jin, Ai-Wu

    2014-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of wheat straw (0 g x kg(-1), N0; 2.08 g x kg(-1), N1) and phosphorus (0 mg x kg(-1), P0; 100 mg x kg(-1), P1; 200 mg x kg(-1), P2; 400 mg x kg(-1), P3) on microorganism community in a soil of low-phosphorus. Adding straw and phosphorus had significant effects on the soil microbial total biomass (MTB), bacterial biomass (MB), fungal biomass (FB), and fungi to bacteria ratio (F/B), which all decreased in order of N1P1>N1P0>N1P2>N1P3>N0P1>N0P2>N0P3. MTB, MB, FB and F/B ratio of the wheat straw addition treatments were all significantly higher than in the non-straw addition treatments under the same level of phosphorus addition. As for the same wheat straw addition, MTB, MB, FB and F/B ratio increased firstly and then decreased with increasing the level of phosphorus addition, and the combinations of P1 level were optimal. PMID:24984499

  2. Binding and detoxification of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria on rice straw silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Su; Wu, Tian-Hao; Yang, Yao; Zhu, Cen-Ling; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the reduction of pesticide residues on straw inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during ensiling. Lactobacillus casei WYS3 was isolated from rice straw that contained pesticide residues. Non-sterilized rice straw, which was inoculated with L. casei WYS3, showed increased removal of chlorpyrifos after ensiling, compared with rice straw that was not inoculated with L. casei WYS3 or sterilized rice straw. In pure culture, these strains can bind chlorpyrifos as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Viable L. casei WYS3 was shown to bind 33.3-42% of exogenously added chlorpyrifos. These results are similar to those of acid-treated cells but less than those of heat-treated cells, which were found to bind 32.0% and 77.2% of the added chlorpyrifos respectively. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that L. casei WYS3 detoxified chlorpyrifos via P-O-C cleavage. Real-time polymerized chain reaction analysis determined that organophosphorus hydrolase gene expression tripled after the addition of chlorpyrifos to LAB cultures, compared with the control group (without chlorpyrifos). This paper highlights the potential use of LAB starter cultures for the detoxification and removal of chlorpyrifos residues in the environment. PMID:26852781

  3. Acidic pretreatment of wheat straw in decanol for the production of surfactant, lignin and glucose.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  4. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  5. Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

  6. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw to increase methane production.

    PubMed

    Sambusiti, C; Ficara, E; Rollini, M; Manzoni, M; Malpei, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the chemical composition and the methane production of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw. NaOH pretreatment was conducted in closed bottles, at 40 °C for 24 h. Samples were soaked in a NaOH solution at different dosages (expressed in terms of total solids (TS) content) of 1 and 10% gNaOH/gTS, with a TS concentration of 160 gTS/L. At the highest NaOH dosage the reduction of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 31, 66 and 44%, and 13, 45 and 3% for sorghum and wheat straw, respectively. The concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) in the liquid phase after the pretreatment was also improved both for wheat straw and sorghum (up to 24 and 33%, respectively). Total sugars content increased up to five times at 10% gNaOH/gTS with respect to control samples, suggesting that NaOH pretreatment improves the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests showed that the NaOH pretreatment favoured the anaerobic degradability of both substrates. At 1 and 10% NaOH dosages, the methane production increased from 14 to 31% for ensiled sorghum forage and from 17 to 47% for wheat straw. The first order kinetic constant increased up to 65% for sorghum and up to 163% for wheat straw. PMID:23032777

  7. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of whole slurry (pretreated lignocellulose) saccharification and fermentation for producing ethanol from maleic acid-pretreated rice straw. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to treat rice straw at a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short duration (3 min ramping to 190 °C and 3 min holding at 190 °C). Enzymatic digestibility (based on theoretical glucose yield) of cellulose in the pretreated rice straw was 91.5 %. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated rice straw resulted in 83.2 % final yield of ethanol based on the initial quantity of glucan in untreated rice straw. These findings indicate that maleic acid pretreatment results in a high yield of ethanol from fermentation of whole slurry even without conditioning or detoxification of the slurry. Additionally, the separation of solids and liquid is not required; therefore, the economics of cellulosic ethanol fuel production are significantly improved. We also demonstrated whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulose, which has rarely been reported. PMID:25930209

  8. Effect of Ca(OH)2 pretreatment on extruded rice straw anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-11-01

    It has been proven that extrusion can change the structure of rice straw and increase biogas production, but the effect of a single pretreatment is limited. Ca(OH)2 pretreatment was used to enhance the enzyme hydrolysis and biogas production of extruded rice straw. After Ca(OH)2 pretreatment, the glucose and xylose conversion rates in enzymatic hydrolysis increased from 36.0% and 22.4% to 66.8% and 50.2%, respectively. The highest biogas production observed in 8% and 10% Ca(OH)2 pretreated rice straw reached 564.7mL/g VS and 574.5mL/g VS, respectively, which are 34.3% and 36.7% higher than the non-Ca(OH)2-loaded sample. The Ca(OH)2 pretreatment can effectively remove the lignin and increase the fermentable sugar content. The structural changes in the extruded rice straw have also been analyzed by XRD, FTIR, and SEM. Considering all of the results, an 8% Ca(OH)2 loading rate is the best option for the pretreatment of extruded rice straw. PMID:26231131

  9. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Straw Roughage by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zihao; Feng, Mengyuan; Zhu, Kechen; Han, Lijun; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2016-08-10

    A multiresidue analytical method using a modification of the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) sample preparation approach combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was established and validated for the rapid determination of 69 pesticides at different levels (1-100 ng/g) in wheat and rice straws. In the quantitative analysis, the recoveries ranged from 70 to 120%, and consistent RSDs ≤ 20% were achieved for most of the target analytes (53 pesticides in wheat straw and 58 in rice straw). Almost all of the analytes achieved good linearity with R(2) > 0.98, and the limit of validation levels (LVLs) for diverse pesticides ranged from 1 to 10 ng/g. Different extraction and cleanup conditions were evaluated in both types of straw, leading to different options. The use of 0.1% formic acid or not in extraction with acetonitrile yielded similar final outcomes, but led to the use of a different sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction. Both options are efficient and useful for the multiresidue analysis of targeted pesticides in wheat and rice straw samples. PMID:26881844

  10. Dynamics of benazolin under the influence of degrading maize straw in undisturbed soil columns.

    PubMed

    Berns, Anne E; Schnitzler, Frauke; Drewes, Norbert; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2007-10-01

    The effect of organic carbon amendment on the fate of benazolin was investigated in undisturbed soil columns. The soil columns were obtained from three different soil types located in three different regions with different crop production regimes. All soils were operated in a normal crop production regime, and one of the soils was additionally operated in low and high crop production regimes. Two experimental setups were conducted, one using [(14)C]maize straw and nonlabeled benazolin and one using nonlabeled maize straw and [(14)C]benazolin. The column experiments with [(14)C]maize straw showed that the residual crop residues remained mainly in the top layer. Benazolin and its metabolites showed a higher retention in columns that were amended with maize straw compared to column without amendment. The production regimes of the soils did not influence the behavior of benazolin. The effect of maize straw incorporation on the translocation and degradation of benazolin could well be caused by a change in the soil microbial activity, leading to an enhanced degradation of benazolin and producing metabolites exhibiting a sorption behavior different from the parent. PMID:17867883

  11. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  12. Strong cellulase inhibitors from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose with subsequent fermentation to ethanol provides a green alternative for the production of transportation fuels. Because of its recalcitrant nature, the lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated before enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the pretreatment often results in the formation of compounds that are inhibitory for the enzymes or fermenting organism. Although well recognized, little quantitative information on the inhibition of individual cellulase components by identified inhibitors is available. Results Strong cellulase inhibitors were separated from the liquid fraction of the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw. HPLC and mass-spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the inhibitors were oligosaccharides (inhibitory oligosaccharides, IOS) with a degree of polymerization from 7 to 16. The IOS are composed of a mixture of xylo- (XOS) and gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS). We propose that XOS and GOS are the fragments of the xylan backbone and mixed-linkage β-glucans, respectively. The IOS were approximately 100 times stronger inhibitors for Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) than cellobiose, which is one of the strongest inhibitors of these enzymes reported to date. Inhibition of endoglucanases (EGs) by IOS was weaker than that of CBHs. Most of the tested cellulases and hemicellulases were able to slowly degrade IOS and reduce the inhibitory power of the liquid fraction to some extent. The most efficient single enzyme component here was T. reesei EG TrCel7B. Although reduced by the enzyme treatment, the residual inhibitory power of IOS and the liquid fraction was strong enough to silence the major component of the T. reesei cellulase system, CBH TrCel7A. Conclusions The cellulase inhibitors described here may be responsible for the poor yields from the enzymatic conversion of the whole slurries from lignocellulose pretreatment under conditions that do not favor complete degradation of

  13. Liquid-Nitrogen Test for Blocked Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nondestructive test identifies obstructed tube in array of parallel tubes. Trickle of liquid nitrogen allowed to flow through tube array until array accumulates substantial formation of frost from moisture in air. Flow stopped and warm air introduced into inlet manifold to heat tubes in array. Tubes still frosted after others defrosted identified as obstructed tubes. Applications include inspection of flow systems having parallel legs.

  14. Deferred High Level Trigger in LHCb: A Boost to CPU Resource Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with output of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1600 physical nodes each equipped with at least 1 TB of local storage space. This work describes the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm given that the LHC collider in previous years delivered stable physics beams about 30% of the time. The gain is achieved by splitting the event selection process in two, a first stage reducing the data taken during stable beams and buffering the preselected particle collisions locally. A second processing stage running constantly at lower priority will then finalize the event filtering process and benefits fully from the time when LHC does not deliver stable beams e.g. while preparing a new physics fill or during periods used for machine development.

  15. The nightly build and test system for LCG AA and LHCb software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruzelecki, Karol; Roiser, Stefan; Degaudenzi, Hubert

    2010-04-01

    The core software stack both from the LCG Application Area and LHCb consists of more than 25 C++/Fortran/Python projects built for about 20 different configurations on Linux, Windows and MacOSX. To these projects, one can also add about 70 external software packages (Boost, Python, Qt, CLHEP, ...) which also have to be built for the same configurations. It order to reduce the time of the development cycle and assure the quality, a framework has been developed for the daily (in fact nightly) build and test of the software. Performing the build and the tests on several configurations and platforms increases the efficiency of the unit and integration tests. Main features: - flexible and fine grained setup (full, partial build) through a web interface; - possibility to build several "slots" with different configurations; - precise and highly granular reports on a web server; - support for CMT projects (but not only) with their cross-dependencies; - scalable client-server architecture for the control machine and its build machines; - copy of the results in a common place to allow early view of the software stack. The nightly build framework is written in Python for portability and it is easily extensible to accommodate new build procedures.

  16. Sensitivity to Majorana neutrinos in Δ L =2 decays of Bc meson at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanés, Diego; Quintero, Néstor; Vera, Carlos E.

    2016-05-01

    The possible existence of Majorana neutrinos can be tested through the study of processes where the total lepton number L is violated by two units (Δ L =2 ). In this work, the production of an on-shell Majorana neutrino with a mass around ˜0.2 GeV to a few GeV is studied in Δ L =2 decays of the Bc meson. We focus on the same-sign di-muon channels: three-body Bc-→π+μ-μ- and four-body Bc-→J /ψ π+μ-μ- and their experimental sensitivity at the LHCb. In both channels, we find that sensitivities on the branching fraction of the order ≲10-7(10-8) might be accessible at the LHC run 2 (future LHC run 3), allowing us to set additional and complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with the mass and mixings of the Majorana neutrino. In particular, bounds can be obtained on the mixing |Vμ N|2˜O (10-5- 10-4) that are similar or better that the ones obtained from heavy meson Δ L =2 decays: D(s) -→π+μ-μ- and B-→π+μ-μ-(D0π+μ-μ-) .

  17. D0 dimuon charge asymmetry from Bs system with Z' couplings and the recent LHCb result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Do; Kim, Sung-Gi; Shin, Seodong

    2013-07-01

    The D0 collaboration has announced the observation of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry since 2010, which has a difference of more than 3σ from the Standard Model prediction. One of the promising explanations is considering the existence of flavor-changing Z' couplings to the b and s quarks which can contribute to the off-diagonal decay width in the Bs-B¯s mixing. Model construction is highly constrained by the recent LHCb data of 1fb-1 integrated luminosity. In this paper, we analyze the experimental constraints on constructing new physics models to explain the dimuon charge asymmetry from the CP violation of the Bs system. We present limits on Z' couplings and show that it is impossible to obtain the 1σ range of the dimuon charge asymmetry without the new contribution in the Bd system. Even with an arbitrary contribution in the Bd system, the new couplings must be in the fine-tuned region.

  18. Measurement of C P violation in B → J/ ψ KS0 decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, F.; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Analysing a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 of pp collisions collected by the LHCb detector at the LHC CP violation in B0→J/ψK0S and B0s→J/ψK0S is measured. The results S(B0→J/ψK0S) = -0.038 ± 0.035 {(stat)} ± 0.020 {(syst)} are consistent with the current world averages and with the Standard Model expectations. In B0s→J/ψK0s the results A_{ΔΓ(B0s→J/ψK0s) = 0.49 ±^{0.77}_{0.65} {(stat)} ± 0.06 {(syst)}, S(B0s→J/ψK0s) = -0.08 ± 0.40 {(stat)} ± 0.08 {(syst)}, C(B0s→J/ψK0s) = - 0.28 ± 0.41 {(stat)} ± 0.08 {(syst)} reflect the first determination of these C P observables paving a new way towards the control of penguin pollutions in the determination of sin 2β.

  19. LHCb pentaquark as a D¯ *Σc-D¯ *Σc* molecular state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, L.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.

    2015-11-01

    We perform a theoretical analysis of the Λb→J /ψ K-p reaction from where a recent LHCb experiment extracts a Λ (1405 ) contribution in the K-p spectrum close to threshold and two baryon states of hidden charm in the J /ψ p spectrum. We recall that baryon states of this type have been theoretically predicted matching the mass, width and JP of the experiment; concretely some states built up from the J /ψ N , D¯*Λc, D¯*Σc, D ¯Σc* and D¯*Σc* coupled channels. We assume that the observed narrow state around 4450 MeV has this nature and we are able to describe simultaneously the shapes and relative strength of the the K-p mass distribution close to threshold and the peak of the J /ψ p distribution, with values of the J /ψ p coupling to the resonance in line with the theoretical ones. The nontrivial matching of many properties gives support to a JP=3 /2- assignment to this state and to its nature as a molecular state mostly made of D¯*Σc and D¯*Σc*.

  20. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  1. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  2. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  3. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  4. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw...

  5. A series of experiments aimed at clarifying the mode of action of barley straw in cyanobacterial growth control.

    PubMed

    Iredale, Robert S; McDonald, Adrian T; Adams, David G

    2012-11-15

    For over 25 years it has been known that rotting barley straw can be used to prevent the development of blooms of cyanobacteria and algae in freshwater bodies, although its effectiveness can be variable. The mode of action is still not understood, although a number of hypotheses have been suggested, many of which are supported by little or no experimental evidence. Here, we provide the first experimental confirmation that microbial activity is responsible for the release of either the growth inhibitory fraction, or its precursor, from whole straw, after three or more weeks of decomposition. However, a much more rapid release of inhibitory components was achieved by fine chopping of fresh straw. In bioassays of straw activity the choice of both the cyanobacterial test strain and the assay temperature affected the outcome. The inhibitory activity of straw was greater when decomposition was carried out in the presence of UV-supplemented visible light and this activity was reduced in the presence of catalase, implying that straw activity may in part involve hydrogen peroxide. A better understanding of straw decomposition is required to clarify the mode of action of straw and allow the optimisation of its use in the field. PMID:22989994

  6. Sustainable production of bioenergy and bio-char from the straw of high biomass soybean lines via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The straws of two high-biomass soybean lines developed at ARS for bioenergy were subjected to thermochemical conversion by fast pyrolysis. The objective was to evaluate the potential use of the straw for the production of liquid fuel intermediates that can be burned “as is” and/or potentially upgra...

  7. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  8. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  9. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.19.... Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the contagion of splenetic, southern, or Texas fever; therefore pine straw, grass, or...

  10. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.19.... Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the contagion of splenetic, southern, or Texas fever; therefore pine straw, grass, or...

  11. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.19.... Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the contagion of splenetic, southern, or Texas fever; therefore pine straw, grass, or...

  12. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. PMID:27295251

  13. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations. PMID:23535542

  14. Optimization of the alkaline pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced methane yield.

    PubMed

    Song, Zilin; Yang, Gaihe; Han, Xinhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2013-01-01

    The lime pretreatment process for rice straw was optimized to enhance the biodegradation performance and increase biogas yield. The optimization was implemented using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken experimental design. The effects of biodegradation, as well as the interactive effects of Ca(OH)2 concentration, pretreatment time, and inoculum amount on biogas improvement, were investigated. Rice straw compounds, such as lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, were significantly degraded with increasing Ca(OH)2 concentration. The optimal conditions for the use of pretreated rice straw in anaerobic digestion were 9.81% Ca(OH)2 (w/w TS), 5.89 d treatment time, and 45.12% inoculum content, which resulted in a methane yield of 225.3 mL/g VS. A determination coefficient (R(2)) of 96% was obtained, indicating that the model used to predict the anabolic digestion process shows a favorable fit with the experimental parameters. PMID:23509824

  15. Sodium borohydrate (NaBH4) pretreatment for efficient enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Cöpür, Yalçin; Tozluoglu, Ayhan; Ozyürek, Omer

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the aim was to examine bioethanol production of wheat straw residues using an alternative chemical, sodium borohydrate (NaBH(4)) in chemical pretreatment step. The obtained results showed that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and NaBH(4) treated straw resulted in 87.8% and 83.3% glucan conversion in enzymatic hydrolysis, but hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (74.7%) and sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) (71.7%) had lower glucan conversion. The highest ethanol yield from untreated straw (115 g/kg) was observed for 4% NaBH(4) pretreated sample (60 min) and the theoretical yield (86.9%) was also calculated to be highest for the sample. PMID:22244903

  16. Isolation of satratoxins from the bedding straw of a sheep flock with fatal stachybotryotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Harrach, B; Bata, A; Bajmócy, E; Benko, M

    1983-01-01

    During a period of several weeks, more than 100 sheep died at a Hungarian farm. The animals exhibited fleece loosing, and hemorrhaging was the most important autopsy finding. Pasteurella haemolytica was cultured from various organs. The bedding straw was abundantly covered with Stachybotrys atra, and removal of the straw stopped the disease. Methanol extraction of the bedding straw followed by solvent partitioning, column chromatography, preparative thin-layer chromatography, and high-pressure liquid chromatography led to the isolation of satratoxins G and H, which were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectroscopy. This is the first isolation and characterization of toxins from a field sample of material responsible for an outbreak of stachybotryotoxicosis. PMID:6683481

  17. Optimization of the Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhanced Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zilin; Yang, Gaihe; Han, Xinhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2013-01-01

    The lime pretreatment process for rice straw was optimized to enhance the biodegradation performance and increase biogas yield. The optimization was implemented using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken experimental design. The effects of biodegradation, as well as the interactive effects of Ca(OH)2 concentration, pretreatment time, and inoculum amount on biogas improvement, were investigated. Rice straw compounds, such as lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, were significantly degraded with increasing Ca(OH)2 concentration. The optimal conditions for the use of pretreated rice straw in anaerobic digestion were 9.81% Ca(OH)2 (w/w TS), 5.89 d treatment time, and 45.12% inoculum content, which resulted in a methane yield of 225.3 mL/g VS. A determination coefficient (R2) of 96% was obtained, indicating that the model used to predict the anabolic digestion process shows a favorable fit with the experimental parameters. PMID:23509824

  18. Synthesis of silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rahman, T.; Fadhlulloh, M. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hamidah, I.; Mulyanti, B.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method. The experiment was conducted by heating and extracting rice straw waste into basic solution. To get silica particles, the extracted solution was then put into acid solution and heated to remove the remained solvent. The experimental results showed that the aggregated silica particles with sizes of about 200 nm were successfully produced. The XRD and FTIR analysis showed that the final product was silica and free of graphite. However, we found that some KCl component in the final product in which this was possibly from the use of KOH as the extraction agent. Therefore, further studies are still required to synthesize high purity silica particles from rice straw waste.

  19. Synergistic effects of surfactant-assisted ionic liquid pretreatment rice straw.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Han, Ye-Ju; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Potprommanee, Laddawan; Ning, Xun-An; Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Jian; Peng, Yen-Ping; Sun, Shui-Yu; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study an environmentally friendly method for pretreating rice straw by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as an ionic liquid (IL) assisted by surfactants. Different temperatures, reaction times, and surfactant concentrations were studied. Compared with [BMIM]Cl only pretreatment, the addition of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1% cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) increased lignin removal to 49.48% and 34.76%, respectively. Untreated and pretreated rice straw was thoroughly characterized through FTIR, XRD, and FE-SEM. Cellulose crystallinity and surface morphology of the rice straw were substantially altered after surfactant-assisted IL pretreatment. In conclusion, surfactant-assisted IL pretreatment is an effective method for producing fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:27155265

  20. Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    You, Xiang; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Sixta, Herbert; Iakovlev, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation was determined for sugarcane (SC) straw in terms of pulp composition (non-carbohydrate components, cellulose, hemicelluloses) and properties (kappa number, pulp intrinsic viscosity in CED and cellulose degree of polymerization). Effect of temperature (135-165°C) and time (18-118min) was studied at fixed liquor composition (SO2/ethanol/water=12:22.5:65.5, w/w) and a liquor-to-solid ratio (4Lkg(-1)). Interpretation is given in terms of major fractionation reactions, removal of non-carbohydrate components and xylan, as well as acid hydrolysis of cellulose, and is compared to other lignocellulosic substrates (beech, spruce and wheat straw). Overall, SO2-ethanol-water process efficiently fractionates SC straw by separating cellulose from both non-carbohydrate components and xylan while reducing cellulose DP. PMID:27089426